Science.gov

Sample records for animal communication systems

  1. Do Animal Communication Systems Have Phonemes?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Biologists often ask whether animal communication systems make use of conceptual entities from linguistics, such as semantics or syntax. A new study of an Australian bird species argues that their communication system has phonemes, but we argue that imposing linguistic concepts obscures, rather than clarifyies, communicative function. PMID:26346993

  2. A systems approach to animal communication.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A; Barron, Andrew B; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Hauber, Mark E; Mason, Paul H; Hoke, Kim L

    2016-03-16

    Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication-an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and how function varies in different states of the system. We provide a brief overview of the current state of the field, including a focus on select studies that highlight the dynamic nature of animal signalling. We then introduce core concepts from systems biology (redundancy, degeneracy, pluripotentiality, and modularity) and discuss their relationships with system properties (e.g. robustness, flexibility, evolvability). We translate systems concepts into an animal communication framework and accentuate their utility through a case study. Finally, we demonstrate how consideration of the system-level organization of animal communication poses new practical research questions that will aid our understanding of how and why animal displays are so complex. PMID:26936240

  3. A systems approach to animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Andrew B.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Hauber, Mark E.; Hoke, Kim L.

    2016-01-01

    Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication—an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and how function varies in different states of the system. We provide a brief overview of the current state of the field, including a focus on select studies that highlight the dynamic nature of animal signalling. We then introduce core concepts from systems biology (redundancy, degeneracy, pluripotentiality, and modularity) and discuss their relationships with system properties (e.g. robustness, flexibility, evolvability). We translate systems concepts into an animal communication framework and accentuate their utility through a case study. Finally, we demonstrate how consideration of the system-level organization of animal communication poses new practical research questions that will aid our understanding of how and why animal displays are so complex. PMID:26936240

  4. ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.

    PubMed

    SEBEOK, T A

    1965-02-26

    Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight. PMID:14245775

  5. Animal and Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks man at…

  6. Ways Animals Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kristen; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou; Daniels, Anniece

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a set of upper-elementary activities that focuses on how animals communicate. The activities describe procedures that students working in groups can use to investigate the topic of animal communication. An initial information sheet, resource list, and grading rubric are provided. The lesson plan was field-tested in an…

  7. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  8. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Peggy

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  9. Song type matching is an honest early threat signal in a hierarchical animal communication system

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Çag˘lar; Tom, Mari E.; Campbell, S. Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive encounters between animals often involve significant amounts of signalling before or in lieu of physical fights. When, as is often the case, these apparent threat signals are neither inherently costly nor inherently indicative of fighting ability, we should ask whether they are in fact honest signals, i.e. do they predict that escalation is imminent? While signalling theories have indicated that such ‘conventional’ threat signals can honestly predict escalation, attempts to gather supporting empirical evidence have mostly failed. For example, recent studies in songbirds of song type matching (replying to an opponent's song with the same song type he has just sung) have failed to confirm that it predicts an eventual attack by the signaller. In the present study of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we tested the hypothesis that song type matching is an early threat signal in a hierarchical signalling system. We used an improved model-playback design that simulated an escalating intrusion onto the subject's territory: the simulated opponent first sang in hiding from the boundary before moving to the centre of the territory, where he revealed himself and continued to sing. We found that type matching beginning in the boundary phase and continuing into the escalation phase, or beginning immediately after the escalation, reliably predicted both subsequent escalated signalling (soft songs and wing waves) and subsequent attack on the model, supporting the hypothesis that type matching is a reliable early threat signal. PMID:23378665

  10. Research Note, The Communication Effect of Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Alan J.; Gresham, Larry G.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding the communication effects of animation and empirically assesses some of these effects. Results of this confirm that animation can be a viable method of advertising. (SRT)

  11. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  12. Potential Uses of Anthropogenic Noise as a Source of Information in Animal Sensory and Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda; Deecke, Volker; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Although current research on the impact of anthropogenic noise has focused on the detrimental effects, there is a range of ways by which animals could benefit from increased noise levels. Here we discuss two potential uses of anthropogenic noise. First, local variations in the ambient-noise field could be used to perceive objects and navigate within an environment. Second, introduced sound cues could be used as a signal for prey detection or orientation and navigation. Although the disadvantages of noise pollution will likely outweigh any positive effects, it is important to acknowledge that such changes may benefit some species. PMID:26611074

  13. Meaning in animal and human communication.

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    What is meaning? While traditionally the domain of philosophy and linguistics, this question, and others related to it, is critical for cognitive and comparative approaches to communication. This short essay provides a concise and accessible description of how the term meaning can and should be used, how it relates to 'intentional communication', and what would constitute good evidence of meaning in animal communication, in the sense that is relevant for comparisons with human language. PMID:25647173

  14. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  15. Video animation system

    SciTech Connect

    Mareda, J.

    1985-01-01

    A video animation system is being used at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque to record computer generated images directly onto 3/4'' videocassettes. The system serves as a quick turn around process for previewing sequences prior to sending them to a Dicomed film recorder. It is also used when videocassette is appropriate for final output. The video animation system in place at Sandia is described. The system consists of a medium resolution graphics display system, a 3/4'' professional quality videocassette recorder, and a controller that allows single frame recording of computer generated images to be performed under program control. Examples of output produced using this system are presented which will include animated sequences of scientific data produced by DISSPLA programs.

  16. Animal communication: ground squirrel uses ultrasonic alarms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David R; Hare, James F

    2004-07-29

    Apart from echolocation and the pursuit of prey by bats, the function of ultrasound in animal communication is poorly understood. This is mainly because of the broad range of responses that it can evoke and the widely varied contexts in which it is used (for example, in rodents of the Muridae family it may indicate distress in infants or a sexual or predatory encounter in adults). Here we find that a purely ultrasonic signal is produced in the wild by a rodent of the Sciuridae family, Richardson's ground squirrel, and show that its function is to warn conspecifics of impending danger. To our knowledge, ultrasonic alarm calls have not previously been detected in any animal group, despite their twin advantages of being highly directional and inaudible to key predators. PMID:15282596

  17. Information theory, animal communication, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Johnston, Simon; Hanser, Sean F.

    2011-02-01

    We present ongoing research in the application of information theory to animal communication systems with the goal of developing additional detectors and estimators for possible extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Regardless of the species, for intelligence (i.e., complex knowledge) to be transmitted certain rules of information theory must still be obeyed. We demonstrate some preliminary results of applying information theory to socially complex marine mammal species (bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales) as well as arboreal squirrel monkeys, because they almost exclusively rely on vocal signals for their communications, producing signals which can be readily characterized by signal analysis. Metrics such as Zipf's Law and higher-order information-entropic structure are emerging as indicators of the communicative complexity characteristic of an "intelligent message" content within these animals' signals, perhaps not surprising given these species' social complexity. In addition to human languages, for comparison we also apply these metrics to pulsar signals—perhaps (arguably) the most "organized" of stellar systems—as an example of astrophysical systems that would have to be distinguished from an extraterrestrial intelligence message by such information theoretic filters. We also look at a message transmitted from Earth (Arecibo Observatory) that contains a lot of meaning but little information in the mathematical sense we define it here. We conclude that the study of non-human communication systems on our own planet can make a valuable contribution to the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence by providing quantitative general measures of communicative complexity. Studying the complex communication systems of other intelligent species on our own planet may also be one of the best ways to deprovincialize our thinking about extraterrestrial communication systems in general.

  18. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  19. Automated interactive video playback for studies of animal communication.

    PubMed

    Butkowski, Trisha; Yan, Wei; Gray, Aaron M; Cui, Rongfeng; Verzijden, Machteld N; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2011-01-01

    Video playback is a widely-used technique for the controlled manipulation and presentation of visual signals in animal communication. In particular, parameter-based computer animation offers the opportunity to independently manipulate any number of behavioral, morphological, or spectral characteristics in the context of realistic, moving images of animals on screen. A major limitation of conventional playback, however, is that the visual stimulus lacks the ability to interact with the live animal. Borrowing from video-game technology, we have created an automated, interactive system for video playback that controls animations in response to real-time signals from a video tracking system. We demonstrated this method by conducting mate-choice trials on female swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni. Females were given a simultaneous choice between a courting male conspecific and a courting male heterospecific (X. malinche) on opposite sides of an aquarium. The virtual male stimulus was programmed to track the horizontal position of the female, as courting males do in the wild. Mate-choice trials on wild-caught X. birchmanni females were used to validate the prototype's ability to effectively generate a realistic visual stimulus. PMID:21339726

  20. Communication System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  1. Child's Modes of Communication with the Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Anne; Comeau, Judith

    The paper reviews ways in which animals have been used in a therapeutic way with disturbed persons and suggests that animals may help to reduce anxiety and reestablish the socialization process with autistic children and their parents. An etiological study is described of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of four disturbed children (9-11 years…

  2. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  3. Animal Communication and Its Cognitive Indications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Various examples of communication in species ranging from bumble bees to dolphins are examined in this paper. Focus is directed to indications of the cognitive ability of each species. The signals of cognition include evidence of: adaptability to a new situation; long term memory; and the property of displacement. Most of the sources reviewed

  4. Animal Communication and Its Cognitive Indications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Various examples of communication in species ranging from bumble bees to dolphins are examined in this paper. Focus is directed to indications of the cognitive ability of each species. The signals of cognition include evidence of: adaptability to a new situation; long term memory; and the property of displacement. Most of the sources reviewed…

  5. Alert signals enhance animal communication in “noisy” environments

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Terry J.; Stamps, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental noise that reduces the probability that animals will detect communicative signals poses a special challenge for long-range communication. The application of signal-detection theory to animal communication lead to the prediction that signals directed at distant receivers in noisy environments will begin with conspicuous “alerting” components to attract the attention of receivers, before delivery of the information-rich portion of the signal. Whether animals actually adopt this strategy is not clear, despite suggestions that alerts might exist in a variety of taxa. By using a combination of behavioral observations and experimental manipulations with robotic lizard “playbacks,” we show that free-living territorial Anolis lizards add an “alert” to visual displays when communicating to distant receivers in situations of poor visibility, and that these introductory alerts in turn enhance signal detection in adverse signaling conditions. Our results show that Anolis lizards are able to evaluate environmental conditions that affect the degradation of long-distance signals and adjust their behavior accordingly. This study demonstrates that free-living animals enhance the efficiency of long-range communication through the modulation of signal design and the facultative addition of an alert. Our findings confirm that alert signals are an important strategy for communicating in “noisy” conditions and suggest a reexamination of the existence of alerts in other animals relying on long-range communication. PMID:19033197

  6. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  7. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  8. Integrated Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ward

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Internet-based information system that has provided effective communications and reporting for the upgrade to K-12 schools in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Website and software applications created valuable communications in the construction process and improved reporting on progress. (SLD)

  9. AMPA experimental communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, D.; Fass, S.; Keon, T.; Sielman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The program was conducted to demonstrate the satellite communication advantages of Adaptive Phased Array Technology. A laboratory based experiment was designed and implemented to demonstrate a low earth orbit satellite communications system. Using a 32 element, L-band phased array augmented with 4 sets of weights (2 for reception and 2 for transmission) a high speed digital processing system and operating against multiple user terminals and interferers, the AMPA system demonstrated: communications with austere user terminals, frequency reuse, communications in the face of interference, and geolocation. The program and experiment objectives are described, the system hardware and software/firmware are defined, and the test performed and the resultant test data are presented.

  10. Improving Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has many communications systems which are used throughout a typical mission. Given that the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested, the ability to hear extremely weak signals requires greater receiver sensitivity. Dryden Flight Research Center approached Angle Linear, a manufacturer of linear radio frequency products and peripherals for communications, to solve the problem. The solution was a receiving preamplifier specially crafted for NASA. Communications with the Space Shuttle are now more reliable,with Dryden being able to also support local missions without purchasing additional equipment. The work has carried over into the Mir Space Station communication support effort and is under evaluation by other NASA centers. The company's preamplifier line was greatly expanded to cover a broader range of frequencies, providing the same sensational improvement to other areas of communication including business, government, trucking, land mobile, cellular and broadcast.

  11. Communication Systems in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    The care of patients now almost inevitably seems to involve many different individuals, all needing to share patient information and discuss their management. As a consequence there is increasing interest in, and use of, information and communication technologies to support health services. Yet, while there is significant discussion of, and investment in, information technologies, communication systems receive much less attention and the clinical adoption of even simpler services like voice-mail or electronic mail is still not commonplace in many health services. There remain enormous gaps in our broad understanding of the role of communication services in health care delivery. Laboratory medicine is perhaps even more poorly studied than many other areas, such as the interface between primary care and hospital services. Given this lack of specific information about laboratory communication services, this paper will step back and generally review the components of a communication system, including the basic concepts of a communication channel, service, device and interaction mode. The review will then try and summarise some of what is known about specific communication problems that arise across health services in the main, including the community and hospital service delivery. PMID:17077879

  12. Digital communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  13. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  14. DYMAC communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The DYMAC Communications System is part of a nuclear safeguards system called DYMAC - short for DYnamic Materials ACcountability - that gathers accountability information at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Plutonium Processing Facility. The communications system handles transmissions between data-entry terminals and nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments located in the facility, and a computer located in an adjacent building. System design emphasizes reliability rather than high speed to ensure the integrity of data transmissions. This manual is directed toward the person responsible for maintaining the DYMAC Communication System. It describes the components that make up the communications network, explains how they operate, and gives detailed information about all of the connections. Many of the system components are commercially available; some have been modified at LASL for DYMAC purposes; others were designed and fabricated at LASL. This manual provides circuit diagrams for all of the LASL modifications and LASL-fabricated equipment. In addition, it provides a series of procedures for tracing cables, reconfiguring various parts of the system, testing data transmissions, and troubleshooting malfunctions.

  15. INCO shuttle communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous work we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can be mapped easily to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01). In this note, we use the model to describe the Shuttle communication system. First we briefly review the architecture, then we present the environment of our application, and finally we detail the specific function for each functional block of the architecture for that environment.

  16. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  17. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story

  18. Video animation system operators manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mareda, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the components necessary to put together a video animation system. It is primarily intended for use at Sandia National Laboratories as it describes the components used in systems at Sandia. The main document covers the operation of the equipment in some detail and is intended for either the system maintainer or an advanced user. There is an appendix for each of the three systems in use by the Engineering Sciences Directorate which contain instructions for the general user.

  19. Wireless Headset Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

    1995-01-01

    System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

  20. Digital and analog communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  1. Principles of military communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrieri, D. J.

    This book is devoted to an analytical study of those aspects of communication theory which have special relevance to military systems. The book is intended for graduate students and practicing engineers with a background in communication theory. Aspects of communication warfare are considered, taking into account power and propagation, analog communications, digital communications, and pulsed jamming. Pseudonoise spread-spectrum systems are examined, giving attention to principles, pseudonoise sequences, the concealment of pseudonoise waveforms, error probabilities in presence of interference, jamming, code synchronization, pseudonoise networks, and burst-communication systems. Frequency hopping is discussed along with interception, adaptive antenna systems, and cryptographic digital communications. Topics reviewed in an appendix are related to derivations of conditional bit error probabilities for frequency-shift keying, and the noncentral chi-squared distribution.

  2. Bi-Directional Communication: Growth and Immunity in Domestic Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence continues to mount supporting the existence of bi-directional communication pathways between the animal’s growth axis and immune system. For more than three decades, researchers have sought, and identified, linkages between the somatotrophic axis and health in domestic livestock. Early inve...

  3. Communications systems checkout study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginter, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results and conclusions of an engineering study of Space Station communications subsystem checkout are reported. The primary purpose of the study is to recommend specific guidelines and constraints for the design and utilization of the communications subsystem leading to a practical and effective means of onboard checkout implementation. Major study objectives are as follows: (1) identify candidate communications subsystem checkout concepts, (2) determine implementation impacts of feasible concepts, (3) evaluate practicality and effectiveness of alternative concepts, (4) propose baseline modifications to accommodate preferred concepts, and (5) recommend areas for additional investigation. In addition, study results are interpreted, where appropriate, in terms of their applicability to checkout of Shuttle-Orbiter communications subsystem.

  4. Satellite personal communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Smith, J. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Voice channel communication between low power mobile stations dispersed over a large area is provided by a system which includes a geostationary satellite utilizing a large UHF antenna that can receive a transmission from a caller and retransmit it over any one beam of a matrix of narrow beams, so the chosen beam covers an area in which a designated called party is located. A single up-link control channel occupying a narrow frequency band, can be utilized to receive dial up signals from a caller, and another single down link control channel can be utilized to ring up the called party located anywhere within the continental United States. The satellite antenna includes a matrix of feed horns that not only direct the beams in a controlled matrix onto the area of the continental United States, but also permit detection of the region from which the caller's signal is transmitted and the region from which the called party's answer is received, to enable the interconnection of signals received from these two regions. The system is particularly useful for rural areas.

  5. INMARSAT's personal communicator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Nick; Haugli, HANS-C.; Poskett, Peter; Smith, K.

    1993-01-01

    Inmarsat has been providing near global mobile satellite communications since 1982 and Inmarsat terminals are currently being used in more than 130 countries. The terminals have been reduced in size and cost over the years and new technology has enabled the recent introduction of briefcase sized personal telephony terminals (Inmarsat-M). This trend continues and we are likely to see Inmarsat handheld terminals by the end of the decade. These terminals are called Inmarsat-P and this paper focuses on the various elements required to support a high quality service to handheld terminals. The main system elements are: the handheld terminals; the space segment with the associated orbits; and the gateways to terrestrial networks. It is both likely and desirable that personal handheld satellite communications will be offered by more than one system provider and this competition will ensure strong emphasis on service quality and cost of ownership. The handheld terminals also have to be attractive to a large number of potential users, and this means that the terminals must be small enough to fit in a pocket. Battery lifetime is another important consideration, and this coupled with radiation safety requirements limits the maximum radiated EIRP. The terminal G/T is mainly constrained by the gain of the omnidirectional antenna and the noise figure of the RF front end (including input losses). Inmarsat has examined, with the support of industry, a number of Geosynchronous (GSO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite options for the provision of a handheld mobile satellite service. This paper describes the key satellite and orbit parameters and tradeoffs which affect the overall quality of service and the space segment costing. The paper also stresses not only the importance of using and sharing the available mobile frequency band allocations efficiently, but also the key considerations affecting the choice of feeder link bands. The design of the gateways and the terrestrial network is critical to the overall viability of the service, and this paper also examines the key technical parameters associated with the Land Earth Stations (LES), which act as gateways into the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). These not only include the design tradeoffs associated with the LES, but also the different terrestrial network interface options. The paper concludes with a brief description of the satellite propagation conditions associated with the use of handheld terminals. It describes how the handheld results in a number of propagation impairments which are not common to the previous measurements associated with vehicle mounted antennas. These measurements indicate that there is a complex tradeoff between link margin and the elevation angle to the satellite which has a significant impact on the space segment requirements and costing.

  6. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  7. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication. PMID:26232298

  8. SHARP system for personal communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, K. M. Sundara

    1991-01-01

    The application of the stationary high altitude relay platform (SHARP) concept orignally developed by the Department of Communications to provide a wide range of personal communications services is addressed. The inherent merits of SHARP are ideally suited to personal communications particularly to overcome some of the limitations of the geostationary satellites (GEOS) and low earth orbit satellite systems (LEOS) when used in personal communications environment. An overview of the SHARP concept is presented, and some of its merits are outlined. High level networking concepts are presented for typical cases as applicable to personal communications.

  9. Study of microsat communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Tanaka, M.; Ikegami, T.; Obuchi, T.; Nakagawa, O.; Matsui, M.

    1992-08-01

    Possible applications of microsatellites are briefly reviewed, and a simple microsatellite communication network is proposed. The general design of the proposed microsatellite communication system is discussed, with attention given to the radio link for ground stations, intersatellite radio link, conceptual design of the satellite bus system, microsatellite antenna design, and design of the store and forward transponder.

  10. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The ultramicrowave communications system program investigated the feasibility of a solid state system that meets the projected space to space requirements, while using the advantages of the 100 to 200 GHz band. The program successfully demonstrated a laboratory model of a high frequency communications system operating between 100 to 200 GHz. In the process, vendor claims for performance specifications of discrete components were evaluated, and a window was provided into system design and integration problems.

  11. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  12. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a

  13. General data base driven graphic animation system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Most attempts at the graphic animation of data involve rather large and expensive development of problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a general graphics animation system designed to be a tool for the development of a wide variety of animated simulations. By incorporating device-independent graphics procedures and using relational database storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in the design and development of animated displays is achieved. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Satellite communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B. G.

    Technological and applications aspects of satellite communication (SC) are examined in chapters contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include SC organizations, multiple-access techniques, the electromagnetic spectrum and its regulation, propagation and interference problems, modulation and modems, coding, networking and services, earth-station and satellite antennas, repeaters, and spacecraft engineering. Consideration is given to military SC, space stations and earth-resources platforms, data-relay satellites, direct-broadcasting satellites, cost-effective spacecraft engineering for LEO satellites, project organization and costing, and future trends.

  15. Hughes communications' Galaxy Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J. F.

    1986-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Galaxy Satellite System owned and operated by Hughes Communications, Inc. Summary descriptions of the spacecraft and the architecture of the spacecraft ground operations are given, as well as a discussion of the business applications of the system. Finally, plans for future expansion of the system into other frequency bands and for other applications are presented.

  16. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  17. Rough-and-tumble play as a window on animal communication.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Burghardt, Gordon M; Smuts, Barbara; Cordoni, Giada; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fouts, Hillary N; Řeháková-Petrů, Milada; Siviy, Stephen M; Pellis, Sergio M

    2016-05-01

    Rough-and-tumble play (RT) is a widespread phenomenon in mammals. Since it involves competition, whereby one animal attempts to gain advantage over another, RT runs the risk of escalation to serious fighting. Competition is typically curtailed by some degree of cooperation and different signals help negotiate potential mishaps during RT. This review provides a framework for such signals, showing that they range along two dimensions: one from signals borrowed from other functional contexts to those that are unique to play, and the other from purely emotional expressions to highly cognitive (intentional) constructions. Some animal taxa have exaggerated the emotional and cognitive interplay aspects of play signals, yielding admixtures of communication that have led to complex forms of RT. This complexity has been further exaggerated in some lineages by the development of specific novel gestures that can be used to negotiate playful mood and entice reluctant partners. Play-derived gestures may provide new mechanisms by which more sophisticated communication forms can evolve. Therefore, RT and playful communication provide a window into the study of social cognition, emotional regulation and the evolution of communication systems. PMID:25619897

  18. Three Corner Sat Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bobby; Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Three Corner Satellite is a constellation of three nanosatellites designed and built by students. New Mexico State University has taken on the design of the communications system for this constellation. The system includes the forward link, return link, and the crosslink. Due to size, mass, power, and financial constraints, we must design a small, light, power efficient, and inexpensive communications system. This thesis presents the design of a radio system to accomplish the data transmission requirements in light of the system constraints. In addition to the hardware design, the operational commands needed by the satellite's on-board computer to control and communicate with the communications hardware will be presented. In order for the hardware to communicate with the ground stations, we will examine the link budgets derived from the radiated power of the transmitters, link distance, data modulation, and data rate for each link. The antenna design for the constellation is analyzed using software and testing the physical antennas on a model satellite. After the analysis and testing, a combination of different systems will meet and exceed the requirements and constraints of the Three Corner Satellite constellation.

  19. Constraint-based animation: temporal constraints in the Animus systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duisberg, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Algorithm animation has a growing role in computer-aided algorithm design documentation and debugging, since interactive graphics is a richer channel than text for communication. Most animation is currently done laboriously by hand, and it often has the character of canned demonstrations with restricted user interaction. Animus is a system that allows easy construction of an animation with minimal concern for lower-level graphics programming. Constraints are used to describe the appearance and structure of a picture as well as how those pictures evolve in time. The implementation and support of temporal constraints is a substantive extension to previous constraint languages which had only allowed specification of static state. Use of the Animus system is demonstrated in the creation of animations of dynamic mechanical and electrical-circuit simulations, sorting algorithms, problems in operating systems, and geometric curve-drawing algorithms.

  20. Implemented a wireless communication system for VGA capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Kwan; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Park, Hee-Joon; Cho, Jin-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several medical devices that use wireless communication are under development. In this paper, the small size frequency shift keying (FSK) transmitter and a monofilar antenna for the capsule endoscope, enabling the medical device to transmit VGA-size images of the intestine. To verify the functionality of the proposed wireless communication system, computer simulations and animal experiments were performed with the implemented capsule endoscope that includes the proposed wireless communication system. Several fundamental experiments are carried out using the implemented transmitter and antenna, and animal in-vivo experiments were performed to verify VGA image transmission. PMID:25227067

  1. Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The way an animal acts or behaves helps it get what it needs to survive. Students find out why some animal behaviors are instinctive while

  2. Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The way an animal acts or behaves helps it get what it needs to survive. Students find out why some animal behaviors are instinctive while…

  3. Time reversal communication system

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  4. The ORBCOMM data communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, David C.; Locke, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    The ORBCOMM system is designed to provide low-cost, two-way data communications for mobile and remote users. The communications system is ideally configured for low data rate applications where communicating devices are geographically dispersed and two-way communications through terrestrial means is cumbersome and not cost effective. The remote terminals use VHF frequencies which allow for the use of very small, low-cost terminals. ORBCOMM has entered into joint development agreements with several large manufacturers of both consumer and industrial electronics to design and build the remote terminals. Based on prototype work, the estimated retail cost of these units will range from $50 to $400 depending on the complexity of the design. Starting in the fall of 1993, ORBCOMM will begin service with a demonstration network consisting of two operating satellites. By the end of 1994, a full operating network of 26 satellites, four Gateway Earth Stations, and a Network Control Center will be in place. The full constellation will provide full coverage of the entire world with greater than 94 percent communications availability for the continental U.S. This paper describes the ORBCOMM system, the technology used in its implementation, and its applications.

  5. Patient Communication: A Multidisciplinary Approach Using Animated Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiner, Marie; Handal, Gilbert; Williams, Darryl

    2004-01-01

    Communication is a major problem in the management of patients. Miscommunication occurs frequently in populations with low reading skills, illiteracy does not completely account for the observed low rates of recall of communicated information. Transmission of the message also plays an important role. Successful strategies to improve communication…

  6. Rapidly deployable emergency communication system

    DOEpatents

    Gladden, Charles A.; Parelman, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A highly versatile, highly portable emergency communication system which permits deployment in a very short time to cover both wide areas and distant isolated areas depending upon mission requirements. The system employs a plurality of lightweight, fully self-contained repeaters which are deployed within the mission area to provide communication between field teams, and between each field team and a mobile communication control center. Each repeater contains a microcomputer controller, the program for which may be changed from the control center by the transmission of digital data within the audible range (300-3,000 Hz). Repeaters are accessed by portable/mobile transceivers, other repeaters, and the control center through the transmission and recognition of digital data code words in the subaudible range.

  7. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  8. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  9. Coherent OCDMA communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Coherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique, where encoding and decoding are based on the phase and amplitude of optical field instead of its intensity, is receiving much attention for the overall superior performance over incoherent OCDMA and the development of compact and reliable en/decoders (E/D) such as spatial light phase modulator (SLPM), superstructured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) and multi-port array waveguide grating (AWG)-type E/D. In this paper, we will discuss several recent progresses in coherent OCDMA: a. Novel coding technology such as multi-phase-level SSFBG encoder, 50x50 multiport en/decoder and reconfigurable time domain spectral phase en/decoding; b. New signal modulation formats in OCDMA including DPSK, DQPSK, CSK and M-ary CSK; and c. Field trials of high capacity WDM/OCDMA systems.

  10. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Communications system design was completed and reviewed. Minor changes were made in order to make it more cost effective and to increase design flexibility. System design activities identified the techniques and procedures to generate and monitor high data rate test signals. Differential bi-phase demodulation is the proposed method for this system. The mockup and packaging designs were performed, and component layout and interconnection constraints were determined, as well as design drawings for dummy parts of the system. The possibility of adding a low cost option to the transceiver system was studied. The communications program has the advantage that new technology signal processing devices can be readily interfaced with the existing radio frequency subsystem to produce a short range radar.

  11. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel...

  14. Core systems of geometry in animal minds

    PubMed Central

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Lee, Sang Ah

    2012-01-01

    Research on humans from birth to maturity converges with research on diverse animals to reveal foundational cognitive systems in human and animal minds. The present article focuses on two such systems of geometry. One system represents places in the navigable environment by recording the distance and direction of the navigator from surrounding, extended surfaces. The other system represents objects by detecting the shapes of small-scale forms. These two systems show common signatures across animals, suggesting that they evolved in distant ancestral species. As children master symbolic systems such as maps and language, they come productively to combine representations from the two core systems of geometry in uniquely human ways; these combinations may give rise to abstract geometric intuitions. Studies of the ontogenetic and phylogenetic sources of abstract geometry therefore are illuminating of both human and animal cognition. Research on animals brings simpler model systems and richer empirical methods to bear on the analysis of abstract concepts in human minds. In return, research on humans, relating core cognitive capacities to symbolic abilities, sheds light on the content of representations in animal minds. PMID:22927577

  15. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  16. The HTV Proximity Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band Processor (BBP) to the HTV Guidance and Control Computer (GCC) including data handling and communication equipments, the PROX detects it by monitoring interruption of the "heartbeat" signal and conducts automatic redundancy switching of all the equipments on that "communication path" including those of the HTV. This paper describes the PROX functions such as communication, data handling and GPS navigation and some unique functions for the HTV proximity operation to the ISS.

  17. Global services systems - Space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements projected to the year 2000 for space-based global service systems, including both personal communications and innovative services, are developed based on historic trends and anticipated worldwide demographic and economic growth patterns. The growing demands appear to be best satisfied by developing larger, more sophisticated space systems in order to reduce the size, complexity, and expense of ground terminals. The availability of low-cost ground terminals will, in turn, further stimulate the generation of new services and new customers.

  18. New system improves diver communications

    SciTech Connect

    Baggoft, M.

    1982-08-01

    Utilizing a microprocessor-based speech unscrambler, and acoustic through-water transmission, a communication system introduced in the North Sea allows a diver to talk directly with the surface and other divers free of vulnerable, inhibiting cable links. Advantages include full mobility for divers. Key to the system is a single silicon chip microprocessor housed in a 300 by 60-mm tube for belt mounting.

  19. The Intelsat digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phiel, John F., Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Intelsat international communication services resulting from the application of digital technology are summarized. Approximately 40 percent of the 140,000 terrestrial channels from the Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) provided by the Intelsat network are now handled by digital systems. Digital technology for the interconnection of the PSTNs is discussed. Particular attention is paid to modulation and access techniques including the intermediate data rate (IDR) system, and the fixed and satellite switched TDMA systems. Digital compression techniques used with TDMA and IDR, such as digital speech interpolation and digital circuit multiplication, are also discussed. The Intelsat Business Service and the Intelnet Service are described in the framework of digital technology for private networks and business users. Communications for remote areas, international television services, and future opportunities through digital technologies are briefly presented.

  20. Low Altitude Space Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Michiyoshi; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Honda, Hideyuki; Toriumi, Michihiko; Kamioka, Eiji; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki; Ohta, Sigeo; Yamagami, Takamasa; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Hirosawa, Haruto; Ohya, Nobuhiko; Takezawa, Fukashi; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    We describe a new Low Altitude Space Communication System (LASCOS), which was completed in 1996 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan. This system consists of a mobile balloon tracking and receiving station and networks which connect them to the Sanriku Balloon Center in Iwate Municipality and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Kanagawa Municipality. This station and the SBC receiving station are connected via telephone lines, i. e. an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or an analog communication network. Balloon trajectory monitoring, telecommand transmission operation and telemetry data acquisition can be done from any computer terminal through the LASCOS. LASCOS has built-in flexibility to adapt to a foreign balloon station. The number of individuals necessary to operate it minimum. LASCOS will be used for long range tracking and balloon expedition. We present the results of its first test with an actual balloon flight

  1. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  2. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  3. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111... systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... in charge of transfer for the facility. (b) The communication system required by paragraph (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111... systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... in charge of transfer for the facility. (b) The communication system required by paragraph (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111... systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... in charge of transfer for the facility. (b) The communication system required by paragraph (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111... systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... in charge of transfer for the facility. (b) The communication system required by paragraph (a)...

  7. MMIC technology for communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masayoshi; Imai, Nobuaki; Tokumitsu, Tsuneo; Muraguchi, Masahiro

    1992-12-01

    MMIC technology is recently progressing at a rapid rate and is now being applied in communications systems. However, there remain few practical applications. This is mainly due to the high cost of conventional MMICs because of the small market size and specialized needs. This paper introduces three new technical approaches that overcome the problems: uniplanar MMIC, line unified FET (LUFET), and multilayer MMIC. Concepts and several examples of these technologies are described. It is shown that these technologies are effective not only for cost reduction but also for increased performance. In addition, one example of system application is described.

  8. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  9. Communications Systems for Mobile Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A; Pao, H

    2003-12-08

    Performance Confirmation is the activity by which the Yucca Mountain Project confirms that the engineered and natural containment barriers of this national nuclear waste repository are performing as predicted, so that an eventual decision to close the repository can be made. This activity involves systems that must be inspected and, in some cases, serviced by mobile robots. This paper discusses systems for underground mobile robot communications, including requirements, environments, options, issues, and down-select criteria. We reviewed a variety of systems, including Slotted Waveguide, Powerline Carrier, Leaky Feeder, Photonic Bandgap Fiber, Free-Space Optics, Millimeter Waves, Terahertz Systems, and RF Systems (including IEEE 802.11 a,b, and g, and Ultra-Wideband radio).

  10. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  11. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  12. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  13. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  14. Complexity in Animal Communication: Estimating the Size of N-Gram Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Reginald

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, new techniques that allow conditional entropy to estimate the combinatorics of symbols are applied to animal communication studies to estimate the communication's repertoire size. By using the conditional entropy estimates at multiple orders, the paper estimates the total repertoire sizes for animal communication across bottlenose dolphins, humpback whales, and several species of birds for N-grams length one to three. In addition to discussing the impact of this method on studies of animal communication complexity, the reliability of these estimates is compared to other methods through simulation. While entropy does undercount the total repertoire size due to rare N-grams, it gives a more accurate picture of the most frequently used repertoire than just repertoire size alone.

  15. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  16. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  17. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  18. Wireless augmented reality communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  19. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-26

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  20. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  1. A Reconfigurable Communications System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Kifle, Muli

    2004-01-01

    Two trends of NASA missions are the use of multiple small spacecraft and the development of an integrated space network. To achieve these goals, a robust and agile communications system is needed. Advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology have made it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips; thus this technology has great potential as the basis for a reconfigurable communications system. This report discusses the requirements of future space communications, reviews relevant issues, and proposes a methodology to design and construct a reconfigurable communications system for small scientific spacecraft.

  2. Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.

  3. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  4. Healthcare System Approaches for Cancer Patient Communication

    PubMed Central

    QUILLIN, JOHN M.; TRACY, KELLY; ANCKER, JESSICA S.; MUSTIAN, KAREN M.; ELLINGTON, LEE; VISWANATH, VISH; MILLER, SUZANNE M.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer patient communication is always embedded in a complex background of inter-related parts, i.e., a system. Cancer patients are specifically exposed to a healthcare system. Considering this context, this article summarizes the insight from a roundtable discussion involving behavioral medicine and oncology experts convened at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine as part of an annual pre-conference course entitled “Interpersonal Communication and Cancer Control: Emerging Themes”. In this paper we summarize the communication-relevant components of healthcare systems, focusing on the macro level. Next, we review existing theoretical frameworks for systems-based communication, the unique aspects of “systems thinking,” and the emerging systems tools that can be integrated in cancer communication. Finally, we propose a research agenda for successful system approaches for patient-centered cancer communication. PMID:19449272

  5. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  6. Space Shuttle communications and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Cravey, Donald N.; Kuo, Yeng S.; Johnson, John H.; Teasdale, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a comprehensive description of the Space Shuttle communications and tracking system design, development, and system operations. Areas of special innovative communications techniques implemented by the Space Shuttle such as source encoding, channel encoding, spread spectrum, and digital modulation are emphasized. In addition, the role of the Electronics Systems Test Laboratory in the development of the system is discussed.

  7. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  8. Considerations for lunar colony communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses system aspects of communications for a lunar colony. Human factors are particularly noted. The practical aspects of communications infrastructure are emphasized rather than specific technologies. Communications needs for mission support and morale are discussed along with potential means of satisfying them. Problem areas are identified and some possible solutions are considered.

  9. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.

  10. The window controller. [for computer animation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Granor, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    The window controller developed for the computer animation system (TAN) of the human-body modeling and positioning system TEMPUS (Badler et al., 1983) is characterized, and its operation is illustrated with diagrams. The controller is associated with a screen viewport and comprises five nested squares related to five modifications of the window, including zooming in and out, translation, locking plus translation, and extension of extremes plus translation. The variations of the controller and its limitations are considered, and its advantages over the use of a miniworld in a separate viewport are indicated.

  11. How do communication systems emerge?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Communication involves a pair of behaviours—a signal and a response—that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a theoretical perspective why this should be the case, nor if there are any other routes to communication. Here, we develop an analytical model to examine how communication can emerge. We show that: (i) a state of non-interaction is evolutionarily stable, and so communication will not necessarily emerge even when it is in both parties' interest; (ii) the conditions for sensory manipulation are more stringent than for ritualization, and hence ritualization is likely to be more common; and (iii) communication can arise by a third route, when the intention to communicate can itself be communicated, but this may be limited to humans. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of a functional approach to communication. PMID:22217724

  12. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The...

  13. Apollo experience report: Lunar module communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Rhoades, D. E.; Davidson, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the lunar module communications system is traced from the initial concept to the operational system used on manned lunar missions. The problems encountered during the development, the corrective actions taken, and recommendations for similar equipment in future programs are included. The system was designed to provide communications between the lunar module and the manned space flight network, between the lunar module and the command and service module, and between the lunar module and the extravehicular crewmen. The system provided the equipment necessary for voice, telemetry, and television communications; ranging information; and various communications links.

  14. Dual-Modality Small Animal Imaging System*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranck, Amoreena; Feldmann, John; Saunders, Robert S.; Welsh, Robert E.; Bradley, Eric L.; Saha, Margaret S.; Kross, Brian; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph

    2000-10-01

    We describe preliminary results from an imaging system consisting of an array of position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) viewing pixelated scintillators and a small fluoroscopic x-ray system (Lixi, Inc.). The PSPMT detectors are used to follow the uptake of lignads tagged principally with ^125I which emits photons in the 30keV region. The fluoroscope allows the superposition of structural information on the pattern of the radioligands. This "dual modality" technique permits more accurate tracking of the tagged material in the animal under study. Small sources give fiducial information on both x-ray and radioligand pictures allowing close registration of the two views of the system under study. Improvements to this system incorporating a very versatile rotatable gantry capable of supporting a wide range of detection systems simultaneously will be described. *Supported in part by The American Diabetes Association, The Jeffress Trust, The National Science Foundation, The Department of Energy, and The Howard Hughes Foundation

  15. Unique features of animal mitochondrial translation systems

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kimitsuna

    2010-01-01

    In animal mitochondria, several codons are non-universal and their meanings differ depending on the species. In addition, the tRNA structures that decipher codons are sometimes unusually truncated. These features seem to be related to the shortening of mitochondrial (mt) genomes, which occurred during the evolution of mitochondria. These organelles probably originated from the endosymbiosis of an aerobic eubacterium into an ancestral eukaryote. It is plausible that these events brought about the various characteristic features of animal mt translation systems, such as genetic code variations, unusually truncated tRNA and rRNA structures, unilateral tRNA recognition mechanisms by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors and ribosomes, and compensation for RNA deficits by enlarged proteins. In this article, we discuss molecular mechanisms for these phenomena. Finally, we describe human mt diseases that are caused by modification defects in mt tRNAs. PMID:20075606

  16. Electronic Communication in Africa--the Promotion of Animal Health Information Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Erica E.; Miller, E. Stan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the Veterinary Science Library at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) promotes electronic communication through various Internet and other network links. Provides a sample of online information sources available to veterinary teams and animal health workers, and a list of electronic addresses for South African libraries and…

  17. Animal modeling an oligodendrogliopathy - multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Bleasel, Jonathan M; Halliday, Glenda M; Kim, Woojin Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, yet rapidly-progressive neurodegenerative disease that presents clinically with autonomic failure in combination with parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. The definitive neuropathology differentiating MSA from Lewy body diseases is the presence of α-synuclein aggregates in oligodendrocytes (called glial cytoplasmic inclusion or GCI) rather than the fibrillar aggregates in neurons (called Lewy bodies). This makes the pathological pathway(s) in MSA unique in that oligodendrocytes are involved rather than predominantly neurons, as is most other neurodegenerative disorders. MSA is therefore regarded as an oligodendrogliopathy. The etiology of MSA is unknown. No definitive risk factors have been identified, although α-synuclein and other genes have been variably linked to MSA risk. Utilization of postmortem brain tissues has greatly advanced our understanding of GCI pathology and the subsequent neurodegeneration. However, extrapolating the early pathogenesis of MSA from such resource has been difficult and limiting. In recent years, cell and animal models developed for MSA have been instrumental in delineating unique MSA pathological pathways, as well as aiding in clinical phenotyping. The purpose of this review is to bring together and discuss various animal models that have been developed for MSA and how they have advanced our understanding of MSA pathogenesis, particularly the dynamics of α-synuclein aggregation. This review will also discuss how animal models have been used to explore potential therapeutic avenues for MSA, and future directions of MSA modeling. PMID:26860328

  18. System Models of Information, Communication and Mass Communication: Revaluation of Some Basic Concepts of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiio, Osmo A.

    A more unified approach to communication theory can evolve through systems modeling of information theory, communication modes, and mass media operations. Such systematic analysis proposes, as is the case care here, that information models be based upon combinations of energy changes and exchanges and changes in receiver systems. The mass media is…

  19. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  20. The Roles of Mental Animations and External Animations in Understanding Mechanical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Kriz, Sarah; Cate, Christina

    2003-01-01

    The effects of computer animations and mental animation on people's mental models of a mechanical system are examined. In 3 experiments, students learned how a mechanical system works from various instructional treatments including viewing a static diagram of the machine, predicting motion from static diagrams, viewing computer animations, and…

  1. Rugged Video System For Inspecting Animal Burrows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triandafils, Dick; Maples, Art; Breininger, Dave

    1992-01-01

    Video system designed for examining interiors of burrows of gopher tortoises, 5 in. (13 cm) in diameter or greater, to depth of 18 ft. (about 5.5 m), includes video camera, video cassette recorder (VCR), television monitor, control unit, and power supply, all carried in backpack. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) poles used to maneuver camera into (and out of) burrows, stiff enough to push camera into burrow, but flexible enough to bend around curves. Adult tortoises and other burrow inhabitants observable, young tortoises and such small animals as mice obscured by sand or debris.

  2. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  3. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  4. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  5. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  6. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  7. Using multiple attractor chaotic systems for communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. L.; Pecora, L. M.

    1999-06-01

    In recent work with symmetric chaotic systems, we synchronized two such systems with one-way driving. The drive system had two possible attractors, but the response system always synchronized with the drive system. In this work, we show how we may combine two attractor chaotic systems with a multiplexing technique first developed by Tsimring and Suschick to make a simple communications system. We note that our response system is never synchronized to our drive system (not even in a generalized sense), but we are still able to transmit information. We characterize the performance of the communications system when noise is added to the transmitted signal.

  8. ETS-VI multibeam satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Isao

    1989-10-01

    The fixed and mobile satellite communications systems of the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) are described. The system requirements are outlined along with the system configuration. The ETS-VI multibeam system employs three frequency bands. When used for Ka-band fixed communications, it covers the Japanese main islands with thirteen 0.3-degree-wide spot beam. Four of the beams are active for ETS-VI. When used for S-band mobile communications, five beams cover the area within 200 nautical miles from the Japanese coast. The C-band beam for fixed communications covers the central area of the Japanese main islands with a single beam. The onboard antenna system is described along with the transponders and their associated onboard systems. A discussion of the system technology follows, covering the TDMA transmisssion system, the relay function, rainfall compensation, and the antenna and propagation performance.

  9. Animal biocalorimeter and waste management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (Inventor); Trimailo, William R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A biocalorimeter and waste management system is provided for making metabolic heat release measurements of animals or humans in a calorimeter (enclosure) using ambient air as a low velocity source of ventilating air through the enclosure. A shroud forces ventilating air to pass over the enclosure from an end open to ambient air at the end of the enclosure opposite its ventilating air inlet end and closed around the inlet end of the enclosure in order to obviate the need for regulating ambient air temperature. Psychrometers for measuring dry- and wet-bulb temperature of ventilating air make it possible to account for the sensible and latent heat additions to the ventilating air. A waste removal system momentarily recirculates high velocity air in a closed circuit through the calorimeter wherein a sudden rise in moisture is detected in the ventilating air from the outlet.

  10. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annette Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations' veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare. PMID:21999393

  11. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and communication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare. PMID:21999393

  12. Economics of satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one arrives at a schedule of costs and payments for all the items and the years in which they will be incurred. The second category of costing problems is one of financing or engineering economics. All the costs are first "present valued" to some reference period using rates of return appropriate to the particular situation. One finally arrives at sets of annual costs which can be used as the basis for setting lease costs or revenue requirements and tariffs. The correspondence between methods using discounted rates of return and capital recovery formulae on one hand and those using various depreciation schedules, such as is typical of regulated industries on the other hand, is discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to discussing the relationship between critical parameters, such as replacement schedules, design lifetime, satellite power and Earth station antenna size, and the overall costs. It is shown that optima for these parameters may exist and can be calculated. In particular, the optimization of satellite replacement schedules to minimize the present value of total investment over a very long period is presented, along with simplified versions of the theory suitable for system planning. The choice of EIRP is also discussed and a procedure for choosing the value that minimizes the costs is shown.

  13. Millimeter-wave personal satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiki, Kanshiro; Kuri, Takaki; Maruyama, Hideyuki; Kikuchi, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuo

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the system concept of a millimeter-wave personal satellite communication, which includes the configuration of the communication system, the satellite system, and the earth terminal system. The system has a large channel capacity and achieves high performance through a flexible channel set-up method, efficient frequency reuse, and onboard communication equipment such as a baseband channel switching processor and a modulator and demodulator (Modem). Two examples of communication systems are shown, in which the information bit rate, the number of multi-beams, and the antenna diameters are different. On the assumption that a 2 ton class satellite will be used, rough estimates are made of the size, weight, and power consumption of the onboard communication system and bus system of the satellite. In addition, details are given regarding the specifications and performance of trial productions of communication equipment such as the switching processor, the Modem, the TWTA, and the LNA. Finally, the key technical issues for establishing a millimeter-wave personal satellite communication system are also discussed.

  14. Roadside-based communication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A roadside-based communication system providing backup communication between emergency mobile units and emergency command centers. In the event of failure of a primary communication, the mobile units transmit wireless messages to nearby roadside controllers that may take the form of intersection controllers. The intersection controllers receive the wireless messages, convert the messages into standard digital streams, and transmit the digital streams along a citywide network to a destination intersection or command center.

  15. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  16. Study of microsat communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Tanaka, M.; Ikegami, T.; Obuchi, T.; Nakagawa, O.; Matsui, M.

    A simple communication network by microsatellites is studied. A few microsatellites pick up and deliver voice and some digital information from/to ground stations, and/or from/to satellites. 9.6 kbps and 1.2 kbps are used for the ground link and the inter-satellite link respectively with onboard digital processing techniques. It uses the formation of the microsatellites in one orbit, to widen the real-time communication area. The microsatellite is 50 kg of dumbbell shape with an expandable mast.

  17. A 1000+ channel bionic communication system.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Joseph H; Mobley, J Phil; Wolfe, James; Stover, Howard; Krag, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The wireless electronic nervous system interface known as the functional electrical stimulation-battery powered bion system is being developed at the Alfred Mann Foundation. It contains a real-time propagated wave micro-powered multichannel communication system. This system is designed to send bi-directional messages between an external master controller unit (MCU), and each one of a group of injectable stimulator-sensor battery powered bion implants (BPB). The system is capable of communicating in each direction about 90 times per second using a structure of 850 time slots within a repeating 11 millisecond time window. The system's total Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communication capability is about 77,000 two-way communications per second on a single 5 MHz wide radio channel. Each time slot can be used by one BPB, or shared alternately by two or more BPBs. Each bidirectional communication consists of a 15 data bit message sent from the MCU sequentially to each BPB and 10 data bit message sent sequentially from each BPB to the MCU. Redundancy bits are included to provide error detection and correction. This communication system is designed to draw only a few microamps from the 3.6 volt, 3.0 mAHr lithium ion (LiIon) battery contained in each BPB, and the majority of the communications circuitry is contained within a 1.4x5 mm integrated circuit. PMID:17947078

  18. In Search of a System For Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remirez, Richard J. F.

    A research project sponsored by Wofford College was launched in the summer of 1974 in Spartanburg, South Carolina, to develop a system of communication by which hospital personnel working in an emergency room could communicate with patients who speak a language other than English. The project followed a year-long research effort of previous work…

  19. Electronic Subsystems For Laser Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Catherine; Maruschak, John; Patschke, Robert; Powers, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Electronic subsystems of free-space laser communication system carry digital signals at 650 Mb/s over long distances. Applicable to general optical communications involving transfer of great quantities of data, and transmission and reception of video images of high definition.

  20. How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon

    2013-01-01

    How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified…

  1. Strategic Choices for Data Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Robert G.; Urban, Patricia A.

    Issues and strategies for developing a campus data communications system are discussed. It is suggested that individual microcomputer (MC) workstations will occasionally have a need for (1) access, via a data communications network, to a more powerful processor; (2) specialized software; (3) sophisticated output devices; (4) central data sets; or…

  2. Dust inhalation system for small laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Negishi, T; Nishimura, I

    1993-04-01

    In order to stabilize the dust concentration for animal inhalation studies, two feedback systems were introduced. Dusts generated were passed through two cyclone separators and stored first in a storage chamber. Then they were aspirated into an ejector by compressed carrier air, mixed with filtered room air in a mixing box, and introduced into an exposure chamber. The first feedback system was for dust generation. Dusts were reaerosolized by on-off control using the output signals from a light-scattering dust detector connected to a storage chamber. The second system was for the control of compressed carrier air flow into an ejector. Compressed air flow was automatically regulated by a PID-controller in combination with a mass flow controller. The PID-controller processed continuous signals from another dust detector connected to an exposure chamber and fed control signals to a mass flow controller for regulation of the compressed air flow. This automatic control system could not only reduce hunchings of dust concentration following on-off control of a dust generator but also reduce overshooting of dust concentration in the exposure chamber following the detachment and dispersion of dusts adhering to the inner walls of the dust-supplying route. The system could also maintain a desired dust concentration in the exposure chamber for up to 180 days (20 hr/day, 7 days/week). In addition, this system could simultaneously introduce different doses of dust to other exposure chambers stably while maintaining similar size distribution of the dusts if additional identical exposure units were used. These results indicate that this dust inhalation system is suitable both for long-term studies and for investigating a dose-response relationship. PMID:8519290

  3. Simulating Rain Fade In A Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Nagy, Lawrence A.; Svoboda, James K.

    1994-01-01

    Automated, computer-controlled assembly of electronic equipment developed for use in simulation testing of downlink portion of Earth/satellite microwave digital communication system. Designed to show effects upon performance of system of rain-induced fading in received signal and increases in transmitted power meant to compensate for rain-induced fading. Design of communication system improved iteratively in response to results of simulations, leading eventually to design ensuring clear, uninterrupted transmission of digital signals.

  4. Preliminary Thoughts on Netted Cable Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Frank; Mason, William

    There are five categories of cable communication systems: Conventional Community Antenna Television (CATV), Pay-TV, Subscriber Response Systems, Electronic Information Handling Systems, and Two-Way Audio/Visual Systems. CATV and Pay-TV systems are designed for the one-way transmission of programs, the former providing for better quality…

  5. Underground communications and tracking systems update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-01-15

    Today, when it comes to having systems to communicate with track and locate underground coal miners, mining companies have many equipment choices, as a direct response to the USA's 2006 MINER Act and the West Virginia Legislative Rule 56-4-8. Coal Age spoke to several companies about their leaky feeder and purely wireless systems which are either approved by the US MSHA or have been submitted for approval. The article gives details of: a UHF leaky feeder system developed by Pillar Innovations, designed to exit a mine at multiple points and then tie the leads back together on the surface; the Venture/Helicomm MineTrader system for tracking, monitoring and emergency messaging for mines; Rajant Corp.'s BreadCrumb wireless system using battery-powered wireless access nodes that enable voice and data communications across a self-healing network; the SubterraCom Wireless Solution's communications systems; a wireless mesh peer-to-peer communications system and an ultra widebade (UWB)-base real-time location tracking system from L-3 Communications; and VHF and UHF leaky feeder amplifiers from Tunnel Radio. MSHA approved communications and tracking systems are tabulated. 11 photos., 1 tab.

  6. A Distant Solar System (Artist's Concept Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation portrays an artist's concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins close to the star, and then moves out past a number of planets. Though 'extrasolar' planets are too small to be seen with telescopes, astronomers have detected more than 100 gas giants like Jupiter via their gravitational tug on their parent stars.

    The view pulls back to reveal the outer fringes of the system and a ring of dusty debris that circles the star. This debris is all that remains of the planet-forming disk from which the planets evolved.

    Planets are formed when dusty material in a large disk surrounding a young star clumps together. Leftover material is eventually blown out by solar wind or pushed out by gravitational interactions with planets. Billions of years later, only an outer disk of debris remains.

    These outer debris disks are too faint to be imaged directly by visible-light telescopes. They are washed out by the glare of the Sun. However, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope can detect their heat, or excess thermal emission, in infrared light. This allows astronomers to study the aftermath of planet building in distant solar systems like our own.

  7. Automobile inspection system based on wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Ye, Chunqing

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to research the Automobile Inspection System based on Wireless Communication, and suggests an overall design scheme which uses GPS for speed detection and Bluetooth and GPRS for communication. The communication between PDA and PC was realized by means of GPRS and TCP/IP; and the hardware circuit and software for detection terminal were devised by means of JINOU-3264 Bluetooth Module after analyzing the Bluetooth and its communication protocol. According to the results of debugging test, this system accomplished GPRS based data communication and management as well as the real-time detection on auto safety performance parameters in crash test via PC, whereby the need for mobility and reliability was met and the efficiency and level of detection was improved.

  8. Infant-directed communication in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): do older animals scaffold communicative competence in infants?

    PubMed

    Luef, Eva Maria; Liebal, Katja

    2012-09-01

    Infant-directed speech is a linguistic phenomenon in which adults adapt their language when addressing infants in order to provide them with more salient linguistic information and aid them in language acquisition. Adult-directed language differs from infant-directed language in various aspects, including speech acoustics, syntax, and semantics. The existence of a "gestural motherese" in interaction with infants, demonstrates that not only spoken language but also nonvocal modes of communication can become adapted when infants are recipients. Rhesus macaques are so far the only nonhuman primates where a similar phenomenon to "motherese" has been discovered: the acoustic spectrum of a particular vocalization of adult females may be altered when the addressees are infants. The present paper describes how gorillas adjust their communicative strategies when directing intentional, nonvocal play signals at infants in the sense of a "nonvocal motherese." Animals of ages above infancy use a higher rate of repetitions and sequences of the tactile sensory modality when negotiating play with infants. This indicates that gorillas employ a strategy of infant-specific communication. PMID:22644596

  9. Space Station multiple access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Nanci A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

  10. Systems Theory and Communication. Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, William G., Jr.

    This annotated bibliography presents annotations of 31 books and journal articles dealing with systems theory and its relation to organizational communication, marketing, information theory, and cybernetics. Materials were published between 1963 and 1992 and are listed alphabetically by author. (RS)

  11. Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods

    DOEpatents

    Scott; Jeff W. , Pratt; Richard M.

    2006-09-12

    Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods are described. In one aspect, a tag includes a plurality of antennas configured to receive a plurality of first wireless communication signals comprising data from a reader, a plurality of rectifying circuits coupled with. respective individual ones of the antennas and configured to provide rectified signals corresponding to the first wireless communication signals, wherein the rectified signals are combined to produce a composite signal, an adaptive reference circuit configured to vary a reference signal responsive to the composite signal, a comparator coupled with the adaptive reference circuit and the rectifying circuits and configured to compare the composite signal with respect to the reference signal and to output the data responsive to the comparison, and processing circuitry configured to receive the data from the comparator and to process the data.

  12. SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

  13. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.

  14. Data-base driven graphics animation and simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, H.D.; Curtis, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Most attempts at the graphics animation of data involve rather large and expensive development of problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a general graphics animation system created to be a tool for the design of a wide variety of animated simulations. By using relational data base storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in the design and development of animated displays is achieved.

  15. EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM--PHASE III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITHERSPOON, JOHN P.; AND OTHERS

    MULTIPURPOSE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM MODELS WERE DEVELOPED FOR APPLICATION TO HIGHER EDUCATION. THREE MODEL SYSTEMS - INTRASTATE, INTERSTATE, AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES - WERE DESIGNED. THESE SYSTEM DESIGNS WERE ESTABLISHED FOR EASY EVALUATION AND MAXIMUM FLEXIBILITY, WITH A MINIMUM OF PRESET AUTOMATIC EQUIPMENT. TWO ALTERNATIVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS…

  16. Vessel movement influences offshore communications system design

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, S.R.; Burger, S.D.

    1996-05-27

    Communications links for the Liuhua 11-1 oil production project, offshore China, required a system that would function with vessel movement under typhoon conditions of heavy rainfall and extreme wave action. The system includes a microwave path between two floating production facilities and a satellite connection between the offshore facilities and onshore China. The system provides multiple local-area-network (LAN) linkages, and voice with fax in English and Chinese. The satellite link has a geostabilized platform offshore and a China National Offshore Oil Corp. master earth station onshore. System operations started in mid-1995. This paper reviews the design and performance of this communications network.

  17. A system for monitoring and improving animal visibility and its implications for zoological parks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, C W; Miller, L J; Lehnhardt, J; Christman, J; Mellen, J D; Bettinger, T L

    2010-01-01

    With the growing trend in zoos to build complex, naturalistic exhibits comes the potential for exhibits to be so densely vegetated or complex that animals are not easily seen by zoo visitors. This can negatively impact the visitor's visiting experience and the zoo's ability to communicate conservation and education messages. Over the past 9 years, Disney's Animal Kingdom has developed a process for monitoring and improving the visibility of animals on display to the public. This animal visibility process utilizes a data collection system whereby systematic observations are collected each week. The percentage of observations where at least one animal was visible is recorded for each species and compared to an 80% visibility criterion. Species that do not reach this criterion for 4 consecutive weeks are discussed at animal management meetings. If the problems associated with animal visibility cannot be easily solved, the animal-care teams partner with the research team to conduct a second process, called the Visibility Issues Process. This process provides additional information for the animal-care team to utilize in developing a plan to improve visibility. Although the processes described here are specific to the infrastructure at Disney's Animal Kingdom, the basic concepts of (1) a formalized visibility data collection process, (2) a visibility criterion to which managers of species are held accountable, and (3) a process for planning to improve animal visibility without negatively impacting animal welfare are fundamental concepts that can be developed at individual institutions and incorporated into that zoo's existing infrastructure. PMID:19382165

  18. Full-duplex optical communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  19. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  20. Communication Research in the Design of Communication Interfaces and Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biocca, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that over the next 20 years the evolution of communication technologies may offer a critical opportunity for researchers to positively shape the channels of mediated human communication. Focuses on communication research's role in new communication media. Sketches out a possible research response: a "human factors approach" to…

  1. A commercial communications satellite system for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, M. A.; Marumo, M.

    1986-03-01

    JC SAT will provide commercial Ku-band communications service to the Japanese islands commencing in early 1988. The satellite is a Hughes HS-393 with 32 transponders and a 27 MHz bandwidth. The communications payload has 40 for 32 redundancy with nominal 20 watt traveling wave tubes. Eighteen of the transponders contain linearizer-TWT combinations. This system will provide highly reliable service for the complete range of applications from TV broadcast to digital data dissemination using relatively small receiving antennas.

  2. Communication Capacity Optimization for Broadband Satellite Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuga, Yoshinori; Mitsugi, Jin; Ueba, Masazumi; Mizuno, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    ground-based access systems, such as FTTH, ADSL and even terrestrial cellular systems, are only available within limited geographical areas, broadband satellite communication systems that can cover unlimited service area have attracted wide interest. However, the success of broadband satellite communication depends heavily on the cost of user terminals and satellite circuits. and frequency bandwidth, which involves design parameters. For such parameters, we must consider modulation, coding, the number of radiating beams and the number of areas in which frequency bandwidth can be reused. These parameters should be chosen such that maximum communication capacity can be provided with minimum system resources under a designated rain attenuation and interference environment. The difficulty in optimization stems from the number of design parameters and the interactions between them. The optimization also has to be done in a manner such that the service provider can determine the relation between the service cost and the service grade. The service grade can be expressed in terms of the available user information rate, return link as well as forward link, and the number of available communication channels, while the system cost can be expressed in terms of required satellite power and the bandwidth. power and bandwidth parameters. In the method, the number of spot beams, the number of repeated bandwidth areas and the type of modulation are separately determined for the return and forward link. From the selected design parameters, the relationship between bandwidth capacity and power capacity is derived assuming they are linear. The power and bandwidth required for the return and forward link are then integrated by applying a linear programming method. The constraints in linear programming are power and bandwidth. To denote the system resource management proficiency, we introduce an index called power-utilization efficiency, which is a ratio of the maximum capacity to the required power. systems that have 15 or 35 spot beams. Since circuit quality degradation in Ku band systems due to the propagation environments is less than that in Ka band systems, the power-utilization efficiency of the Ku band is 1.25 times more that of the Ka band. On the other hand, the total capacity of the Ka band is 3.5 times that of the Ku band since the allocated bandwidth in the Ku band is narrower than that of the Ka band. Bandwidth reuse is an effective way to increase total available bandwidth. For the same service area and the same number of reused bandwidths, increasing the number of spot beams can reduce the interference between different areas assigned the same frequency, since the distance between those areas widens. This enables total capacity and power-utilization efficiency for a 35-spot-beam system to be more than 2.2 and 2.75 times greater, respectively, than for a 15-spot-beam system. limited transmission power of the user terminal. Therefore, the return link transponder requires a higher transmission power level to compensate for this limitation. On the other hand, a high-quality downlink is also required for the forward link because of the small size of the user terminal antenna. However, the quality of the forward link can be maintained since it is possible to increase uplink quality by improving hub-station performance. This makes it possible to suppress the increase in the transmission power of the forward link transponder in comparison with that of the return link transponder. As an example, we compared two cases, in one of which the capacity ratio (forward link capacity divided by the return link capacity) was 2.0 and in the other of which it was 10.0. We found that the amount of capacity and power utilization efficiency were, respectively, 33% and 50% greater for the latter case than for the former case. applications.

  3. Pacs: Part Of An Integrated Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B. G.; Brenton, Bradley C.; Staab, Edward V.; Perry, J. Randolph; Parrish, Denise; Johnston, R. Eugene; Creasy, Jeffrey L.

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Radiology at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) has developed the concept for an integrated picture archiving and communications system. A communications network has been installed, and computer facilities are being interfaced within radiology areas. Other projects include the establishment of a computer simulation model of departmental operations and assembly of a limited picture archival and communication system (PACS) beginning with the CT and NMR Modalities. While this approach may provide immediate clinical benefits, the initial thrust has been towards evaluation of prototype systems with flexibility for modifications. PACS operational parameters are being studied for their acceptability in support of radiology clinical services. The goal is to provide objective operational data as a basis for planning system improvements.

  4. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills. PMID:21777495

  5. Name Authority Control in a Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Cathy Ann; Fair, C. James

    1983-01-01

    Examines use of Electronic Office System by Corporate Media Relations, a division of Communication Services, Standard Oil Company, focusing on the problem of name authority control. The media query file, variant entry problems, problems resulting from ineffective name authority control, and developing a control system are covered. Four sources are…

  6. School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flocco, Edward C.

    A comprehensive school planning tool is available from General Learning Corporation and the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon. This School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS) provides a deliverable system of training, implementation strategies and materials and technical…

  7. Influence: The Organizer in Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Larry; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines an array of categories that denote kinds of influence variables operative in organizational systems--including structures, relationships, and technology. This allows us to synthesize literature from a variety of system levels and sources by addressing the question: What variables influence a communicator's behavior at any given

  8. A Systemic Perspective of Communication and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drecksel, Debra

    Communication and sexism are analyzed from a systemic perspective, illustrating how sexism is perpetuated through sexist interaction and symbol systems. Sexism is shown to be a disease in our society, which creates a societal situation with double-binding sex-role symbols which limit our adaptability. A remedy for sexism is suggested which…

  9. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication…

  10. Communication Simulations for Power System Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-05-29

    New smart grid technologies and concepts, such as dynamic pricing, demand response, dynamic state estimation, and wide area monitoring, protection, and control, are expected to require considerable communication resources. As the cost of retrofit can be high, future power grids will require the integration of high-speed, secure connections with legacy communication systems, while still providing adequate system control and security. While considerable work has been performed to create co-simulators for the power domain with load models and market operations, limited work has been performed in integrating communications directly into a power domain solver. The simulation of communication and power systems will become more important as the two systems become more inter-related. This paper will discuss ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to create a flexible, high-speed power and communication system co-simulator for smart grid applications. The framework for the software will be described, including architecture considerations for modular, high performance computing and large-scale scalability (serialization, load balancing, partitioning, cross-platform support, etc.). The current simulator supports the ns-3 (telecommunications) and GridLAB-D (distribution systems) simulators. Ongoing and future work will be described, including planned future expansions for a traditional transmission solver. A test case using the co-simulator, utilizing a transactive demand response system created for the Olympic Peninsula and AEP gridSMART demonstrations, requiring two-way communication between distributed and centralized market devices, will be used to demonstrate the value and intended purpose of the co-simulation environment.

  11. RDS-SL VS Communication System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-12

    The RDS-SL VS Communication System is a component of the Radiation Detection System for Strategic, Low-Volume Seaports. Its purpose is to acquire real-time data from radiation portal monitors and cameras, record that data in a database, and make it available to system operators and administrators via a web interface. The software system contains two components: a standalone data acquisition and storage component and an ASP.NETweb application that implements the web interface.

  12. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  13. Software-defined quantum communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humble, Travis S.; Sadlier, Ronald J.

    2014-08-01

    Quantum communication (QC) systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for QC engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate the proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering QC systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose QC terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the superdense coding protocol as an example, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We conclude that the software-defined QC provides a robust framework in which to explore the large design space offered by this new regime of communication.

  14. Drug delivery systems in domestic animal species.

    PubMed

    Brayden, David J; Oudot, Emilie J M; Baird, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of biologically active agents to animals is often perceived to be the poor relation of human drug delivery. Yet this field has a long and successful history of species-specific device and formulation development, ranging from simple approaches and devices used in production animals to more sophisticated formulations and approaches for a wide range of species. While several technologies using biodegradable polymers have been successfully marketed in a range of veterinary and human products, the transfer of delivery technologies has not been similarly applied across species. This may be due to a combination of specific technical requirements for use of devices in different species, inter-species pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physiological differences, and distinct market drivers for drug classes used in companion and food-producing animals. This chapter reviews selected commercialised and research-based parenteral and non-parenteral veterinary drug delivery technologies in selected domestic species. Emphasis is also placed on the impact of endogenous drug transporters on drug distribution characteristics in different species. In vitro models used to investigate carrier-dependent transport are reviewed. Species-specific expression of transporters in several tissues can account for inter-animal or inter-species pharmacokinetic variability, lack of predictability of drug efficacy, and potential drug-drug interactions. PMID:20204584

  15. A small terminal for satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Fuqin; Wu, Dong; Jin, Min

    1994-01-01

    A small portable, low-cost satellite communications terminal system incorporating a modulator/demodulator and convolutional-Viterbi coder/decoder is described. Advances in signal processing and error-correction techniques in combination with higher power and higher frequencies aboard satellites allow for more efficient use of the space segment. This makes it possible to design small economical earth stations. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was chosen to test the system. ACTS, operating at the Ka band incorporates higher power, higher frequency, frequency and spatial reuse using spot beams and polarization.

  16. Space Station communications system design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the methodologies currently being used as the framework within which the NASA Space Station's communications system is to be designed and analyzed. A key aspect of the CAD/analysis system being employed is its potential growth in size and capabilities, since Space Station design requirements will continue to be defined and modified. The Space Station is expected to furnish communications between itself and astronauts on EVA, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicles, Orbital Transfer Vehicles, Space Shuttle orbiters, free-flying spacecraft, coorbiting platforms, and the Space Shuttle's own Mobile Service Center.

  17. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  18. How to bootstrap a human communication system.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon

    2013-01-01

    How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified items to a partner using repeated non-linguistic vocalization, repeated gesture, or repeated non-linguistic vocalization plus gesture (but without using their existing language system). Gesture proved more effective (measured by communication success) and more efficient (measured by the time taken to communicate) than non-linguistic vocalization across a range of item categories (emotion, object, and action). Combining gesture and vocalization did not improve performance beyond gesture alone. We experimentally demonstrate that gesture is a more effective means of bootstrapping a human communication system. We argue that gesture outperforms non-linguistic vocalization because it lends itself more naturally to the production of motivated signs. PMID:23763661

  19. Evolution of a radio communication relay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Hart, Abraham; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Neff, Joseph; Roth, Leif

    2013-05-01

    Providing long-distance non-line-of-sight control for unmanned ground robots has long been recognized as a problem, considering the nature of the required high-bandwidth radio links. In the early 2000s, the DARPA Mobile Autonomous Robot Software (MARS) program funded the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SSC) Pacific to demonstrate a capability for autonomous mobile communication relaying on a number of Pioneer laboratory robots. This effort also resulted in the development of ad hoc networking radios and software that were later leveraged in the development of a more practical and logistically simpler system, the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR). Funded by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise and internally by SSC Pacific, several generations of ADCR systems introduced increasingly more capable hardware and software for automatic maintenance of communication links through deployment of static relay nodes from mobile robots. This capability was finally tapped in 2010 to fulfill an urgent need from theater. 243 kits of ruggedized, robot-deployable communication relays were produced and sent to Afghanistan to extend the range of EOD and tactical ground robots in 2012. This paper provides a summary of the evolution of the radio relay technology at SSC Pacific, and then focuses on the latest two stages, the Manually-Deployed Communication Relays and the latest effort to automate the deployment of these ruggedized and fielded relay nodes.

  20. Construction of a Communication Audit: An Examination of Communication Systems and Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brent D., Ed.; Greenbaum, Howard H., Ed.

    Abstracts of 12 papers concerning the effectiveness of various communication systems are printed here. Subjects of the papers are: the appraisal of organizational communication systems, and evaluation of ECCO analysis as a communication audit methodology, assessment of attitude and opinion change effects of the communication audit, organizational…

  1. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Shared in Animal and Plant Tissues: Significance of Communication

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Christopher; Stefano, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have long been recognized as the main source of energy production for the eukaryotic cell. Recent studies have found that the mitochondria have a variety of dynamic functions aside from the production of energy. It communicates bidirectionally with other organelles in order to modulate its energy balance efficiently, as well as maintain homeostasis, ultimately prolonging its own and the cell’s longevity. The mitochondria achieves this level of regulation via specific and common bidirectional chemical messengers, especially involving the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTP’s), ATP and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its communication network is also involved in stress associated events. In this regard, the activation of the Bax family proteins and the release of cytochrome c occurs during cellular stress. The communication can also promote apoptosis of the cell. When mitochondrial abnormalities cannot be dealt with, there is an increased chance that major illnesses like type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer may occur. Importantly, functioning chloroplasts can be found in animals, suggesting conserved chemical messengers during its evolutionary path. The dynamic capacity of mitochondria is also noted by their ability to function anaerobically. Indeed, this latter phenomenon may represent a return to an earlier developmental stage of mitochondria, suggesting certain disorders result from its untimely appearance. PMID:26005853

  2. Domestic satellite communications systems - Background and projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargellini, P. L.

    Planned and existing national and international communications satellites are reviewed, along with comparative costs for leasing or owning a satellite and the basic capabilities of communications spacecraft. Eleven different satellite communications systems existed in 1982, including Intelsat, Marisat/Inmarsat, and Intersputnik as the international segments, and the Molniya, Telesat, Palapa, Westar, Satcom, Comstar, Amersat, and the SBS national systems. Seven of the twenty countries leasing Intelsat services are planning their own satellites. Leasing permits full capabilities withno development costs and ensures the lessor of full use of the satellite capacities. Developing countries can then gain hands-on experience with space technologies. Future demands are discussed, noting the broadening of the available bandwidths, better orbit utilization, and increases in transponder numbers to handle increased loads in future spacecraft.

  3. Integrated Formation Optical Communication and Estimation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Kuhnert, Andreas; Kovalik, Joseph; Hadaegh, Fred; Shaddock, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    An architecture has been designed that integrates formation estimation methodologies, precision formation sensing, and high-bandwidth formation communication into a robust, strap-on system that meets knowledge and communication requirements for the majority of planned, precision formation missions. Specifically, the integrated system supports (a) sub-millimeter metrology, (b) multiple greater than 10 Mbps communication channels over a large, 10 deg field-of-view (FOV), and (c) generalized formation estimation methodologies. The sensing sub-system consists of several absolute, metrology gauges with up to 0.1 mm precision that use amplitude-modulated lasers and a LISA-heritage phase meter. Since amplitude modulation is used, inexpensive and robust diode lasers may be used instead of complex, frequency-stabilized lasers such as for nanometer-level metrology. The metrology subsystem laser transceivers consist of a laser diode, collecting optics, and an avalanche photo diode (APD) for detecting incoming laser signals. The APD is necessary since received power is small due to the large (for optical applications) FOV. The phase meter determines the phase of the incoming amplitude modulations as measured by the APD. This phase is equivalent to time-of-flight and, therefore, distance. By placing three laser transceivers on each spacecraft, 18 clock-offset-corrupted distances are calculated. These measurements are communicated and averaged to obtain nine correct distances between the transceivers. From these correct distances, the range and bearing between spacecraft and their relative attitude are determined. Next, communication is integrated on the laser carrier through spectral separation. Metrology amplitude modulations are limited to the 45-50 MHz band, leaving 0-45 MHz for communication. Through careful design of coding scheme, error correction, and filters, six independent 10 Mbps receive channels are possible. Hence, a spacecraft can simultaneously broadcast at 10 Mbps and listen to six other spacecraft. The integrated sensing and communication architecture has been developed, as have formation estimation methodologies that allow the sensing topology to reconfigure as spacecraft maneuver. A bench-top implementation of the integrated sensing and communication architecture is in progress. The final, multiple sensing/communication systems will be tied together via formation estimation algorithms that are also undergoing further development.

  4. Transmission of systemic AA amyloidosis in animals.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Ishiguro, N; Higuchi, K

    2014-03-01

    Amyloidoses are a group of protein-misfolding disorders that are characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and/or tissues. In reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, serum AA (SAA) protein forms deposits in mice, domestic and wild animals, and humans that experience chronic inflammation. AA amyloid fibrils are abnormal ?-sheet-rich forms of the serum precursor SAA, with conformational changes that promote fibril formation. Extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils causes disease in affected animals. Recent findings suggest that AA amyloidosis could be transmissible. Similar to the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases, amyloid fibrils induce a seeding-nucleation process that may lead to development of AA amyloidosis. We review studies of possible transmission in bovine, avian, mouse, and cheetah AA amyloidosis. PMID:24280941

  5. Data analysis using a data base driven graphics animation system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieder, D.H.; Stewart, H.D.; Curtis, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    A graphics animation system has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to assist engineers in the analysis of large amounts of time series data. Most prior attempts at computer animation of data involve the development of large and expensive problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a generalized interactive computer animation system designed to be used in a wide variety of data analysis applications. By using relational data base storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in design and development of animated displays is achieved.

  6. Parallel processing spacecraft communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An uplink controlling assembly speeds data processing using a special parallel codeblock technique. A correct start sequence initiates processing of a frame. Two possible start sequences can be used; and the one which is used determines whether data polarity is inverted or non-inverted. Processing continues until uncorrectable errors are found. The frame ends by intentionally sending a block with an uncorrectable error. Each of the codeblocks in the frame has a channel ID. Each channel ID can be separately processed in parallel. This obviates the problem of waiting for error correction processing. If that channel number is zero, however, it indicates that the frame of data represents a critical command only. That data is handled in a special way, independent of the software. Otherwise, the processed data further handled using special double buffering techniques to avoid problems from overrun. When overrun does occur, the system takes action to lose only the oldest data.

  7. A packet switched communications system for GRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, Shabu; Yang, Wen-Hsing; Vadlamudi, Rani; Valenti, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the packet switched Instrumenters Communication System (ICS) that was developed for the Command Management Facility at GSFC to support the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft. The GRO ICS serves as a vital science data acquisition link to the GRO scientists to initiate commands for their spacecraft instruments. The system is ready to send and receive messages at any time, 24 hours a day and seven days a week. The system is based on X.25 and the International Standard Organization's (ISO) 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model and has client and server components. The components of the GRO ICS are discussed along with how the Communications Subsystem for Interconnection (CSFI) and Network Control Program Packet Switching Interface (NPSI) software are used in the system.

  8. A packet switched communications system for GRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Shabu; Yang, Wen-Hsing; Vadlamudi, Rani; Valenti, Joseph

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the packet switched Instrumenters Communication System (ICS) that was developed for the Command Management Facility at GSFC to support the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft. The GRO ICS serves as a vital science data acquisition link to the GRO scientists to initiate commands for their spacecraft instruments. The system is ready to send and receive messages at any time, 24 hours a day and seven days a week. The system is based on X.25 and the International Standard Organization's (ISO) 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model and has client and server components. The components of the GRO ICS are discussed along with how the Communications Subsystem for Interconnection (CSFI) and Network Control Program Packet Switching Interface (NPSI) software are used in the system.

  9. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  10. MMIC technology for advanced space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, A. N.; Connolly, D. J.; Anzic, G.

    1984-01-01

    The current NASA program for 20 and 30 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is reviewed. The advantages of MMIC are discussed. Millimeter wavelength MMIC applications and technology for communications systems are discussed. Passive and active MMIC compatible components for millimeter wavelength applications are investigated. The cost of a millimeter wavelength MMIC's is projected.

  11. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY...

  12. DCS/FTS Commercial Satellite Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, T.; Rosner, R.; Pearsall, C.

    In order to control the rising costs of telephonic services and meeting the increasing demand for wideband video and data services within U.S. Federal Government agencies, the Defense Communications Agency and the General Services Administration have begun the implementation of a leased Commercial Satellite Communications System. Service volume demand, commonality of service requirements, and common geographic communities of interest facilitate economies of scale in the course of meeting DOD and other Federal agencies' objectives. The service, which incorporates the Federal Telecommunications Service and is therefore designated DCS/FTS, is presently studied with respect to military and national objectives.

  13. Wideband heterodyne receiver for laser communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flattau, T.; Lange, R. A.; Mellars, B.; Peyton, J.; Wolczok, J. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A heterodyne receiver for laser communication is described which includes a front end having a cooled photomixer contained in a hermetically sealed spaced quality housing designed for wide bandwidth transmission. The photomixer is coupled through a wideband preamplifier to the receiver back end which includes a frequency tracking network and demodulating equipment. The receiver is capable of tracking a Doppler frequency shift of 750 MHz, positive or negative, and has an instantaneous intermediate frequency information bandwidth of 400 MHz. The receiver system is also capable of operating over a wide temperature range and is designed to be suitable for use in outer space communication.

  14. The systems background for satellite communication antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnbak, J. C.

    The major elements of the operational environment of satellite communication antennas are reviewed, including: perturbations and stationkeeping in the geostationary orbit; antenna tracking on earth-satellite links; earth-terminal off-axis limitations; satellite link budgets; multiple access and satellite antennas; and the specification of satellite antennas. Also given are definitions and formulas which are intended to provide general guidance and show major constraints relevant at all stages of antenna engineering for satellite systems. Two main trends in satellite communication antenna technology are noted: (1) an increasing impact of general system requirements on the specific design and operational exploitation of antennas in satellite systems; and (2) more emphasis on adaptive, flexible, or multipurpose antenna systems.

  15. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  16. High power communication satellites power systems study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Peterson, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses a planned study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. These high power satellites can play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities can be significant.

  17. Energy efficiency in wireless communication systems

    DOEpatents

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Palmer, Joseph McRae

    2012-12-11

    Wireless communication systems and methods utilize one or more remote terminals, one or more base terminals, and a communication channel between the remote terminal(s) and base terminal(s). The remote terminal applies a direct sequence spreading code to a data signal at a spreading factor to provide a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal. The DSSS signal is transmitted over the communication channel to the base terminal which can be configured to despread the received DSSS signal by a spreading factor matching the spreading factor utilized to spread the data signal. The remote terminal and base terminal can dynamically vary the matching spreading factors to adjust the data rate based on an estimation of operating quality over time between the remote terminal and base terminal such that the amount of data being transmitted is substantially maximized while providing a specified quality of service.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site communications system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, II, Louis Peter; Cooper, John F.

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  20. Distributed algorithms over communicating membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Gabriel

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents fundamental distributed algorithms over membrane systems with antiport carriers. We describe distributed algorithms for collecting and dispersing information, leader election in these systems, and the mutual exclusion problem. Finally, we consider membrane systems producing correct results despite some failures at some of the components or the communication links. We show that membrane systems with antiport carriers provide an appropriate model for distributed computing, particularly for message-passing algorithms interpreted here as membrane transport in both directions, namely when two chemicals behave as input and output messages and pass the membranes in both directions using antiport carriers. PMID:12915270

  1. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for a broad spectrum of users. This paper will briefly describe the latest systems developed for the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the Department of State (DOS) applications. Applications covered will vary from relatively small facilities to large complex sites. Ongoing system developments will also be discussed. The concluding section will summarize the practical, implementable state-of-the-art features available in new systems. 6 figs.

  2. Communications and tracking expert systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

    1987-01-01

    The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  3. Security aspects of RFID communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bîndar, Valericǎ; Popescu, Mircea; Bǎrtuşicǎ, Rǎzvan; Craciunescu, Razvan; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of basic technical elements and security risks of RFID communication systems and to analyze the possible threats arising from the use of RFID systems. A number of measurements are performed on a communication system including RFID transponder and the tag reader, and it has been determined that the uplink signal level is 62 dB larger than the average value of the noise at the distance of 1m from the tag, therefore the shielding effectiveness has to exceed this threshold. Next, the card has been covered with several shielding materials and measurements were carried, under similar conditions to test the recovery of compromising signals. A very simple protection measure to prevent unauthorized reading of the data stored on the card has been proposed, and some electromagnetic shielding materials have been proposed and tested.

  4. A new optical secure communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fan; Fang, Nian; Huang, Zhaoming; Wang, Chunhua

    2007-11-01

    An optical secure communication system based on digital chaos and Polarization Shift Keying (PolSK) technology is proposed. In several selected PolSK schemes, states of polarization are partially or totally uniform on Poincare sphere. Different PolSK schemes are chosen according to the real-time chaos-based pseudo-random sequences to modulate original information in different periods of clock of the transmitter. In the receiver, according to the synchronous chaotic sequences, corresponding PolSK schemes are used to demodulate the information. Simulation is carried out by using the softwares of OptiSystem and Matlab. Some analysis results are presented. In the conclusion, this system works well in communication and has strong anti-attack capacity.

  5. Therapeutic Ultrasound to Non-Invasively Create Intra-Cardiac Communications in an Intact Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gabe E.; Miller, Ryan M.; Ensing, Greg; Ives, Kimberly; Gordon, David; Ludomirsky, Achi; Xu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) can accurately and safely generate ventricular septal defects (VSDs) through the intact chest of a neonatal animal, with the eventual goal of developing a non-invasive technique of creating intra-cardiac communications in patients with congenital heart disease. Background Histotripsy is an innovative ultrasonic technique that generates demarcated, mechanical tissue fractionation utilizing high intensity ultrasound pulses. Previous work has shown that histotripsy can create atrial septal defects in a beating heart in an open-chest canine model. Methods Nine neonatal pigs were treated with transcutaneous histotripsy targeting the ventricular septum. Ultrasound pulses of 5μs duration at a peak negative pressure of 13 MPa and a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz were generated by a 1 MHz focused transducer. The procedure was guided by real-time ultrasound imaging. Results VSDs were created in all pigs with diameters ranging from 2–6.5mm. Six pigs were euthanized within 2 hrs of treatment, while 3 were recovered and maintained for 2–3 days to evaluate lesion maturation and clinical side effects. There were only transient clinical effects and pathology revealed mild collateral damage around the VSD with no significant damage to other cardiac or extra-cardiac structures. Conclusions Histotripsy can accurately and safely generate VSDs through the intact chest in a neonatal animal model. These results suggest that with further advances, histotripsy can be a useful, non-invasive technique to create intra-cardiac communications, which currently require invasive catheter-based or surgical procedures, to clinically stabilize newborn infants with complex congenital heart disease. PMID:20853366

  6. Survey on advanced personal portable communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiying; Boucher, Luc M.

    2002-06-01

    One of the emerging trends in advanced human-computer interaction is the increasing portability of computing devices. Some experts predict that wearable computers are the next generation of portable machines. Worn on the body they provide constant access to computing and communications resources. The objective of wearable computer design is to merge the user's information space with his or her workspace. The wearable computer should offer seamless integration of information processing tools with the existing work environment. To accomplish this, the wearable system must offer functionality in a natural and unobtrusive manner, allowing the user to dedicate all of his or her attention to the task at hand with no distraction provided by the system itself. In this survey paper, definition, main components and characteristics of wearable PCs are introduced. A survey of the academic and research institutes leading research projects in wearable PCs is presented. These on-going projects are generally falling into four research areas, namely, local communications, eyeglass displays, speech interaction and mobile applications. In this overview paper, the wireless link methods and wireless communication features in the area of local communication are emphasized, progress to meet the technical challenges in eyeglass display is reported; and on-going research in the area of speech interaction is briefly described.

  7. Communications and control for electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Goettsche, A.; Niebur, D.; Friend, H.; Johnston, A.

    1991-01-01

    The first section of the report describes the AbNET system, a hardware and software communications system designed for distribution automation (it can also find application in substation monitoring and control). The topology of the power system fixes the topology of the communications network, which can therefore be expected to include a larger number of branch points, tap points, and interconnections. These features make this communications network unlike any other. The network operating software has to solve the problem of communicating to all the nodes of a very complex network in as reliable a way as possible even if the network is damaged, and it has to do so with minimum transmission delays and at minimum cost. The design of the operating protocols is described within the framework of the seven-layer Open System Interconnection hierarchy of the International Standards Organization. Section 2 of the report describes the development and testing of a high voltage sensor based on an electro-optic polymer. The theory of operation is reviewed. Bulk fabrication of the polymer is discussed, as well as results of testing of the electro-optic coefficient of the material. Fabrication of a complete prototype sensor suitable for use in the range 1-20 kV is described. The electro-optic polymer is shown to be an important material for fiber optic sensing applications. Appendix A is theoretical support for this work. The third section of the report presents the application of an artificial neural network, Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, for the classification of power system states. This classifier maps vectors of an N-dimensional space to a 2-dimensional neural net in a nonlinear way preserving the topological order of the input vectors. These mappings are studied using a nonlinear power system model.

  8. Integrated communications and optical navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, J.; Pajer, G.; Paluszek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Integrated Communications and Optical Navigation System (ICONS) is a flexible navigation system for spacecraft that does not require global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The navigation solution is computed using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) that can accept any combination of range, range-rate, planet chord width, landmark, and angle measurements using any celestial object. Both absolute and relative orbit determination is supported. The UKF employs a full nonlinear dynamical model of the orbit including gravity models and disturbance models. The ICONS package also includes attitude determination algorithms using the UKF algorithm with the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The IMU is used as the dynamical base for the attitude determination algorithms. This makes the sensor a more capable plug-in replacement for a star tracker, thus reducing the integration and test cost of adding this sensor to a spacecraft. Recent additions include an integrated optical communications system which adds communications, and integrated range and range rate measurement and timing. The paper includes test results from trajectories based on the NASA New Horizons spacecraft.

  9. Orbiter Interface Unit and Early Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobbs, Ronald M.; Cooke, Michael P.; Cox, Gary L.; Ellenberger, Richard; Fink, Patrick W.; Haynes, Dena S.; Hyams, Buddy; Ling, Robert Y.; Neighbors, Helen M.; Phan, Chau T.; Prendergast, Kelly M.; Siekierski, James D.; Wade, Randall S.; Weisskopf, George A.; Yim, Hester J.; Adkins, Antha A.; Carl, James R..; Loh, Y. C.; Roberts, Charles; Steele, Douglas J.; DeSilva, Buveneka Kanishka; Killenb, Harold B.; Williams, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Orbiter Interface Unit (OIU) and the Early Communication System (ECOMM), which are systems of electronic hardware and software that serve as the primary communication links for the International Space Station (ISS). When a space shuttle is at or near the ISS during assembly and resupply missions, the OIU sends groundor crew-initiated commands from the space shuttle to the ISS and relays telemetry from the ISS to the space shuttle s payload data systems. The shuttle then forwards the telemetry to the ground. In the absence of a space shuttle, the ECOMM handles communications between the ISS and Johnson Space Center via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Innovative features described in the report include (1) a "smart data-buffering algorithm that helps to preserve synchronization (and thereby minimize loss) of telemetric data between the OIU and the space-shuttle payload data interleaver; (2) an ECOMM antenna-autotracking algorithm that selects whichever of two phased-array antennas gives the best TDRSS signal and electronically steers that antenna to track the TDRSS source; and (3) an ECOMM radiation-latchup controller, which detects an abrupt increase in current indicative of radiation-induced latchup and temporarily turns off power to clear the latchup, restoring power after the charge dissipates.

  10. Effects of gravity perturbation on developing animal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of developing animal systems to analyze the effects of microgravity on animals is discussed. Some of the key features of developing systems, especially embryos, are reviewed and relevant space data are summarized. Issues to be addressed in the design of future space experiments are discussed. It is noted that an embryo which exhibits ground based gravity effects should be selected for use as a model system and individual variation in gravity response among batches of embryos should be taken into account.

  11. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  12. Static and Animated Presentations in Learning Dynamic Mechanical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Schneider, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how learners comprehend the functioning of a three-pulley system from a presentation on a computer screen. In the first experiment (N = 62) we tested the effect of static vs. animated presentations on comprehension. In the second experiment (N = 45), we tested the effect of user-control of an animated

  13. Power variations of wireless communication systems.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J B; Mogensen, P E; Pedersen, G F

    2010-05-01

    The use of wireless digital communication devices like GSM, WCDMA, HSPA, DECT, and WiFi changes the exposure of electromagnetic waves toward the user. Concentrating on the power variations on a slow and fast time scale, these new systems are discussed. Experimental results for both uplink and downlink are included for a sample of systems. The spectrum of the power fluctuations is seen as a convenient and compact way of describing very complex system behavior. The results are of interest for scientific studies of epidemiology and biological effects, and for general electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) aspects. PMID:20112260

  14. VHF downline communication system for SLAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Chase, T. L.; Mueller, R. A.; Kramarchuk, I.; Jirberg, R. J.; Gedney, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    A real time VHF downlink communication system is described for transmitting side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) data directly from an aircraft to a portable ground/shipboard receiving station. Use of this receiving station aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Mackinaw for generating real-time photographic quality radar images is discussed. The system was developed and demonstrated in conjunction with the U.S Coast Guard and NOAA National Weather Service as part of the Project Icewarn all weather ice information system for the Great Lakes Winter Navigation Program.

  15. The 'INMARSAT' international maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atserov, Iu. S.

    1982-12-01

    The history, design, operating characteristics, achievements, and prospects of INMARSAT are discussed. More than 1300 ships are presently equipped to operate within the system, and this number is expected to rise to about 5000 by 1986. The principle of operation involves single coordinating earth stations allocating telephone channels in their zones between other earth stations. The messages reach a common signalling channel with which all ship stations keep in touch. The ship stations are connected to the international telex network. The INMARSAT system enables ships in the automated mode of operation to establish telephone and telegraph comunication with any subscriber on the shore of any country. The quality of the communication is practically independent of the distance between ship and shore at any time of year and under any meteorological conditions. Estimates indicate that the use of satellite communication with ships reduces losses from accidents by 10 percent per year.

  16. Building intelligent communication systems for handicapped aphasiacs.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu-Fen; Ho, Cheng-Seen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent system allowing handicapped aphasiacs to perform basic communication tasks. It has the following three key features: (1) A 6-sensor data glove measures the finger gestures of a patient in terms of the bending degrees of his fingers. (2) A finger language recognition subsystem recognizes language components from the finger gestures. It employs multiple regression analysis to automatically extract proper finger features so that the recognition model can be fast and correctly constructed by a radial basis function neural network. (3) A coordinate-indexed virtual keyboard allows the users to directly access the letters on the keyboard at a practical speed. The system serves as a viable tool for natural and affordable communication for handicapped aphasiacs through continuous finger language input. PMID:22315546

  17. The NATO III satellite communications system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanli, N.; Lo, S. C.; Kota, S. L.; Aronson, M. H.

    The System Control concepts to improve channel utilization and the recent progress of the design, development and integration of the Control Subsystem for the NATO III network are reported. The network operates with a large number of single destination TDM/QPSK/FDMA carriers to provide voice, low speed telegraph and medium speed data circuits. A power control algorithm to keep the link quality at the desired nominal level as well as improve satellite capacity and a traffic control algorithm allowing reconfiguration of the network to accommodate fluctuating traffic are presented. The System Control Software development cycle, consisting of top level design, which includes functional decomposition and software module structure, detailed design, integration and testing phases, is discussed. Various functional flow diagrams are provided illustrating the information interfaces to external communications, inter-component communications, the network database and the physical devices. An example illustrating the performance of power control and traffic control software is presented.

  18. NATO III satellite communications system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanli, N.; Lo, S. C.; Kota, S. L.; Aronson, M. H.

    1984-04-01

    The System Control concepts to improve channel utilization and the recent progress of the design, development and integration of the Control Subsystem for the NATO III network are reported. The network operates with a large number of single destination TDM/QPSK/FDMA carriers to provide voice, low speed telegraph and medium speed data circuits. A power control algorithm to keep the link quality at the desired nominal level as well as improve satellite capacity and a traffic control algorithm allowing reconfiguration of the network to accommodate fluctuating traffic are presented. The System Control Software development cycle, consisting of top level design, which includes functional decomposition and software module structure, detailed design, integration and testing phases, is discussed. Various functional flow diagrams are provided illustrating the information interfaces to external communications, inter-component communications, the network database and the physical devices. An example illustrating the performance of power control and traffic control software is presented.

  19. Space Launch System Animation - Duration: 70 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...

  20. Electronic circuits for communications systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The compilation of electronic circuits for communications systems is divided into thirteen basic categories, each representing an area of circuit design and application. The compilation items are moderately complex and, as such, would appeal to the applications engineer. However, the rationale for the selection criteria was tailored so that the circuits would reflect fundamental design principles and applications, with an additional requirement for simplicity whenever possible.

  1. Two carrier communication system with single transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, M. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pulse code modulated communication system is disclosed for transmitting two subcarrier modulated carriers from a single transmitter comprising two channels for phase modulating the two carriers independently. The modulating subcarriers are independently modulated by data and/or pseudonoise (PN) codes as desired. The modulated carriers are switched alternately to the single transmitter in synchronism with operation of a PN code generator when PN code modulation is present, as for ranging.

  2. Optical communication system for drill hole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, G.

    1985-10-15

    An optical communication system for drill hole logging comprises an armored cable containing one or more glass clad optical fibers inside a tubular moisture barrier, a neodymium laser in the cable reel radiates infrared light into one of the fibers, a modulator in the downhole cable-head connector shell modulates light and returns it to the surface, and a semiconductor detector in the reel demodulates the data signal from the returning light.

  3. Animal eyes in homeland security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Gertsenshteyn, Michael; Grubsky, Victor; Shnitser, Paul; Agurok, Ilya; Bennahmias, Mark; Lee, Kang; Savant, Gajendra

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, biologically-inspired optical imaging systems, including fish eye, bug eye, lobster eye, and RGB color vision, are discussed as new lensing systems for military and homeland security applications. This new area of interest includes UV, VIS, IR, and X-ray part of electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, recent progress at Physical Optics Corporation will be discussed, including such applications as hyperspectral/multi-spectral imagery, video surveillance, and X-ray inspection.

  4. System-Level Planning, Coordination, and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Robert K.; Dries, David; Luyckx, Valerie; Lim, Matthew L.; Wilgis, John; Anderson, Michael R.; Sarani, Babak; Hupert, Nathaniel; Mutter, Ryan; Devereaux, Asha V.; Christian, Michael D.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: System-level planning involves uniting hospitals and health systems, local/regional government agencies, emergency medical services, and other health-care entities involved in coordinating and enabling care in a major disaster. We reviewed the literature and sought expert opinions concerning system-level planning and engagement for mass critical care due to disasters or pandemics and offer suggestions for system-planning, coordination, communication, and response. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) consensus statement development process was followed in developing suggestions. Task Force members met in person to develop nine key questions believed to be most relevant for system-planning, coordination, and communication. A systematic literature review was then performed for relevant articles and documents, reports, and other publications reported since 1993. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Suggestions were developed and grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) national government support of health-care coalitions/regional health authorities (HC/RHAs), (2) teamwork within HC/RHAs, (3) system-level communication, (4) system-level surge capacity and capability, (5) pediatric patients and special populations, (6) HC/RHAs and networks, (7) models of advanced regional care systems, and (8) the use of simulation for preparedness and planning. CONCLUSIONS: System-level planning is essential to provide care for large numbers of critically ill patients because of disaster or pandemic. It also entails a departure from the routine, independent system and involves all levels from health-care institutions to regional health authorities. National government support is critical, as are robust communication systems and advanced planning supported by realistic exercises. PMID:25144713

  5. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineroom communication system. 169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication system. An efficient communication system must...

  6. 46 CFR 184.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.602 Internal communications systems. (a) A vessel equipped with pilothouse control must have... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 184.602 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 184.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 184.602 Section 184.602... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.602 Internal communications systems. (a) A vessel equipped with pilothouse control must...

  8. The interactive evolution of human communication systems.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nicolas; Garrod, Simon; Roberts, Leo; Swoboda, Nik

    2010-04-01

    This paper compares two explanations of the process by which human communication systems evolve: iterated learning and social collaboration. It then reports an experiment testing the social collaboration account. Participants engaged in a graphical communication task either as a member of a community, where they interacted with seven different partners drawn from the same pool, or as a member of an isolated pair, where they interacted with the same partner across the same number of games. Participants' horizontal, pair-wise interactions led "bottom up" to the creation of an effective and efficient shared sign system in the community condition. Furthermore, the community-evolved sign systems were as effective and efficient as the local sign systems developed by isolated pairs. Finally, and as predicted by a social collaboration account, and not by an iterated learning account, interaction was critical to the creation of shared sign systems, with different isolated pairs establishing different local sign systems and different communities establishing different global sign systems. PMID:21564217

  9. Organizational Culture and the Design of Computer-Mediated Communication Systems: Issues for Organizational Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Kenneth L.; And Others

    The study of computer mediated communication (CMC) systems in organizations is necessary for a complete examination and explanation of organizational culture and communication. Research has shown that the effects of CMC systems have been both positive and negative. Positively, they have helped to augment oral communication. Negatively, they have…

  10. Multi-frequency communication system and method

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-06-01

    A multi-frequency RFID remote communication system is provided that includes a plurality of RFID tags configured to receive a first signal and to return a second signal, the second signal having a first frequency component and a second frequency component, the second frequency component including data unique to each remote RFID tag. The system further includes a reader configured to transmit an interrogation signal and to receive remote signals from the tags. A first signal processor, preferably a mixer, removes an intermediate frequency component from the received signal, and a second processor, preferably a second mixer, analyzes the IF frequency component to output data that is unique to each remote tag.

  11. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of US experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of US industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to US activities.

  12. A multicarrier system for HF communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Chunrong; Wang, Tingchang

    2004-04-01

    Multi-carrier technique is usually explored for high-speed communication. Traditionally, CP (cyclic prefix) is used to remove inter-symbol-interference (ISI). However, in this paper, a robust multi-carrier system with low data speed is proposed, with the purpose for anti-jamming. A pseudo-noise (PN) code is used to spread the message bit among sub-carriers. Instead of embedding the long time cyclic prefix (CP), a simple coding over time is used to reduce the error rate due to ISI. The result of simulation has shown that this system performs well.

  13. Shuttle/TDRSS communications system performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the performance analysis performed on the Shuttle/Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communications system are presented. The existing Shuttle/TDRSS link simulation program were modified and refined to model the post-radio frequency interference TDRS hardware and to evaluate the performance degradation due to RFI effects. The refined link models were then used to determine, evaluate and assess expected S-band and Ku-band link performance. Parameterization results are presented for the ground station carrier and timing recovery circuits

  14. Pilot-Tone System for Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1986-01-01

    In mobile communication system called tone-calibrated technique, pilot tone provides phase- and amplitude-calibration reference to enable coherent demodulation of signal at receiver despite fading. Signal received by or from mobile terminal faded due to motion of terminal and propagation of signal along multiple paths. Fading introduces random amplitude modulation and phase modulation with bandwidth of twice Doppler frequency shift. Degrading effects of multipath fading reduced. Tonecalibrated technique for use with phase-modulated data or telephony systems using Manchester digital pulse-code modulation.

  15. An Improvised Eye-Pointing Communication System for Temporary Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Thomas W.

    1990-01-01

    The construction and use of an improvised eye-pointing communication device is described. It is suggested for temporary use to establish and enhance initial communication with communication-disabled clients in situations where no other augmentative communication system or assistive technology is yet available. (Author)

  16. How do animals communicate in complex hydrodynamic environments? Linking hydraulics and ecology in rivers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Rice, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Animals make decisions about the suitability of habitat and their reaction to other organisms based on the sensory information that they first obtain from the environment and other organisms within that environment. Sensory information, such as sounds, scents, vibrations and visual cues, is transported, transmitted, masked and filtered by fluvial processes, such as turbulent flow. Despite the fundamental importance of this information in dictating how animals interact with the environment, only limited attention has been paid to the environmental controls on the propagation of sensory signals and cues through fluvial systems. Aquatic animals use and respond to hydraulic characteristics when navigating their environment and selecting habitat. There is evidence that some animals can also sense the presence of other organisms from the hydraulic characteristics of their wake. This implies that at least some aquatic animals can differentiate between the turbulent flow generated by the presence of living organisms and ambient turbulence generated by the environment. We investigate whether there are specific flow characteristics, distinct from the ambient environment, that potentially flag the presence of organisms to other animals. Acoustic Doppler and Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in a series of laboratory flume experiments quantified the flow around living Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and two inanimate objects of equivalent shape and size. Experiments were repeated across a gradient of turbulence intensities generated over nine combinations of flow velocity and relative submergence. Flows downstream of living crayfish were distinct from inanimate objects, with greater turbulent intensities, higher energy in low- to intermediate frequencies, and flow structures that were less coherent in comparison to those measured downstream of inanimate objects. However, the hydrodynamic signature of crayfish became masked as the intensity of ambient turbulence exceeded that generated by living crayfish. This was particularly the case at low relative submergence. These results demonstrate the importance of the fluvial environment in controlling the transmission of sensory information and suggest that the ability of organisms to sense the presence of crayfish from their hydraulic signature is likely to be limited in many situations in rivers. Thus, animals in rivers may have to rely on other senses, such as sight or hearing, especially where depth is low relative to substrate roughness and where velocities are relatively high.

  17. Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head-Mounted Display Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Trevor J.; Mohler, Betty J.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2011-01-01

    Background When we talk to one another face-to-face, body gestures accompany our speech. Motion tracking technology enables us to include body gestures in avatar-mediated communication, by mapping one's movements onto one's own 3D avatar in real time, so the avatar is self-animated. We conducted two experiments to investigate (a) whether head-mounted display virtual reality is useful for researching the influence of body gestures in communication; and (b) whether body gestures are used to help in communicating the meaning of a word. Participants worked in pairs and played a communication game, where one person had to describe the meanings of words to the other. Principal Findings In experiment 1, participants used significantly more hand gestures and successfully described significantly more words when nonverbal communication was available to both participants (i.e. both describing and guessing avatars were self-animated, compared with both avatars in a static neutral pose). Participants ‘passed’ (gave up describing) significantly more words when they were talking to a static avatar (no nonverbal feedback available). In experiment 2, participants' performance was significantly worse when they were talking to an avatar with a prerecorded listening animation, compared with an avatar animated by their partners' real movements. In both experiments participants used significantly more hand gestures when they played the game in the real world. Conclusions Taken together, the studies show how (a) virtual reality can be used to systematically study the influence of body gestures; (b) it is important that nonverbal communication is bidirectional (real nonverbal feedback in addition to nonverbal communication from the describing participant); and (c) there are differences in the amount of body gestures that participants use with and without the head-mounted display, and we discuss possible explanations for this and ideas for future investigation. PMID:22022442

  18. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  1. Human Communication, Semiotics, and General Systems: Personal and Social Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    Questions as to the nature of sign and symbol processes and the functions and behavioral consequences of human significant phenomena are of central concern in semiotics and communication. These matters continue to be of critical importance and are still largely unresolved. Scholars in both areas of inquiry have sought unification of scientific…

  2. A passive integrated transponder system for tracking animal movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.; Beigel, M.L.; Goodlett, G.C.; Sazaki, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an automated system that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to track movements of animals past specific locations. The system was designed to operate maintenance free for several months, be secure from vandalism and environmental damage, and record the identity, date, and time of passage of animals past a 2.4-m wide area. We used the system to monitor effectively the movements of 172 desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) through 2 storm drain culverts that pass beneath a state highway in the Mojave Desert, California. Four tortoises entered or passed through the culverts on 60 occasions. The system can be easily adapted to other species.

  3. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the technical findings of climate impacts assessments. We aim to provide the public and policy makers with accessible information to encourage responsible choices regarding both mitigation and adaptation choices to deal with climate change.All of our material is freely available for use from our website - www.ucsusa.org.

  4. Rube Goldberg Salad System: Teaching Systems Theory in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linabary, Jasmine R.; Long, Ziyu; Mouton, Ashton; Rao, Ranjani L.; Buzzanell, Patrice M.

    2016-01-01

    Systems theory has been a staple in organizational communication textbooks since the field's inception (Miller, 2015; Poole, 2014). Nevertheless, the authors' classroom experiences have revealed that systems theory may not seem applicable to students due to its complicated nature. While examples and cases can help students make sense of the…

  5. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  6. Photodiodes for ten micrometer laser communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The performance is discussed of 10-micron mercury-cadmiumtelluride and lead-tin-telluride photodiodes in laser heterodyne communication systems. The dependence of detector quantum efficiency, resistance, frequency response, and signal-to-noise ratio on temperature, bias, and local oscillator power are examined. Included in the discussion is an analysis of the feasibility of high temperature operation, and ability of the detector to dissipate power to a heat sink is explored. Some aspects of direct detection response are considered and figures showing flux levels from a blackbody presented.

  7. Antenna technology for advanced mobile communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammos, Emmanuel; Roederer, Antoine; Rogard, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The onboard antenna front end is the key subsystem conditioning configuration and performance of mobile communication satellites. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate this key role and to review L-band satellite antenna technology for earth coverage and regional applications. Multibeam arrays are first discussed, then unfurlable and inflatable reflector antennas are described. These technologies are now qualified in Europe for future mobile systems, for which the optimum choice of antenna technology has been found to be the key to efficient use of spectrum and power resources.

  8. A Biochemically-Engineered Molecular Communication System (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyama, Satoshi; Moritani, Yuki; Suda, Tatsuya

    Molecular communication uses molecules (i.e., chemical signals) as an information carrier and allows biologically- and artificially-created nano- or cell-scale entities to communicate over a short distance. It is a new communication paradigm and is different from the traditional communication paradigm that uses electromagnetic waves (i.e., electronic and optical signals) as an information carrier. Key research challenges in molecular communication include design of a sender, design of a molecular propagation system, design of a receiver, design of a molecular communication interface, and mathematical modeling of molecular communication components and systems. This paper focuses on system design and experimental results of molecular communication and briefly refers to recent activities in molecular communication.

  9. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  10. ECS - The European Communication Satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, C. B.

    1981-09-01

    The evolution of the European Communication Satellite system (ECS) is traced from feasibility studies in 1970 to the development and launch in 1978 of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) by the European Space Agency to prove the new satellite and radio transmission technology being used on ECS. This was followed by the establishment of 'Interim EUTELSAT' in 1979 as the organization to operate ECS. The satellite, which operates at 11/14 GHz, covers all the capitals in Europe via three spot beam antennas, supplemented by a 'Eurobeam' regional coverage antenna which extends the range to cover all of Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Telephony channels are transmitted digitally using time division multiple access (TDMA) with digital speech interpolation (DSI) to optimize satellite capacity. Television transmission is by analog FM over the Eurobeam antenna to North African as well as European capitals. System implications of TDMA operation are discussed, and the EUTELSAT policy for Special Services or satellite business systems is discussed.

  11. An advanced domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated traffic projection for U.S. domestic satellite communications service covering a period of 15 years; mid-1980 to mid-1995 was prepared. This model takes into account expected technology advances and reductions in transmission costs, legislative and regulatory changes permitting increased competition, and rising energy costs which will encourage more extensive substitution of telecommunications for travel. The historical development and current status of satellite systems are discussed as well as the characteristics of follow-on systems. Orbital arc utilization, spacecraft configuration for single shuttle launch, Earth station configuration, and system costs are examined. Areas which require technology development include multiple beam frequency reuse antennas, on-board switching, intersatellite links, and ka-band operation. Packing and deployment schemes for enclosing the satellite within the shuttle orbiter bay must also be devised.

  12. Random digital encryption secure communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The design of a secure communication system is described. A product code, formed from two pseudorandom sequences of digital bits, is used to encipher or scramble data prior to transmission. The two pseudorandom sequences are periodically changed at intervals before they have had time to repeat. One of the two sequences is transmitted continuously with the scrambled data for synchronization. In the receiver portion of the system, the incoming signal is compared with one of two locally generated pseudorandom sequences until correspondence between the sequences is obtained. At this time, the two locally generated sequences are formed into a product code which deciphers the data from the incoming signal. Provision is made to ensure synchronization of the transmitting and receiving portions of the system.

  13. Multi-EVA communications system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A communications concept is analyzed to establish requirements of a confident candidate system for space shuttle. Conceptual baseline configurations, EVA's-to-spacecraft via PCM/FDM and spacecraft-to-EVA via PAM/FM, and respective functional performance requirements are discussed. The baseline system is analyzed to determine link characteristics, EMI levels at various frequency bands, and determination of desirable spectrum. Selected L- and S-Band links are analyzed to ascertain signal design parameters. A trade-off is performed, which establishes L-Band frequency as the best compromise. The results of the analysis along with the reliability/safety aspects and physical characteristics of the candidate system, indicate that the initial baseline concept meets functional requirements, but is poor from standpoint of overall space shuttle program cost.

  14. Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

  15. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  16. Passive monitoring for automated MMPP communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, N. G.

    1994-07-01

    A recently completed study of passive sensing techniques for hf communication systems has shown that these sensing techniques can yield data which may be of use in the control of adaptive hf communication systems. The aim of this paper is to review work carried out to date on these techniques and to examine the feasibility of applying similar techniques to radio systems utilizing higher carrier frequencies, up to around 200MHz, where many propagation modes other than ionospheric skywave may exist. Whilst inputs for the control of adaptive radio systems may be derived from a number of sources, many techniques, such as pilot-tone soundings and the transmission of training sequences, involve radiation of signals which may be undesirable in a tactical situation. System control information may also be derived by monitoring other signals which are already present in related parts of the radio spectrum, allowing more covert operation and avoiding unnecessary pollution of the radio spectrum. Derivation of such control information for use in hf systems has been studied in some detail, utilizing the following types of radio signals existing in the hf band: swept frequency sounder signals radiated by other uses of the hf spectrum, broadcast signals, standard time signals, meteorological data signals (RTTY), and overall statistical occupancy measurements of the spectrum. Some of these techniques would also be applicable to the multimechanism case, provided that the more complex propagation inversion, which is due to the greater range of propagation mechanisms available, can be taken into account. Additional, higher frequency, sources of RF energy which may provide data through passive monitoring, include aeronautical navigation beacons, amateur beacons and various types of radar signals. Use may also be made of low-orbiting satellite signals, although these present tracking problems in terms of doppler shift and give data mainly related to ionospheric scintillation and hence magnetic storm effects.

  17. 47 CFR 90.465 - Control of systems of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of systems of communication. 90.465 Section 90.465 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control § 90.465 Control of systems of communication. (a) Depending on design...

  18. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 1: Final report. [onboard computerized communications system for spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques, methods, and system requirements are reported for an onboard computerized communications system that provides on-line computing capability during manned space exploration. Communications between man and computer take place by sequential execution of each discrete step of a procedure, by interactive progression through a tree-type structure to initiate tasks or by interactive optimization of a task requiring man to furnish a set of parameters. Effective communication between astronaut and computer utilizes structured vocabulary techniques and a word recognition system.

  19. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M.A.; Ayers, C.W.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-07-23

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output. 7 figs.

  20. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M. Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device (200) converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output (250).

  1. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  2. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  3. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  4. Remote controlled bio-stimulator and animal behavior analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Weiguo; Yuan, Kui; Han, Taizhen; Chai, Jie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a surveillance and stimulation system to study the animal locomotion behavior under electrical micro-stimulations in the brain nerve, which provides a new platform and methodology for behavior experiment in neural science. The system consists of two parts: 1) micro-control based multi-channel stimulator backed by animal; 2) Computer vision based animal behavior tracking system; The performance of the micro-stimulator is validated for sciatic nerve of frog and the results show that it is reliable, stabile, compact (25×35×10 mm), light (20g with cell). The tracking speed and accuracy is improved with our new hybrid tracking algorithm based on color table looking and moving predication, and compared with the manual recording. The preliminary results of rat tracking show that it works accurately and robustly in real-time even under interference condition.

  5. Panoramic alignment system for optical wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Thomas C.; Drost, Robert J.; Rzasa, John; Sadler, Brian M.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2015-03-01

    Free space optical communication may provide a viable adjunct to radio frequency (RF) technology for mobile communications, especially in "RF-denied" settings in which RF-based communication may be prohibited or impractical. These settings may include military tactical environments or settings which suffer from RF jamming or interference. Unlike many RF communication systems, point-to-point optical communications between mobile nodes typically require establishing and maintaining alignment, which requires each node to have awareness of the locations of neighboring nodes. We propose a method to create this situational awareness between nodes using purely optical means. This method uses a camera that is focused on a hyperboloidal mirror, thus providing a 360-degree view of the surrounding environment. The camera and mirror are used to detect light emitted from the beacon transmitters from neighboring nodes, with the location of the beacon image in the sensor plane of the camera yielding elevation and azimuth information of the beacon. The beacon transmitter itself is modulated, allowing it to be distinguished from the environment. In discussing our experimental realization of this system, we assess its performance.

  6. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).

  7. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry in developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, 'bent pipe' transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. system is superior to both geostationary satellites and low earth orbiting satellites. -Odyssey provides many benefits to the end user which are described in the paper. These include: low cost, convenience, high availability, reliability, and acceptable time delay. Odyssey exhibits benefits for telecommunications operators: simple operations, incremental, phased startup, long space segment life-time, high profitability, dynamic flexibility for adjustment and short time to market. %Since submission of an FCC application in 1991, TRW has continued to explore ways to further improve the Odyssey approach by expanding coverage to the entire world and reducing the initial investment while maintaining high quality service.

  8. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane. Deployment of the satellites permits phased introduction of service. After only three launches, in which two satellites are launched into each plane, continuous service can be provided to most of the world. After three more launches for a total of 12 satellites, service can be expanded to all populated regions of the Earth with path diversity to most regions. The Odyssey system is superior to both geostationary satellites and low earth orbiting satellites. Odyssey provides many benefits to the end user which are described in the paper. These include: low cost, convenience, high availability, reliability, and acceptable time delay. Odyssey exhibits benefits for telecommunications operators: simple operations, incremental, phased startup, long space segment life-time, high profitability, dynamic flexibility for adjustment and short time to market. Since submission of an FCC application in 1991, TRW has continued to explore ways to further improve the Odyssey approach by expanding coverage to the entire world and reducing the initial investment while maintaining high quality service.

  9. Tone-activated, remote, alert communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. D.; Couvillon, L. A.; Hubbard, W. P.; Kollar, F. J.; Postal, R. B.; Tegnelia, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pocket sized transmitter, frequency modulated by crystal derived tones, with integral loop antenna provides police with easy operating alert signal communicator which uses patrol car radio to relay signal. Communication channels are time shared by several patrol units.

  10. Building an animation system for a virtual reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey F.

    1999-05-01

    The goal of research is to consistently build an animation system for a virtual reality system. At first let us define what animation is and what it does. A natural way supposes that virtual reality systems have characters to move and act within it. Each character is represented as a set of geometry pieces. Such pieces join hierarchically as nodes to form a clump. For a node hierarchical link is associated with a transformation matrix. Such transformation matrix represents three-dimensional space conversion for a node basing upon the node father three-dimensional space. Usually that means that the transformation matrix represents a node position and orientation relative to its father. Let us suppose that we change a single transformation matrix a bit. Because of the construction, some nodes will remain intact and some will shift to another position and/or change orientation. Those nodes that shift are the node where the matrix has been changed and all its descendants down the hierarchy. Now let us suppose that we change several transformation matrices at the same time. More movement will take place. This way we can change one character pose to another and thus create any number of character poses. Organizations of such poses forms an animation system task in terms of a virtual reality system. Maintaining organized change of transformation matrices forms an animation system task in programming terms.

  11. A Micro Satellite Communication System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragale, Francesco; Boccia, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    In 2000 the European Space Agency's (ESA) Office for Educational Project Outreach Activities has started the Student Space Exploration &Technology Initiative (SSETI). The main objective of this project is to construct and to launch a microsatellite developed by a network of European students. The microsatellite will be mainly used to transmit pictures of the space to earth, to perform plasma experiments and to test all the subsystems for further missions. The data transfer from on-board the satellite to the ground station will be ensued through an innovative communication system composed of two different channels alternatively used to built a connection with the earth. A low data rate channel has to be activated to download telemetry and upload telecommand during the stabilisation mode or when the satellite is not visible from the earth. During the microsatellite nominal operation mode, pictures and data of scientific interest have to be sent from space to the ground station through an additional high data rate channel. As the satellite operation mode changes, a switching system optimizes the onboard power budget selecting the most convenient option between a directive and an omnidirectional antenna, designed to implement the high and low data rate channels respectively. The low gain channel uses two circular polarised patches while a 2x2 microstrip array has been chosen for realising the high rate communication link. Both the antennas are low profile radiators and they have been designed to be conformally mounted onto the microsatellite surface. Prototypes of the two antennas have been realised and tested. A description of the antenna's design process will be given together with a review of the entire system architecture rationale.

  12. Communicating Earth System Science Through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    The general public's knowledge of earth system science has lagged behind the extraordinary discoveries that scientists are now making. And yet, as can be seen in the daily news, we are constantly confronted with the impacts of Earth's systems. Enhancing the public's understanding of earth system science is vitally important. The Space Science Institute is a national leader in developing space-themed exhibitions. One of its exhibit projects, still in the development stage, is called Interactive Earth. The major goal of the exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to see the world in new ways. The exhibit will be divided into five areas: Spaceship Earth, Water World, Rock and Roll, Web of Life, and Earthworks for Kids. This division allows the exhibit to address major components of the earth system: the geosphere (Rock and Roll), hydrosphere (Water World), biosphere (Web of Life), and atmosphere, which pervades every area. Each area lends itself to opportunities to illustrate interconnections between the exhibit areas. This report will focus on the front-end evaluation results that were conducted several years ago for the project. These results will then be compared to other evaluation studies (both formal & informal) in order to paint a more thorough picture of how best to communicate this important but difficult science to the public.

  13. Radiation-hardened microwave communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Hannah, J.H.; Moore, J.A.; Nowlin, C.H.; Vandermolen, R.I.; Chagnot, D.; LeRoy, A.

    1993-03-01

    To develop a wireless communication system to meet the stringent requirements for a nuclear hot cell and similar environments, including control of advanced servomanipulators, a microwave signal transmission system development program was established to produce a demonstration prototype for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Proof-of-principle tests in a partially metal lined enclosure at ORNL successfully demonstrated the feasibility of directed microwave signal transmission techniques for remote systems applications. The potential for much more severe radio-frequency (RF) multipath propagation conditions in fully metal lined cells led to a programmatic decision to conduct additional testing in more typical hot-cell environments at other sites. Again, the test results were excellent. Based on the designs of the earlier systems, an advanced microwave signal transmission system configuration was subsequently developed that, in highly reflective environments, will support both high-performance video channels and high baud-rate digital data links at total gamma dose tolerance levels exceeding 10{sup 7} rads and at elevated ambient temperatures.

  14. Radiation-hardened microwave communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Hannah, J.H.; Moore, J.A.; Nowlin, C.H.; Vandermolen, R.I. ); Chagnot, D.; LeRoy, A. )

    1993-01-01

    To develop a wireless communication system to meet the stringent requirements for a nuclear hot cell and similar environments, including control of advanced servomanipulators, a microwave signal transmission system development program was established to produce a demonstration prototype for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Proof-of-principle tests in a partially metal lined enclosure at ORNL successfully demonstrated the feasibility of directed microwave signal transmission techniques for remote systems applications. The potential for much more severe radio-frequency (RF) multipath propagation conditions in fully metal lined cells led to a programmatic decision to conduct additional testing in more typical hot-cell environments at other sites. Again, the test results were excellent. Based on the designs of the earlier systems, an advanced microwave signal transmission system configuration was subsequently developed that, in highly reflective environments, will support both high-performance video channels and high baud-rate digital data links at total gamma dose tolerance levels exceeding 10[sup 7] rads and at elevated ambient temperatures.

  15. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-01-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  16. Space-to-Space Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Gaylor, Kent; Vitalpur, Sharada; Sham, Cathy

    1999-01-01

    The Space-to-Space Communications System (SSCS) is an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Time-Division-Multiple Access (TDMA) system that is designed, developed, and deployed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide voice, commands, telemetry and data services in close proximity among three space elements: International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle Orbiter, and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU). The SSCS consists of a family of three radios which are, Space-to-Space Station Radio (SSSR), Space-to-Space Orbiter Radio (SSOR), and Space-to-Space Extravehicular Mobility Radio (SSER). The SSCS can support up to five such radios at a time. Each user has its own time slot within which to transmit voice and data. Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) carrier modulation with a burst data rate of 695 kbps and a frequency deviation of 486.5 kHz is employed by the system. Reed-Solomon (R-S) coding is also adopted to ensure data quality. In this paper, the SSCS system requirements, operational scenario, detailed system architecture and parameters, link acquisition strategy, and link performance analysis will be presented and discussed

  17. Laser Communication Demonstration System (LSCS) and Future Mobile Satellite Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. -C.; Lesh, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Communications Demonstration System (LCDS) is a proposed in-orbit demonstration of high data rate laser communications technology conceived jointly by NASA and U.S. industry. The program objectives are to stimulate industry development and to demonstrate the readiness of high data rate optical communications in Earth Orbit. For future global satellite communication systems using intersatellite links (ISLs), laser communications technology can offer reduced mass , reduced power requirements, and increased channel bandwidths without regulatory restraint. This paper provides comparisons with radio systems and status of the program.

  18. Study on underwater wireless communication system using LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hyun-Joong; Choi, Hyeung-Sik; Tran, Ngoc-Huy; Ha, Ji-Hoon; Ji, Dae-Hyeung; Kim, Joon-Young

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new variable-focus LED light device is developed for underwater communication. Usually used as an underwater lighting fixture, the LED light device in this study is utilized as an underwater communication device (UCD) by controlling the distance between light source and lens when communication is needed. A transmission and a receiving part of LED light for communication using photoelectric sensor and Fresnel lens are also developed. The communication system was tested in fresh water and sea water to verify its communication performance; results of which are presented in this study.

  19. A novel telemetry system for recording EEG in small animals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Hashemi, Kevan S; Walker, Matthew C

    2011-09-30

    It has become increasingly evident that continuous EEG monitoring is necessary to observe the development of epilepsy in animals, and to determine the effect of drugs on spontaneous seizures. Telemetric recording systems have been increasingly used to monitor EEG in freely moving animals. One challenge faced by such systems is to monitor frequencies above 80Hz continuously for weeks. We present an implantable, 2.4-ml, telemetric sensor that can monitor EEG at 512 samples per second for eight weeks in a freely moving animal. With minor modifications, the same transmitter can operate at higher sample rates with a proportional decrease in operating life. Signal transmission is through bursts of 915-MHz radio power. The burst transmission and several other novel techniques reduce the transmitter's power consumption by two orders of magnitude while allowing 8 transmitters to share the same recording system. The use of radio-frequency transmission permits digitization within the sensor to sixteen-bit resolution, thus eliminating transmission-generated signal noise. The result is a signal with dynamic range 9mV, bandwidth 160Hz, input noise 12μV, and AC power interference less than 1μV. All circuit diagrams are open-source. Data acquisition takes place over the Internet using open-source software that works on multiple operating systems. The resulting system permits long-term, continuous, monitoring of EEG signals, therefore providing continuous and reliable data upon which to base studies of epilepsy in freely moving animals. PMID:21820010

  20. Imaging system architectures for picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, S J

    1996-05-01

    Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) provide for the intraelectronic management of acquired digital image examination. Mini-PACS are image-management systems focused on specific applications. Computer architecture to be applied to radiology applications includes pipelining to improve the speed of the central processing unit, client and server architecture for distributed radiology applications, and image file servers. Image-compression algorithms provide increased digital storage and increased image transmission speeds. Throughput rates can be improved by identifying the bottlenecks. PMID:8657868

  1. Method and system for pipeline communication

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  2. Application of the Iridium Satellite System to Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Meza, Mike; Gupta, Om

    2008-01-01

    The next generation air transportation system will require greater air-ground communications capacity to accommodate more air traffic with increased safety and efficiency. Communications will remain primarily terrestrially based, but satellite communications will have an increased role. Inmarsat s aeronautical services have been approved and are in use for aeronautical safety communications provided by geostationary satellites. More recently the approval process for the Iridium low earth orbit constellation is nearing completion. The current Iridium system will be able to provide basic air traffic services communications suitable for oceanic, remote and polar regions. The planned second generation of the Iridium system, called Iridium NEXT, will provide enhanced capabilities and enable a greater role in the future of aeronautical communications. This paper will review the potential role of satellite communications in the future of air transportation, the Iridium approval process and relevant system testing, and the potential role of Iridium NEXT.

  3. Establishing Conventional Communication Systems: Is Common Knowledge Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Dale J.

    2004-01-01

    How do communities establish shared communication systems? The Common Knowledge view assumes that symbolic conventions develop through the accumulation of common knowledge regarding communication practices among the members of a community. In contrast with this view, it is proposed that coordinated communication emerges a by-product of local…

  4. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, LF

    2004-09-22

    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  5. NPOESS McMurdo Multimission Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciaroni, J.; Higgins, C.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Dept. of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather/environmental satellite system - the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). NPOESS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical data of the earth, atmosphere and space. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS), NPOESS’ prime contractor, provides the Space Segment (SS). The NPOESS command & data distribution part known as the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems, manages the overall mission from control & status of the space & ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high-quality data from the SS to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). A C3S data-delivery system key feature is SafetyNetTM (a NGAS trademark), 15 globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon. These antennae will collect up to 5X as much environmental data about 4X faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. These data will then be forwarded nearly at once to US weather centrals via the global fiber optic network for processing & production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. McMurdo Antarctica is a significant SafetyNetTM antenna site due to its high-latitude location. C3S, working with the National Science Foundation to upgrade & expand the existing off-continent satellite communications (SATCOM) link at McMurdo, will provide 60 Mbps of bandwidth outbound from McMurdo and 20 Mbps inbound to those missions. The 1st major upgrade milestone (2008) increased the bandwidth from 3 Mbps to/from Antarctica to 10 Mbps. Additionally, Raytheon’s C3S is upgrading the network infrastructure at both McMurdo and the Belrose Earth Station, Australia SATCOM site to provide routing support for several missions, as well as expansion capabilities to support future missions at McMurdo. The upgrade completes in early 2011 to support new downlink capabilities called the ‘McMurdo Multimission Communications System.’ The big increase of available bandwidth to/from McMurdo allows more polar-orbiting environmental/weather satellite missions to use McMurdo as a 2nd downlink site. Two added missions, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites’ (EUMETSAT) MetOp polar system and the NOAA-operated DMSP, will downlink mission data to McMurdo. The NASA McMurdo Ground Station antenna will support the EUMETSAT mission. The NPOESS receptor at McMurdo will be a special dual-band antenna receiving both a NPOESS Ka-Band downlink and DMSP S-Band downlink. These upgrades will support routing data from Antarctica and distribution to each mission’s processing facility via the NPOESS Wide Area Network. The resulting acceleration across the SATCOM link allows each mission’s bandwidth use to vary based on the link usage and requirements. This flexibility ultimately allows the SATCOM link to handle more missions compared to static bandwidth allocations to each individual mission.

  6. Using Sequence Diagrams to Detect Communication Problems Between Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly; Kresser, Jan; Godfrey, Sally H.; Knodel, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is both mission-critical and error-prone. Such communication problems ideally would be detected before deployment. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we show that problems in the communication between two systems can be detected by using sequence diagrams to model the planned communication and by comparing the planned sequence to the actual sequence. We identify different kinds of problems that can be addressed by modeling the planned sequence using different level of abstractions.

  7. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…

  8. DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ANIMAL WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEMS - NITROGEN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) Develop design criteria for nitrogen and odor control in animal waste stabilization systems; (b) demonstrate the feasibility of nitrogen control using the oxidation ditch; (c) determine the rate, form, and time of manure application permi...

  9. Static and Animated Presentations in Learning Dynamic Mechanical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Schneider, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how learners comprehend the functioning of a three-pulley system from a presentation on a computer screen. In the first experiment (N = 62) we tested the effect of static vs. animated presentations on comprehension. In the second experiment (N = 45), we tested the effect of user-control of an animated…

  10. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included

  11. Chaotic optical communications using delayed feedback systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locquet, Alexandre

    Chaotic dynamics produced by optical delay systems have interesting applications in telecommunications. Optical chaos can be used to transmit secretly, in real-time, a message between an emitter and a receiver. The noise-like appearance of chaos is used to conceal the message, and the synchronization of the receiver with the chaotic emitter is used to decode the message. This work focuses on the study of two crucial topics in the field of chaotic optical communications. The first topic is the synchronization of chaotic external-cavity laser diodes, which are among the most promising chaotic emitters for secure communications. It is shown that, for edge-emitting lasers, two drastically different synchronization regimes are possible. The regimes differ in terms of the delay time in the synchronization and in terms of the robustness of the synchronization with respect to parameter mismatches between the emitter and the receiver. In vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, the two linearly-polarized components of the electric field also exhibit isochronous and anticipating synchronization when the coupling between the lasers is isotropic. When the coupling is polarized, the linearly-polarized component that is parallel to the injected polarization tends to synchronize isochronously with the injected optical field, while the other component tends to be suppressed, but it can also be antisynchronized. The second topic is the analysis of time series produced by optical chaotic emitters subjected to a delayed feedback. First, we verify with experimental data that chaos produced by optical delay systems is highly complex. This high complexity is demonstrated by estimating chaos dimension and entropy from experimental time series and from models of optical delay systems. Second, by analyzing chaotic time series, it is shown that the value of the delay of a single-delay system can always be identified, independently of the type of system used and of its complexity. Unfortunately, an eavesdropper can use this information on the delay value to break the cryptosystem. We propose a new cryptosystem with two delayed feedback loops that increases the difficulty of the delay identification problem.

  12. Architecting Communication Network of Networks for Space System of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) are planning Space System of Systems (SoS) to address the new challenges of space exploration, defense, communications, navigation, Earth observation, and science. In addition, these complex systems must provide interoperability, enhanced reliability, common interfaces, dynamic operations, and autonomy in system management. Both NASA and the DoD have chosen to meet the new demands with high data rate communication systems and space Internet technologies that bring Internet Protocols (IP), routers, servers, software, and interfaces to space networks to enable as much autonomous operation of those networks as possible. These technologies reduce the cost of operations and, with higher bandwidths, support the expected voice, video, and data needed to coordinate activities at each stage of an exploration mission. In this paper, we discuss, in a generic fashion, how the architectural approaches and processes are being developed and used for defining a hypothetical communication and navigation networks infrastructure to support lunar exploration. Examples are given of the products generated by the architecture development process.

  13. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F; Black, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an "off-the-shelf" automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:26798573

  14. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F

    2015-01-01

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an “off-the-shelf” automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:26798573

  15. Preparedness of small animal veterinary practices to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited proficiency in English.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E

    2016-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the preparedness of small animal veterinary personnel to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited English-language proficiency (LEP). DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. SAMPLE Data from 383 small animal veterinary practices. PROCEDURES Telephone surveys were conducted with veterinarians and office or practice managers from a random sample of US small animal veterinary practices in 10 states to estimate the number of Spanish-speaking pet owners with LEP visiting these practices, proportion of practices that used services to facilitate communication with Spanish-speaking clients with LEP, and degree of veterinarian satisfaction with their communication with those clients. RESULTS Responses were obtained from 383 of 1,245 (31%) eligible practices, of which 340 (89%) had Spanish-speaking clients with LEP and 200 (52%) had such clients on a weekly basis. Eight percent of practices had veterinary personnel who were conversant or fluent in spoken Spanish. Veterinarians who depended on clients' friends or family to translate were significantly less satisfied with client communication than were those who could converse in Spanish with clients directly. Availability of Spanish-speaking staff and offering of Spanish-language resources were associated with an increase in the number of Spanish-speaking clients with LEP seen on a weekly basis. Industry- and practice-generated Spanish-language materials were offered at 32% (124/383) and 21% (81/383) of practices, respectively; 329 (86%) practices had no Spanish-language marketing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Opportunities were identified for improving communication with pet owners with LEP in the veterinary clinical setting, which could ultimately positively impact patient well-being and client compliance. PMID:26953924

  16. A baseline maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a baseline system for maritime communications via satellite during the 1980s. The system model employs three geostationary satellites with global coverage antennas. Access to the system is controlled by a master station; user access is based on time-ordered polling or random access. Each Thor-Delta launched satellite has an RF power of 100 W (spinner) or 250 W (three-axis stabilized), and provides 10 equivalent duplex voice channels for up to 1500 ships with average waiting times of approximately 2.5 minutes. The satellite capacity is bounded by the available bandwidth to 50 such channels, which can serve up to 10,000 ships with an average waiting time of 5 minutes. The ships must have peak antenna gains of approximately 15.5 dB or 22.5 dB for the two cases (10 or 50 voice channels) when a spinner satellite is used; the required gains are 4 dB lower if a three-axis stabilized satellite is used. The ship antenna requirements can be reduced by 8 to 10 dB by employing a high-gain multi-beam phased array antenna on the satellite.

  17. The national information system for the notification of animal diseases in Italy.

    PubMed

    Colangeli, Patrizia; Iannetti, Simona; Cerella, Angelo; Ippoliti, Carla; Di Lorenzo, Alessio; Santucci, Ugo; Simonetti, Pasquale; Calistri, Paolo; Lelli, Rossella

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the national system for the notification and management of outbreaks of animal diseases in Italy (Sistema Informativo Nazionale Malattie Animali: SIMAN). The main objective of the system is to provide a tool for the management of epidemic emergencies and to fulfil the information obligations towards international organisations, such as the European Commission and World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des pizooties: OIE). SIMAN was thus designed to collect all relevant information on outbreaks of animal diseases and to provide a useful tool for the management of activities to be implemented in emergencies. SIMAN is able to collect and report information concerning suspected or confirmed animal outbreaks in a consistent way and allows veterinary services to enter data electronically, instead of using paperwork, within the framework of the process of e-government and dematerialisation of the administrative acts. Data are immediately accessible for local and national authorities. The system provides the relevant national authorities with information relative to the planning of control measures in case epidemic emergencies. SIMAN is part of the e-government process that involves all public administrations of the European Union (EU) and refers to the use of information and communication technologies for the digital processing of documents so as to simplify the system and to make administrative procedures on the Internet much easier to follow. PMID:21947968

  18. Advanced integrated WDM system for POF communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Fischer, U. H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer Optical Fibres (POFs) show clear advantages compared to copper and glass fibres. In essence, POFs are inexpensive, space-saving and not susceptible to electromagnetic interference. Thus, the usage of POFs have become a reasonable alternative in short distance data communication. Today, POFs are applied in a wide number of applications due to these specific advantages. These applications include automotive communication systems and in-house-networks. State-of-the-art is to transmit data with only one channel over POF, this limits the bandwidth. To solve this problem, an integrated MUX/DEMUX-element for WDM over POF is designed and developed to use multiple channels. This integration leads to low costs, therefore this component is suitable for mass market applications. The fundamental idea is to separate the chromatic parts of the light in its monochromatic components by means of a grating based on an aspheric mirror. Due to the high NA of the POF the setup has to be designed in a 3D-approach. Therefore this setup cannot be compared with the planar solutions available on market, they would result high losses in the 3rd dimension. To achieve a fast and optimized design an optical simulation program is used. Particular attention has to be paid to the design of the POF as a light source in the simulation program and the optimisation of the grating. The following realization of the demultiplexer is planed to be done with injection molding. This technology offers easy and very economical processing. These advantages make this technology first choice for optical components in the low-cost array.

  19. Vehicle-mounted real-time digital voice communication system based on visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiurong; Gu, Xiuxiu; Chen, Du; Wang, Hui; Huang, Hua; Chen, Xuxin; Cao, Qingshan; Liu, Hongqing

    2015-11-01

    Based on the phenomenon that more and more cars use LED for lighting and the current rise of visible light communication technology, this paper proposes a vehicle real-time voice communication system with high reliability on the basis of visible light communication for verification. The paper introduces the design of digital audio collection and output module, On-Off Keying (OOK) modulation and demodulation, Reed-Solomon encoding and decoding module, array LEDs emission and the module of PIN receiving signals. The LED lamp frequency response, communication distance, error rate and other parameters are tested and calibrated. The digital audio real-time communication system's receiving speed is 500Kbps when the communication distance is 3.9 meters.

  20. 46 CFR 121.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.602 Internal... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 121.602 Section...

  1. 46 CFR 121.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 121.602 Section 121.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.602...

  2. Structural and Process Models of Human Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stech, Ernest L.

    It is argued that the structural and process models of human communication systems can be derived from the same data, and that communication systems can be described in terms of certain basic parameters; these parameters, in turn, provide a taxonomy of system types. The applicable empirical research data is reviewed to make statements about the…

  3. 46 CFR 121.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.602 Internal... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 121.602 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 184.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 184.602 Section 184.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.602 Internal...

  5. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  6. A Molecular Communication System Model for Particulate Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Chahibi, Youssef; Pierobon, Massimiliano; Song, Sang Ok; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2013-12-01

    The goal of a drug delivery system (DDS) is to convey a drug where the medication is needed, while, at the same time, preventing the drug from affecting other healthy parts of the body. Drugs composed of micro- or nano-sized particles (particulate DDS) that are able to cross barriers which prevent large particles from escaping the bloodstream are used in the most advanced solutions. Molecular communication (MC) is used as an abstraction of the propagation of drug particles in the body. MC is a new paradigm in communication research where the exchange of information is achieved through the propagation of molecules. Here, the transmitter is the drug injection, the receiver is the drug delivery, and the channel is realized by the transport of drug particles, thus enabling the analysis and design of a particulate DDS using communication tools. This is achieved by modeling the MC channel as two separate contributions, namely, the cardiovascular network model and the drug propagation network. The cardiovascular network model allows to analytically compute the blood velocity profile in every location of the cardiovascular system given the flow input by the heart. The drug propagation network model allows the analytical expression of the drug delivery rate at the targeted site given the drug injection rate. Numerical results are also presented to assess the flexibility and accuracy of the developed model. The study of novel optimization techniques for a more effective and less invasive drug delivery will be aided by this model, while paving the way for novel communication techniques for Intrabody communication networks. PMID:23807425

  7. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotosky, J. E.; Gauger, J. R.

    1993-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has been conducting a long-term monitoring program to examine flora, fauna, and their ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. Physiological, developmental, behavioral, and ecological variables for dominant biota in upland, wetland, and riverine habitats near the ELF System have been examined since 1982. Monitoring studies use a split-plot or blocked design to examine differences in space and time. Observations have been made during preoperational, intermittent-use, and full-operational use periods near ELF transmitters located-in Michigan and Wisconsin. Data collection for studies located near the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility (NRTF)-Clam Lake, Wisconsin, was completed, as scheduled, during 1989. Investigators concluded that there were no effects from intermittent or full operations of the transmitter in Wisconsin. Data collection for studies located near the NRTF-Republic, Michigan, progressed during 1992 and are to continue during 1993. Final results and conclusions for Michigan studies are expected after all data have been analyzed in 1994.

  8. Communications and control for electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.

    1992-01-01

    A long-term strategy for the integration of new control technologies for power generation and delivery is proposed: the industry would benefit from an evolutionary approach that would adapt to its needs future technologies as well as those that it has so far not heeded. The integrated operation of the entire system, including the distribution system, was proposed as a future goal. The AbNET communication protocols are reviewed, and additions that were made in 1991 are described. In the original network, traffic was controlled by polling at the master station, located at the substation, and routed by a flooding algorithm. In a revised version, the polling and flooding are modified. The question of interfacing low-energy measurement transducers or instrument transformers is considered. There is presently little or no agreement on what the output of optical current transducers (CT's) should be. Appendices deal with the calibration of current transducers; with Delta modulation, a simple means of serially encoding the output of an OCT; and with noise shaping, a method of digital signal processing that trades off the number of bits in a digital sample for a higher number of samples.

  9. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  10. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  11. Communication plan of GPS monitoring system based on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiangpeng; Liu, Zhenan; Bao, Yuanlu

    2005-11-01

    In GPS monitoring system, wireless communications network is necessary to keep base station in contact with mobile stations. Public communications network and personal communications network can't work well all the time. In this article, an economical communications network that can be competent for communication of GPS monitoring system is introduced. Personal communications network is used in this GPS monitoring system. In order to enlarge the coverage area and to expand the capacity of the personal communications network, the concept of cellular radio system is introduced. Because only the non-adjacent cells can use the same frequency channel, handoff of mobile station is extremely important when it goes in another cell. The mobile station of the system will know its own longitude and latitude by receiving data from GPS satellites all the time, so it can change its working frequency channel according to its position. Internet, instead of personal communication cable, is used to connect the base stations. So the communications network has the advantage of public communications network and personal one.

  12. MSFC Skylab instrumentation and communication system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, B. M.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the in-orbit performance of the instrumentation and communications systems installed on Skylab is presented. Performance is compared with functional requirements and the fidelity of communications. In-orbit performance includes processing engineering, scientific, experiment, and biomedical data, implementing ground-generated commands, audio and video communication, generating rendezvous ranging information, and radio frequency transmission and reception. A history of the system evolution based on the functional requirements and a physical description of the launch configuration is included. The report affirms that the instrumentation and communication system satisfied all imposed requirements.

  13. Suitability of ANSI standards for quantifying communication satellite system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cass, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    A study on the application of American National Standards X3.102 and X3.141 to various classes of communication satellite systems from the simple analog bent-pipe to NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is discussed. These standards are proposed as means for quantifying the end-to-end communication system performance of communication satellite systems. An introductory overview of the two standards are given followed by a review of the characteristics, applications, and advantages of using X3.102 and X3.141 to quantify with a description of the application of these standards to ACTS.

  14. Apollo experience report: Communications system flight evaluation and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, D.; Royston, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Flight tests of the synergetic operation of the spacecraft and earth based communications equipment were accomplished during Apollo missions AS-202 through Apollo 12. The primary goals of these tests were to verify that the communications system would adequately support lunar landing missions and to establish the inflight communications system performance characteristics. To attain these goals, a communications system flight verification and evaluation team was established. The concept of the team operations, the evolution of the evaluation processes, synopses of the team activities associated with each mission, and major conclusions and recommendations resulting from the performance evaluation are represented.

  15. NASA Workshop on Animal Gravity-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The opportunity for space flight has brought about the need for well-planned research programs that recognize the significance of space flight as a scientific research tool for advancing knowledge of life on Earth, and that utilize each flight opportunity to its fullest. For the first time in history, gravity can be almost completely eliminated. Thus, studies can be undertaken that will help to elucidate the importance of gravity to the normal functioning of living organisms, and to determine the effects microgravity may have on an organism. This workshop was convened to organize a plan for space research on animal gravity-sensing systems and the role that gravity plays in the development and normal functioning of these systems. Scientists working in the field of animal gravity-sensing systems use a wide variety of organisms in their research. The workshop presentations dealt with topics which ranged from the indirect gravity receptor of the water flea, Daphnia (whose antennal setae apparently act as current-sensing receptors as the animal moves up and down in water), through specialized statocyst structures found in jellyfish and gastropods, to the more complex vestibular systems that are characteristic of amphibians, avians, and mammals.

  16. Introduction to Communication Science and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    This book is designed to serve as a textbook for a three quarter or two semester upper division or graduate course for beginners interested in the wide range of topics essential to communication systems. It covers antennas and transmission, thermal noise and its consequences, Fourier transforms, modulation and noise, sample and pulse code modulation, autocorrelation and power spectrum, optimum filtering, gaussian noise and errors in digital transmission, data transmission limits on data rate, and source encoding.The book is divided into 13 chapters, each of which is divided into about 10 sections, and each section is followed by a list of about three problems on the material in that section. A list of further reading is included for each chapter as is a comprehensive index. The book is written for students of electrical engineering, but the authors state in their introduction that physicists, earth scientists, and astronomers who must detect signals in their work can use this book to learn about the limits of detectability of signals. I would agree with the authors and say there is more than that. I found many examples of techniques that I had heard of over the years and wondered at how they worked but had never delved into, such as convolutional coding (and decoding), which is used to reduce the number of bit errors in satellite transmissions.

  17. Technology Evaluation of Programmable Communicating Thermostats with Radio Broadcast Data System Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth

    2008-10-31

    Programmable Communicating Thermostats are thermostats that can be programmed by the user to respond to signals indicating a grid-level system emergency or pricing event. The California Energy Commission is considering standards that would include a requirement for Programmable Communicating Thermostats in residential and small commercial applications. The current specification for Programmable Communicating Thermostats requires Radio Data System communications to Programmable Communicating Thermostats. This study tested the signal strength and reliability of Radio Data System signals at 40 customer sites within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, which is serviced by 17 radio stations that already transmit Radio Data System signals. The study also tested the functionality of a commercially available Programmable Communicating Thermostat for compliance with California Energy Commission design standards. Test results demonstrated that Radio Data System is capable of reliably sending price and emergency signals. This study also provides evidence that existing Programmable Communicating Thermostats, on receiving a Radio Data System pricing or event signal, are capable of automatically increasing set points to a customer-determined or utility-determined level, thus providing air-conditioning demand response within seconds or just a few (less than 5) minutes.

  18. Animal evolution: when did the 'Hox system' arise?

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Chris T; Wagner, Günter P

    2006-07-25

    The origins of the Hox gene clusters and their coordinated activities during development have long been of considerable interest to biologists. In a recent paper in Current Biology, the Hox-like genes of two cnidarians are interpreted as evidence that the 'Hox system', sensu stricto, originated after the split from the lineage leading to bilaterian animals and that it was not requisite for complex axial patterning. PMID:16860733

  19. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198; Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 ; Tsuji, Osahiko; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 ; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James; and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  20. A wireless diabetes management and communication system.

    PubMed

    Vigersky, Robert A; Hanson, Eric; McDonough, Edward; Rapp, Timothy; Pajak, John; Galen, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Current diabetes management requires the collection of a large volume of data by the patient for analysis by his or her provider. There are numerous practical and technical barriers to doing this effectively and efficiently. In addition, the calculation of the correct insulin dose is complex because it requires considering anticipated carbohydrate consumption and exercise in addition to the current blood glucose level. A Diabetes Management and Communication System (DMCS) has been developed using a Compaq iPAQ Pocket PC with a Sprint PCS wireless AirCard. This system circumvents the problem of multiple proprietary programs for each brand of meter and permits the accurate determination of the proper insulin dose. Privacy is maintained by using only the iPAQ serial number as the patient identifier with access to the website protected by unique patient and provider passwords. The iPAQ was programmed with formulas that included: insulin sensitivity factor, current glucose level, amount of carbohydrates, appropriate carbohydrate:insulin ratio for that meal, and duration/intensity of exercise. Once the information is entered, an insulin dose is calculated, although an alternative dose can be selected. The data are downloaded to http://www.HealthSentry.net, where they are displayed in both tabular and graphic form. The patient may view the glucose data in both tabular and graphic form on the iPAQ. Thus a DMCS has been developed to assist patients and providers in improving glycemic control. A proof-of-concept study is underway to determine the effectiveness of the DMCS in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who are currently using insulin pumps. PMID:14511424

  1. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892.2050 Section 892.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving and communications system. (a) Identification....

  2. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Early animal evolution and the origins of nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of early nervous systems is hazardous because we lack good criteria for determining homology between the systems of distant taxa; the timing of the evolutionary events is contested, and thus the relevant ecological and geological settings for them are also unclear. Here I argue that no simple approach will resolve the first issue, but that it remains likely that animals evolved relatively late, and that their nervous systems thus arose during the late Ediacaran, in a context provided by the changing planktonic and benthic environments of the time. The early trace fossil provides the most concrete evidence for early behavioural diversification, but it cannot simply be translated into increasing nervous system complexity: behavioural complexity does not map on a one-to-one basis onto nervous system complexity, both because of possible limitations to behaviour caused by the environment and because we know that even organisms without nervous systems are capable of relatively complex behaviour. PMID:26554037

  4. Early animal evolution and the origins of nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Budd, Graham E

    2015-12-19

    Understanding the evolution of early nervous systems is hazardous because we lack good criteria for determining homology between the systems of distant taxa; the timing of the evolutionary events is contested, and thus the relevant ecological and geological settings for them are also unclear. Here I argue that no simple approach will resolve the first issue, but that it remains likely that animals evolved relatively late, and that their nervous systems thus arose during the late Ediacaran, in a context provided by the changing planktonic and benthic environments of the time. The early trace fossil provides the most concrete evidence for early behavioural diversification, but it cannot simply be translated into increasing nervous system complexity: behavioural complexity does not map on a one-to-one basis onto nervous system complexity, both because of possible limitations to behaviour caused by the environment and because we know that even organisms without nervous systems are capable of relatively complex behaviour. PMID:26554037

  5. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

  6. Space Shuttle program communication and tracking systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R. S.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Sampaio, D. R.; Udalov, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program Communications and Tracking Systems Interface Analysis began April 18, 1983. During this time, the shuttle communication and tracking systems began flight testing. Two areas of analysis documented were a result of observations made during flight tests. These analyses involved the Ku-band communication system. First, there was a detailed analysis of the interface between the solar max data format and the Ku-band communication system including the TDRSS ground station. The second analysis involving the Ku-band communication system was an analysis of the frequency lock loop of the Gunn oscillator used to generate the transmit frequency. The stability of the frequency lock loop was investigated and changes to the design were reviewed to alleviate the potential loss of data due the loop losing lock and entering the reacquisition mode. Other areas of investigation were the S-band antenna analysis and RF coverage analysis.

  7. Rural satellite communications using a spread spectrum multiple access system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashizaki, H.; Yoshihara, M.

    1985-10-01

    A domestic satellite communications system with improved economicality is outlined. The system employs one master earth station (MES) and numerous small earth terminals (SETs), simplifying the satellite link establishment. Two communications systems are used, Time Division Multiplex for transmission from the MES to SETs and Spread Spectrum Multiple Access for transmission from the SETs to the MES. This arrangement improves power utilization efficiency and reduces interference with other communications systems. The equipment configurations of the earth stations are described, the link budget is discussed, and the system's application to emergency telephone service is addressed.

  8. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  9. Flexible satellite communications systems simulator standard device groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. W.; Burgess, J. L.

    1986-12-01

    This document contains the designs of the standard device groups (SDG) prepared for the Flexible Satellite Communications Systems Simulation (FSCSS). It contains updates to SDGs prepared for earlier versions of FSCSS and new SDG's prepared for version 4.0. FSCSS is a time domain simulation for accurately determining performance of satellite communications system principally in terms of bit error rate. SDGs are models of earth terminals, satellites and modems from the inventory of the Deense Satellite Communications System (DSCS). These ready-made SATCOM components ease the burden of a FSCSS user setting up large DSCS Systems within FSCSS.

  10. Space-based laser systems for inter-satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Panahi, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Space-based optical communications using satellites in low earth orbit (LEO) and Geo synchronous orbits (GEO) hold great promise for the proposed Internet in the Sky network of the future. Building high speed communications network using optical links in space has proven to be an extremely complicated task and many such schemes were tried without success in the past. However in the last few years, there has been impressive progress made to bring the concept of space based laser systems for inter-satellite communications to fruition in civilian and government-non classified projects. Laser Communications High data rate, small antenna size, narrow beam divergence, and a narrow field of view are characteristics of laser communications that offer a number of potential advantages for system design. Also discussed are the laser based optical inter-satellite communication equipment which enables large capacity communication, and the advantage of their systems. Laser-based communications offer a viable alternative to established RF communications for inter-satellite links and other applications where high performance links are a necessity.

  11. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 1; Analytic Chapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Raymond D.; Mahle, Christoph E.; Miller, Edward F.; Riley, Lance; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Edelson, Burton I.; Kwan, Robert K.; Helm, Neil R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1 (Analytical Chapters) of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel Satellite Communications Systems and Technology is presented. The panel surveyed advanced technology being developed for commercial use in the satellite communications field in Europe, Japan, and Russia. All aspects of satellite communications were considered, including fixed, broadcast, mobile, personal communications, navigation, low earth orbit, and small satellites. The focus of the study was on experimental and advanced technology being developed in R&D and demonstration programs rather than on today's production capabilities. The report focuses on commercial satellite technology, and does not review defense-related or other confidential satellite communications capabilities. The NASA/NSF panel concluded that the United States has lost its leading position in many critical satellite communications technologies. Although U.S. industry retains a leading position in today's marketplace for satellite communications systems and services, this position is largely founded on technologies and capabilities developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Because the United States is losing ground with respect to a wide range of technologies and systems that will be key to future communications markets, the market share of the U.S. satellite communications industry is at risk.

  12. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 1: Analytical chapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I. (Editor); Pelton, Joseph N. (Editor); Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Analytical Chapters) of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel Satellite Communications Systems and Technology. The panel surveyed advanced technology being developed for commercial use in the satellite communications field in Europe, Japan, and Russia. All aspects of satellite communications were considered, including fixed, broadcast, mobile, personal communications, navigation, low earth orbit, and small satellites. The focus was on experimental and advanced technology being developed in R&D and demonstration programs rather than on today's production capabilities. Focus was on commercial satellite technology, and does not review defense-related or other confidential satellite communications capabilities. The NASA/NSF panel concluded that the United States has lost its leading position in many critical satellite communications technologies. Although U.S. industry retains a leading position in today's marketplace for satellite communications systems and services, this position is largely founded on technologies and capabilities developed in the 1960's and 1970's. Because the United States is losing ground with respect to a wide range of technologies and systems that will be key to future communications markets, the market share of the U.S. satellite communications industry is at risk.

  13. Development of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Oshima, Yusuke; Komachi, Yuichi; Katagiri, Takashi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Tashiro, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    Development of the optical biopsy system for experimental small animals is in progress. A prototype of the system which consists of a miniaturized gastro endoscope unit and Raman probes has been completed by now. The system is developed to study a gastric cancer rat model. The endoscope is 2.5 mm in diameter and is equipped an imaging bundle fiber, illumination fibers, a channel and a mechanism to angle the probe head. The head of the Raman probe comes out through the channel and it is possible to aim the probe to the target watching on the monitor. The endoscope was inserted into the anaesthetized healthy rat under the breathing support. It was successfully observed inside of the stomach of the living rat and measured Raman spectra. The spectrum of blood vessels contains the strong contribution from lipids. The present results demonstrate high potential of the system in the in vivo Raman study using the rat model.

  14. A dual micro-CT system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Johnston, S.; Johnson, B.; Lin, M.; Hedlund, L. W.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2008-03-01

    Micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality usually used to assess morphology in small animals. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that functional micro-CT imaging is also possible. This paper describes a dual micro-CT system with two fixed x-ray/detectors developed to address such challenging tasks as cardiac or perfusion studies in small animals. A two-tube/detector system ensures simultaneous acquisition of two projections, thus reducing scanning time and the number of contrast injections in perfusion studies by a factor of two. The system is integrated with software developed in-house for cardio-respiratory monitoring and gating. The sampling geometry was optimized for 88 microns in such a way that the geometric blur of the focal spot matches the Nyquist sample at the detector. A geometric calibration procedure allows one to combine projection data from the two chains into a single reconstructed volume. Image quality was measured in terms of spatial resolution, uniformity, noise, and linearity. The modulation transfer function (MTF) at 10% is 3.4 lp/mm for single detector reconstructions and 2.3 lp/mm for dual tube/detector reconstructions. We attribute this loss in spatial resolution to the compounding of slight errors in the separate single chain calibrations. The dual micro-CT system is currently used in studies for morphological and functional imaging of both rats and mice.

  15. Communications systems and methods for subsea processors

    DOEpatents

    Gutierrez, Jose; Pereira, Luis

    2016-04-26

    A subsea processor may be located near the seabed of a drilling site and used to coordinate operations of underwater drilling components. The subsea processor may be enclosed in a single interchangeable unit that fits a receptor on an underwater drilling component, such as a blow-out preventer (BOP). The subsea processor may issue commands to control the BOP and receive measurements from sensors located throughout the BOP. A shared communications bus may interconnect the subsea processor and underwater components and the subsea processor and a surface or onshore network. The shared communications bus may be operated according to a time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme.

  16. The transmission link of CAPS navigation and communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Junxia; Shi, Huli; Chen, Jibin; Pei, Jun

    2009-03-01

    The Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) is based on communication satellites with integrated capability, which is different from the Global Positioning System (GPS), the International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) and so on. CAPS works at C-band, and its navigation information is not directly generated from the satellite, but from the master control station on the ground and transmitted to users via the satellite. The slightly inclined geostationary-satellite orbit (SIGSO) satellites are adopted in CAPS. All of these increase the difficulty in the design of the system and terminals. In this paper, the authors study the CAPS configuration parameters of the navigation master control station, information transmission capability, and the selection of the antenna aperture of the communication center station, as well as the impact of satellite parameters on the whole communication system from the perspective of the transmission link budget. The conclusion of availability of the CAPS navigation system is achieved. The results show that the CAPS inbound communication system forms a new low-data-rate satellite communication system, which can accommodate mass communication terminals with the transmission rate of no more than 1 kbps for every terminal. The communication center station should be configured with a large-aperture antenna (about 10-15 m); spread spectrum communication technology should be used with the spreading gain as high as about 40 dB; reduction of the satellite transponder gain attenuation is beneficial to improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the system, with the attenuation value of 0 or 2 dB as the best choice. The fact that the CAPS navigation system has been checked and accepted by the experts and the operation is stable till now clarifies the rationality of the analysis results. The fact that a variety of experiments and applications of the satellite communication system designed according to the findings in this paper have been successfully carried out confirms the correctness of the study results.

  17. Concepts for fast acquisition in optical communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Brandon L.; Giggenbach, Dirk; Epple, Bernhard

    2006-09-01

    As free-space laser communications systems proliferate due to improved technology and transmission techniques, optical communication networks comprised of ground stations, aircraft, high altitude platforms, and satellites become an attainable goal. An important consideration for optical networks is the ability of optical communication terminals (OCT) to quickly locate one another and align their laser beams to initiate the acquisition sequence. This paper investigates promising low-cost technologies and novel approaches that will facilitate the targeting and acquisition tasks between counter terminals. Specifically, two critical technology areas are investigated: position determination (which includes location and attitude determination) and inter-terminal communications. A feasibility study identified multiple-antenna global navigation satellite system (GNSS) systems and GNSS-aided inertial systems as possible position determination solutions. Personal satellite communication systems (e.g. Iridium or Inmarsat), third generation cellular technology (IMT-2000/UMTS), and a relatively new air traffic surveillance technology called Autonomous Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) were identified as possible inter-terminal communication solutions. A GNSS-aided inertial system and an ADS-B system were integrated into an OCT to demonstrate their utility in a typical optical communication scenario. Testing showed that these technologies have high potential in future OCTs, although improvements can be made to both to increase tracking accuracy.

  18. Limitation to Communication of Fermionic System in Accelerated Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinho; Kwon, Younghun

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we investigate communication between an inertial observer and an accelerated observer, sharing fermionic system, when they use classical and quantum communication using single rail or dual rail encoding. The purpose of this work is to understand the limit to the communication between an inertial observer and an accelerated observer, with single rail or dual rail encoding of fermionic system. We observe that at the infinite acceleration, the coherent information of single(or double) rail quantum channel vanishes, but those of classical ones may have finite values. In addition, we see that even when considering a method beyond the single-mode approximation, for the communication between Alice and Bob, the dual rail entangled state seems to provide better information transfer than the single rail entangled state, when we take a fixed choice of the Unruh mode. Moreover, we find that the single-mode approximation may not be sufficient to analyze communication of fermionic system in an accelerated frame.

  19. Limitation to Communication of Fermionic System in Accelerated Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinho; Kwon, Younghun

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we investigate communication between an inertial observer and an accelerated observer, sharing fermionic system, when they use classical and quantum communication using single rail or dual rail encoding. The purpose of this work is to understand the limit to the communication between an inertial observer and an accelerated observer, with single rail or dual rail encoding of fermionic system. We observe that at the infinite acceleration, the coherent information of single(or double) rail quantum channel vanishes, but those of classical ones may have finite values. In addition, we see that even when considering a method beyond the single-mode approximation, for the communication between Alice and Bob, the dual rail entangled state seems to provide better information transfer than the single rail entangled state, when we take a fixed choice of the Unruh mode. Moreover, we find that the single-mode approximation may not be sufficient to analyze communication of fermionic system in an accelerated frame.

  20. 622 Mbps High-speed satellite communication system for WINDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yoshimura, Naoko; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Gedney, Richard T.; Dollard, Mike

    2006-07-01

    WINDS is the experimental communications satellite currently under joint development by Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The high-speed satellite communication system is very effective for quick deployment of high-speed networks economically. The WINDS will realize ultra high-speed networking and demonstrate operability of satellite communication systems in high-speed internet. NICT is now developing high-speed satellite communication system for WINDS. High-speed TDMA burst modem with high performance TPC error correction is underdevelopment. Up to the DAC on the transmitter and from the ADC on the receiver, all modem functions are performed in the digital processing technology. Burst modem has been designed for a user data rate up to 1244 Mbps. NICT is developing the digital terminal as a user interface and a network controller for this earth station. High compatibility with the Internet will be provided.

  1. Theatre of the Mind: A Project to Animate the Language of thought and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    Human language is a rich and complex part of human behaviour that can be studied in many ways. The author and his colleagues are developing an application that accepts simple texts as input and presents an animated display of characters acting out the text. It mimics the human visualization of texts, the so-called Theatre of the Mind. In so doing,…

  2. An Experimental Study of the Emergence of Human Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were…

  3. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 2; Site Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Carles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.; Miller, Edward F.; Riley, Lance

    1993-01-01

    Volume 2 of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology is presented. It consists of the site reports from the panel's visits to satellite communications facilities and laboratories in Europe, Japan, and Russia.

  4. Light communication systems. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    The design, performance, and application of laser, infrared, and visual communication systems are covered in the cited research reports. Transmission and equipment studies for space, atmospheric, and underwater light communication are presented. Topics covered include lasers, fiber optics, signal processing, transmission links, and data transmission. This updated bibliography contains 87 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  5. Communicative Influence Strategies in a Group Decision Support System Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Craig R.

    Group decision support systems (GDDS) represent a technological aid for the decision-making process, combining communication, computers, and decision technologies to support problem formulation and solution in group meetings. A study examined communicative influence strategies used in a GDDS meeting. Subjects, 201 high- and low-influence persons…

  6. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Singh, Tej B

    2010-07-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors. PMID:21716776

  7. Secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.

  8. A Time Domain Fluorescence Tomography System for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Scott B.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the application of a time domain diffuse fluorescence tomography system for whole body small animal imaging. The key features of the system are the use of point excitation in free space using ultrashort laser pulses and noncontact detection using a gated, intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Mouse shaped epoxy phantoms, with embedded fluorescent inclusions, were used to verify the performance of a recently developed asymptotic lifetime-based tomography algorithm. The asymptotic algorithm is based on a multiexponential analysis of the decay portion of the data. The multiexponential model is shown to enable the use of a global analysis approach for a robust recovery of the lifetime components present within the imaging medium. The surface boundaries of the imaging volume were acquired using a photogrammetric camera integrated with the imaging system, and implemented in a Monte-Carlo model of photon propagation in tissue. The tomography results show that the asymptotic approach is able to separate axially located fluorescent inclusions centered at depths of 4 and 10 mm from the surface of the mouse phantom. The fluorescent inclusions had distinct lifetimes of 0.5 and 0.95 ns. The inclusions were nearly overlapping along the measurement axis and shown to be not resolvable using continuous wave (CW) methods. These results suggest the practical feasibility and advantages of a time domain approach for whole body small animal fluorescence molecular imaging, particularly with the use of lifetime as a contrast mechanism. PMID:18672432

  9. Facility for the evaluation of space communications and related systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Communications Projects Branch has developed a facility for the evaluation of space communications systems and related types of systems, called the Advanced Space Communications (ASC) Laboratory. The ASC Lab includes instrumentation, testbed hardware, and experiment control and monitor software for the evaluation of components, subsystems, systems, and networks. The ASC lab has capabilities to perform radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and millimeter-wave characterizations as well as measurements using low, medium, or high data rate digital signals. In addition to laboratory measurements, the ASC Lab also includes integrated satellite ground terminals allowing experimentation and measurements accessing operational satellites through real space links.

  10. A satellite system for land-mobile communications in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.

  11. Towards the next generation of nanosatellite communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Milliano, Martijn; Verhoeven, Chris

    2010-05-01

    The communication systems currently used on nanosatellites are usually well-proven commercial-off-the-shelf units with data rates up to 9.6 kbit/s. A careful analysis shows that by using advancements in microelectronics, a higher communication performance can be achieved, even within the power and mass limitations of a nanosatellite. This paper presents a new approach to maximize the performance of nanosatellite communication systems by taking a systems engineer's perspective and by regarding the entire satellite instead of the communication system only. It is found that efficiency can be gained by also including the electrical power subsystem in the design and having a strong interaction between the communication subsystem and the electrical power subsystem. The parameters that influence the performance of the communication system are identified. It is shown how these parameters can be tuned such that the limited resources on a nanosatellite are used most effectively. The results are used in designing the communication system of Delfi-n3Xt, the next nanosatellite mission of Delft University of Technology. The results presented in the paper can be used as a guideline to designing a nanosatellite of the next generation.

  12. A fast microprocessor communication network design for interprocessor communications for an integrated flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. L.; Jiang, P.-W.

    1982-01-01

    A node design with connectivity four is presented whose communication processor handles data at four million bits/sec on each of the four channels into the node, and on each of the four channels out of the node, for a total node capacity of 32 million bits/sec. An integrated flight control system real-time application of this communication network design is discussed. It is shown that such high speed node communication hardware, arranged in the topological configuration of a minimum diameter graph with connectivity four and all links active, has good potential for real time control applications requiring reliability, availability, and survivability characteristics.

  13. ATCOM: Automatically Tuned Collective Communication System for SMP Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu

    2005-12-17

    Conventional implementations of collective communications are based on point-to-point communications, and their optimizations have been focused on efficiency of those communication algorithms. However, point-to-point communications are not the optimal choice for modern computing clusters of SMPs due to their two-level communication structure. In recent years, a few research efforts have investigated efficient collective communications for SMP clusters. This dissertation is focused on platform-independent algorithms and implementations in this area. There are two main approaches to implementing efficient collective communications for clusters of SMPs: using shared memory operations for intra-node communications, and overlapping inter-node/intra-node communications. The former fully utilizes the hardware based shared memory of an SMP, and the latter takes advantage of the inherent hierarchy of the communications within a cluster of SMPs. Previous studies focused on clusters of SMP from certain vendors. However, the previously proposed methods are not portable to other systems. Because the performance optimization issue is very complicated and the developing process is very time consuming, it is highly desired to have self-tuning, platform-independent implementations. As proven in this dissertation, such an implementation can significantly out-perform the other point-to-point based portable implementations and some platform-specific implementations. The dissertation describes in detail the architecture of the platform-independent implementation. There are four system components: shared memory-based collective communications, overlapping mechanisms for inter-node and intra-node communications, a prediction-based tuning module and a micro-benchmark based tuning module. Each component is carefully designed with the goal of automatic tuning in mind.

  14. Design of fiber-optic digital communication systems. Introductory course for students in communications engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftimov, T. A.

    1991-04-01

    The handbook intends to provide the basic concepts about the components necessary to design a fiber-optic link and the communication system itself. A student or a beginner in optical fiber communications is introduced to the basic concepts, characteristics, and parameters of the components from a practical point of view. Therefore, the text is heavily illustrated. The mathematics involved is reduced to the absolute minimum and all of the calculations can be performed with a simple pocket calculator. Unlike most university textbooks, the practical parameters of devices needed as ordering information are specially outlined. Special attention was paid to simplified design examples of the most typical up-to-date digital communication systems. These together with the problems should help the student acquire the minimum but solid knowledge in this so rapidly developing communications world.

  15. Relating Communications Mode Choice and Teamwork Quality: Conversational versus Textual Communication in IT System and Software Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James Robert

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored how IT system and software development team members communicated in the workplace and whether teams that used more verbal communication (and less text-based communication) experienced higher levels of collaboration as measured using the Teamwork Quality (TWQ) scale. Although computer-mediated communication tools…

  16. Relating Communications Mode Choice and Teamwork Quality: Conversational versus Textual Communication in IT System and Software Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James Robert

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored how IT system and software development team members communicated in the workplace and whether teams that used more verbal communication (and less text-based communication) experienced higher levels of collaboration as measured using the Teamwork Quality (TWQ) scale. Although computer-mediated communication tools

  17. [Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    The development of systematics in last decade has shown that typological classifications of five-six Kingdoms is not adequate for describing the diversity of organisms. Information from the sequences of small subunit rRNA is not sufficient to reconstruct the position of eukaryotes on the phylogenetic tree due to the effect of long branches. Totally new reconstruction of eukaryotic phylogeny was built upon the analysis of many new molecular markers. Evolution of eukaryotes had two mainstreams. One has been connected with diversification of ancestral biciliate forms (Bikonta). Sister-group of Bikonta (Unikonta) includes some originally uniciliate amoebae and moulds (Amoebozoa), and uniciliate eukaryotes with posterior cilium (Opisthokonta). The taxon Opisthokonta unites Fungi, Nuclearimorpha, Mesomycetozoa, Choanozoa and Metazoa. The latter three groups or only Metazoa are attributes to animals. The following differentiation of the groups used in systematic for the description of diversity of organisms is proposed. (1) Taxon is a group which is defined on the basis of ancestry: taxon includes all species descended from one ancestor. Taxon differs from logic classes of typology at an ontologic level. Taxon arises and exists, and its composition and occupied niches can constantly change; taxon can flourish or, on the contrary, fade up to full disappearance. Thus, the predicative characteristic of taxon, including characters which are considered significant, are not absolute. It is significant only at the moment of consideration. But characters (synapomorphies) are important as the practical tool for discerning taxa at given time period. Taxa unite species into unique classification. This understanding of taxon corresponds to monophyletic group sensu Willi Hennig. (2) Class of organisms is a group which is defined on the basis of characters: class includes all species having the given character. The class is only a logic object. Unlike taxa grouping species into classes may be through different and crossed classifications. Inside the given category of groups it is possible to distinguish: (2.1) Level of the organization (grade) described by the differences on the levels of organization: for example prokaryotic and eukaryotic levels of the organization. Eukaryotes can be divided into unicellular (Protoctista, Protista) and multicelluar (tissue-specific-Histonia) forms. (2.2) Types of the organization distinguishing groups of one level: for example, amoedoid type (Sarcodina), naked (Gymnamoebia), and testate (Testacea) amoebas. (2.3) Taxonomic groups as set-theoretical approximations of taxa. (2.4) Groups of the mixed nature. For example, Haeckel has recognized Protophyta and Protozoa describing the unicellular level of the organization inside plants and animals accordingly. Protozoa in Cavalier-Smith's system (2002, 2004) is also an example of groups of the mixed nature. PMID:16245570

  18. Self-Organizing OFDMA System for Broadband Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Aloke (Inventor); Anandappan, Thanga (Inventor); Malve, Sharath Babu (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for a self-organizing OFDMA system for broadband communication are provided. In certain embodiments a communication node for a self organizing network comprises a communication interface configured to transmit data to and receive data from a plurality of nodes; and a processing unit configured to execute computer readable instructions. Further, computer readable instructions direct the processing unit to identify a sub-region within a cell, wherein the communication node is located in the sub-region; and transmit at least one data frame, wherein the data from the communication node is transmitted at a particular time and frequency as defined within the at least one data frame, where the time and frequency are associated with the sub-region.

  19. A Systems Approach to Scaffold Communication Skills Development

    PubMed Central

    Er, Nelson L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement a communication skills development (CSD) system and evaluate its effectiveness in a clinical communications course. Design Students conducted baseline interviews and wrote SOAP notes, and based on faculty, patient, self- and peer assessments, set goals for improvement of their communication skills. Students participated in various activities to scaffold their learning, several of which took place in a web-based environment to enhance access and function for both students and faculty members. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Assessment Students' communication skills improved as evidenced by assessment scores. Student and faculty comments offered additional evidence of the effectiveness of standardized patient interviews, learning strategies, and assessment methods. Conclusion The CSD system effectively integrated various types of learning activities and feedback processes. The use of scaffolding strategies appeared to enhance the development of students' communication skills. PMID:18483601

  20. X-Band CubeSat Communication System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunc, Serhat; Kegege, Obadiah; Bundick, Steve; Shaw, Harry; Schaire, Scott; Bussey, George; Crum, Gary; Burke, Jacob C.; Palo, Scott; O'Conor, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Today's CubeSats mostly operate their communications at UHF- and S-band frequencies. UHF band is presently crowded, thus downlink communications are at lower data rates due to bandwidth limitations and are unreliable due to interference. This research presents an end-to-end robust, innovative, compact, efficient and low cost S-band uplink and X-band downlink CubeSat communication system demonstration between a balloon and a Near Earth Network (NEN) ground system. Since communication systems serve as umbilical cords for space missions, demonstration of this X-band communication system is critical for successfully supporting current and future CubeSat communication needs. This research has three main objectives. The first objective is to design, simulate, and test a CubeSat S- and X-band communication system. Satellite Tool Kit (STK) dynamic link budget calculations and HFSS Simulations and modeling results have been used to trade the merit of various designs for small satellite applications. S- and X-band antennas have been tested in the compact antenna test range at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to gather radiation pattern data. The second objective is simulate and test a CubeSat compatible X-band communication system at 12.5Mbps including S-band antennas, X-band antennas, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) /GSFC transmitter and an S-band receiver from TRL-5 to TRL-8 by the end of this effort. Different X-band communication system components (antennas, diplexers, etc.) from GSFC, other NASA centers, universities, and private companies have been investigated and traded, and a complete component list for the communication system baseline has been developed by performing analytical and numerical analysis. This objective also includes running simulations and performing trades between different X-band antenna systems to optimize communication system performance. The final objective is to perform an end-to-end X-band CubeSat communication system demonstration between a balloon and/or a sounding rocket and a Near Earth Network (NEN) ground system. This paper presents CubeSat communication systems simulation results, analysis of X-band and S-band antennas and RF front-end components, transceiver design, analysis and optimization of space-to-ground communication performance, subsystem development, as well as the test results for an end-to-end X-band CubeSat communication system demonstration. The outcome of this work will be used to pave the way for next generation NEN-compatible X-band CubeSat communication systems to support higher data rates with more advanced modulation and forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes, and to support and attract new science missions at lower cost. It also includes an abbreviated concept of operations for CubeSat users to utilize the NEN, starting from first contact with NASA's communication network and continuing through on-orbit operations.

  1. A high-sensitivity small animal SPECT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gregory S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2009-03-01

    Medical imaging using single gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides typically makes use of parallel hole collimators or pinholes in order to achieve good spatial resolution. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of a collimator, and modern preclinical single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma rays, often less than 0.1%. A system for small animal SPECT imaging which uses no collimators could potentially achieve very high sensitivityseveral tens of percentwith reasonably sized detectors. This would allow two significant improvements in preclinical studies: images could be obtained more rapidly, allowing higher throughput for screening applications, or for dynamic processes to be observed with very good time resolution; and images could be obtained with less radioactive tracer, making possible the in vivo imaging of low-capacity receptor systems, aiding research into new tracer compounds, and reducing the cost and easing the regulatory burden of an experiment. Of course, a system with no collimator will not be able to approach the submillimeter spatial resolutions produced by the most advanced pinhole and collimated systems, but a high-sensitivity system with resolution of order 1 cm could nonetheless find significant and new use in the many molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolutionfor example, screening applications for drug development or new imaging agents. Rather than as an alternative to high-resolution SPECT systems, the high-sensitivity system is proposed as a radiotracer alternative to optical imaging for small animals. We have developed a prototype system for mouse imaging applications. The scanner consists of two large, thin, closely spaced scintillation detectors. Simulation studies indicate that a FWHM spatial resolution of 7 mm is possible. In an in vivo mouse imaging study using the 99mTc labeled tracer MAG-3, the sensitivity of the system is measured to be 40%. Simple projection images created by analytically combining the two detectors' data show sufficient resolution to observe the dynamic distribution of the radiotracer in the mouse.

  2. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... data necessary for managing and analyzing animal disease control or surveillance programs and... Service Agency, APHIS' Wildlife Services, or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing... Surveillance and Monitoring System, USDA- APHIS-15. This notice is necessary to meet the requirements of...

  3. 80. Survivable lowfrequency communications system receiver, teletypewriter set, radio, teleprinter, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. Survivable low-frequency communications system receiver, teletypewriter set, radio, teleprinter, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. Personal communication system combines high performance with miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, N. D.

    1967-01-01

    Personal communication system provides miniaturized components that incorporate high level signal characteristics plus noise rejection in both microphone and earphone circuitry. The microphone is designed to overcome such spacecraft flight problems as size, ambient noise level, and RF interference.

  5. 7. Survivable low frequency communication system pathway, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Survivable low frequency communication system pathway, looking east - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  6. Dreamweaver and Flash: Strategies for Updating Communication Systems Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roger B.

    2004-01-01

    The rate of innovation and change impacting technology education communication systems instruction has been vigorous for longer than most people can remember. Trends have included analog systems being replaced by digital systems, integration of networks and system devices, computerization, optical storage, and wireless transmission of data. The…

  7. Smart Data Node in the Sky (SDNITS): communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A.; Lansing, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss: the steps for adequately designing such a complex telecommunications system 'Smart Data Node In The Sky (SDNITS)'; algorithm development for this process; specifications to be levied on the interfacing subsystems; type of the system e.g., the usual Radio Frequency system or a laser communications system.

  8. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems

    PubMed Central

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T. Mark; Barr, Dale J.; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems. PMID:24966310

  9. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems.

    PubMed

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T Mark; Barr, Dale J; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems. PMID:24966310

  10. A system for analysis and classification of voice communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.; Garland, L.

    1973-01-01

    A method for analysis and classification of verbal communications typically associated with manned space missions or simulations was developed. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 was devoted to identification of crew tasks and activities which require voice communication for accomplishment or reporting. Phase 2 entailed development of a message classification system and a preliminary test of its feasibility. The classification system permits voice communications to be analyzed to three progressively more specific levels of detail and to be described in terms of message content, purpose, and the participants in the information exchange. A coding technique was devised to allow messages to be recorded by an eight-digit number.

  11. Domestic satellite communication system to be established in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.; Yucheng, B.

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of a domestic satellite communication system for China is discussed. To experiment, China built miniaturized ground stations and used the idle transponders of two INTELSAT satellites. The experiment was divided into three phases: verification and test of ground facilities; test of channel operations; and functional test of the Chinese built ground facilities. From a technical and economic point of view, developing China's domestic satellite communication system by leasing foreign satellites and building China's own ground stations is both efficient and effective.

  12. Nonlinear filter based decision feedback equalizer for optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqi; Cheng, Chi-Hao

    2014-04-01

    Nonlinear impairments in optical communication system have become a major concern of optical engineers. In this paper, we demonstrate that utilizing a nonlinear filter based Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) with error detection capability can deliver a better performance compared with the conventional linear filter based DFE. The proposed algorithms are tested in simulation using a coherent 100 Gb/sec 16-QAM optical communication system in a legacy optical network setting. PMID:24718240

  13. Augmentation of a commercial satellite system for military communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butte, Eric G.; Thorburn, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Future U.S. MILSATCOM will rely on a complex satellite design to implement the TSAT satellite system that was developed on the Transformational Communication Architecture program. TSAT will deliver secured IP based, on-demand communication system to meet the needs of the military and the warfighter and will demand a very large satellite system, program, and an anticipated lengthy deployment time. An alternate system is proposed that can give IP based communications in a significantly shorter time frame. A constellation of commercial-like satellites, with transponded Ka-, Ku- and X-band, would nicely complement the MILSATCOM fleet. The services provided by these satellites would enable widespread communications services such as IP to the theatre, augmenting the DSCS, Wideband Gapfiller, and protected communications systems of MILSTAR and Advanced EHF. The capacity provided by the dedicated commercial satellites would help provide the capacity demanded by the warfighter as MILSATCOM transitions from today's technology to the TSAT system of tomorrow's Transformational Communications Architecture. This paper will discuss the satellite concept design and how it can augment the MILSATCOM fleet and show a more flexible approach of bandwidth management to support fixed and COTM terminals.

  14. Research of STBC in free space optical communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tianping; Peng, Kai; Lu, Yimin

    2009-12-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is a communication pattern in which laser is used as the information carrier in atmosphere environment. FSO system has been widely applied in the fields of satellite communication and ground sight distance communication, with a promising application prospect and tremendous market potential. And space-time processing (using multiple antennas) is now recognized as a key to achieving reliable high data rate wireless communications and is being incorporated into the physical layer of many wireless standards. In this letter, error rate performance for space-time block coding (STBC) in FSO communication systems with direct detection operating over strong atmospheric turbulence channels is analyzed. The purpose of the paper is: (i) to determine the channel capacity of FSO system in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, (ii) to see how much this limit can be approached using the best known STBC techniques. In this paper, we use mathematics tool to establish the channel model of FSO system, and then apply the STBC to the FSO system, research the decoding method and simulate the performance using MATLAB tools. The mathematics analysis and simulation results show the great application expectation of STBC in the OOK channel of the FSO system.

  15. An all digital low data rate communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.; Fan, M.

    1973-01-01

    The advent of digital hardwares has made it feasible to implement many communication system components digitally. With the exception of frequency down conversion, the proposed low data rate communication system uses digital hardwares completely. Although the system is designed primarily for deep space communications with large frequency uncertainty and low signal-to-noise ratio, it is also suitable for other low data rate applications with time-shared operation among a number of channels. Emphasis is placed on the fast Fourier transform receiver and the automatic frequency control via digital filtering. The speed available from the digital system allows sophisticated signal processing to reduce frequency uncertainty and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The practical limitations of the system such as the finite register length are examined. It is concluded that the proposed all-digital system is not only technically feasible but also has potential cost reduction over the existing receiving systems.

  16. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  17. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  18. Development of a triple modality small animal planar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Weisenberger, Z. Lee, S. Majewski, B. Kross, V. Popov, B. Welch, R. Wojcik, C. Zorn

    2006-02-01

    Recently small animal research utilizing nuclear medicine based imaging has been combined with structural anatomical imaging from x-ray radiography providing a powerful tool for animal researchers. The addition of a third modality is the goal of our instrumentation development. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Case Western Reserve University have been collaborating on the development of a planar imaging system which in addition to radiopharmaceutical based functional imaging and x-ray radiography structural imaging also allows for the in vivo bioluminescence imaging thus providing another functional imaging modality. For the gamma camera we use is a Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillator array with individual crystal elements 1 mm × 1 mm × 5 mm in size and a 0.25 mm septum between each element. The gamma camera has a 10 cm diameter active area and can be used for 125I, 99mT and 111In radionuclide imaging. To acquire anatomical information we are using a Rad-Icon Shad-o-Box X-ray detector that provides a field of view of 5 cm × 10 cm. The x-ray source is a Source-Ray compact x-ray generator. We are using a Princeton Instruments cooled CCD based detector for the imaging of the bio-distribution of bioluminescence. All three imaging instruments will be integrated into a single light tight / x-ray tight enclosure.

  19. Methods for operating parallel computing systems employing sequenced communications

    DOEpatents

    Benner, R.E.; Gustafson, J.L.; Montry, G.R.

    1999-08-10

    A parallel computing system and method are disclosed having improved performance where a program is concurrently run on a plurality of nodes for reducing total processing time, each node having a processor, a memory, and a predetermined number of communication channels connected to the node and independently connected directly to other nodes. The present invention improves performance of the parallel computing system by providing a system which can provide efficient communication between the processors and between the system and input and output devices. A method is also disclosed which can locate defective nodes with the computing system. 15 figs.

  20. Methods for operating parallel computing systems employing sequenced communications

    DOEpatents

    Benner, Robert E.; Gustafson, John L.; Montry, Gary R.

    1999-01-01

    A parallel computing system and method having improved performance where a program is concurrently run on a plurality of nodes for reducing total processing time, each node having a processor, a memory, and a predetermined number of communication channels connected to the node and independently connected directly to other nodes. The present invention improves performance of performance of the parallel computing system by providing a system which can provide efficient communication between the processors and between the system and input and output devices. A method is also disclosed which can locate defective nodes with the computing system.

  1. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  2. Tunnel radio communications system at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Struven, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    A unique single frequency, dual daisy chain tunnel radio communication system has been developed for use in our new Positron-Electron Storage Ring. Communications are possible between portables in the underground ring and between a portable in the ring and all control rooms on the site. The system is designed as a wide band facility and therefore can carry many simplex and duplex transmissions. This system utilizes TV twinlead as a distributed antenna and repeater amplifiers to cover more than 7000 feet of underground tunnel. The design philosophy, tests and initial design are discussed and contrasted with the final implementation of the system. Future uses of the system are discussed.

  3. Laser Communication Demonstration System (LCDS) and future mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Wilhelm, Michael D.; Lesh, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Communications Demonstration System (LCDS) is a proposed in-orbit demonstration of high data rate laser communications technology conceived jointly by NASA and U.S. industry. The program objectives are to stimulate industry development and to demonstrate the readiness of high data rate optical communications in Earth orbit. For future global satellite communication systems using intersatellite links, laser communications technology can offer reduced mass and power requirements and higher channel bandwidths without regulatory constraints. As currently envisioned, LCDS will consist of one or two orbiting laser communications terminals capable of demonstrating high data rate (greater than 750Mbps) transmission in a dynamic space environment. Two study teams led by Motorola and Ball Aerospace are currently in the process of conducting a Phase A/B mission definition study of LCDS under contracts with JPL/NASA. The studies consist of future application survey, concept and requirements definition, and a point design of the laser communications flight demonstration. It is planned that a single demonstration system will be developed based on the study results. The Phase A/B study is expected to be completed by the coming June, and the current results of the study are presented in this paper.

  4. DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) preliminary communication security analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document a technical approach to improve DOE Integrated Security System (DISS) dial-up communications security and the requirements to address them. This document is not intended as a comprehensive analysis of the security aspects of the DISS computer system but rather as an analysis of the dial-up communications security as it pertains to the use of the DISS database in the new DOE Automated Visitors Access Control System (DAVACS) procedures. Current access controls into the DISS will be discussed with emphasis on the DAVACS procedures. Recommendations will be provided for increasing the dial-up communications security into DISS as it relates to the automated visit procedures. Finally a design for an encrypted dial-up communication link to DISS will be given.

  5. A systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    In addition to but separate from the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper, without compromising safety. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo. The Blue Team process and results are summarized. The Associate Administrator for Space Communications subsequently convened a special management session to discuss the significance and implications of the Blue Team's report and to lay the groundwork and teamwork for the next steps, including the transition from engineering systems to systems engineering. The methodology and progress toward realizing the Code O Family vision and accomplishing the systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications are presented.

  6. Space communications and the impact of new technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, C. R.

    1982-06-01

    A report on the International Colloquium on space communications and the impact of new technologies and systems is presented. Among the topics considered were current and future trends in communication technology, including both satellite communications and networks of microwave links and fiber optics cables. Of particular interest was the development of the 40 and 60 GHz bands for satellite direct TV broadcast to homes and cost comparisons between optic fiber and satellite broadcast systems. Consideration was given to the effects of the evolution of satellite technology on the user in terms of roof-top antenna newspaper reception, advances in mobile receivers, and combined communication/navigation systems. Home satellite TV recipient numbers are expected to climb to 85 million by 1985. Finally, attention was paid to teleconferencing via satellite and to developments for the 1990's.

  7. Study and design of laser communications system for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design, development and operation are described of the laser communications system developed for potential space shuttle application. A brief study was conducted to identify the need, if any, for narrow bandwidth space-to-space communication on the shuttle vehicles. None have been specifically identified that could not be accommodated with existing equipments. The key technical features developed in this hardware are the conically scanned tracker for optimized track while communicating with a single detector, and the utilization of a common optical carrier frequency for both transmission and detection. This latter feature permits a multiple access capability so that several transceivers can communicate with one another. The conically scanned tracker technique allows the received signal energy to be efficiently divided between the tracking and communications functions within a common detector.

  8. Curved array photoacoustic tomographic system for small animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gamelin, John; Aguirre, Andres; Maurudis, Anastasios; Huang, Fei; Castillo, Diego; Wang, Lihong V.; Zhu, Quing

    2008-01-01

    We present systematic characterization of a photoacoustic imaging system optimized for rapid, high-resolution tomographic imaging of small animals. The system is based on a 128-element ultrasonic transducer array with a 5-MHz center frequency and 80% bandwidth shaped to a quarter circle of 25 mm radius. A 16-channel data-acquisition module and dedicated channel detection electronics enable capture of a 90-deg field-of-view image in less than 1 s and a complete 360-deg scan using sample rotation within 15 s. Measurements on cylindrical phantom targets demonstrate a resolution of better than 200 μm and high-sensitivity detection of 580-μm blood tubing to depths greater than 3 cm in a turbid medium with reduced scattering coefficient μs′=7.8cm−1. The system is used to systematically investigate the effects of target size, orientation, and geometry on tomographic imaging. As a demonstration of these effects and the system imaging capabilities, we present tomographic photoacoustic images of the brain vasculature of an ex vivo mouse with varying measurement aperture. For the first time, according to our knowledge, resolution of sub-200-μm vessels with an overlying turbid medium of greater than 2 cm depth is demonstrated using only intrinsic biological contrast. PMID:18465970

  9. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alem, W. K.; Huth, G. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The particular Ku-band carrier, PN despreading, and symbol synchronization strategies, which were selected for implementation in the Ku-band transponder aboard the orbiter, were assessed and evaluated from a systems performance viewpoint, verifying that system specifications were met. A study was performed of the design and implementation of tracking techniques which are suitable for incorporation into the Orbiter Ku-band communication system. Emphasis was placed on maximizing tracking accuracy and communication system flexibility while minimizing cost, weight, and system complexity of Orbiter and ground systems hardware. The payload communication study assessed the design and performance of the forward link and return link bent-pipe relay modes for attached and detached payloads. As part of this study, a design for a forward link bent-pipe was proposed which employs a residual carrier but which is tracked by the existing Costas loop.

  10. A simple integrated system for electrophysiologic recordings in animals

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Bernard J.; Miller, Neil R.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Flower, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    This technical note describes a modification to a fundus camera that permits simultaneous recording of pattern electroretinograms (pERGs) and pattern visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). The modification consists of placing an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) in the split-viewer pathway of a fundus camera, in a plane conjugate to the subject’s pupil. In this way, a focused image of the OLED can be delivered to a precisely known location on the retina. The advantage of using an OLED is that it can achieve high luminance while maintaining high contrast, and with minimal degradation over time. This system is particularly useful for animal studies, especially when precise retinal positioning is required. PMID:19137347

  11. Simulation system architecture design for generic communications link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Chit-Sang; Ratliff, Jim

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses a computer simulation system architecture design for generic digital communications systems. It addresses the issues of an overall system architecture in order to achieve a user-friendly, efficient, and yet easily implementable simulation system. The system block diagram and its individual functional components are described in detail. Software implementation is discussed with the VAX/VMS operating system used as a target environment.

  12. Comprehending emergent systems phenomena through direct-manipulation animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Priscilla Abel

    This study seeks to understand the type of interaction mode that best supports learning and comprehension of emergent systems phenomena. Given that the literature has established that students hold robust misconceptions of such phenomena, this study investigates the influence of using three types of interaction; speed-manipulation animation (SMN), post-manipulation animation (PMA) and direct-manipulation animation (DMA) for increasing comprehension and testing transfer of the phenomena, by looking at the effect of simultaneous interaction of haptic and visual channels on long term and working memories when seeking to comprehend emergent phenomena. The questions asked were: (1) Does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool (i.e., SMA, PMA or DMA), improve students' mental model construction of systems, thus increasing comprehension of this scientific concept? And (2) does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, give the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which can then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios? In an empirical study undergraduate and graduate students were asked to participate in one of three experimental conditions: SMA, PMA, or DMA. The results of the study found that it was the participants of the SMA treatment condition that had the most improvement in post-test scores. Students' understanding of the phenomena increased most when they used a dynamic model with few interactive elements (i.e., start, stop, and speed) that allowed for real time visualization of one's interaction on the phenomena. Furthermore, no indication was found that the learning of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, gave the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which could then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios. Finally, besides treatment condition, gender and age were also shown to be predictors of score differences; overall, males did better than females, and younger students did better than older students.

  13. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: implications for animals communicating in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-06-01

    Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats. PMID:25852069

  14. Use of low orbital satellite communications systems for humanitarian programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir N.; Gorkovoy, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    Communication and information exchange play a decisive role in progress and social development. However, in many parts of the world the communication infrastructure is inadequate and the capacity for on-line exchange of information may not exist. This is true of underdeveloped countries, remote and relatively inaccessible regions, sites of natural disasters, and of all cases where the resources needed to create complex communication systems are limited. The creation of an inexpensive space communications system to service such areas is therefore a high priority task. In addition to a relatively low-cost space segment, an inexpensive space communications systems requires a large number of ground terminals, which must be relatively inexpensive, energy efficient (using power generated by storage batteries, or solar arrays, etc.), small in size, and must not require highly expert maintenance. The ground terminals must be portable, and readily deployable. Communications satellites in geostationary orbit at altitudes of about 36,000 km are very expensive and require complex and expensive ground stations and launch vehicles. Given current technology, it is categorically impossible to develop inexpensive satellite systems with portable ground terminals using such satellites. To solve the problem of developing an inexpensive satellite communications system that can operate with relatively small ground stations, including portable terminals, we propose to use a system with satellites in low Earth orbit, at an altitude of 900-1500 km. Because low orbital satellites are much closer to the Earth than geostationary ones and require vastly less energy expenditure by the satellite and ground terminals for transmission of messages, a system using them is relatively inexpensive. Such a system could use portable ground terminals no more complex than ordinary mobile police radios.

  15. Estimation of the demand for public services communications. [market research and economic analysis for a communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Market analyses and economic studies are presented to support NASA planning for a communications satellite system to provide public services in health, education, mobile communications, data transfer, and teleconferencing.

  16. Command system protection for commercial communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoernig, Otto W., Jr.; Sood, Des R.

    The satellite command link security protection system presented uses the U.S. National Bureau of Standards Data Encryption Standard algorithm to deny access to the satellite command system to anyone but an authorized ground control station operator. The system employs the same technology as the other command system elements, and is transparent to the satellite users. Attention is given to experience accumulated since the lauch of the first satellite incorporating this system, in August, 1985.

  17. Communications Solutions for Heterogeneous Systems Based on SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xianmin

    In order to address the gaps which widely used in business application architecture and problems of heterogeneous system communication, this paper provides a standardized framework of SOA, built in the application of a loose coupling between systems "server + proxy" data exchange platform, to achieve heterogeneous data exchange and data sharing, and developed a business based on Web services platform, making full use of the Web service, which makes the system has good scalability and maintainability, to solve the problem of heterogeneous system communication and widely used to make up for the current architecture lack of business applications.

  18. Gigabit optical wireless communication system for indoor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2010-12-01

    In this paper a novel high bandwidth optical wireless communication system for indoor personal area networking applications with both ubiquitous coverage and mobility feature is proposed and tradeoffs are studied. Gigabit-per-second optical wireless communication system with limited mobility provided to users has been demonstrated by proof-of- concept experiments for the first time. It has also been shown that when incorporating with the WiFi-based localization system, our proposed system can provide high-speed error-free operation with mobility over the entire room.

  19. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communications system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the digital communication system for the direct communication links from ground to space shuttle and the links involving the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). Three main tasks were performed:(1) Channel encoding/decoding parameter optimization for forward and reverse TDRS links,(2)integration of command encoding/decoding and channel encoding/decoding; and (3) modulation coding interface study. The general communication environment is presented to provide the necessary background for the tasks and to provide an understanding of the implications of the results of the studies.

  20. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and potential system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, David L.; Balombin, Joseph R.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) system is given with special emphasis on the communication characteristics. Potential satellite communications scenarios, including future operational ACTS-like satellite systems, are discussed. The description of the ACTS system updates previously published ACTS system references. Detailed information on items such as experimental ground stations is presented. The potential services can be generically described as voice, video, and data services. The implementation of these services on future operational ACTS-like systems can lead to unique quality, flexibility, and capacity characteristics at lower service costs. The specific service applications that could be supported range from low to high data rates and include both domestic and international applications.

  1. Systems analysis of the space shuttle. [communication systems, computer systems, and power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.; Oh, S. J.; Thau, F.

    1975-01-01

    Developments in communications systems, computer systems, and power distribution systems for the space shuttle are described. The use of high speed delta modulation for bit rate compression in the transmission of television signals is discussed. Simultaneous Multiprocessor Organization, an approach to computer organization, is presented. Methods of computer simulation and automatic malfunction detection for the shuttle power distribution system are also described.

  2. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 2: Site reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I. (Editor); Pelton, Joseph N. (Editor); Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology. It consists of the site reports from the panel's visits to satellite communications facilities and laboratories in Europe, Japan, and Russia. The Executive Summary of the panel's final report is published separately. Volume 1, also published separately, consists of the panel's analytical chapters. Information on ordering the Executive Summary and Volume 1 from the National Technical Information Service is included.

  3. A Low Cost Communication Sattelite Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlugatch, Irving

    The report discusses the potential of satellites for education and applies the principles of system engineering to studies of system implementation and cost effectiveness. The proposed system makes use of television and of a space vehicle, and excels in the modesty of its transmitter and receiver requirements on the ground and on the spacecraft.

  4. A Low Cost Communication Sattelite Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlugatch, Irving

    The report discusses the potential of satellites for education and applies the principles of system engineering to studies of system implementation and cost effectiveness. The proposed system makes use of television and of a space vehicle, and excels in the modesty of its transmitter and receiver requirements on the ground and on the spacecraft.…

  5. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  6. Humans mimicking animals: A cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, William J.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Hitt, Laura; Frum, Chris A.; Lewis, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STS) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, STS regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or “expertise” in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations – human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations – we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. These results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages prior to the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins. PMID:22674283

  7. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Alan

    An informal introduction to the study of communication deals with the major topics in the field. It presents basic theories of communication and language, reviews how language takes on meaning, explains the stimulus-response and Piaget theories of learning, and presents major theories dealing with communications and society. These theories include…

  8. Blood compatible microfluidic system for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals.

    PubMed

    Convert, Laurence; Baril, Frdrique Girard; Boisselle, Vincent; Pratte, Jean-Franois; Fontaine, Rjean; Lecomte, Roger; Charette, Paul G; Aimez, Vincent

    2012-11-21

    New radiotracer developments for nuclear medicine imaging require the analysis of blood as a function of time in small animal models. A microfluidic device was developed to monitor the radioactivity concentration in the blood of rats and mice in real time. The microfluidic technology enables a large capture solid angle and a reduction in the separation distance between the sample and detector, thus increasing the detection efficiency. This in turn allows a reduction of the required detection volume without compromising sensitivity, an important advantage with rodent models having a small total blood volume (a few ml). A robust fabrication process was developed to manufacture the microchannels on top of unpackaged p-i-n photodiodes without altering detector performance. The microchannels were fabricated with KMPR, an epoxy-based photoresist similar to SU-8 but with improved resistance to stress-induced fissuring. Surface passivation of the KMPR enables non-diluted whole blood to flow through the channel for up to 20 min at low speed without clotting. The microfluidic device was embedded in a portable blood counter with dedicated electronics, pumping unit and computer control software for utilisation next to a small animal nuclear imaging scanner. Experimental measurements confirmed model predictions and showed a 4- to 19-fold improvement in detection efficiency over existing catheter-based devices, enabling a commensurate reduction in sampled blood volume. A linear dose-response relationship was demonstrated for radioactivity concentrations typical of experiments with rodents. The system was successfully used to measure the blood input function of rats in real time after radiotracer injection. PMID:23000896

  9. New laser communication and laser ranging of integration source system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guan-yu; Wang, Shuang; Shi, Haodong; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Duo-rui

    2014-12-01

    With the development of laser transmission technology, the laser ranging and communication technology integration, miniaturization has become an important research direction nowadays. Based on laser ranging and communication integration of the requirements, design the1064nm fiber laser system, to suffice laser communication, laser ranging and beacon beam of the requirements at the same time could be provide the coherent detection to signal beam. The simulation experiment the 1064nm of free space optical communication in the laboratory, the coherent detection sensitivity is higher than -22dBm, the bit error rate 10-7 laser communication system. Multiple laser ranging to build coherent beam experimental realization of the coupling efficiency is higher than 70%, the laser output power of greater than 21W. The light source system is designed in this paper can realize the previous several lasers to complete the task, not only has the advantage of integration and miniaturization, through the simulation experiment could satisfy the communication requirements of power laser ranging ,and it is ideal light for laser transmission integration technology.

  10. Improving Literacy Skills in Students with Complex Communication Needs Who Use Augmentative/Alternative Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    A structured intervention package including direct, scaffolded, instructional lessons was implemented using an error correction learning system and a picture book-based phonological and phonemic awareness activity for four participants with complex communication needs, ranging from 12 to 15 years, in a junior high school setting. Although…

  11. Improving Literacy Skills in Students with Complex Communication Needs Who Use Augmentative/Alternative Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    A structured intervention package including direct, scaffolded, instructional lessons was implemented using an error correction learning system and a picture book-based phonological and phonemic awareness activity for four participants with complex communication needs, ranging from 12 to 15 years, in a junior high school setting. Although

  12. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  13. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  14. An experimental study of the emergence of human communication systems.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-09-10

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were physically separated but exchanged graphic signals through a medium that prevented the use of standard symbols (e.g., letters). Communication systems emerged and developed rapidly during the games, integrating the use of explicit signs with information implicitly available to players and silent behavior-coordinating procedures. The systems that emerged suggest 3 conclusions: (a) signs originate from different mappings; (b) sign systems develop parsimoniously; (c) sign forms are perceptually distinct, easy to produce, and tolerant to variations. PMID:21702792

  15. An all digital low data rate communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-H.; Fan, M.

    1973-01-01

    The advent of digital hardwares has made it feasible to implement many communication system components digitally. With the exception of frequency down conversion, the proposed low data rate communication system uses digital hardware completely. Although the system is designed primarily for deep space communications with large frequency uncertainty and low signal-to-noise ratio, it is also suitable for other low data rate applications with time-shared operation among a number of channels. Emphasis is placed on the fast Fourier transform receiver and the automatic frequency control via digital filtering. The speed available from the digital system allows sophisticated signal processing to reduce frequency uncertainty and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Communications satellite systems operations with the space station, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Dixon, J.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    A financial model was developed which described quantitatively the economics of the space segment of communication satellite systems. The model describes the economics of the space system throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The expected state-of-the-art status of communications satellite systems and operations beginning service in 1995 were assessed and described. New or enhanced space-based activities and associated satellite system designs that have the potential to achieve future communications satellite operations in geostationary orbit with improved economic performance were postulated and defined. Three scenarios using combinations of space-based activities were analyzed: a spin stabilized satellite, a three axis satellite, and assembly at the Space Station and GEO servicing. Functional and technical requirements placed on the Space Station by the scenarios were detailed. Requirements on the satellite were also listed.

  17. Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C. H.; Levis, C. A.; Mount-Campbell, C.; Gonsalvez, D. J.; Wang, C. W.; Yamamura, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Computer-based techniques for optimizing communications-satellite orbit and frequency assignments are discussed. A gradient-search code was tested against a BSS scenario derived from the RARC-83 data. Improvement was obtained, but each iteration requires about 50 minutes of IBM-3081 CPU time. Gradient-search experiments on a small FSS test problem, consisting of a single service area served by 8 satellites, showed quickest convergence when the satellites were all initially placed near the center of the available orbital arc with moderate spacing. A transformation technique is proposed for investigating the surface topography of the objective function used in the gradient-search method. A new synthesis approach is based on transforming single-entry interference constraints into corresponding constraints on satellite spacings. These constraints are used with linear objective functions to formulate the co-channel orbital assignment task as a linear-programming (LP) problem or mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Globally optimal solutions are always found with the MIP problems, but not necessarily with the LP problems. The MIP solutions can be used to evaluate the quality of the LP solutions. The initial results are very encouraging.

  18. A study on experimental communications system using microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryutaro; Miura, Ryu; Kondo, Kimio; Iida, Takashi; Obuchi, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Osamu; Matsui, Masayasu; Muranaka, Noboru

    1991-10-01

    This paper describes a study on experimental communication system using microsatellites. The communication network system consists of a few microsatellites and provides an information network system which picks up and delivers voice, correspondence, diagram and some digital information from/to ground station, and/or from/to satellite. The ground-station radio link is 9.6 kbps, and the inter-satellite radio link is 1 kbps. The microsatellite has a very unique feature with twin twenty-six-hedron structure connected to each other by an expanded mast. The total weight of the satellite is 50 kg.

  19. Marco (Medical Record Communications) - System Concept, Design and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, P. H.; Heisler, B. D.; Mela, W. D.; Alpert, J. J.; Goldstein, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    MARCO, an interfacility communication system, has been designed to promote safe relevant health care delivery to the inner city pediatric patient receiving care in a network consisting of Boston City Hospital and its affiliated Neighborhood Health Centers. This application of computer technology to communication of medical information compiled on an individual patient in multiple locations has implications for private group practice as well as other urban networks similar to our own. This paper provides the MARCO system concept, the system design and evaluation of its success after two years of operation.

  20. Multivariate classification of animal communication signals: a simulation-based comparison of alternative signal processing procedures using electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Crampton, William G R; Davis, Justin K; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Pensky, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of communication can benefit from classification procedures that allow individual animals to be assigned to groups (e.g. species) on the basis of high-dimension data representing their signals. Prior to classification, signals are usually transformed by a signal processing procedure into structural features. Applications of these signal processing procedures to animal communication have been largely restricted to the manual or semi-automated identification of landmark features from graphical representations of signals. Nonetheless, theory predicts that automated time-frequency-based digital signal processing (DSP) procedures can represent signals more efficiently (using fewer features) than can landmark procedures or frequency-based DSP - allowing more accurate classification. Moreover, DSP procedures are objective in that they require little previous knowledge of signal diversity, and are relatively free from potentially ungrounded assumptions of cross-taxon homology. Using a model data set of electric organ discharge waveforms from five sympatric species of the electric fish Gymnotus, we adopted an exhaustive simulation approach to investigate the classificatory performance of different signal processing procedures. We considered a landmark procedure, a frequency-based DSP procedure (the fast Fourier transform), and two kinds of time-frequency-based DSP procedures (a short-time Fourier transform, and several implementations of the discrete wavelet transform -DWT). The features derived from each of these signal processing procedures were then subjected to dimension reduction procedures to separate those features which permit the most effective discrimination among groups of signalers. We considered four alternative dimension reduction methods. Finally, each combination of reduced data was submitted to classification by linear discriminant analysis. Our results support theoretical predictions that time-frequency DSP procedures (especially DWT) permit more efficient discrimination of groups. The performance of signal processing was found to depend largely upon the dimension reduction procedure employed, and upon the number of resulting features. Because the best combinations of procedures are dataset-dependent and difficult to predict, we conclude that simulations of the kind described here, or at least simplified versions of them, should be routinely executed before classification of animal signals - especially unfamiliar ones. PMID:18984042

  1. Defensive And Supportive Communications In Family Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James F.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of Systems Theory concepts to family functioning involving 21 families provides data which demonstrates that normal families behave as adaptive systems, both in generating and reciprocating high rates of supportiveness. Information is also obtained concerning a possible cause of aggressive behavior. (RP)

  2. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  3. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future. PMID:23189635

  4. Channel simulation for direct-detection optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct-detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log-normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean, or chi-square density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the channel simulator are presented.

  5. Channel simulation for direct detection optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean or chi-squared density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the Channel Simulator are presented.

  6. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide

  7. Communications system for zero-g simulation tests in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    System connects seven observers, diver, and spare station, and utilizes public address system with underwater speakers to provide two-way communications between test subject and personnel in control of life support, so that test personnel are warned immediately of malfunction in pressure suit or equipment.

  8. 47 CFR 90.465 - Control of systems of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... varying ways. In single frequency simplex, base/mobile operations, control may be exercised by the control... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of systems of communication. 90.465... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control § 90.465 Control of systems...

  9. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  10. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  11. Timing requirements for the Sanguine ELF communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of an extremely low frequency (ELF) communications system for command and control of naval forces is discussed. The basic requirements for the system are defined. Emphasis is placed on the clock requirements based on phase or time rather than frequency. The time and frequency requirements at the transmitter stations are tabulated.

  12. Resolving Relationship Problems in Communication Disorders Treatment: A Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Judith R.

    1992-01-01

    Systems concepts from general systems theory and family therapy literature are presented as analytical tools to help professionals understand and change interactions with their clients having communication disorders. Two case examples that illustrate relationship problems are presented, and approaches taken to their resolution are described.…

  13. Unmanned Aircraft System Control and ATC Communications Bandwidth Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There are significant activities taking place to establish the procedures and requirements for safe and routine operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the barriers to overcome in achieving this goal is the lack of sufficient frequency spectrum necessary for the UAS control and air traffic control (ATC) communications links. This shortcoming is compounded by the fact that the UAS control communications links will likely be required to operate in protected frequency spectrum, just as ATC communications links are, because they relate to "safety and regularity of flight." To support future International Telecommunications Union (ITU) World Radio Conference (WRC) agenda items concerning new frequency allocations for UAS communications links, and to augment the Future Communications Study (FCS) Technology Evaluation Group efforts, NASA Glenn Research Center has sponsored a task to estimate the UAS control and ATC communications bandwidth requirements for safe, reliable, and routine operation of UAS in the NAS. This report describes the process and results of that task. The study focused on long-term bandwidth requirements for UAS approximately through 2030.

  14. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  15. Redundant uplink optical channel for visible light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladescu, Marian; Vuza, Dan Tudor

    2015-02-01

    The increased interest in optical wireless (OW), as a complementary solution for radio frequency (RF) wireless technology, in conjunction with the significant deployments in LED lighting technology, led to the need to achieve lighting and wireless communication simultaneously in indoor environments. Visible light communication (VLC) technology provides an opportunity and infrastructure for the high-speed low-cost wireless communication. There are still open issues in VLC such as: uplink channel, LED modulation bandwidth, and LED nonlinearity. In this paper we addressed the uplink channel implementation, being a key issue in the OW communication system in order to allow full connectivity for a terminal (duplex transmission). VLC in full duplex mode requires the usage of a hybrid technology, such as infrared optical uplink, retro-reflecting transceivers, or even RF. The solution we proposed is to create a redundant optical uplink channel, using near ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (IR) spectra.

  16. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.

  17. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  18. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  19. Automated testing of developmental satellite communications systems and subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kerczewski, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Lower frequency bands allocated for satellite communications use are becoming saturated due to steadily increasing demand. An ongoing program to develop the new technologies required to meet the demands of future systems is described. Higher frequency components and more efficient system techniques are developed. In order to accurately evaluate the performance of these technologies, an automated test system was designed and built. The automated system's design an capabilities are discussed.

  20. Spaceborne CO2 laser communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Mcavoy, N.; Johnson, E. H.; Goodwin, F. E.; Peyton, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Projections of the growth of earth-sensing systems for the latter half of the 1980's show a data transmission requirement of 300 Mbps and above. Mission constraints and objectives lead to the conclusion that the most efficient technique to return the data from the sensing satellite to a ground station is through a geosynchronous data relay satellite. Of the two links that are involved (sensing satellite to relay satellite and relay satellite to ground), a laser system is most attractive for the space-to-space link. The development of CO2 laser systems for space-to-space applications is discussed with the completion of a 300 Mpbs data relay receiver and its modification into a transceiver. The technology and state-of-the-art of such systems are described in detail.

  1. CATV Transmission in Optical Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Amanpreet; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh; Singh, Kulwinder

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze analog CATV transmission system where only one wavelength is used for transmission on which multiple analog RF channels modulated. We analyze different modulation distortions such as composite second order (CSO), composite triple beat (CTB) and intermodulation distortions at different frequencies. Good performance of CSO > -36 dBc and CTB > -41 dBc are obtained at 62.5 MHz, 125 MHz and 187.5 MHz in three tone directly modulated CATV transmission system.

  2. Potential markets for a satellite-based mobile communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Peet, C. S.; Bengston, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the market needs for improved land mobile communications systems. Within the context of this objective, the following goals were set: (1) characterize the present mobile communications industry; (2) determine the market for an improved system for mobile communications; and (3) define the system requirements as seen from the potential customer's viewpoint. The scope of the study was defined by the following parameters: (1) markets were confined to U.S. and Canada; (2) range of operation generally exceeded 20 miles, but this was not restrictive; (3) the classes of potential users considered included all private sector users, and non-military public sector users; (4) the time span examined was 1975 to 1985; and (5) highly localized users were generally excluded - e.g., taxicabs, and local paging.

  3. On the stability of robotic systems with random communication rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yun, X.; Paul, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Control problems of sampled data systems which are subject to random sample rate variations and delays are studied. Due to the rapid growth of the use of computers more and more systems are controlled digitally. Complex systems such as space telerobotic systems require the integration of a number of subsystems at different hierarchical levels. While many subsystems may run on a single processor, some subsystems require their own processor or processors. The subsystems are integrated into functioning systems through communications. Communications between processes sharing a single processor are also subject to random delays due to memory management and interrupt latency. Communications between processors involve random delays due to network access and to data collisions. Furthermore, all control processes involve delays due to casual factors in measuring devices and to signal processing. Traditionally, sampling rates are chosen to meet the worst case communication delay. Such a strategy is wasteful as the processors are then idle a great proportion of the time; sample rates are not as high as possible resulting in poor performance or in the over specification of control processors; there is the possibility of missing data no matter how low the sample rate is picked. Asymptotical stability with probability one for randomly sampled multi-dimensional linear systems is studied. A sufficient condition for the stability is obtained. This condition is so simple that it can be applied to practical systems. A design procedure is also shown.

  4. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonelle, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    Communications in any system is one of the last technologies to be considered, and sometimes it is considered too late to impact the system. This was somewhat the impression on reviewing the NASA budget for two mission scenarios for the space station. However, that budget fortunately was well spent, and the money was spent to get the most benefit per dollar. Another thing that is very often forgotten is that technology is not produced in a vacuum. In fact, in conducting independent research and development (IR&D), the first phase is to define the requirements which must be time phased, becuase very often the conditions will change during the life of the system. From the requirements, a set of architectures that are at least representative of that era are produced. If the exact requirements were not established, at least boundaries are set on the requirements for that architecture. When this is completed, then the technology that is really needed is defined. The major criticism of the work that was presented to the panel is the lack of a firm set of requirements.

  5. An Isolated Working Heart System for Large Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Matthew A.; Southerland, Kevin W.; Feger, Bryan J.; Linder, Dean; Ali, Ayyaz A.; Njoroge, Linda; Milano, Carmelo A.; Bowles, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the late 19th century, the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus, and the subsequent development of the working heart model, have been invaluable tools for studying cardiovascular function and disease1-15. Although the Langendorff heart preparation can be used for any mammalian heart, most studies involving this apparatus use small animal models (e.g., mouse, rat, and rabbit) due to the increased complexity of systems for larger mammals1,3,11. One major difficulty is ensuring a constant coronary perfusion pressure over a range of different heart sizes – a key component of any experiment utilizing this device1,11. By replacing the classic hydrostatic afterload column with a centrifugal pump, the Langendorff working heart apparatus described below allows for easy adjustment and tight regulation of perfusion pressures, meaning the same set-up can be used for various species or heart sizes. Furthermore, this configuration can also seamlessly switch between constant pressure or constant flow during reperfusion, depending on the user’s preferences. The open nature of this setup, despite making temperature regulation more difficult than other designs, allows for easy collection of effluent and ventricular pressure-volume data. PMID:24962492

  6. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

    2013-01-01

    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its results and impact. We will highlight the insights gained by applying the Model Based System Engineering and provide recommendations for its applications and improvements.

  7. GPS synchronized UV communication system performance based on USRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Linchao; Chen, Gang; Sadler, Brian M.; Li, Zening

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Ultraviolet communication is paid more and more attention, with its solar blind and Non-Line-of-Sight characteristic. However, it is hard to capture and recover the transmitted signal outdoor without synchronized signal. In this work, we integrate Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) into UV communication system and employ GPS as synchronized signal. At receive side, photon counting and adaptive threshold method are used to recover original signal. Through experiments, we test path loss and BER of the system under di erent con guration geometries. Some results are compared to the previous proposed path loss and BER models.

  8. Sequential Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with an Application to Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chil-Min; Rim, Sunghwan; Kye, Won-Ho

    2002-01-01

    We propose a hierarchically structured communication system by using sequentially synchronized chaotic systems. Sequential synchronization is attained by first feeding a noiselike signal to a variable of the first transmitter and its receiver simultaneously and then feeding a variable of the first transmitter and its receiver to a variable of the second transmitter and its receiver, respectively, for subsequent feedings of variables in sequence. When this is applied to communication, the hierarchical structure enables selective protection of information due to the sequential property. We illustrate this in sequentially synchronized Navier-Stokes and Lorenz equations.

  9. 0.3THz wireless communication systems for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Weiwen; Wang, Hanqing; Li, Huiyuan; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Xiaojie; Shi, Weixun

    2015-11-01

    Contrary to the terahertz (THz) applications on the ground, the space applications in the atmosphere free environment do not suffer the atmosphere attenuation. In this study, a 0.3 THz wireless communication systems designed for potential space applications has been set up. It consists of transmitter and detector units based on Schottky diode mixers technology. The system performance is shown including the received signal levels and Eb/N0. For demonstration of THz communications, HD video signals have been transmitted over a distance of 14 m at the data rate of 1.5Gbps.

  10. Design and evaluation of control systems for large communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiber, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Control techniques for future large flexible spacecraft are developed. Control design and analysis are supported by a comprehensive CAD system. The proposed operational mobile communications satellite (OMSAT) featuring a 44 m offset fed antenna is used as target application. Requirements for satellite attitude control and communications beam pointing are defined. The following control methods are applied to the system: standard linear optimal regulator (LOR) with Luenberger observer, LOR/observer with selective spill-over suppression, frequency shaped LOR, LOR with closed-loop order reduction by cost decoupling, and robust servomechanism.

  11. Striving for safety: communicating and deciding in sociotechnical systems

    PubMed Central

    Flach, John M.; Carroll, John S.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Hamilton, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    How do communications and decisions impact the safety of sociotechnical systems? This paper frames this question in the context of a dynamic system of nested sub-systems. Communications are related to the construct of observability (i.e. how components integrate information to assess the state with respect to local and global constraints). Decisions are related to the construct of controllability (i.e. how component sub-systems act to meet local and global safety goals). The safety dynamics of sociotechnical systems are evaluated as a function of the coupling between observability and controllability across multiple closed-loop components. Two very different domains (nuclear power and the limited service food industry) provide examples to illustrate how this framework might be applied. While the dynamical systems framework does not offer simple prescriptions for achieving safety, it does provide guides for exploring specific systems to consider the potential fit between organisational structures and work demands, and for generalising across different systems regarding how safety can be managed. Practitioner Summary: While offering no simple prescriptions about how to achieve safety in sociotechnical systems, this paper develops a theoretical framework based on dynamical systems theory as a practical guide for generalising from basic research to work domains and for generalising across alternative work domains to better understand how patterns of communication and decision-making impact system safety. PMID:25761155

  12. A System for Interlibrary Communication (SILC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    The minutes of a meeting sponsored by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is presented. Thirty-one representatives, primarily from the library community, met at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. on July 19, 1974, for an ARL-sponsored meeting to discuss a recently-completed feasibility study of a computer-based system for…

  13. Experimental millimeter-wave personal satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Shigeru; Shimada, Masaaki; Tanaka, Masato; Takahashi, Yasuhiro

    1991-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has investigated an advanced millimeter (mm)-wave satellite communications system for personal use. Experiments in mm-wave personal satellite communication are to be conducted for 3 years using Japan's Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI). This paper describes an experimental mm-wave (43/38 GHz) personal satellite communication system, including an onboard transponder and an earth terminal. The on-board transponder is almost completed, and the ground experiment system is still in the design stage. The transponder employs advanced mm-wave solid state technology. It uses 38 GHz high power solid state amplifiers to accelerate the development of mm-wave solid state devices which are indispensable to personal earth terminals. The transponder consists of a 43 GHz receiver with a built-in low noise amplifier, an IF filter section with very narrow bandwidth to improve the carrier-to-noise power ratio of the weak personal communication signal, and two high power amplifiers using newly developed high power Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) metal-semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs).

  14. ROBUS-2: A Fault-Tolerant Broadcast Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Miner, Paul S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reliable Optical Bus (ROBUS) is the core communication system of the Scalable Processor-Independent Design for Enhanced Reliability (SPIDER), a general-purpose fault-tolerant integrated modular architecture currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center. The ROBUS is a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast communication system with medium access control by means of time-indexed communication schedule. ROBUS-2 is a developmental version of the ROBUS providing guaranteed fault-tolerant services to the attached processing elements (PEs), in the presence of a bounded number of faults. These services include message broadcast (Byzantine Agreement), dynamic communication schedule update, clock synchronization, and distributed diagnosis (group membership). The ROBUS also features fault-tolerant startup and restart capabilities. ROBUS-2 is tolerant to internal as well as PE faults, and incorporates a dynamic self-reconfiguration capability driven by the internal diagnostic system. This version of the ROBUS is intended for laboratory experimentation and demonstrations of the capability to reintegrate failed nodes, dynamically update the communication schedule, and tolerate and recover from correlated transient faults.

  15. Autonomic Communication in Pervasive Multimodal Multimedia Computing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hina, Manolo Dulva; Tadj, Chakib; Ramdane-Cherif, Amar; Lévy, Nicole

    Autonomic communication in a computing system analyzes the individual system element as it is affected by and affects other elements. In the human-machine communication aspect, the autonomic system performs its services autonomously, adjusting the behavior of its services to suit what the user might request implicitly or explicitly. The pervasive multimodal multimedia computing system aims at realizing anytime, anywhere computing. Its autonomic communication includes the protocols that selects, on behalf of the user, the modalities and media devices that are appropriate to the given interaction context. The modalities are the modes of interaction (i.e. for data input and output) between the user and the computer while the media devices are the physical devices that are used to support the chosen modalities. The interaction context itself is the combined user, environment, and system contexts. In this paper, we present the autonomic communication protocols involved in the detection of interaction context and the multimodal computing system's corresponding adaptation. The heart of this paradigm's design is the machine learning's knowledge acquisition and the use of the layered virtual machine for definition and detection of interaction context.

  16. Reactive system verification case study: Fault-tolerant transputer communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis; Hamory, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactive program is one which engages in an ongoing interaction with its environment. A system which is controlled by an embedded reactive program is called a reactive system. Examples of reactive systems are aircraft flight management systems, bank automatic teller machine (ATM) networks, airline reservation systems, and computer operating systems. Reactive systems are often naturally modeled (for logical design purposes) as a composition of autonomous processes which progress concurrently and which communicate to share information and/or to coordinate activities. Formal (i.e., mathematical) frameworks for system verification are tools used to increase the users' confidence that a system design satisfies its specification. A framework for reactive system verification includes formal languages for system modeling and for behavior specification and decision procedures and/or proof-systems for verifying that the system model satisfies the system specifications. Using the Ostroff framework for reactive system verification, an approach to achieving fault-tolerant communication between transputers was shown to be effective. The key components of the design, the decoupler processes, may be viewed as discrete-event-controllers introduced to constrain system behavior such that system specifications are satisfied. The Ostroff framework was also effective. The expressiveness of the modeling language permitted construction of a faithful model of the transputer network. The relevant specifications were readily expressed in the specification language. The set of decision procedures provided was adequate to verify the specifications of interest. The need for improved support for system behavior visualization is emphasized.

  17. Automatic real-time pair-feeding system for animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A pair feeding method and apparatus are provided for experimental animals wherein the amount of food consumed is immediately delivered to a normal or control animal so that there is a qualitative, quantitative and chronological correctness in the pair feeding of the two animals. This feeding mechanism delivers precisely measured amounts of food to a feeder. Circuitry is provided between master and slave feeders so that there is virtually no chance of a malfunction of the feeding apparatus, causing erratic results. Recording equipment is also provided so that an hourly record is kept of food delivery.

  18. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  19. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  20. Specification for installation of the crew activity planning system coaxial cable communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.; Roman, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    The specification used to install a broadband coaxial cable communication system to support remote terminal operations on the Crew Activity Planning system at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are reported. The system supports high speed communications between a Harris Slash 8 computer and one or more Sanders Graphic 7 displays.

  1. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  2. MEMS-Based Communications Systems for Space-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLosSantos, Hector J.; Brunner, Robert A.; Lam, Juan F.; Hackett, Le Roy H.; Lohr, Ross F., Jr.; Larson, Lawrence E.; Loo, Robert Y.; Matloubian, Mehran; Tangonan, Gregory L.

    1995-01-01

    As user demand for higher capacity and flexibility in communications satellites increases, new ways to cope with the inherent limitations posed by the prohibitive mass and power consumption, needed to satisfy those requirements, are under investigation. Recent studies suggest that while new satellite architectures are necessary to enable multi-user, multi-data rate, multi-location satellite links, these new architectures will inevitably increase power consumption, and in turn, spacecraft mass, to such an extent that their successful implementation will demand novel lightweight/low power hardware approaches. In this paper, following a brief introduction to the fundamentals of communications satellites, we address the impact of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, in particular micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switches to mitigate the above mentioned problems and show that low-loss/wide bandwidth MEM switches will go a long way towards enabling higher capacity and flexibility space-based communications systems.

  3. A Picture Archiving and Communication System Module for Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Ricky K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a clinical picture archiving and communication system (PACS) module within the radiology department of a 700-bed teaching hospital. The system is composed of an integrated network of digital devices used to electronically acquire, store, manage, and display radiological text and image information. Preliminary evaluation based on formal survey and usage statistics show that the system is rapidly being accepted by radiologists and clinicians for the review and processing of pediatric digital images.

  4. Optical communication system performance with tracking error induced signal fading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.; Premo, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    System performance is determined for an optical communication system using noncoherent detection in the presence of tracking error induced signal fading assuming (1) binary on-off modulation (OOK) with both fixed and adaptive threshold receivers, and (2) binary polarization modulation (BPM). BPM is shown to maintain its inherent 2- to 3-dB advantage over OOK when adaptive thresholding is used, and to have a substantially greater advantage when the OOK system is restricted to a fixed decision threshold.

  5. Design of indoor wireless communication system using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Chen, Xiongbin; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Bo; Chen, Hongda

    2009-11-01

    An indoor wireless communication system using commercial white LED is presented in this paper. OOK (On-Off Keying) modulation is adopted in the transmitter module. Data transmission is realized based on RS-485 protocol. A DC-balanced coding with error check and correction abilities is applied to avoid blinks and improve the performance of the system. The system can keep 10-7 error bit rate within 2.5m reach at a rate up to 115200 bps.

  6. The Globalstar mobile satellite system for worldwide personal communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedeman, Robert A.; Viterbi, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    Loral Aerospace Corporation along with Qualcomm Inc. have developed a satellite system which offers global mobile voice and data services to and from handheld and mobile user terminals with omni-directional antennas. By combining the use of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites with existing terrestrial communications systems and innovative, highly efficient spread spectrum techniques, the Globalstar system provides users with low-cost, reliable communications throughout the world. The Globalstar space segment consists of a constellation of 48 LEO satellites in circular orbits with 750 NM (1389 km) altitude. Each satellite communicates with the mobile users via the satellite-user links and with gateway stations. The gateway stations handle the interface between the Globalstar network and the OSTN/PLMN systems. Globalstar transceivers are similar to currently proposed digital cellular telephones in size and have a serial number that will allow the end user to make and receive calls from or to that device anywhere in the world. The Globalstar system is designed to operate as a complement to existing local, long-distance, public, private and specialized telecommunications networks. Service is primarily designed to serve the rural and thin route communications needs of consumers, government users, and private networks.

  7. Communication system analysis for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional adaptive delta modulator (ADM) algorithms are discussed and compared. Results are shown for bit rates of two bits/pixel, one bit/pixel and 0.5 bits/pixel. Pictures showing the difference between the encoded-decoded pictures and the original pictures are presented. The effect of channel errors on the reconstructed picture is illustrated. A two-dimensional ADM using interframe encoding is also presented. This system operates at the rate of two bits/pixel and produces excellent quality pictures when there is little motion. The effect of large amounts of motion on the reconstructed picture is described.

  8. Payload system tradeoffs for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    System level trade-offs carried out during Mobile Satellite (M-SAT) design activities are described. These trade-offs relate to the use of low level beam forming, flexible power and spectrum distribution, and selection of the number of beams to cover the service area. It is shown that antenna performance can be improved by sharing horns between beams using a low level beam forming network (BFN). Additionally, greatly increased power utilization is possible using a hybrid matrix concept to share power between beams.

  9. THROUGH-THE-EARTH (TTE) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-01-01

    Work has progressed on both subsystems: the Through-the-Earth (TTE) Communications system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) Communications system. The TTE system: The system was fabricated and repackaged as an industrial product enclosed in a commercial rugged, waterproof housing suitable for installation in mines. Features were added to the system to appeal to the preferences of different mine managers. Arrangements were made with NIOSH to install the system in the Lake Lynn underground mine for evaluation and demonstration to potential users. The IMPL system: Voice compression was successfully implemented and incorporated into the laboratory model. Compressed voice was transmitted through a power line, expanded at the receiving end, and received with high clarity.

  10. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)

  11. Communication: On nucleation statistics in small systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2014-08-01

    Non-stationary random formation of stable nuclei from a small metastable system is considered. Distribution of waiting times to observe the first nucleus is examined, and it is shown that the steady-state nucleation rate is given by inverse of the standard deviation, which is independent of the post-critical size n where the nucleus is detected. The mean time, on the other hand, is n-sensitive and contains additional information on transient nucleation and growth effects. The method is applied to Monte Carlo data on nucleation in a cold two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet with Metropolis dynamics, where nucleation rates obtained earlier from low-temperature cluster expansions can provide a strict independent test.

  12. Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) facsimile system directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This directory provides a system description, a station listing, and operating procedures for the Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) NASA Facsimile System. The NASA Facsimile System is a convenient and efficient means of spanning the distance, time, and cost of transmitting documents from one person to another. In the spectrum of communication techniques, facsimile bridges the gap between mail and data transmission. Facsimile can transmit in a matter of minutes or seconds what would take a day or more by mail delivery. The NASA Facsimile System is composed of several makes and models of facsimile machines. The system also supports the 3M FaxXchange network controllers located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  13. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  14. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  15. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  16. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  17. 26 CFR 49.4253-9 - Exemption for certain interior communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption for certain interior communication... Exemption for certain interior communication systems. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by section 4251 do... rendered through the use of an interior communication system. (b) Interior communication system. The...

  18. 26 CFR 49.4253-9 - Exemption for certain interior communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption for certain interior communication... Exemption for certain interior communication systems. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by section 4251 do... rendered through the use of an interior communication system. (b) Interior communication system. The...

  19. A Prototype HTML Training System for Graphic Communication Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    This design research demonstrates a prototype content management system capable of training graphic communication students in the creation of basic HTML web pages. The prototype serve as a method of helping students learn basic HTML structure and commands earlier in their academic careers. Exposure to the concepts of web page creation early in…

  20. The Influence of Computer-Mediated Communication Systems on Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    As higher education institutions enter the intense competition of the rapidly growing global marketplace of online education, the leaders within these institutions are challenged to identify factors critical for developing and for maintaining effective online courses. Computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems are considered critical to

  1. The Influence of Computer-Mediated Communication Systems on Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    As higher education institutions enter the intense competition of the rapidly growing global marketplace of online education, the leaders within these institutions are challenged to identify factors critical for developing and for maintaining effective online courses. Computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems are considered critical to…

  2. Prelinguistic Infants' Communicative System: Role of Caregiver Social Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jennifer L.; Lossia, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' prelinguistic vocalizations and gestures are rarely studied as a communicative system. As a result, there are few studies examining mechanisms of change concurrently in prelinguistic vocal and gesture behavior. Here we report the first evidence that contingent caregiver social feedback to infant gestures influences not only gesture…

  3. Sensor and transmitter system for communication in pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Burnham, Alan K.

    2013-01-29

    A system for sensing and communicating in a pipeline that contains a fluid. An acoustic signal containing information about a property of the fluid is produced in the pipeline. The signal is transmitted through the pipeline. The signal is received with the information and used by a control.

  4. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Trumpis, B. D.; Udalov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of space shuttle communication systems were studied. The following major areas were investigated: burst error correction for shuttle command channels; performance optimization and design considerations for Costas receivers with and without bandpass limiting; experimental techniques for measuring low level spectral components of microwave signals; and potential modulation and coding techniques for the Ku-band return link. Results are presented.

  5. The Business Communication Course and the Moodle Framework System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krisko, Edina

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will argue that the use of learning content management systems is also justified in full-time education, especially in business education and communication studies. Nowadays not only multinational companies, but domestic medium enterprises also manage the training of new employees and existing staff with LCMSs. Companies in…

  6. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to

  7. Range predictions for a CO(2) laser communication system.

    PubMed

    Waksberg, A

    1981-08-01

    Calculations are presented to permit range predictions of a CO(2) laser communication system when attenuation statistics are available. Both TV and digital transmission are considered. In the former case, an AM-FM modulation scheme is used. Direct demodulation is assumed. Examples are given in the use of the results to obtain range probabilities based on reported propagation statistics. PMID:20333019

  8. Classtalk: A Classroom Communication System for Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufresne, Robert J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    College physics teachers describe their experience using a computer-based classroom communication system that facilitates presentation of questions for small-group work, collection of student answers, and display of histograms showing how the class answered, all feeding into classwide discussions. The technique engages students in active learning…

  9. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  15. Quantum Communication in the Ion-Trapped System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiong

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical scheme of quantum communication is proposed in the context of ion-trapped systems. According to the results, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.

  16. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication in Trapped Ion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yeqin; Gao, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    We propose a feasible scheme for implementing quantum secure direct communication in trapped ion systems. According to the results measured by the sender, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.

  17. National Institute for Literacy. Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each month, the Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS") will feature one of the three LINCS Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management, and Workforce Competitiveness--and introduce research-based resources that practitioners can use in their adult and family literacy programs and classrooms. This edition features the…

  18. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  19. Understanding and Influencing the Informal Communication System in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Jerry E.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    1977-01-01

    The university grapevine is described as an informal communication system developed out of basic human needs of belonging, influencing, and being accepted by a group. This article discusses when and why it becomes most active in the institution, and how it can be controlled. (LBH)

  20. Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System Using Blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aobo; Tong, Zheng; Song, Yuhang; Kong, Meiwei; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a self-designed underwater wireless optical communication system using blue LEDs. The performance of the transmitter and receiver was experimentally investigated. Four different square wave signals (10 KHz, 100 KHz, 500 KHz and 1 MHz) were successfully transmitted via a short water channel at the first phase.