Science.gov

Sample records for animal communication systems

  1. Do Animal Communication Systems Have Phonemes?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Biologists often ask whether animal communication systems make use of conceptual entities from linguistics, such as semantics or syntax. A new study of an Australian bird species argues that their communication system has phonemes, but we argue that imposing linguistic concepts obscures, rather than clarifyies, communicative function. PMID:26346993

  2. Information Theory Applied to Animal Communication Systems and Its Possible Application to SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanser, Sean F.; Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2004-06-01

    Information theory, as first introduced by Claude Shannon (Shannon &Weaver 1949) quantitatively evaluates the organizational complexity of communication systems. At the same time George Zipf was examining linguistic structure in a way that was mathematically similar to the components of the Shannon first-order entropy (Zipf 1949). Both Shannon's and Zipf's mathematical procedures have been applied to animal communication and recently have been providing insightful results. The Zipf plot is a useful tool for a first estimate of the characterization of a communication system's complexity (which can later be examined for complex structure at deeper levels using Shannon entropic analysis). In this paper we shall discuss some of the applications and pitfalls of using the Zipf distribution as a preliminary evaluator of the communication complexity of a signaling system.

  3. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  4. Assessing and communicating animal

    E-print Network

    of habitats; develop an understanding of the risk perceived by public users and land managers; identify will improve predictions of the location of infected ticks within the countryside. The evaluation of precautionary information will assist policy makers, countryside managers and users to effectively communicate

  5. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Peggy

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  6. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  7. Potential Uses of Anthropogenic Noise as a Source of Information in Animal Sensory and Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda; Deecke, Volker; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Although current research on the impact of anthropogenic noise has focused on the detrimental effects, there is a range of ways by which animals could benefit from increased noise levels. Here we discuss two potential uses of anthropogenic noise. First, local variations in the ambient-noise field could be used to perceive objects and navigate within an environment. Second, introduced sound cues could be used as a signal for prey detection or orientation and navigation. Although the disadvantages of noise pollution will likely outweigh any positive effects, it is important to acknowledge that such changes may benefit some species. PMID:26611074

  8. Bi-Directional Communication: Growth and Immunity in Domestic Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence continues to mount supporting the existence of bi-directional communication pathways between the animal’s growth axis and immune system. For more than three decades, researchers have sought, and identified, linkages between the somatotrophic axis and health in domestic livestock. Early inve...

  9. The use of network analysis to study complex animal communication systems: a study on nightingale song

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Michael; Hultsch, Henrike; Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Kipper, Silke

    2014-01-01

    The singing of song birds can form complex signal systems comprised of numerous subunits sung with distinct combinatorial properties that have been described as syntax-like. This complexity has inspired inquiries into similarities of bird song to human language; but the quantitative analysis and description of song sequences is a challenging task. In this study, we analysed song sequences of common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) by means of a network analysis. We translated long nocturnal song sequences into networks of song types with song transitions as connectors. As network measures, we calculated shortest path length and transitivity and identified the ‘small-world’ character of nightingale song networks. Besides comparing network measures with conventional measures of song complexity, we also found a correlation between network measures and age of birds. Furthermore, we determined the numbers of in-coming and out-going edges of each song type, characterizing transition patterns. These transition patterns were shared across males for certain song types. Playbacks with different transition patterns provided first evidence that these patterns are responded to differently and thus play a role in singing interactions. We discuss potential functions of the network properties of song sequences in the framework of vocal leadership. Network approaches provide biologically meaningful parameters to describe the song structure of species with extremely large repertoires and complex rules of song retrieval. PMID:24807258

  10. Video animation system

    SciTech Connect

    Mareda, J.

    1985-01-01

    A video animation system is being used at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque to record computer generated images directly onto 3/4'' videocassettes. The system serves as a quick turn around process for previewing sequences prior to sending them to a Dicomed film recorder. It is also used when videocassette is appropriate for final output. The video animation system in place at Sandia is described. The system consists of a medium resolution graphics display system, a 3/4'' professional quality videocassette recorder, and a controller that allows single frame recording of computer generated images to be performed under program control. Examples of output produced using this system are presented which will include animated sequences of scientific data produced by DISSPLA programs.

  11. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  12. Information theory, animal communication, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Johnston, Simon; Hanser, Sean F.

    2011-02-01

    We present ongoing research in the application of information theory to animal communication systems with the goal of developing additional detectors and estimators for possible extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Regardless of the species, for intelligence (i.e., complex knowledge) to be transmitted certain rules of information theory must still be obeyed. We demonstrate some preliminary results of applying information theory to socially complex marine mammal species (bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales) as well as arboreal squirrel monkeys, because they almost exclusively rely on vocal signals for their communications, producing signals which can be readily characterized by signal analysis. Metrics such as Zipf's Law and higher-order information-entropic structure are emerging as indicators of the communicative complexity characteristic of an "intelligent message" content within these animals' signals, perhaps not surprising given these species' social complexity. In addition to human languages, for comparison we also apply these metrics to pulsar signals—perhaps (arguably) the most "organized" of stellar systems—as an example of astrophysical systems that would have to be distinguished from an extraterrestrial intelligence message by such information theoretic filters. We also look at a message transmitted from Earth (Arecibo Observatory) that contains a lot of meaning but little information in the mathematical sense we define it here. We conclude that the study of non-human communication systems on our own planet can make a valuable contribution to the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence by providing quantitative general measures of communicative complexity. Studying the complex communication systems of other intelligent species on our own planet may also be one of the best ways to deprovincialize our thinking about extraterrestrial communication systems in general.

  13. Introduction The structure and function of animal communication signals, like

    E-print Network

    Stoddard, Philip

    200 Introduction The structure and function of animal communication signals, like all traits, can that animals allocate to communication signals depends on a suite of physical and life history factors (Fig.1 of the animal's energy budget. Where the interests of signaler and receiver are strategically aligned (Searcy

  14. The Communicative Functions of Animation in User Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Novick, David G.

    The Communicative Functions of Animation in User Interfaces David Novick The University of Texas@gmail.com ABSTRACT To develop a model that relates the purpose of the communication to the nature of the animation, we surveyed existing user interfaces that use animation, analyzed these uses with respect to type

  15. Creating Automated Interactive Video Playback for Studies of Animal Communications 

    E-print Network

    Butkowski, Trisha

    2010-01-16

    Video playback is a technique used to study the visual communication and behaviors of animals. While video playback is a useful tool, most experiments lack the ability for the visual stimulus to interact with the live animal. The limited number...

  16. Redefining animal signaling: influence versus information in communication

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Redefining animal signaling: influence versus information in communication Michael J. Owren · Drew Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Researchers typically define animal signaling. The predominant definition of animal signaling is thus untenable, which has a number of undesirable consequences

  17. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  18. Child's Modes of Communication with the Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Anne; Comeau, Judith

    The paper reviews ways in which animals have been used in a therapeutic way with disturbed persons and suggests that animals may help to reduce anxiety and reestablish the socialization process with autistic children and their parents. An etiological study is described of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of four disturbed children (9-11 years…

  19. Alert signals enhance animal communication in “noisy” environments

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Terry J.; Stamps, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental noise that reduces the probability that animals will detect communicative signals poses a special challenge for long-range communication. The application of signal-detection theory to animal communication lead to the prediction that signals directed at distant receivers in noisy environments will begin with conspicuous “alerting” components to attract the attention of receivers, before delivery of the information-rich portion of the signal. Whether animals actually adopt this strategy is not clear, despite suggestions that alerts might exist in a variety of taxa. By using a combination of behavioral observations and experimental manipulations with robotic lizard “playbacks,” we show that free-living territorial Anolis lizards add an “alert” to visual displays when communicating to distant receivers in situations of poor visibility, and that these introductory alerts in turn enhance signal detection in adverse signaling conditions. Our results show that Anolis lizards are able to evaluate environmental conditions that affect the degradation of long-distance signals and adjust their behavior accordingly. This study demonstrates that free-living animals enhance the efficiency of long-range communication through the modulation of signal design and the facultative addition of an alert. Our findings confirm that alert signals are an important strategy for communicating in “noisy” conditions and suggest a reexamination of the existence of alerts in other animals relying on long-range communication. PMID:19033197

  20. Communication System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  1. Secure video communications systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  2. Animal Communication and Its Cognitive Indications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Various examples of communication in species ranging from bumble bees to dolphins are examined in this paper. Focus is directed to indications of the cognitive ability of each species. The signals of cognition include evidence of: adaptability to a new situation; long term memory; and the property of displacement. Most of the sources reviewed…

  3. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  4. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  5. Video animation system operators manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mareda, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the components necessary to put together a video animation system. It is primarily intended for use at Sandia National Laboratories as it describes the components used in systems at Sandia. The main document covers the operation of the equipment in some detail and is intended for either the system maintainer or an advanced user. There is an appendix for each of the three systems in use by the Engineering Sciences Directorate which contain instructions for the general user.

  6. AMPA experimental communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, D.; Fass, S.; Keon, T.; Sielman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The program was conducted to demonstrate the satellite communication advantages of Adaptive Phased Array Technology. A laboratory based experiment was designed and implemented to demonstrate a low earth orbit satellite communications system. Using a 32 element, L-band phased array augmented with 4 sets of weights (2 for reception and 2 for transmission) a high speed digital processing system and operating against multiple user terminals and interferers, the AMPA system demonstrated: communications with austere user terminals, frequency reuse, communications in the face of interference, and geolocation. The program and experiment objectives are described, the system hardware and software/firmware are defined, and the test performed and the resultant test data are presented.

  7. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration. PMID:16110884

  8. Improving Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has many communications systems which are used throughout a typical mission. Given that the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested, the ability to hear extremely weak signals requires greater receiver sensitivity. Dryden Flight Research Center approached Angle Linear, a manufacturer of linear radio frequency products and peripherals for communications, to solve the problem. The solution was a receiving preamplifier specially crafted for NASA. Communications with the Space Shuttle are now more reliable,with Dryden being able to also support local missions without purchasing additional equipment. The work has carried over into the Mir Space Station communication support effort and is under evaluation by other NASA centers. The company's preamplifier line was greatly expanded to cover a broader range of frequencies, providing the same sensational improvement to other areas of communication including business, government, trucking, land mobile, cellular and broadcast.

  9. Communication Systems in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    The care of patients now almost inevitably seems to involve many different individuals, all needing to share patient information and discuss their management. As a consequence there is increasing interest in, and use of, information and communication technologies to support health services. Yet, while there is significant discussion of, and investment in, information technologies, communication systems receive much less attention and the clinical adoption of even simpler services like voice-mail or electronic mail is still not commonplace in many health services. There remain enormous gaps in our broad understanding of the role of communication services in health care delivery. Laboratory medicine is perhaps even more poorly studied than many other areas, such as the interface between primary care and hospital services. Given this lack of specific information about laboratory communication services, this paper will step back and generally review the components of a communication system, including the basic concepts of a communication channel, service, device and interaction mode. The review will then try and summarise some of what is known about specific communication problems that arise across health services in the main, including the community and hospital service delivery. PMID:17077879

  10. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  11. Real-time speech animation system

    E-print Network

    Fu, Jieyun

    2011-01-01

    We optimize the synthesis procedure of a videorealistic speech animation system [7] to achieve real-time speech animation synthesis. A synthesis rate must be high enough for real-time video streaming for speech animation ...

  12. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D. (Menan, ID); Schmitt, Michael J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  13. Animal-microbe interactions and the evolution of nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Eisthen, Heather L; Theis, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Animals ubiquitously interact with environmental and symbiotic microbes, and the effects of these interactions on animal physiology are currently the subject of intense interest. Nevertheless, the influence of microbes on nervous system evolution has been largely ignored. We illustrate here how taking microbes into account might enrich our ideas about the evolution of nervous systems. For example, microbes are involved in animals' communicative, defensive, predatory and dispersal behaviours, and have likely influenced the evolution of chemo- and photosensory systems. In addition, we speculate that the need to regulate interactions with microbes at the epithelial surface may have contributed to the evolutionary internalization of the nervous system. PMID:26598731

  14. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  15. An Interactive Facial Animation System Ugur Gudukbay

    E-print Network

    Güdükbay, Ugur

    is an interpolation technique for facial animation. 2 PREVIOUS WORK Previous studies for facial modeling and animaAn Interactive Facial Animation System Fatih Erol Ugur Gudukbay Department of Computer Engineering In this paper, an interactive facial animation system is described. The system is built on top of the facial

  16. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication. PMID:26232298

  17. General data base driven graphic animation system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Most attempts at the graphic animation of data involve rather large and expensive development of problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a general graphics animation system designed to be a tool for the development of a wide variety of animated simulations. By incorporating device-independent graphics procedures and using relational database storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in the design and development of animated displays is achieved. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  18. New underground radio communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    The successful use of a leaky-feeder coaxial cable communication system at Inland Steel's No. 1 Mine in Illinois is described. Hand-held mobile radios enable communication to be maintained with all parts of the mine.

  19. Video database system for studying animal behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haitao; Dailey, Jeffery W.

    1996-11-01

    Classification of farm animal behaviors are based upon oral or written descriptions of the activity that an animal is engaged in. The quantification of animal behavior for research requires that an individual recognize and code the behavior of the animal under study. The classification of these behaviors can be subjective and may differ among observers. Illustrated guides to animal behavior do not convey the motion associated with most behaviors. Video based guides offer a subjective method of quantifying behaviors with real time demonstrations of the components that make up a behavior. In this paper, we propose an animal behavior video database system which can automatically extract animal motion information from the input animal activity video clip by a multi-object tracking and reasoning system. The extracted information is then analyzed and described using a set of standard animal behavior terms we are developing. The behavior description is used to automatically annotate the given video clip, and serves as the content-based index. The user of the system is able to use a keywork description of the behavior to retrieve the corresponding video object. The intended applications of the system are animal and veterinary science education, and animal behavior research. The prototype system is built for swine and will be extended to other farm animal species.

  20. Constraint-based animation: temporal constraints in the Animus systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duisberg, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Algorithm animation has a growing role in computer-aided algorithm design documentation and debugging, since interactive graphics is a richer channel than text for communication. Most animation is currently done laboriously by hand, and it often has the character of canned demonstrations with restricted user interaction. Animus is a system that allows easy construction of an animation with minimal concern for lower-level graphics programming. Constraints are used to describe the appearance and structure of a picture as well as how those pictures evolve in time. The implementation and support of temporal constraints is a substantive extension to previous constraint languages which had only allowed specification of static state. Use of the Animus system is demonstrated in the creation of animations of dynamic mechanical and electrical-circuit simulations, sorting algorithms, problems in operating systems, and geometric curve-drawing algorithms.

  1. Communication using Synchronized Chaotic Systems

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Communication using Synchronized Chaotic Systems Rachel Kramer Adam Cohen Bhargava Ravoori Thomas E attention for uses in secure CommunicationIntroduction Adaptive Synchronization The phenomenon sequence is transmitted over a time-varying communication channel. We examine cases with and without

  2. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  3. Communications systems checkout study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginter, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results and conclusions of an engineering study of Space Station communications subsystem checkout are reported. The primary purpose of the study is to recommend specific guidelines and constraints for the design and utilization of the communications subsystem leading to a practical and effective means of onboard checkout implementation. Major study objectives are as follows: (1) identify candidate communications subsystem checkout concepts, (2) determine implementation impacts of feasible concepts, (3) evaluate practicality and effectiveness of alternative concepts, (4) propose baseline modifications to accommodate preferred concepts, and (5) recommend areas for additional investigation. In addition, study results are interpreted, where appropriate, in terms of their applicability to checkout of Shuttle-Orbiter communications subsystem.

  4. INMARSAT's personal communicator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Nick; Haugli, Hans-C.; Poskett, Peter; Smith, K.

    Inmarsat has been providing near global mobile satellite communications since 1982 and Inmarsat terminals are currently being used in more than 130 countries. The terminals have been reduced in size and cost over the years and new technology has enabled the recent introduction of briefcase sized personal telephony terminals (Inmarsat-M). This trend continues and we are likely to see Inmarsat handheld terminals by the end of the decade. These terminals are called Inmarsat-P and this paper focuses on the various elements required to support a high quality service to handheld terminals. The main system elements are: the handheld terminals; the space segment with the associated orbits; and the gateways to terrestrial networks. It is both likely and desirable that personal handheld satellite communications will be offered by more than one system provider and this competition will ensure strong emphasis on service quality and cost of ownership. The handheld terminals also have to be attractive to a large number of potential users, and this means that the terminals must be small enough to fit in a pocket. Battery lifetime is another important consideration, and this coupled with radiation safety requirements limits the maximum radiated EIRP. The terminal G/T is mainly constrained by the gain of the omnidirectional antenna and the noise figure of the RF front end (including input losses). Inmarsat has examined, with the support of industry, a number of Geosynchronous (GSO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite options for the provision of a handheld mobile satellite service. This paper describes the key satellite and orbit parameters and tradeoffs which affect the overall quality of service and the space segment costing. The paper also stresses not only the importance of using and sharing the available mobile frequency band allocations efficiently, but also the key considerations affecting the choice of feeder link bands. The design of the gateways and the terrestrial network is critical to the overall viability of the service, and this paper also examines the key technical parameters associated with the Land Earth Stations (LES), which act as gateways into the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). These not only include the design tradeoffs associated with the LES, but also the different terrestrial network interface options. The paper concludes with a brief description of the satellite propagation conditions associated with the use of handheld terminals. It describes how the handheld results in a number of propagation impairments which are not common to the previous measurements associated with vehicle mounted antennas. These measurements indicate that there is a complex tradeoff between link margin and the elevation angle to the satellite which has a significant impact on the space segment requirements and costing.

  5. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The ultramicrowave communications system program investigated the feasibility of a solid state system that meets the projected space to space requirements, while using the advantages of the 100 to 200 GHz band. The program successfully demonstrated a laboratory model of a high frequency communications system operating between 100 to 200 GHz. In the process, vendor claims for performance specifications of discrete components were evaluated, and a window was provided into system design and integration problems.

  6. Core systems of geometry in animal minds

    PubMed Central

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Lee, Sang Ah

    2012-01-01

    Research on humans from birth to maturity converges with research on diverse animals to reveal foundational cognitive systems in human and animal minds. The present article focuses on two such systems of geometry. One system represents places in the navigable environment by recording the distance and direction of the navigator from surrounding, extended surfaces. The other system represents objects by detecting the shapes of small-scale forms. These two systems show common signatures across animals, suggesting that they evolved in distant ancestral species. As children master symbolic systems such as maps and language, they come productively to combine representations from the two core systems of geometry in uniquely human ways; these combinations may give rise to abstract geometric intuitions. Studies of the ontogenetic and phylogenetic sources of abstract geometry therefore are illuminating of both human and animal cognition. Research on animals brings simpler model systems and richer empirical methods to bear on the analysis of abstract concepts in human minds. In return, research on humans, relating core cognitive capacities to symbolic abilities, sheds light on the content of representations in animal minds. PMID:22927577

  7. A Knowledge-Based Computer Animation System

    E-print Network

    Kahn, Kenneth M.

    This paper reproduces part of a doctoral thesis proposal describing the design of a system capable of generating animated drawings in response to a simple story. The representation and interaction of the various sources ...

  8. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  9. Patient Communication: A Multidisciplinary Approach Using Animated Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiner, Marie; Handal, Gilbert; Williams, Darryl

    2004-01-01

    Communication is a major problem in the management of patients. Miscommunication occurs frequently in populations with low reading skills, illiteracy does not completely account for the observed low rates of recall of communicated information. Transmission of the message also plays an important role. Successful strategies to improve communication

  10. Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The way an animal acts or behaves helps it get what it needs to survive. Students find out why some animal behaviors are instinctive while…

  11. Designing complementary communication systems

    E-print Network

    Harry, Drew

    2012-01-01

    We have long assumed that being face to face is the best environment for social interaction. But is "being there" the best we can aspire to? One common approach to improving face-to-face contexts is to add new communication ...

  12. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard; Morsci, Natalia; Nguyen, Ken C.Q.; Hall, David H.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to their small size (100nm). We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Intraflagellar transport (IFT) and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating related behaviors. PMID:24530063

  13. Three Corner Sat Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bobby; Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Three Corner Satellite is a constellation of three nanosatellites designed and built by students. New Mexico State University has taken on the design of the communications system for this constellation. The system includes the forward link, return link, and the crosslink. Due to size, mass, power, and financial constraints, we must design a small, light, power efficient, and inexpensive communications system. This thesis presents the design of a radio system to accomplish the data transmission requirements in light of the system constraints. In addition to the hardware design, the operational commands needed by the satellite's on-board computer to control and communicate with the communications hardware will be presented. In order for the hardware to communicate with the ground stations, we will examine the link budgets derived from the radiated power of the transmitters, link distance, data modulation, and data rate for each link. The antenna design for the constellation is analyzed using software and testing the physical antennas on a model satellite. After the analysis and testing, a combination of different systems will meet and exceed the requirements and constraints of the Three Corner Satellite constellation.

  14. Improving animal models for nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Brown, R E

    2012-08-01

    A workshop on 'Improving translation of animal models for nervous system disorders' held at the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, in Washington, DC, 28-29 March 2012, was organized to discuss the issues that contribute to the poor translation of results from animal models to human nervous system disorders, to consider strategies to increase the scientific rigor of preclinical testing, to identify methods to maximize bidirectional translation between basic and clinical research, and to determine the next steps for improvement of the development and testing of animal models of nervous system disorders. The proceedings of this workshop will be of great interest to those doing research in genes, brain and behaviour. PMID:22577803

  15. The central importance of information in studies of animal communication Robert M. Seyfarth a,*, Dorothy L. Cheney b

    E-print Network

    The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The conceptEssay The central importance of information in studies of animal communication Robert M. Seyfarth a Available online 21 May 2010 MS. number: AE-09-00802 Keywords: animal communication animal signal

  16. Multipass communication systems for tiled processor architectures

    E-print Network

    Shnidman, Nathan R. (Nathan Robert)

    2006-01-01

    Multipass communication systems utilize multiple sets of parallel baseband receiver functions to balance communication data rates and available computation capabilities. This is achieved by spatially pipelining baseband ...

  17. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    of agricultural cultivation and food production has become more critical. To facilitate this process, we S Z O G R A F O S Wireless Sensor-based Agricultural Monitoring System KTH Information and Communication Technology #12;Wireless Sensor-based Agricultural Monitoring System Alexandros Zografos 2014

  18. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    's functionality, specifically the SIM card production packaging line and the Scratch card/ Bank Card production S I D D I Q I Smart Card Packaging Process Control System KTH Information and Communication Technology #12;Smart Card Packaging Process Control System Saad Ahmed Siddiqi August 1, 2012 Masters Thesis

  19. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  20. Injector communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.E.; Hollabaugh, C.A.

    1993-06-22

    The method of gasoline additive control is described, comprising establishing communications between a central processor and a remote field additive injector, setting additive quantity per command pulse in the additive injector from the central processor, providing command pulses to the additive injector from a gasoline flowmeter associated with the injector, supplying a predetermined additive quantity from the additive injector to the gasoline flow, storing in the additive injector cumulative quantity of additive added to the gasoline flow, storing in an additive controller cumulative command pulses, periodically interrogating the additive controller from the central processor, periodically supplying data of recorded cumulative additive quantity and cumulative command pulses from the additive injector to the main processor, and periodically printing reports of additive added and gasoline flow at each additive injector.

  1. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  2. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  3. INTRODUCTION Many group-living animals communicate about the location of food

    E-print Network

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.

    2337 INTRODUCTION Many group-living animals communicate about the location of food sources. Such communication is especially beneficial when food sources are ephemeral or hard to find (Sherman and Visscher and Deneubourg, 2002). Recruitment towards food sources also provides a species with the opportunity to quickly

  4. The ORBCOMM data communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, David C.; Locke, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    The ORBCOMM system is designed to provide low-cost, two-way data communications for mobile and remote users. The communications system is ideally configured for low data rate applications where communicating devices are geographically dispersed and two-way communications through terrestrial means is cumbersome and not cost effective. The remote terminals use VHF frequencies which allow for the use of very small, low-cost terminals. ORBCOMM has entered into joint development agreements with several large manufacturers of both consumer and industrial electronics to design and build the remote terminals. Based on prototype work, the estimated retail cost of these units will range from $50 to $400 depending on the complexity of the design. Starting in the fall of 1993, ORBCOMM will begin service with a demonstration network consisting of two operating satellites. By the end of 1994, a full operating network of 26 satellites, four Gateway Earth Stations, and a Network Control Center will be in place. The full constellation will provide full coverage of the entire world with greater than 94 percent communications availability for the continental U.S. This paper describes the ORBCOMM system, the technology used in its implementation, and its applications.

  5. NTT domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, R.; Hayashizaki, H.

    1984-10-01

    The NTT domestic satellite communications system is described, and its state of operation is discussed based on commercial service experience. The major parameters of the system and system satellites are given, and the transmission circuits between regional centers and between remote islands and the mainland are shown. The characteristics of the NTT earth stations are presented. Performance data are given to show the effect of rain attenuation and of sun transit on the satellite circuits.

  6. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  7. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    . A second purpose is to learn how to use network attached devices, as the concept of the Internet of Things cell phone manufacturers have been releasing cell phones equipped with Near Field Communication (NFC be realized when such a system is connected to the home/building network and connected to the Internet

  8. Time reversal communication system

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  9. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  10. The HTV Proximity Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band Processor (BBP) to the HTV Guidance and Control Computer (GCC) including data handling and communication equipments, the PROX detects it by monitoring interruption of the "heartbeat" signal and conducts automatic redundancy switching of all the equipments on that "communication path" including those of the HTV. This paper describes the PROX functions such as communication, data handling and GPS navigation and some unique functions for the HTV proximity operation to the ISS.

  11. A New Interface Paradigm for Motion Capture Based Animation Systems

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    A New Interface Paradigm for Motion Capture Based Animation Systems Fernando Wagner Serpa Vieira da for motion capture based animation systems, providing intuitive and efficient ways to visualize the main methodology. keywords: motion capture, animation systems, computer animation, graphic interfaces, GUI paradigm

  12. A New Interface Paradigm for Motion Capture Based Animation Systems

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    A New Interface Paradigm for Motion Capture Based Animation Systems Fernando Wagner Serpa Vieira da for motion capture based animation systems, providing intuitive and e#cient ways to visualize the main motion: motion capture, animation systems, computer animation, graphic interfaces, GUI paradigm, motion control

  13. Global services systems - Space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements projected to the year 2000 for space-based global service systems, including both personal communications and innovative services, are developed based on historic trends and anticipated worldwide demographic and economic growth patterns. The growing demands appear to be best satisfied by developing larger, more sophisticated space systems in order to reduce the size, complexity, and expense of ground terminals. The availability of low-cost ground terminals will, in turn, further stimulate the generation of new services and new customers.

  14. China's future domestic satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, G.; Yaokun, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Some ideas about China's future domestic satellite communications system are discussed. The following objectives are considered in the design of the new domestic satellite communications system: (1) the satellite communications system should link the entire country and form a unified national network with the existing ground communications system, (2) based on the geographic situation, the satellite communications system should be primarily small and scattered in the west, and large and concentrated in the east, (3) the Telephone business should be the primary business of the satellite communications system. It should also be capable of transmitting television, telegram, data, facsimile, and broadcasting, (4) the communications system should be primarily designed as a single jump system. It should not exceed two jumps, and (5) the parameters of the communications system should be in agreement with CCIR and CCITT recommendations.

  15. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  16. COMMANIMATION : a speech-controlled animation system

    E-print Network

    Kho, Nancy Ellen, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    In order to make the task of animation creation easy, a different approach should be presented to the user. This thesis describes a new approach to animation creation. In this approach, the representation of animation is ...

  17. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  18. Communications Systems for Mobile Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A; Pao, H

    2003-12-08

    Performance Confirmation is the activity by which the Yucca Mountain Project confirms that the engineered and natural containment barriers of this national nuclear waste repository are performing as predicted, so that an eventual decision to close the repository can be made. This activity involves systems that must be inspected and, in some cases, serviced by mobile robots. This paper discusses systems for underground mobile robot communications, including requirements, environments, options, issues, and down-select criteria. We reviewed a variety of systems, including Slotted Waveguide, Powerline Carrier, Leaky Feeder, Photonic Bandgap Fiber, Free-Space Optics, Millimeter Waves, Terahertz Systems, and RF Systems (including IEEE 802.11 a,b, and g, and Ultra-Wideband radio).

  19. Rugged Video System For Inspecting Animal Burrows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triandafils, Dick; Maples, Art; Breininger, Dave

    1992-01-01

    Video system designed for examining interiors of burrows of gopher tortoises, 5 in. (13 cm) in diameter or greater, to depth of 18 ft. (about 5.5 m), includes video camera, video cassette recorder (VCR), television monitor, control unit, and power supply, all carried in backpack. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) poles used to maneuver camera into (and out of) burrows, stiff enough to push camera into burrow, but flexible enough to bend around curves. Adult tortoises and other burrow inhabitants observable, young tortoises and such small animals as mice obscured by sand or debris.

  20. Study of the neural dynamics for understanding communication in terms of complex hetero systems.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Okuda, Jiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research project was to establish a new research area named "neural information science for communication" by elucidating its neural mechanism. The research was performed in collaboration with applied mathematicians in complex-systems science and experimental researchers in neuroscience. The project included measurements of brain activity during communication with or without languages and analyses performed with the help of extended theories for dynamical systems and stochastic systems. The communication paradigm was extended to the interactions between human and human, human and animal, human and robot, human and materials, and even animal and animal. PMID:25455742

  1. Electromagnetic Characterization of MIMO Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Heath Jr., - Robert W.

    Electromagnetic Characterization of MIMO Communication Systems Kapil R. Dandekar, Sumant Kawale electromagnetic interactions between the antenna arrays and the environment. To dissect the influence of various electromagnetic phenomena on the total MIMO communication channel, in this paper a hybrid computational

  2. MUAN: A Stop Motion Animation System Margareth Catoia Varela1

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    MUAN: A Stop Motion Animation System Margareth Catoia Varela1 , Luiz Velho1 , Bruno Madeira1,lvelho,madeira,hedlena }@impa.br, marcos@animamundi.com.br Abstract. MUAN is a Stop Motion Animation System for Education. The MUAN system allows animation movie production offering an integrated kit of hardware and software

  3. A high sensitivity small animal SPECT system

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Gregory S; Cherry, Simon R

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging using single gamma ray emitting radionuclides typically makes use of parallel hole collimators or pinholes in order to achieve good spatial resolution. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of a collimator, and modern preclinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma rays, often less than 0.1%. A system for small animal SPECT imaging which uses no collimators could potentially achieve very high sensitivity—several tens of percent—with reasonably sized detectors. This would allow two significant improvements in preclinical studies: images could be obtained more rapidly, allowing higher throughput for screening applications, or for dynamic processes to be observed with very good time resolution; and images could be obtained with less radioactive tracer, making possible the in vivo imaging of low-capacity receptor systems, aiding research into new tracer compounds, and reducing the cost and easing the regulatory burden of an experiment. Of course, a system with no collimator will not be able to approach the sub-millimeter spatial resolutions produced by the most advanced pinhole and collimated systems, but a high sensitivity system with resolution of order one centimeter could nonetheless find significant and new use in the many molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolution—for example, screening applications for drug development or new imaging agents. Rather than as an alternative to high resolution SPECT systems, the high sensitivity system is proposed as a radiotracer alternative to optical imaging for small animals. We have developed a prototype system for mouse imaging applications. The scanner consists of two large, thin, closely spaced scintillation detectors. Simulation studies indicate that a FWHM spatial resolution of 7 mm is possible. In an in vivo mouse imaging study using the 99mTc labeled tracer MAG-3, the sensitivity of the system is measured to be 40%. Simple projection images created by analytically combining the two detectors' data show sufficient resolution to observe the dynamic distribution of the radiotracer in the mouse. PMID:19190360

  4. Short communication Cost-effective abundance estimation of rare animals: Testing performance

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Len

    Short communication Cost-effective abundance estimation of rare animals: Testing performance from rel- atively low-cost surveys can be thought of as hypotheses to be tested as new data, but estimating abundance of rare species can be more chal- lenging than for common ones. Cost-effective methods

  5. 1. Introduction In its most common sense, acoustic communication occurs between animals,

    E-print Network

    Gentner, Timothy

    1. Introduction In its most common sense, acoustic communication occurs between animals-producing organs, the physical media they traverse, and the physics of the receptor organs (Bass and Clark, Chapter organization along with information-theoretic analyses that capture varia- tions in behavior and signal

  6. Electronic Communication in Africa--the Promotion of Animal Health Information Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Erica E.; Miller, E. Stan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the Veterinary Science Library at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) promotes electronic communication through various Internet and other network links. Provides a sample of online information sources available to veterinary teams and animal health workers, and a list of electronic addresses for South African libraries and…

  7. Animal biocalorimeter and waste management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (Inventor); Trimailo, William R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A biocalorimeter and waste management system is provided for making metabolic heat release measurements of animals or humans in a calorimeter (enclosure) using ambient air as a low velocity source of ventilating air through the enclosure. A shroud forces ventilating air to pass over the enclosure from an end open to ambient air at the end of the enclosure opposite its ventilating air inlet end and closed around the inlet end of the enclosure in order to obviate the need for regulating ambient air temperature. Psychrometers for measuring dry- and wet-bulb temperature of ventilating air make it possible to account for the sensible and latent heat additions to the ventilating air. A waste removal system momentarily recirculates high velocity air in a closed circuit through the calorimeter wherein a sudden rise in moisture is detected in the ventilating air from the outlet.

  8. Picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are extremely versatile systems that facilitate the transfer of digital images and patient data throughout a healthcare enterprise. PACS are most commonly used in radiology departments to process images from diagnostic imaging modalities, such as digital radiography devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. In this article, we evaluate three such systems from three of the largest PACS suppliers--the Agfa IMPAX, GE PathSpeed, and Siemens Sienet. The ultimate goal of any PACS is to improve workflow within the enterprise. Our testing focused on whether, and to what degree, the systems could meet this goal. We found that all three PACS are fairly complete and able to support image distribution and improve workflow compared with film-based processes. However, we did identify significant differences--along with some noteworthy limitations--with respect to system design and operation, external integration capabilities, and supplier support and professional services. We have ranked the systems for each of these factors to help healthcare facilities identify the system that will best meet their needs. Also in this Evaluation, we present an overview of the technology, a Glossary of PACS terminology (see page 400), selection guidance, and discussions of PACS-related topics, including data compression options, the role of the DICOM standard, and concerns about data security in many of today's systems. PMID:11126821

  9. Wireless augmented reality communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  10. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  11. A Reconfigurable Communications System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Kifle, Muli

    2004-01-01

    Two trends of NASA missions are the use of multiple small spacecraft and the development of an integrated space network. To achieve these goals, a robust and agile communications system is needed. Advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology have made it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips; thus this technology has great potential as the basis for a reconfigurable communications system. This report discusses the requirements of future space communications, reviews relevant issues, and proposes a methodology to design and construct a reconfigurable communications system for small scientific spacecraft.

  12. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  13. 47 CFR 90.465 - Control of systems of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Control of systems of communication. 90.465 Section 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Control of systems of communication. (a) Depending on...control of a system of communication may be...

  14. STORY: A HIERARCHICAL ANIMATION AND STORYBOARDING SYSTEM FOR ALPHA 11

    E-print Network

    STORY: A HIERARCHICAL ANIMATION AND STORYBOARDING SYSTEM FOR ALPHA 11 Michael S. Blum, Robert 84112, USA April 7, 1993 Abstract We introduce an integrated animation and storyboarding system that simpli es the creation and re- nement of computer generated animations. The framework models both

  15. The Aerospace Corporation 2009 Communication Satellite Systems

    E-print Network

    Low, Steven H.

    © The Aerospace Corporation 2009 Communication Satellite Systems Trends and Network Aspects Paul://www.aero.org/ Lee Center, Caltech 13 April 2009 #12;22 Communication Satellites · Brief History by Decade · Trends: ­ Communication Satellites, fifth edition, by D. Martin, P. Anderson, L. Bartamian, Aerospace / AIAA Press, 2006

  16. A new device for communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A communication device and modulation capability were developed for the transmission of digital data or voices from point to point. This device is a fast-switching phase coherent frequency synthesizer. When this synthesizer is appropriately incorporated in a communication system it can provide interference resistance, multiple-user capability, user identification, ranging, navigation, Doppler correction, and digitized communication (voice and data). The application of this device to aircraft/airport complex and law enforcement communications is discussed.

  17. Microbes and animal olfactory communication: Where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Williams, Allison E

    2014-09-01

    We know that microbes contribute to the production of odors that some animals use to communicate, but how common is this phenomenon? Recent studies capitalizing on new molecular technologies are uncovering fascinating associations between microbes and odors of wild animals, but causality is difficult to ascertain. Fundamental questions about the nature of these unique host-microbe interactions also remain unanswered. For instance, do microbes benefit from signaling associations with hosts? How does microbial community structure influence signal production? How do hosts regulate microbes in order to generate appropriate signals? Here, we review the current state of knowledge on microbially produced signals in animals and discuss key research foci that can advance our understanding of microbial-based signaling in the animal world. PMID:24986361

  18. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.

  19. A Distant Solar System (Artist's Concept Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation portrays an artist's concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins close to the star, and then moves out past a number of planets. Though 'extrasolar' planets are too small to be seen with telescopes, astronomers have detected more than 100 gas giants like Jupiter via their gravitational tug on their parent stars.

    The view pulls back to reveal the outer fringes of the system and a ring of dusty debris that circles the star. This debris is all that remains of the planet-forming disk from which the planets evolved.

    Planets are formed when dusty material in a large disk surrounding a young star clumps together. Leftover material is eventually blown out by solar wind or pushed out by gravitational interactions with planets. Billions of years later, only an outer disk of debris remains.

    These outer debris disks are too faint to be imaged directly by visible-light telescopes. They are washed out by the glare of the Sun. However, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope can detect their heat, or excess thermal emission, in infrared light. This allows astronomers to study the aftermath of planet building in distant solar systems like our own.

  20. Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.

  1. Data-base driven graphics animation and simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, H.D.; Curtis, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Most attempts at the graphics animation of data involve rather large and expensive development of problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a general graphics animation system created to be a tool for the design of a wide variety of animated simulations. By using relational data base storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in the design and development of animated displays is achieved.

  2. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  3. Apollo experience report: Lunar module communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Rhoades, D. E.; Davidson, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the lunar module communications system is traced from the initial concept to the operational system used on manned lunar missions. The problems encountered during the development, the corrective actions taken, and recommendations for similar equipment in future programs are included. The system was designed to provide communications between the lunar module and the manned space flight network, between the lunar module and the command and service module, and between the lunar module and the extravehicular crewmen. The system provided the equipment necessary for voice, telemetry, and television communications; ranging information; and various communications links.

  4. A Future of Communication Theory: Systems Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Georg N.

    Concepts of general systems theory, cybernetics and the like may provide the methodology for communication theory to move from a level of technology to a level of pure science. It was the purpose of this paper to (1) demonstrate the necessity of applying systems theory to the construction of communication theory, (2) review relevant systems

  5. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  6. Montana State University 1 Animal Systems Option

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Expression 5 Choose one of the following: * 4 ANSC 265 - Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals - Lecture ( AND) ANSC 266 - Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals - Lab BIOH 201 - Hum Anatomy & Physiology I BIOH 211 - Hum Anatomy & Physiology II University Core and Electives 3 Year Total: 15 15 Senior Year

  7. SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

  8. Introduction The goal of systems neuroscience is to understand animal

    E-print Network

    Mahadevan, L.

    4652 Introduction The goal of systems neuroscience is to understand animal behavior in terms that descriptive models of sensorimotor transformation that are established at the level of animal behavior may to be useful, descriptive models of behavior must compactly and accurately represent the animal's behavior

  9. The Anima Animation System, Version 2.0

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Howard J.

    in the film and game industries. Animation software has become an important Canadian industry, due are also being used in the architectural and industrial design sectors [4]. Animation has created technicalThe Anima Animation System, Version 2.0 Danielle Sauer, Jared Gabruch, Cara Gibbs, Howard Hamilton

  10. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  11. How do communication systems emerge?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Communication involves a pair of behaviours—a signal and a response—that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a theoretical perspective why this should be the case, nor if there are any other routes to communication. Here, we develop an analytical model to examine how communication can emerge. We show that: (i) a state of non-interaction is evolutionarily stable, and so communication will not necessarily emerge even when it is in both parties' interest; (ii) the conditions for sensory manipulation are more stringent than for ritualization, and hence ritualization is likely to be more common; and (iii) communication can arise by a third route, when the intention to communicate can itself be communicated, but this may be limited to humans. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of a functional approach to communication. PMID:22217724

  12. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  13. 46 CFR 130.440 - Communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications system. 130.440 Section 130.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.440 Communications...

  14. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication

  15. Statistical Risk Estimation for Communication System Design

    E-print Network

    Statistical Risk Estimation for Communication System Design Alessandra Babuscia, David W. Miller May 2012 SSL # 6-12 #12;#12;Statistical Risk Estimation for Communication System Design Alessandra Babuscia, David W. Miller May 2012 SSL # 6-12 This work is based on the unaltered text of the thesis

  16. Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation

    E-print Network

    Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation Douglas A. Wiegmann, Gavin R. Essenberg is to present the results of human factors experiments looking at the power system flow animation. II power (real, reactive and complex) flows through the transmission network. As the transmission system

  17. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    October 2013 Examiner: Prof. G. Q. Maguire Jr. #12;c Alexandre Kohen, 1 October 2013 #12;Abstract Unified¨andare genom ¨overg°angen ¨ar kritisk. iii #12;#12;R´esum´e Les solutions de communications unifi´ees rassemblent diff´erents modes de communications, technologies, et applications pour r´epondre aux besoin

  18. ETS-VI multibeam satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Isao

    1989-10-01

    The fixed and mobile satellite communications systems of the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) are described. The system requirements are outlined along with the system configuration. The ETS-VI multibeam system employs three frequency bands. When used for Ka-band fixed communications, it covers the Japanese main islands with thirteen 0.3-degree-wide spot beam. Four of the beams are active for ETS-VI. When used for S-band mobile communications, five beams cover the area within 200 nautical miles from the Japanese coast. The C-band beam for fixed communications covers the central area of the Japanese main islands with a single beam. The onboard antenna system is described along with the transponders and their associated onboard systems. A discussion of the system technology follows, covering the TDMA transmisssion system, the relay function, rainfall compensation, and the antenna and propagation performance.

  19. Roadside-based communication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A roadside-based communication system providing backup communication between emergency mobile units and emergency command centers. In the event of failure of a primary communication, the mobile units transmit wireless messages to nearby roadside controllers that may take the form of intersection controllers. The intersection controllers receive the wireless messages, convert the messages into standard digital streams, and transmit the digital streams along a citywide network to a destination intersection or command center.

  20. Data analysis using a data base driven graphics animation system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieder, D.H.; Stewart, H.D.; Curtis, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    A graphics animation system has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to assist engineers in the analysis of large amounts of time series data. Most prior attempts at computer animation of data involve the development of large and expensive problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a generalized interactive computer animation system designed to be used in a wide variety of data analysis applications. By using relational data base storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in design and development of animated displays is achieved.

  1. Designing Communication Strategies for Heterogeneous Parallel Systems \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Texas at Dallas, University of

    Designing Communication Strategies for Heterogeneous Parallel Systems \\Lambda Ravi Prakash: Dr. Dhabaleswar K. Panda Abstract This paper investigates communication strategies communication strategies (combinations of communication topologies and protocols) over Wavelength Division

  2. A 1000+ channel bionic communication system.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Joseph H; Mobley, J Phil; Wolfe, James; Stover, Howard; Krag, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The wireless electronic nervous system interface known as the functional electrical stimulation-battery powered bion system is being developed at the Alfred Mann Foundation. It contains a real-time propagated wave micro-powered multichannel communication system. This system is designed to send bi-directional messages between an external master controller unit (MCU), and each one of a group of injectable stimulator-sensor battery powered bion implants (BPB). The system is capable of communicating in each direction about 90 times per second using a structure of 850 time slots within a repeating 11 millisecond time window. The system's total Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communication capability is about 77,000 two-way communications per second on a single 5 MHz wide radio channel. Each time slot can be used by one BPB, or shared alternately by two or more BPBs. Each bidirectional communication consists of a 15 data bit message sent from the MCU sequentially to each BPB and 10 data bit message sent sequentially from each BPB to the MCU. Redundancy bits are included to provide error detection and correction. This communication system is designed to draw only a few microamps from the 3.6 volt, 3.0 mAHr lithium ion (LiIon) battery contained in each BPB, and the majority of the communications circuitry is contained within a 1.4x5 mm integrated circuit. PMID:17947078

  3. Strategic Choices for Data Communications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Robert G.; Urban, Patricia A.

    Issues and strategies for developing a campus data communications system are discussed. It is suggested that individual microcomputer (MC) workstations will occasionally have a need for (1) access, via a data communications network, to a more powerful processor; (2) specialized software; (3) sophisticated output devices; (4) central data sets; or…

  4. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in...

  7. Economics of satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one arrives at a schedule of costs and payments for all the items and the years in which they will be incurred. The second category of costing problems is one of financing or engineering economics. All the costs are first "present valued" to some reference period using rates of return appropriate to the particular situation. One finally arrives at sets of annual costs which can be used as the basis for setting lease costs or revenue requirements and tariffs. The correspondence between methods using discounted rates of return and capital recovery formulae on one hand and those using various depreciation schedules, such as is typical of regulated industries on the other hand, is discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to discussing the relationship between critical parameters, such as replacement schedules, design lifetime, satellite power and Earth station antenna size, and the overall costs. It is shown that optima for these parameters may exist and can be calculated. In particular, the optimization of satellite replacement schedules to minimize the present value of total investment over a very long period is presented, along with simplified versions of the theory suitable for system planning. The choice of EIRP is also discussed and a procedure for choosing the value that minimizes the costs is shown.

  8. RESTRAINING SYSTEM FOR PLETHYSMOGRAPHY IN SMALL ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A restraining technique for immobilizing awake guinea pigs and rats during physiological measurements is described. The basic device consists of an adjustable acrylic holder that supports the animal in a standing position while restricting movement of the four legs. The holder al...

  9. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  10. ANIMAL CELLS AND SYSTEMS Vol. 13 No. 2 113 Animal Cells and Systems 13: 113-118, 2009

    E-print Network

    Lee, Won-Ha

    ANIMAL CELLS AND SYSTEMS Vol. 13 No. 2 113 Animal Cells and Systems 13: 113-118, 2009 Keumsa in cellular migration potential was tested in vitro. At a concentration range below 1,000 µg/ mL, Linteusan blocked, in a dose dependent manner, the migration of cells through Matrigel as well as Boyden chamber

  11. Satellite multiple access systems for mobile communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers multiple access techniques for a mobile radio system which incorporates a geosynchronous orbiting satellite repeater through which mobile terminals communicate. The communication capacities of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA systems are examined for a 4 MHz bandwidth system to serve up to 10,000 users. An FDMA system with multibeam coverage is analyzed in detail. The system includes an order-wire network for demand-access control and reassignment of satellite channels. Satellite and terminal configurations are developed to a block diagram level and system costs and implementation requirements are discussed.

  12. Transmission of systemic AA amyloidosis in animals.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Ishiguro, N; Higuchi, K

    2014-03-01

    Amyloidoses are a group of protein-misfolding disorders that are characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and/or tissues. In reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, serum AA (SAA) protein forms deposits in mice, domestic and wild animals, and humans that experience chronic inflammation. AA amyloid fibrils are abnormal ?-sheet-rich forms of the serum precursor SAA, with conformational changes that promote fibril formation. Extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils causes disease in affected animals. Recent findings suggest that AA amyloidosis could be transmissible. Similar to the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases, amyloid fibrils induce a seeding-nucleation process that may lead to development of AA amyloidosis. We review studies of possible transmission in bovine, avian, mouse, and cheetah AA amyloidosis. PMID:24280941

  13. Space Station multiple access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Nanci A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

  14. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a... their work stations in the LNG plant. (b) Each LNG plant in excess of 70,000 gallons (265,000...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a... their work stations in the LNG plant. (b) Each LNG plant in excess of 70,000 gallons (265,000...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a... their work stations in the LNG plant. (b) Each LNG plant in excess of 70,000 gallons (265,000...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a... their work stations in the LNG plant. (b) Each LNG plant in excess of 70,000 gallons (265,000...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a... their work stations in the LNG plant. (b) Each LNG plant in excess of 70,000 gallons (265,000...

  19. Learning communication strategies in multiagent systems

    E-print Network

    Kinney, M.; Tsatsoulis, Costas

    1998-07-01

    In this paper we describe a dynamic, adaptive communication strategy for multiagent systems. We discuss the behavioral parameters of each agent that need to be computed, and provide a quantitative solution to the problem of controlling...

  20. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    together with the app developer company The Mobile Life, who also provided access to app data for 16, which would enable more interesting pattern discovery. Keywords: mobile, smartphone, application, app S B E R G Quantitative indicators of a successful mobile application KTH Information and Communication

  1. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    B R A H I M Ethernet in Steer-by-wire Applications KTH Information and Communication Technology #12;Ethernet in Steer-by-wire Applications Muhammad Ibrahim muhibr@kth.se July 18, 2011 Supervisors Prof designed primarily for the automotive industry. It is reliable and cost-effective and features error

  2. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.

  3. [Develop mine communications system]. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Meiksin, Z.H.

    1998-09-15

    The objective of this project was to develop, design, and build a system prototype to demonstrate the practicality of two-way, wireless through-the-earth communications between the interior of a mine and the surface. The system was to communicate data for process and environment monitoring and control, and provide real-time voice communication for emergency situations and for daily operations use. Transmitters and receivers were designed, built, and tested in actual mines. A wireless in-mine communications system was also developed. The feasibility of the concept and the marketability of the product were successfully demonstrated. Additional work must be done to make the product suitable for, and marketable to, the coal mining industry.

  4. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  5. Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods

    DOEpatents

    Scott; Jeff W. (Pasco, WA), Pratt; Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2006-09-12

    Tags, wireless communication systems, tag communication methods, and wireless communications methods are described. In one aspect, a tag includes a plurality of antennas configured to receive a plurality of first wireless communication signals comprising data from a reader, a plurality of rectifying circuits coupled with. respective individual ones of the antennas and configured to provide rectified signals corresponding to the first wireless communication signals, wherein the rectified signals are combined to produce a composite signal, an adaptive reference circuit configured to vary a reference signal responsive to the composite signal, a comparator coupled with the adaptive reference circuit and the rectifying circuits and configured to compare the composite signal with respect to the reference signal and to output the data responsive to the comparison, and processing circuitry configured to receive the data from the comparator and to process the data.

  6. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  7. Full-duplex optical communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  8. Mitochondria and chloroplasts shared in animal and plant tissues: significance of communication.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Christopher; Stefano, George B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have long been recognized as the main source of energy production for the eukaryotic cell. Recent studies have found that the mitochondria have a variety of dynamic functions aside from the production of energy. It communicates bidirectionally with other organelles in order to modulate its energy balance efficiently, as well as maintain homeostasis, ultimately prolonging its own and the cell's longevity. The mitochondria achieves this level of regulation via specific and common bidirectional chemical messengers, especially involving the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTP's), ATP and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its communication network is also involved in stress associated events. In this regard, the activation of the Bax family proteins and the release of cytochrome c occurs during cellular stress. The communication can also promote apoptosis of the cell. When mitochondrial abnormalities cannot be dealt with, there is an increased chance that major illnesses like type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer may occur. Importantly, functioning chloroplasts can be found in animals, suggesting conserved chemical messengers during its evolutionary path. The dynamic capacity of mitochondria is also noted by their ability to function anaerobically. Indeed, this latter phenomenon may represent a return to an earlier developmental stage of mitochondria, suggesting certain disorders result from its untimely appearance. PMID:26005853

  9. Communicating Emotions in Online Chat Using Physiological Sensors and Animated Text

    E-print Network

    Igarashi, Takeo

    the affective state of the user. The system obtains the affective state of a chat user from a physiological sensor attached to the user's body. This paper describes preliminary experiments and provides examples, affective computing, online chat INTRODUCTION Online communication has become a major tool worldwide

  10. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  11. Enhancing ground communication of distributed space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaramoorthy, P. P.; Gill, E.; Verhoeven, C. J. M.

    2013-03-01

    The functionality of a distributed system can be significantly enhanced by exploring non-traditional approaches that leverage on inherent aspects of distributed systems in space. Till now, the benefit of distributed systems in space has been limited to enhancing coverage, multipoint sensing, creating virtual baselines (e.g. interferometry) or to enhance redundancy. The list of benefits can be further expanded by understanding the nature of distributed systems and by productively incorporating it into mission and spacecraft design. For example, prior knowledge of the spatial evolution of such systems can lead to innovative communication architectures for these distributed systems. In this paper, different communication scenarios are investigated that can enhance the communication link between the distributed system and ground. The increasing trend towards highly miniaturized spacecraft (nano- to femto-satellites) and proposals to launch hundreds or even thousands of them in massively distributed space missions have expanded the interest in distributed systems with miniature spacecraft. It is important to understand how and which, functionalities and systems, scale with size and number. Scalable systems are defined and addressed at a basic level and the utility of scaling rules and trends in identifying optimal configurations of distributed systems is explored. In this paper we focus on the communication capability and identify methods to enhance the communication link between a distributed space segment, consisting of a number of simplistic, resource limited femto-satellites, and earth. As an example, the concept of forming a dynamic phased array in space with the elements of a distributed space system in low-earth orbit is investigated. At the ground receiver, the signals from different satellites forming the array should not differ in phase by more than one-third the transmission wavelength, to ensure constructive superposition. Realizing such a phased array places strict accuracy requirements on time synchronization and knowledge of relative separation between the satellites with respect to the ground receiver. These constraints are derived and discussed.

  12. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710 Powered communication system. (a) Identification. A powered communication...

  13. Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems Lila Santean

    E-print Network

    Kari, Lila

    Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems Lila Santean Academy of Finland and Mathematics Department], Russian parallel [4] and Indian parallel [4] grammars are some ex- amples of such models based on formal and introduce most embarassing performance limitations. Cooperating /distributed grammar systems are an attempt

  14. Memorial Hermann creates standalone patient communications system.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This standalone patient communications system can be customized by individual clinics. It also offers patients a series of message types, each of which can be routed to a different person at the clinics. And, though it required a security infrastructure, it didn't have to be integrated with backend systems. PMID:15791729

  15. Construction of a Communication Audit: An Examination of Communication Systems and Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brent D., Ed.; Greenbaum, Howard H., Ed.

    Abstracts of 12 papers concerning the effectiveness of various communication systems are printed here. Subjects of the papers are: the appraisal of organizational communication systems, and evaluation of ECCO analysis as a communication audit methodology, assessment of attitude and opinion change effects of the communication audit, organizational…

  16. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  17. RDS-SL VS Communication System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-12

    The RDS-SL VS Communication System is a component of the Radiation Detection System for Strategic, Low-Volume Seaports. Its purpose is to acquire real-time data from radiation portal monitors and cameras, record that data in a database, and make it available to system operators and administrators via a web interface. The software system contains two components: a standalone data acquisition and storage component and an ASP.NETweb application that implements the web interface.

  18. Communication Simulations for Power System Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-05-29

    New smart grid technologies and concepts, such as dynamic pricing, demand response, dynamic state estimation, and wide area monitoring, protection, and control, are expected to require considerable communication resources. As the cost of retrofit can be high, future power grids will require the integration of high-speed, secure connections with legacy communication systems, while still providing adequate system control and security. While considerable work has been performed to create co-simulators for the power domain with load models and market operations, limited work has been performed in integrating communications directly into a power domain solver. The simulation of communication and power systems will become more important as the two systems become more inter-related. This paper will discuss ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to create a flexible, high-speed power and communication system co-simulator for smart grid applications. The framework for the software will be described, including architecture considerations for modular, high performance computing and large-scale scalability (serialization, load balancing, partitioning, cross-platform support, etc.). The current simulator supports the ns-3 (telecommunications) and GridLAB-D (distribution systems) simulators. Ongoing and future work will be described, including planned future expansions for a traditional transmission solver. A test case using the co-simulator, utilizing a transactive demand response system created for the Olympic Peninsula and AEP gridSMART demonstrations, requiring two-way communication between distributed and centralized market devices, will be used to demonstrate the value and intended purpose of the co-simulation environment.

  19. A conceptual model for particle systems animation 

    E-print Network

    Flaherty, Eric Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Particle systems represent a technique for creating a special class of computer generated images. This class of imagery would be difficult or impossible to create using traditional surface based representations found in ...

  20. Space Launch System Animation - Duration: 70 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...

  1. A passive integrated transponder system for tracking animal movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.; Beigel, M.L.; Goodlett, G.C.; Sazaki, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an automated system that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to track movements of animals past specific locations. The system was designed to operate maintenance free for several months, be secure from vandalism and environmental damage, and record the identity, date, and time of passage of animals past a 2.4-m wide area. We used the system to monitor effectively the movements of 172 desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) through 2 storm drain culverts that pass beneath a state highway in the Mojave Desert, California. Four tortoises entered or passed through the culverts on 60 occasions. The system can be easily adapted to other species.

  2. Communication Capacity Optimization for Broadband Satellite Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuga, Yoshinori; Mitsugi, Jin; Ueba, Masazumi; Mizuno, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    ground-based access systems, such as FTTH, ADSL and even terrestrial cellular systems, are only available within limited geographical areas, broadband satellite communication systems that can cover unlimited service area have attracted wide interest. However, the success of broadband satellite communication depends heavily on the cost of user terminals and satellite circuits. and frequency bandwidth, which involves design parameters. For such parameters, we must consider modulation, coding, the number of radiating beams and the number of areas in which frequency bandwidth can be reused. These parameters should be chosen such that maximum communication capacity can be provided with minimum system resources under a designated rain attenuation and interference environment. The difficulty in optimization stems from the number of design parameters and the interactions between them. The optimization also has to be done in a manner such that the service provider can determine the relation between the service cost and the service grade. The service grade can be expressed in terms of the available user information rate, return link as well as forward link, and the number of available communication channels, while the system cost can be expressed in terms of required satellite power and the bandwidth. power and bandwidth parameters. In the method, the number of spot beams, the number of repeated bandwidth areas and the type of modulation are separately determined for the return and forward link. From the selected design parameters, the relationship between bandwidth capacity and power capacity is derived assuming they are linear. The power and bandwidth required for the return and forward link are then integrated by applying a linear programming method. The constraints in linear programming are power and bandwidth. To denote the system resource management proficiency, we introduce an index called power-utilization efficiency, which is a ratio of the maximum capacity to the required power. systems that have 15 or 35 spot beams. Since circuit quality degradation in Ku band systems due to the propagation environments is less than that in Ka band systems, the power-utilization efficiency of the Ku band is 1.25 times more that of the Ka band. On the other hand, the total capacity of the Ka band is 3.5 times that of the Ku band since the allocated bandwidth in the Ku band is narrower than that of the Ka band. Bandwidth reuse is an effective way to increase total available bandwidth. For the same service area and the same number of reused bandwidths, increasing the number of spot beams can reduce the interference between different areas assigned the same frequency, since the distance between those areas widens. This enables total capacity and power-utilization efficiency for a 35-spot-beam system to be more than 2.2 and 2.75 times greater, respectively, than for a 15-spot-beam system. limited transmission power of the user terminal. Therefore, the return link transponder requires a higher transmission power level to compensate for this limitation. On the other hand, a high-quality downlink is also required for the forward link because of the small size of the user terminal antenna. However, the quality of the forward link can be maintained since it is possible to increase uplink quality by improving hub-station performance. This makes it possible to suppress the increase in the transmission power of the forward link transponder in comparison with that of the return link transponder. As an example, we compared two cases, in one of which the capacity ratio (forward link capacity divided by the return link capacity) was 2.0 and in the other of which it was 10.0. We found that the amount of capacity and power utilization efficiency were, respectively, 33% and 50% greater for the latter case than for the former case. applications.

  3. Distributed Satellite Communication System Design: First-Order Interactions between System and Network

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Distributed Satellite Communication System Design: First-Order Interactions between System to bankruptcy. The upfront capital required to implement a satellite communications system is staggering and performance of a system. Traditionally, the first step toward designing satellite communication systems

  4. A small terminal for satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Fuqin; Wu, Dong; Jin, Min

    1994-01-01

    A small portable, low-cost satellite communications terminal system incorporating a modulator/demodulator and convolutional-Viterbi coder/decoder is described. Advances in signal processing and error-correction techniques in combination with higher power and higher frequencies aboard satellites allow for more efficient use of the space segment. This makes it possible to design small economical earth stations. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was chosen to test the system. ACTS, operating at the Ka band incorporates higher power, higher frequency, frequency and spatial reuse using spot beams and polarization.

  5. Evolution of a radio communication relay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Hart, Abraham; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Neff, Joseph; Roth, Leif

    2013-05-01

    Providing long-distance non-line-of-sight control for unmanned ground robots has long been recognized as a problem, considering the nature of the required high-bandwidth radio links. In the early 2000s, the DARPA Mobile Autonomous Robot Software (MARS) program funded the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SSC) Pacific to demonstrate a capability for autonomous mobile communication relaying on a number of Pioneer laboratory robots. This effort also resulted in the development of ad hoc networking radios and software that were later leveraged in the development of a more practical and logistically simpler system, the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR). Funded by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise and internally by SSC Pacific, several generations of ADCR systems introduced increasingly more capable hardware and software for automatic maintenance of communication links through deployment of static relay nodes from mobile robots. This capability was finally tapped in 2010 to fulfill an urgent need from theater. 243 kits of ruggedized, robot-deployable communication relays were produced and sent to Afghanistan to extend the range of EOD and tactical ground robots in 2012. This paper provides a summary of the evolution of the radio relay technology at SSC Pacific, and then focuses on the latest two stages, the Manually-Deployed Communication Relays and the latest effort to automate the deployment of these ruggedized and fielded relay nodes.

  6. Vocal Corollary Discharge Communicates Call Duration to Vertebrate Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Corollary discharge is essential to an animal's ability to filter self-generated from external stimuli. This includes acoustic communication, although direct demonstration of a corollary discharge that both conveys a vocal motor signal and informs the auditory system about the physical attributes of a self-generated vocalization has remained elusive for vertebrates. Here, we show the underlying synaptic activity of a neuronal vocal corollary discharge pathway in the hindbrain of a highly vocal species of fish. Neurons carrying the vocal corollary discharge are specifically adapted for the transmission of duration information, a predominant acoustic cue. The results reveal that vertebrates, like some insects, have a robust corollary discharge conveying call duration. Along with evidence for the influence of vocal duration on auditory encoding in mammals, these new findings suggest that linking vocal motor and corollary discharge pathways with pattern generating, call duration neurons is a shared network character across the animal kingdom. PMID:24285884

  7. A bidirectional fiber optic communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattschneider, George K.

    1991-06-01

    A novel bidirectional fiber optic communication system has been designed and developed at the Defence Research Establishment Pacific (DREP). It is part of a new magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) system currently under development by the MAD group. The fiber optic system is designed to transfer asynchronous data through a single optical fiber between an aircraft and a tethered bird. Low magnetic content, minimal size and weight, low power consumption, and wide temperature range operation of the bird section of the system are requirements that are critical to the proper functioning of the entire MAD system. The communication system described in this paper meets all of these requirements as well as providing exceptional accuracy and reliability.

  8. Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50?kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

  9. A packet switched communications system for GRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, Shabu; Yang, Wen-Hsing; Vadlamudi, Rani; Valenti, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the packet switched Instrumenters Communication System (ICS) that was developed for the Command Management Facility at GSFC to support the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft. The GRO ICS serves as a vital science data acquisition link to the GRO scientists to initiate commands for their spacecraft instruments. The system is ready to send and receive messages at any time, 24 hours a day and seven days a week. The system is based on X.25 and the International Standard Organization's (ISO) 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model and has client and server components. The components of the GRO ICS are discussed along with how the Communications Subsystem for Interconnection (CSFI) and Network Control Program Packet Switching Interface (NPSI) software are used in the system.

  10. NEAT Particles: Design, Representation, and Animation of Particle System Effects

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    NEAT Particles: Design, Representation, and Animation of Particle System Effects Erin Hastings Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG'07). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Abstract-- Particle systems, electricity, water, magic, and many other phenomena. This paper presents NEAT Particles, a new design

  11. Striving for safety: communicating and deciding in sociotechnical systems

    E-print Network

    Flach, John M.

    How do communications and decisions impact the safety of sociotechnical systems? This paper frames this question in the context of a dynamic system of nested sub-systems. Communications are related to the construct of ...

  12. 26 CFR 49.4253-9 - Exemption for certain interior communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for certain interior communication systems. 49...SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Communications § 49.4253-9...certain interior communication systems. (a...connected with a communications system. (c...examples of interior communication systems:...

  13. Hierarchical implementation of a wireless communications system 

    E-print Network

    Mayhugh, Terry L

    2000-01-01

    in the lowest level of modeling. Implementation of large mixed-signal systems, such as wireless communications devices, is likely to result in single-chip solutions in the near future. As a result, design and implementation techniques must be devised which allow...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111 Section 127.1111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling...

  15. Proceedings of the Military Communications System Control Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S.; Heller, J.

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Perspective on Communications System Control, Navy Force Coordination and the Requirements for Communications Network Management, On the Functions of a Network Management Agency, Improved Control and Technical Management of DCS Theater Assets Under Crisis and Wartime Conditions, Survivability Performance of MX Communication System, System Control for the Tactical/Strategic Interface, Tactical Circuit-Switched Network Control, Systems Control in Tactical Digital Communications Systems - a Study in Distributed Control, the NATO III Satellite Communications Control System, Network Control in NATO Integrated Communications Systems - Stage I, Evolution of Control in the Defense Satellite Communication System, System Control Considerations for Next Generation DCS Switches, Evolving Approaches to System control in the Defense Communications Systems(DCS), and Network control and the CRM Make Possible Automated Digital Patching.

  16. Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head-Mounted Display Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Trevor J.; Mohler, Betty J.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2011-01-01

    Background When we talk to one another face-to-face, body gestures accompany our speech. Motion tracking technology enables us to include body gestures in avatar-mediated communication, by mapping one's movements onto one's own 3D avatar in real time, so the avatar is self-animated. We conducted two experiments to investigate (a) whether head-mounted display virtual reality is useful for researching the influence of body gestures in communication; and (b) whether body gestures are used to help in communicating the meaning of a word. Participants worked in pairs and played a communication game, where one person had to describe the meanings of words to the other. Principal Findings In experiment 1, participants used significantly more hand gestures and successfully described significantly more words when nonverbal communication was available to both participants (i.e. both describing and guessing avatars were self-animated, compared with both avatars in a static neutral pose). Participants ‘passed’ (gave up describing) significantly more words when they were talking to a static avatar (no nonverbal feedback available). In experiment 2, participants' performance was significantly worse when they were talking to an avatar with a prerecorded listening animation, compared with an avatar animated by their partners' real movements. In both experiments participants used significantly more hand gestures when they played the game in the real world. Conclusions Taken together, the studies show how (a) virtual reality can be used to systematically study the influence of body gestures; (b) it is important that nonverbal communication is bidirectional (real nonverbal feedback in addition to nonverbal communication from the describing participant); and (c) there are differences in the amount of body gestures that participants use with and without the head-mounted display, and we discuss possible explanations for this and ideas for future investigation. PMID:22022442

  17. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    användaren kontrollera och styra olika apparater i hemmet, ofta sker detta utifrån. Dessa apparater endast minimal och billig extra hårdvara är stort. Många av dessa apparater kan dra nytta av att vara marknaden som ger användaren ett sätt att övervaka och styra en hemmiljö, men dessa system är ofta låsta och

  18. Degree project in Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    A R A D O G A N Evaluating WebSocket and WebRTC in the Context of a Mobile Internet of Things Gateway of a Mobile Internet of Things Gateway Gunay Mert Karadogan Master of Science Thesis Embedded Systems School to the Internet in order to foster an Internet of Things (IoT). This thesis project aims to solve the problem

  19. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  20. Energy efficiency in wireless communication systems

    DOEpatents

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Palmer, Joseph McRae

    2012-12-11

    Wireless communication systems and methods utilize one or more remote terminals, one or more base terminals, and a communication channel between the remote terminal(s) and base terminal(s). The remote terminal applies a direct sequence spreading code to a data signal at a spreading factor to provide a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal. The DSSS signal is transmitted over the communication channel to the base terminal which can be configured to despread the received DSSS signal by a spreading factor matching the spreading factor utilized to spread the data signal. The remote terminal and base terminal can dynamically vary the matching spreading factors to adjust the data rate based on an estimation of operating quality over time between the remote terminal and base terminal such that the amount of data being transmitted is substantially maximized while providing a specified quality of service.

  1. How do animals communicate in complex hydrodynamic environments? Linking hydraulics and ecology in rivers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Rice, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Animals make decisions about the suitability of habitat and their reaction to other organisms based on the sensory information that they first obtain from the environment and other organisms within that environment. Sensory information, such as sounds, scents, vibrations and visual cues, is transported, transmitted, masked and filtered by fluvial processes, such as turbulent flow. Despite the fundamental importance of this information in dictating how animals interact with the environment, only limited attention has been paid to the environmental controls on the propagation of sensory signals and cues through fluvial systems. Aquatic animals use and respond to hydraulic characteristics when navigating their environment and selecting habitat. There is evidence that some animals can also sense the presence of other organisms from the hydraulic characteristics of their wake. This implies that at least some aquatic animals can differentiate between the turbulent flow generated by the presence of living organisms and ambient turbulence generated by the environment. We investigate whether there are specific flow characteristics, distinct from the ambient environment, that potentially flag the presence of organisms to other animals. Acoustic Doppler and Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in a series of laboratory flume experiments quantified the flow around living Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and two inanimate objects of equivalent shape and size. Experiments were repeated across a gradient of turbulence intensities generated over nine combinations of flow velocity and relative submergence. Flows downstream of living crayfish were distinct from inanimate objects, with greater turbulent intensities, higher energy in low- to intermediate frequencies, and flow structures that were less coherent in comparison to those measured downstream of inanimate objects. However, the hydrodynamic signature of crayfish became masked as the intensity of ambient turbulence exceeded that generated by living crayfish. This was particularly the case at low relative submergence. These results demonstrate the importance of the fluvial environment in controlling the transmission of sensory information and suggest that the ability of organisms to sense the presence of crayfish from their hydraulic signature is likely to be limited in many situations in rivers. Thus, animals in rivers may have to rely on other senses, such as sight or hearing, especially where depth is low relative to substrate roughness and where velocities are relatively high.

  2. 46 CFR 121.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.602 Internal communications systems. (a) A vessel equipped with pilothouse control must have a fixed means of two-way... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 121.602 Section...

  3. 46 CFR 184.602 - Internal communications systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.602 Internal communications systems. (a) A vessel equipped with pilothouse control must have... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications systems. 184.602 Section...

  4. 76 FR 78599 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Reporting...Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Reporting...rulemaking would apply to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) as...

  5. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, II, Louis Peter (San Ramon, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  6. Communications and tracking expert systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

    1987-01-01

    The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  7. Parallel processing spacecraft communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An uplink controlling assembly speeds data processing using a special parallel codeblock technique. A correct start sequence initiates processing of a frame. Two possible start sequences can be used; and the one which is used determines whether data polarity is inverted or non-inverted. Processing continues until uncorrectable errors are found. The frame ends by intentionally sending a block with an uncorrectable error. Each of the codeblocks in the frame has a channel ID. Each channel ID can be separately processed in parallel. This obviates the problem of waiting for error correction processing. If that channel number is zero, however, it indicates that the frame of data represents a critical command only. That data is handled in a special way, independent of the software. Otherwise, the processed data further handled using special double buffering techniques to avoid problems from overrun. When overrun does occur, the system takes action to lose only the oldest data.

  8. Security aspects of RFID communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bîndar, Valeric?; Popescu, Mircea; B?rtu?ic?, R?zvan; Craciunescu, Razvan; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of basic technical elements and security risks of RFID communication systems and to analyze the possible threats arising from the use of RFID systems. A number of measurements are performed on a communication system including RFID transponder and the tag reader, and it has been determined that the uplink signal level is 62 dB larger than the average value of the noise at the distance of 1m from the tag, therefore the shielding effectiveness has to exceed this threshold. Next, the card has been covered with several shielding materials and measurements were carried, under similar conditions to test the recovery of compromising signals. A very simple protection measure to prevent unauthorized reading of the data stored on the card has been proposed, and some electromagnetic shielding materials have been proposed and tested.

  9. Communications and control for electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Goettsche, A.; Niebur, D.; Friend, H.; Johnston, A.

    1991-01-01

    The first section of the report describes the AbNET system, a hardware and software communications system designed for distribution automation (it can also find application in substation monitoring and control). The topology of the power system fixes the topology of the communications network, which can therefore be expected to include a larger number of branch points, tap points, and interconnections. These features make this communications network unlike any other. The network operating software has to solve the problem of communicating to all the nodes of a very complex network in as reliable a way as possible even if the network is damaged, and it has to do so with minimum transmission delays and at minimum cost. The design of the operating protocols is described within the framework of the seven-layer Open System Interconnection hierarchy of the International Standards Organization. Section 2 of the report describes the development and testing of a high voltage sensor based on an electro-optic polymer. The theory of operation is reviewed. Bulk fabrication of the polymer is discussed, as well as results of testing of the electro-optic coefficient of the material. Fabrication of a complete prototype sensor suitable for use in the range 1-20 kV is described. The electro-optic polymer is shown to be an important material for fiber optic sensing applications. Appendix A is theoretical support for this work. The third section of the report presents the application of an artificial neural network, Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, for the classification of power system states. This classifier maps vectors of an N-dimensional space to a 2-dimensional neural net in a nonlinear way preserving the topological order of the input vectors. These mappings are studied using a nonlinear power system model.

  10. Global Compiler Analysis for Optimizing Tuplespace Communication on Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Fenwick, Jay

    Global Compiler Analysis for Optimizing Tuplespace Communication on Distributed Systems James B systems. This paper provides concrete steps towards advanced compile­time analysis and optimization of the uncoupled communication of shared tuplespace. Specifically, we present global anal­ ysis techniques

  11. Orbiter Interface Unit and Early Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobbs, Ronald M.; Cooke, Michael P.; Cox, Gary L.; Ellenberger, Richard; Fink, Patrick W.; Haynes, Dena S.; Hyams, Buddy; Ling, Robert Y.; Neighbors, Helen M.; Phan, Chau T.; Prendergast, Kelly M.; Siekierski, James D.; Wade, Randall S.; Weisskopf, George A.; Yim, Hester J.; Adkins, Antha A.; Carl, James R..; Loh, Y. C.; Roberts, Charles; Steele, Douglas J.; DeSilva, Buveneka Kanishka; Killenb, Harold B.; Williams, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Orbiter Interface Unit (OIU) and the Early Communication System (ECOMM), which are systems of electronic hardware and software that serve as the primary communication links for the International Space Station (ISS). When a space shuttle is at or near the ISS during assembly and resupply missions, the OIU sends groundor crew-initiated commands from the space shuttle to the ISS and relays telemetry from the ISS to the space shuttle s payload data systems. The shuttle then forwards the telemetry to the ground. In the absence of a space shuttle, the ECOMM handles communications between the ISS and Johnson Space Center via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Innovative features described in the report include (1) a "smart data-buffering algorithm that helps to preserve synchronization (and thereby minimize loss) of telemetric data between the OIU and the space-shuttle payload data interleaver; (2) an ECOMM antenna-autotracking algorithm that selects whichever of two phased-array antennas gives the best TDRSS signal and electronically steers that antenna to track the TDRSS source; and (3) an ECOMM radiation-latchup controller, which detects an abrupt increase in current indicative of radiation-induced latchup and temporarily turns off power to clear the latchup, restoring power after the charge dissipates.

  12. Integrated communications and optical navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, J.; Pajer, G.; Paluszek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Integrated Communications and Optical Navigation System (ICONS) is a flexible navigation system for spacecraft that does not require global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The navigation solution is computed using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) that can accept any combination of range, range-rate, planet chord width, landmark, and angle measurements using any celestial object. Both absolute and relative orbit determination is supported. The UKF employs a full nonlinear dynamical model of the orbit including gravity models and disturbance models. The ICONS package also includes attitude determination algorithms using the UKF algorithm with the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The IMU is used as the dynamical base for the attitude determination algorithms. This makes the sensor a more capable plug-in replacement for a star tracker, thus reducing the integration and test cost of adding this sensor to a spacecraft. Recent additions include an integrated optical communications system which adds communications, and integrated range and range rate measurement and timing. The paper includes test results from trajectories based on the NASA New Horizons spacecraft.

  13. Hybrid power system for remote communications stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietras, Christopher R.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is upgrading communications equipment at remote sites in Alaska in support of the Coastal Voice Distress Network. The VHF-FM Search and Rescue sites are powered by a primary power system consisting of a thermoelectric generator. Thermoelectric generators are very inefficient devices which consume vast quantities of propane to create electricity. The upgrade necessitates added power requirements on the power supply system at the remote sites. These requirements compel the redesign and/or upgrade of the power system. If thermoelectric generators continue to be utilized as the primary power system, additional helicopter visits to the sites to deliver propane will be required. These helicopter flights are costly and sometimes hazardous due to severe weather. This thesis investigates a variety of power system options capable of providing electrical power to the communications sites. Specifically, this thesis addresses three objectives. The first is a discussion of current alternative energy source technology available to supply the required power. The second is an analysis of the specific power system requirements and constraints. The third objective and major thrust of the research is the design of a reliable hybrid power system for this application, capable of utilizing the inexhaustible natural energy available at the remote sites. The engineering parameters for a hybrid power system were studied and calculations made based on commercially available components. The difficulties in the design due to extreme weather conditions and unavailability of natural power resource information at specific sites are addressed. This thesis presents the groundwork associated with hybrid power system designs for use at remote communications sites.

  14. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the technical findings of climate impacts assessments. We aim to provide the public and policy makers with accessible information to encourage responsible choices regarding both mitigation and adaptation choices to deal with climate change.All of our material is freely available for use from our website - www.ucsusa.org.

  15. VHF downline communication system for SLAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Chase, T. L.; Mueller, R. A.; Kramarchuk, I.; Jirberg, R. J.; Gedney, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    A real time VHF downlink communication system is described for transmitting side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) data directly from an aircraft to a portable ground/shipboard receiving station. Use of this receiving station aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Mackinaw for generating real-time photographic quality radar images is discussed. The system was developed and demonstrated in conjunction with the U.S Coast Guard and NOAA National Weather Service as part of the Project Icewarn all weather ice information system for the Great Lakes Winter Navigation Program.

  16. VHF downlink communication system for SLAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Chase, T. L.; Mueller, R. A.; Kramarchuk, I.; Jirberg, R. J.; Gedney, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time VHF downlink communication system for transmitting side-looking airborne-radar (SLAR) data directly from an aircraft to a portable ground/shipboard receiving station. Use of this receiving station aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Mackinaw for generating real-time photographic quality radar images will be discussed. The system was developed and demonstrated in conjunction with the U.S. Coast Guard and NOAA National Weather Service as part of the Project Icewarn all-weather ice information system for the Great Lakes Winter Navigation Program.

  17. Space Station Information System integrated communications concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, J.; Bigham, J.; Whitelaw, V.; Marker, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrated communications within the Space Station Information System (SSIS). The SSIS is generally defined as the integrated set of space and ground information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The requirements used to develop the model are presented, and the various elements of the model described.

  18. Porting a Distributed Meeting System to the Eclipse Communication Framework

    E-print Network

    Robillard, Martin

    Porting a Distributed Meeting System to the Eclipse Communication Framework Fabio Calefato, Filippo on Eclipse RCP and uses the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) as the only communication on the Eclipse Communication Framework (ECF), which will enables us to abstract from the underlying communication

  19. The 'INMARSAT' international maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atserov, Iu. S.

    1982-12-01

    The history, design, operating characteristics, achievements, and prospects of INMARSAT are discussed. More than 1300 ships are presently equipped to operate within the system, and this number is expected to rise to about 5000 by 1986. The principle of operation involves single coordinating earth stations allocating telephone channels in their zones between other earth stations. The messages reach a common signalling channel with which all ship stations keep in touch. The ship stations are connected to the international telex network. The INMARSAT system enables ships in the automated mode of operation to establish telephone and telegraph comunication with any subscriber on the shore of any country. The quality of the communication is practically independent of the distance between ship and shore at any time of year and under any meteorological conditions. Estimates indicate that the use of satellite communication with ships reduces losses from accidents by 10 percent per year.

  20. NATO III satellite communications system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanli, N.; Lo, S. C.; Kota, S. L.; Aronson, M. H.

    1984-04-01

    The System Control concepts to improve channel utilization and the recent progress of the design, development and integration of the Control Subsystem for the NATO III network are reported. The network operates with a large number of single destination TDM/QPSK/FDMA carriers to provide voice, low speed telegraph and medium speed data circuits. A power control algorithm to keep the link quality at the desired nominal level as well as improve satellite capacity and a traffic control algorithm allowing reconfiguration of the network to accommodate fluctuating traffic are presented. The System Control Software development cycle, consisting of top level design, which includes functional decomposition and software module structure, detailed design, integration and testing phases, is discussed. Various functional flow diagrams are provided illustrating the information interfaces to external communications, inter-component communications, the network database and the physical devices. An example illustrating the performance of power control and traffic control software is presented.

  1. System-Level Planning, Coordination, and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Robert K.; Dries, David; Luyckx, Valerie; Lim, Matthew L.; Wilgis, John; Anderson, Michael R.; Sarani, Babak; Hupert, Nathaniel; Mutter, Ryan; Devereaux, Asha V.; Christian, Michael D.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: System-level planning involves uniting hospitals and health systems, local/regional government agencies, emergency medical services, and other health-care entities involved in coordinating and enabling care in a major disaster. We reviewed the literature and sought expert opinions concerning system-level planning and engagement for mass critical care due to disasters or pandemics and offer suggestions for system-planning, coordination, communication, and response. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) consensus statement development process was followed in developing suggestions. Task Force members met in person to develop nine key questions believed to be most relevant for system-planning, coordination, and communication. A systematic literature review was then performed for relevant articles and documents, reports, and other publications reported since 1993. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Suggestions were developed and grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) national government support of health-care coalitions/regional health authorities (HC/RHAs), (2) teamwork within HC/RHAs, (3) system-level communication, (4) system-level surge capacity and capability, (5) pediatric patients and special populations, (6) HC/RHAs and networks, (7) models of advanced regional care systems, and (8) the use of simulation for preparedness and planning. CONCLUSIONS: System-level planning is essential to provide care for large numbers of critically ill patients because of disaster or pandemic. It also entails a departure from the routine, independent system and involves all levels from health-care institutions to regional health authorities. National government support is critical, as are robust communication systems and advanced planning supported by realistic exercises. PMID:25144713

  2. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85...

  5. Electronic circuits for communications systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The compilation of electronic circuits for communications systems is divided into thirteen basic categories, each representing an area of circuit design and application. The compilation items are moderately complex and, as such, would appeal to the applications engineer. However, the rationale for the selection criteria was tailored so that the circuits would reflect fundamental design principles and applications, with an additional requirement for simplicity whenever possible.

  6. A real-time photoacoustic tomography system for small animals

    PubMed Central

    Gamelin, John; Maurudis, Anastasios; Aguirre, Andres; Huang, Fei; Guo, Puyun; Wang, Lihong V.; Zhu, Quing

    2009-01-01

    A real-time 512-element photoacoustic tomography system for small animal imaging using a ring ultrasound array has been developed. The system, based upon a 5 MHz transducer array formed along a 50 mm circular aperture, achieves sub-200 micron lateral resolution over a 2 cm disk-shaped region. Corresponding elevation resolutions of 0.6 to 2.5 mm over the central volume enable depth-resolved 3D tomographic imaging with linear translation. Using 8:1 electronic multiplexing, imaging at up to 8 frame/sec is demonstrated for both dynamic phantoms and in vivo mouse and brain samples. The real-time, full 2D tomographic capability of the system paves the way for functional photoacoustic tomographic imaging studies in small animals with sub-second time frame. PMID:19550444

  7. Pilot-Tone System for Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1986-01-01

    In mobile communication system called tone-calibrated technique, pilot tone provides phase- and amplitude-calibration reference to enable coherent demodulation of signal at receiver despite fading. Signal received by or from mobile terminal faded due to motion of terminal and propagation of signal along multiple paths. Fading introduces random amplitude modulation and phase modulation with bandwidth of twice Doppler frequency shift. Degrading effects of multipath fading reduced. Tonecalibrated technique for use with phase-modulated data or telephony systems using Manchester digital pulse-code modulation.

  8. Multi-frequency communication system and method

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-06-01

    A multi-frequency RFID remote communication system is provided that includes a plurality of RFID tags configured to receive a first signal and to return a second signal, the second signal having a first frequency component and a second frequency component, the second frequency component including data unique to each remote RFID tag. The system further includes a reader configured to transmit an interrogation signal and to receive remote signals from the tags. A first signal processor, preferably a mixer, removes an intermediate frequency component from the received signal, and a second processor, preferably a second mixer, analyzes the IF frequency component to output data that is unique to each remote tag.

  9. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of US experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of US industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to US activities.

  10. Propagation considerations in satellite communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brussaard, Gert; Rogers, David V.

    1990-07-01

    Radio wave propagation phenomena that affect the performance of satellite communication systems are concisely discussed to introduce some topics in propagation research related to satellite systems design and to illustrate related problems and uncertainties. The focus is on troposphere effects. A summary of relevant propagation impairments is supplied, and general classes of impairments, the physical cause of each, and the major importance of each for sattelite systems are given Some impairments in the table are critically important of each for certain systems applications. For example, attenuation due to rainfall can be substantial for significant percentages of the time on 30/20-GHz propagation paths and will be the dominant path impairment for most Ka-band systems. Appropriate literature sources are referenced for the additional details that will be required for many applications.

  11. OBJECT RECOGNITION IN THE ANIMATION SYSTEM Peter L. Stanchev, Boyan Dimitrov, Vladimir Rykov

    E-print Network

    Stanchev, Peter

    OBJECT RECOGNITION IN THE ANIMATION SYSTEM Peter L. Stanchev, Boyan Dimitrov, Vladimir Rykov This work is devoted to analyzing the syntax contents of an animation. In the paper we present the ANIMATION system ­ a system for animation scene and contents creation, retrieval and display. The object

  12. 77 FR 42679 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Reporting...information about concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The EPA...the CWA includes ``concentrated animal feeding operation'' (CAFO) in...

  13. Applications of a global small animal tracking system Songbird movements as an example

    E-print Network

    Thorup, Kasper

    , 1989). Queleas can migrate long distances, sometimes more Tracking animals over large temporal. Small- animal tracking would allow the quantitative assessment of dispersal and migration in natural technological system happen. Key words: small animal, ICARUS initiative, migration pattern, migratory bird

  14. NASA Workshop on Animal Gravity-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. L. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The opportunity for space flight has brought about the need for well-planned research programs that recognize the significance of space flight as a scientific research tool for advancing knowledge of life on Earth, and that utilize each flight opportunity to its fullest. For the first time in history, gravity can be almost completely eliminated. Thus, studies can be undertaken that will help to elucidate the importance of gravity to the normal functioning of living organisms, and to determine the effects microgravity may have on an organism. This workshop was convened to organize a plan for space research on animal gravity-sensing systems and the role that gravity plays in the development and normal functioning of these systems. Scientists working in the field of animal gravity-sensing systems use a wide variety of organisms in their research. The workshop presentations dealt with topics which ranged from the indirect gravity receptor of the water flea, Daphnia (whose antennal setae apparently act as current-sensing receptors as the animal moves up and down in water), through specialized statocyst structures found in jellyfish and gastropods, to the more complex vestibular systems that are characteristic of amphibians, avians, and mammals.

  15. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  16. Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication

    E-print Network

    Frew, Eric W.

    Active Sensing by Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Realistic Communication Environments Eric W. Frew-theoretic framework for active sensing by unmanned aircraft systems in realistic communication environments. The position dependency of wireless networked communication is modeled using the standard empirical radio model

  17. Risk communication for critical civil infrastructure systems Jack Baker1

    E-print Network

    Baker, Jack W.

    1 Risk communication for critical civil infrastructure systems Jack Baker1 , Jason Coray2 , Paul De for communicating risk within the context of infrastructure management decision support systems. A generic model decision support functions and the critical flow of risk communication within this framework. The model

  18. High efficiency switching-mode amplifiers for wireless communication systems

    E-print Network

    Hung, Tsai-Pi

    2008-01-01

    June 2001 M.S. Communication Engineering, National Chiao-Communication Systems by Tsai-Pi Hung Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (Communication Systems A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (

  19. Communication and System Relevance in Liver Damage and Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Meise, Reinhold

    SFB 974 Communication and System Relevance in Liver Damage and Regeneration Speaker: Prof. Dr "Communication and System Relevance in Liver Damage and Regeneration" is inviting medical students to apply insights into mechanisms, communication and decision processes that govern liver regeneration and damage

  20. Communications systems for emergency deployment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Emergency Response Team (ERT) communications system was developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide radio and telecommunications service for scientific and management elements located in, and adjacent to, an emergency area. The telephone system consists of six nodes, interconnected via microwave links that support T-1 data links and simultaneous two-way live video. The radio network is a self-contained VHF system arranged around portable and programmable repeaters. The system is comprised of approximately 183 DES voice-private radios and 168 clear text radios. Capability is available in the form of portable International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) terminals that allow direct dial access to coast earth stations in the US or other countries.

  1. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198; Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 ; Tsuji, Osahiko; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 ; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James; and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  2. On delay-sensitive communication over wireless systems 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Lingjia

    2009-05-15

    This dissertation addresses some of the most important issues in delay-sensitive communication over wireless systems and networks. Traditionally, the design of communication networks adopts a layered framework where each layer serves as a “black box...

  3. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  4. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  5. Early animal evolution and the origins of nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of early nervous systems is hazardous because we lack good criteria for determining homology between the systems of distant taxa; the timing of the evolutionary events is contested, and thus the relevant ecological and geological settings for them are also unclear. Here I argue that no simple approach will resolve the first issue, but that it remains likely that animals evolved relatively late, and that their nervous systems thus arose during the late Ediacaran, in a context provided by the changing planktonic and benthic environments of the time. The early trace fossil provides the most concrete evidence for early behavioural diversification, but it cannot simply be translated into increasing nervous system complexity: behavioural complexity does not map on a one-to-one basis onto nervous system complexity, both because of possible limitations to behaviour caused by the environment and because we know that even organisms without nervous systems are capable of relatively complex behaviour. PMID:26554037

  6. Early animal evolution and the origins of nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Budd, Graham E

    2015-12-19

    Understanding the evolution of early nervous systems is hazardous because we lack good criteria for determining homology between the systems of distant taxa; the timing of the evolutionary events is contested, and thus the relevant ecological and geological settings for them are also unclear. Here I argue that no simple approach will resolve the first issue, but that it remains likely that animals evolved relatively late, and that their nervous systems thus arose during the late Ediacaran, in a context provided by the changing planktonic and benthic environments of the time. The early trace fossil provides the most concrete evidence for early behavioural diversification, but it cannot simply be translated into increasing nervous system complexity: behavioural complexity does not map on a one-to-one basis onto nervous system complexity, both because of possible limitations to behaviour caused by the environment and because we know that even organisms without nervous systems are capable of relatively complex behaviour. PMID:26554037

  7. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 1: Final report. [onboard computerized communications system for spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques, methods, and system requirements are reported for an onboard computerized communications system that provides on-line computing capability during manned space exploration. Communications between man and computer take place by sequential execution of each discrete step of a procedure, by interactive progression through a tree-type structure to initiate tasks or by interactive optimization of a task requiring man to furnish a set of parameters. Effective communication between astronaut and computer utilizes structured vocabulary techniques and a word recognition system.

  8. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).

  9. Accurate molecular imaging of small animals taking into account animal models, handling, anaesthesia, quality control and imaging system performance.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Christian; Bankstahl, Jens P; Krämer, Stefanie D; Visser, Eric; Belcari, Nicola; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2015-12-01

    Small-animal imaging has become an important technique for the development of new radiotracers, drugs and therapies. Many laboratories have now a combination of different small-animal imaging systems, which are being used by biologists, pharmacists, medical doctors and physicists. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the important factors in the design of a small animal, nuclear medicine and imaging experiment. Different experts summarize one specific aspect important for a good design of a small-animal experiment. PMID:26560138

  10. Antenna technology for advanced mobile communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammos, Emmanuel; Roederer, Antoine; Rogard, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The onboard antenna front end is the key subsystem conditioning configuration and performance of mobile communication satellites. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate this key role and to review L-band satellite antenna technology for earth coverage and regional applications. Multibeam arrays are first discussed, then unfurlable and inflatable reflector antennas are described. These technologies are now qualified in Europe for future mobile systems, for which the optimum choice of antenna technology has been found to be the key to efficient use of spectrum and power resources.

  11. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  12. ECS - The European Communication Satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, C. B.

    1981-09-01

    The evolution of the European Communication Satellite system (ECS) is traced from feasibility studies in 1970 to the development and launch in 1978 of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) by the European Space Agency to prove the new satellite and radio transmission technology being used on ECS. This was followed by the establishment of 'Interim EUTELSAT' in 1979 as the organization to operate ECS. The satellite, which operates at 11/14 GHz, covers all the capitals in Europe via three spot beam antennas, supplemented by a 'Eurobeam' regional coverage antenna which extends the range to cover all of Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Telephony channels are transmitted digitally using time division multiple access (TDMA) with digital speech interpolation (DSI) to optimize satellite capacity. Television transmission is by analog FM over the Eurobeam antenna to North African as well as European capitals. System implications of TDMA operation are discussed, and the EUTELSAT policy for Special Services or satellite business systems is discussed.

  13. Random digital encryption secure communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The design of a secure communication system is described. A product code, formed from two pseudorandom sequences of digital bits, is used to encipher or scramble data prior to transmission. The two pseudorandom sequences are periodically changed at intervals before they have had time to repeat. One of the two sequences is transmitted continuously with the scrambled data for synchronization. In the receiver portion of the system, the incoming signal is compared with one of two locally generated pseudorandom sequences until correspondence between the sequences is obtained. At this time, the two locally generated sequences are formed into a product code which deciphers the data from the incoming signal. Provision is made to ensure synchronization of the transmitting and receiving portions of the system.

  14. An advanced domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated traffic projection for U.S. domestic satellite communications service covering a period of 15 years; mid-1980 to mid-1995 was prepared. This model takes into account expected technology advances and reductions in transmission costs, legislative and regulatory changes permitting increased competition, and rising energy costs which will encourage more extensive substitution of telecommunications for travel. The historical development and current status of satellite systems are discussed as well as the characteristics of follow-on systems. Orbital arc utilization, spacecraft configuration for single shuttle launch, Earth station configuration, and system costs are examined. Areas which require technology development include multiple beam frequency reuse antennas, on-board switching, intersatellite links, and ka-band operation. Packing and deployment schemes for enclosing the satellite within the shuttle orbiter bay must also be devised.

  15. Navy satellite communications systems in transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, J. W.

    Navy SATCOM programs require advanced system engineering, program management, and long range planning to improve satellite and ground system technology. Solutions are being sought to develop Navy transitional issues within the framework of the total Defense MILSATCOM architecture. Several of the Navy SATCOM transition issues are discussed: the current Navy SATCOM baseline, consisting of three GAPFILLER (MARISAT) satellites and a constellation of geosynchronous FLTSATCOM satellites; a Demand Assignment time-division Multiple Access (DAMA) system, which permits a more efficient use of the 25 kHz FLTSAT hard-limiting transponders. A leased satellite (LEASAT) will provide extended UHF SATCOM service at four geosynchronous orbital locations. The navy also plans to increase connectivity, capacity, and AJ protection of Fleet Satellite Communications by introduction of SHF service.

  16. All-optical animation projection system with rotating fieldstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yuko; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Kodate, Kashiko

    2007-06-01

    A simple and compact rewritable holographic memory system using a fieldstone of Ulexite is proposed. The role of the fieldstone is to impose random patterns on the reference beam to record plural images with the random-reference multiplexing scheme. The operations for writing and reading holograms are carried out by simply rotating the fieldstone in one direction. One of the features of this approach is found in a way to generate random patterns without computer drawings. The experimental study confirms that our system enables the smooth readout of the stored images one after another so that the series of reproduced images are projected as an animation.

  17. All-optical animation projection system with rotating fieldstone.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuko; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Kodate, Kashiko

    2007-06-11

    A simple and compact rewritable holographic memory system using a fieldstone of Ulexite is proposed. The role of the fieldstone is to impose random patterns on the reference beam to record plural images with the random-reference multiplexing scheme. The operations for writing and reading holograms are carried out by simply rotating the fieldstone in one direction. One of the features of this approach is found in a way to generate random patterns without computer drawings. The experimental study confirms that our system enables the smooth readout of the stored images one after another so that the series of reproduced images are projected as an animation. PMID:19547042

  18. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  19. Multi-Agent System Dynamics: Bifurcation and Behavior of Animal Groups

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    Multi-Agent System Dynamics: Bifurcation and Behavior of Animal Groups Naomi Ehrich Leonard of collective animal behavior. Animals in groups, from bird flocks to fish schools, employ decentralized: Multi-agent systems, Coordinated control, Nonlinear dynamics, Collective animal behavior, Social

  20. A Fast full-body fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging system for small animals

    E-print Network

    Hielscher, Andreas

    A Fast full-body fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging system for small animals Jong Hwan Lee animal, we present a new fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging system for small animals, which can molecular tomography, bioluminescence tomography, small animal imaging, instrumentation 1. INTRODUCTION

  1. Panoramic alignment system for optical wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Thomas C.; Drost, Robert J.; Rzasa, John; Sadler, Brian M.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2015-03-01

    Free space optical communication may provide a viable adjunct to radio frequency (RF) technology for mobile communications, especially in "RF-denied" settings in which RF-based communication may be prohibited or impractical. These settings may include military tactical environments or settings which suffer from RF jamming or interference. Unlike many RF communication systems, point-to-point optical communications between mobile nodes typically require establishing and maintaining alignment, which requires each node to have awareness of the locations of neighboring nodes. We propose a method to create this situational awareness between nodes using purely optical means. This method uses a camera that is focused on a hyperboloidal mirror, thus providing a 360-degree view of the surrounding environment. The camera and mirror are used to detect light emitted from the beacon transmitters from neighboring nodes, with the location of the beacon image in the sensor plane of the camera yielding elevation and azimuth information of the beacon. The beacon transmitter itself is modulated, allowing it to be distinguished from the environment. In discussing our experimental realization of this system, we assess its performance.

  2. Human Communication, Semiotics, and General Systems: Personal and Social Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    Questions as to the nature of sign and symbol processes and the functions and behavioral consequences of human significant phenomena are of central concern in semiotics and communication. These matters continue to be of critical importance and are still largely unresolved. Scholars in both areas of inquiry have sought unification of scientific…

  3. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device (200) converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output (250).

  4. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M.A.; Ayers, C.W.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-07-23

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output. 7 figs.

  5. Development of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Oshima, Yusuke; Komachi, Yuichi; Katagiri, Takashi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Tashiro, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    Development of the optical biopsy system for experimental small animals is in progress. A prototype of the system which consists of a miniaturized gastro endoscope unit and Raman probes has been completed by now. The system is developed to study a gastric cancer rat model. The endoscope is 2.5 mm in diameter and is equipped an imaging bundle fiber, illumination fibers, a channel and a mechanism to angle the probe head. The head of the Raman probe comes out through the channel and it is possible to aim the probe to the target watching on the monitor. The endoscope was inserted into the anaesthetized healthy rat under the breathing support. It was successfully observed inside of the stomach of the living rat and measured Raman spectra. The spectrum of blood vessels contains the strong contribution from lipids. The present results demonstrate high potential of the system in the in vivo Raman study using the rat model.

  6. Application of the Iridium Satellite System to Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Meza, Mike; Gupta, Om

    2008-01-01

    The next generation air transportation system will require greater air-ground communications capacity to accommodate more air traffic with increased safety and efficiency. Communications will remain primarily terrestrially based, but satellite communications will have an increased role. Inmarsat s aeronautical services have been approved and are in use for aeronautical safety communications provided by geostationary satellites. More recently the approval process for the Iridium low earth orbit constellation is nearing completion. The current Iridium system will be able to provide basic air traffic services communications suitable for oceanic, remote and polar regions. The planned second generation of the Iridium system, called Iridium NEXT, will provide enhanced capabilities and enable a greater role in the future of aeronautical communications. This paper will review the potential role of satellite communications in the future of air transportation, the Iridium approval process and relevant system testing, and the potential role of Iridium NEXT.

  7. A dual micro-CT system for small animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Badea, C T; Johnston, S; Johnson, B; Lin, M; Hedlund, L W; Johnson, G Allan

    2008-04-18

    Micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality usually used to assess morphology in small animals. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that functional micro-CT imaging is also possible. This paper describes a dual micro-CT system with two fixed x-ray/detectors developed to address such challenging tasks as cardiac or perfusion studies in small animals. A two-tube/detector system ensures simultaneous acquisition of two projections, thus reducing scanning time and the number of contrast injections in perfusion studies by a factor of two. The system is integrated with software developed in-house for cardio-respiratory monitoring and gating. The sampling geometry was optimized for 88 microns in such a way that the geometric blur of the focal spot matches the Nyquist sample at the detector. A geometric calibration procedure allows one to combine projection data from the two chains into a single reconstructed volume. Image quality was measured in terms of spatial resolution, uniformity, noise, and linearity. The modulation transfer function (MTF) at 10% is 3.4 lp/mm for single detector reconstructions and 2.3 lp/mm for dual tube/detector reconstructions. We attribute this loss in spatial resolution to the compounding of slight errors in the separate single chain calibrations. The dual micro-CT system is currently used in studies for morphological and functional imaging of both rats and mice. PMID:22049304

  8. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  9. Establishing Conventional Communication Systems: Is Common Knowledge Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Dale J.

    2004-01-01

    How do communities establish shared communication systems? The Common Knowledge view assumes that symbolic conventions develop through the accumulation of common knowledge regarding communication practices among the members of a community. In contrast with this view, it is proposed that coordinated communication emerges a by-product of local…

  10. Using Sequence Diagrams to Detect Communication Problems Between Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly; Kresser, Jan; Godfrey, Sally H.; Knodel, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is both mission-critical and error-prone. Such communication problems ideally would be detected before deployment. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we show that problems in the communication between two systems can be detected by using sequence diagrams to model the planned communication and by comparing the planned sequence to the actual sequence. We identify different kinds of problems that can be addressed by modeling the planned sequence using different level of abstractions.

  11. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, LF

    2004-09-22

    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  12. A Shuttle based laser system for space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    A key element of NASA-Goddard's plan for future laser space communications is the Space Shuttle-based Laser Technology Experiments Facility (LTEF), which will be designed to communicate with a cooperative laser system under development for the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) and will conduct a comprehensive set of acquisition, tracking, and communication experiments. Attention is presently given to the challenges faced by designers in achieving LTEF acquisition of the ACTS downlink beacon laser.

  13. Designing a wireless underwater optical communication system

    E-print Network

    Brundage, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Though acoustic modems have long been the default wireless communication method for underwater applications due to their long range, the need for high speed communication has prompted the exploration of non-acoustic methods ...

  14. Tone-activated, remote, alert communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. D.; Couvillon, L. A.; Hubbard, W. P.; Kollar, F. J.; Postal, R. B.; Tegnelia, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pocket sized transmitter, frequency modulated by crystal derived tones, with integral loop antenna provides police with easy operating alert signal communicator which uses patrol car radio to relay signal. Communication channels are time shared by several patrol units.

  15. Basel Declaration A call for more trust, transparency and communication on animal research

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    of biological processes and thus to an increase in life expectancy and improvement in the quality of life and the genome of numerous animal species creates the basis for a better understanding of the causes of disease the highest standards of education and training for all persons who work with animals and monitor

  16. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-01-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  17. Space-to-Space Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Gaylor, Kent; Vitalpur, Sharada; Sham, Cathy

    1999-01-01

    The Space-to-Space Communications System (SSCS) is an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Time-Division-Multiple Access (TDMA) system that is designed, developed, and deployed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide voice, commands, telemetry and data services in close proximity among three space elements: International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle Orbiter, and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU). The SSCS consists of a family of three radios which are, Space-to-Space Station Radio (SSSR), Space-to-Space Orbiter Radio (SSOR), and Space-to-Space Extravehicular Mobility Radio (SSER). The SSCS can support up to five such radios at a time. Each user has its own time slot within which to transmit voice and data. Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) carrier modulation with a burst data rate of 695 kbps and a frequency deviation of 486.5 kHz is employed by the system. Reed-Solomon (R-S) coding is also adopted to ensure data quality. In this paper, the SSCS system requirements, operational scenario, detailed system architecture and parameters, link acquisition strategy, and link performance analysis will be presented and discussed

  18. A silicon early visual system as a model animal Tobi Delbruck *, Shih-Chii Liu

    E-print Network

    Delbruck, Tobi

    A silicon early visual system as a model animal Tobi Delbruck *, Shih-Chii Liu Institute-friendly silicon model of the early visual system that contributes to animal welfare. The silicon chip emulates

  19. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3700 Nonpowered communication system. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710 Powered communication system. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3700 Nonpowered communication system. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710 Powered communication system. (a) Identification....

  3. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

  4. Architecting Communication Network of Networks for Space System of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) are planning Space System of Systems (SoS) to address the new challenges of space exploration, defense, communications, navigation, Earth observation, and science. In addition, these complex systems must provide interoperability, enhanced reliability, common interfaces, dynamic operations, and autonomy in system management. Both NASA and the DoD have chosen to meet the new demands with high data rate communication systems and space Internet technologies that bring Internet Protocols (IP), routers, servers, software, and interfaces to space networks to enable as much autonomous operation of those networks as possible. These technologies reduce the cost of operations and, with higher bandwidths, support the expected voice, video, and data needed to coordinate activities at each stage of an exploration mission. In this paper, we discuss, in a generic fashion, how the architectural approaches and processes are being developed and used for defining a hypothetical communication and navigation networks infrastructure to support lunar exploration. Examples are given of the products generated by the architecture development process.

  5. The Study of Human Communication from Three Systems Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge, Peter R.

    There are three general scientific methods for studying the communication process: mechanistic, organic, and systemic. After reviewing the characteristics and research implications of each method, it can be concluded that the systems paradigm is most appropriate to the logic of communication theory. The systems method is defined as a process of…

  6. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  7. Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory System Dog and Cat Necropsy Release Form

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory System Dog and Cat Necropsy Release Form PD PATH FORM 01/Agency Address Address City, state, zip City, state, zip Phone Phone Fax Fax Email Email Animal Information: Animal ID Species Breed Age Sex Has the animal bitten anyone in the 10 days prior to its death? No Yes

  8. Multi-Agent System Dynamics: Bifurcation and Behavior of Animal Groups

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    the mechanisms of collective migration and collective decision-making in high-performing animal groups. ThroughMulti-Agent System Dynamics: Bifurcation and Behavior of Animal Groups Naomi Ehrich Leonard of collective animal behavior. Animals in groups, from bird flocks to fish schools, employ decentralized

  9. Method and system for pipeline communication

    DOEpatents

    Richardson; John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  10. An Animation System for Fracturing of Rigid Ayse Kucukyilmaz, Bulent H. Ozguc

    E-print Network

    Sezgin, Metin

    An Animation System for Fracturing of Rigid Objects Ay¸se K¨u¸c¨ukyilmaz, B¨ulent H. ¨Ozg,ozguc}@bilkent.edu.tr Abstract. This paper describes a system for the animation of fracturing of brittle objects. The system combines rigid body simulation methods with a constraint-based model to animate fracturing of arbitrary

  11. [Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    The development of systematics in last decade has shown that typological classifications of five-six Kingdoms is not adequate for describing the diversity of organisms. Information from the sequences of small subunit rRNA is not sufficient to reconstruct the position of eukaryotes on the phylogenetic tree due to the effect of long branches. Totally new reconstruction of eukaryotic phylogeny was built upon the analysis of many new molecular markers. Evolution of eukaryotes had two mainstreams. One has been connected with diversification of ancestral biciliate forms (Bikonta). Sister-group of Bikonta (Unikonta) includes some originally uniciliate amoebae and moulds (Amoebozoa), and uniciliate eukaryotes with posterior cilium (Opisthokonta). The taxon Opisthokonta unites Fungi, Nuclearimorpha, Mesomycetozoa, Choanozoa and Metazoa. The latter three groups or only Metazoa are attributes to animals. The following differentiation of the groups used in systematic for the description of diversity of organisms is proposed. (1) Taxon is a group which is defined on the basis of ancestry: taxon includes all species descended from one ancestor. Taxon differs from logic classes of typology at an ontologic level. Taxon arises and exists, and its composition and occupied niches can constantly change; taxon can flourish or, on the contrary, fade up to full disappearance. Thus, the predicative characteristic of taxon, including characters which are considered significant, are not absolute. It is significant only at the moment of consideration. But characters (synapomorphies) are important as the practical tool for discerning taxa at given time period. Taxa unite species into unique classification. This understanding of taxon corresponds to monophyletic group sensu Willi Hennig. (2) Class of organisms is a group which is defined on the basis of characters: class includes all species having the given character. The class is only a logic object. Unlike taxa grouping species into classes may be through different and crossed classifications. Inside the given category of groups it is possible to distinguish: (2.1) Level of the organization (grade) described by the differences on the levels of organization: for example prokaryotic and eukaryotic levels of the organization. Eukaryotes can be divided into unicellular (Protoctista, Protista) and multicelluar (tissue-specific-Histonia) forms. (2.2) Types of the organization distinguishing groups of one level: for example, amoedoid type (Sarcodina), naked (Gymnamoebia), and testate (Testacea) amoebas. (2.3) Taxonomic groups as set-theoretical approximations of taxa. (2.4) Groups of the mixed nature. For example, Haeckel has recognized Protophyta and Protozoa describing the unicellular level of the organization inside plants and animals accordingly. Protozoa in Cavalier-Smith's system (2002, 2004) is also an example of groups of the mixed nature. PMID:16245570

  12. NPOESS McMurdo Multimission Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciaroni, J.; Higgins, C.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Dept. of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather/environmental satellite system - the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). NPOESS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical data of the earth, atmosphere and space. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS), NPOESS’ prime contractor, provides the Space Segment (SS). The NPOESS command & data distribution part known as the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems, manages the overall mission from control & status of the space & ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high-quality data from the SS to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). A C3S data-delivery system key feature is SafetyNetTM (a NGAS trademark), 15 globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon. These antennae will collect up to 5X as much environmental data about 4X faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. These data will then be forwarded nearly at once to US weather centrals via the global fiber optic network for processing & production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. McMurdo Antarctica is a significant SafetyNetTM antenna site due to its high-latitude location. C3S, working with the National Science Foundation to upgrade & expand the existing off-continent satellite communications (SATCOM) link at McMurdo, will provide 60 Mbps of bandwidth outbound from McMurdo and 20 Mbps inbound to those missions. The 1st major upgrade milestone (2008) increased the bandwidth from 3 Mbps to/from Antarctica to 10 Mbps. Additionally, Raytheon’s C3S is upgrading the network infrastructure at both McMurdo and the Belrose Earth Station, Australia SATCOM site to provide routing support for several missions, as well as expansion capabilities to support future missions at McMurdo. The upgrade completes in early 2011 to support new downlink capabilities called the ‘McMurdo Multimission Communications System.’ The big increase of available bandwidth to/from McMurdo allows more polar-orbiting environmental/weather satellite missions to use McMurdo as a 2nd downlink site. Two added missions, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites’ (EUMETSAT) MetOp polar system and the NOAA-operated DMSP, will downlink mission data to McMurdo. The NASA McMurdo Ground Station antenna will support the EUMETSAT mission. The NPOESS receptor at McMurdo will be a special dual-band antenna receiving both a NPOESS Ka-Band downlink and DMSP S-Band downlink. These upgrades will support routing data from Antarctica and distribution to each mission’s processing facility via the NPOESS Wide Area Network. The resulting acceleration across the SATCOM link allows each mission’s bandwidth use to vary based on the link usage and requirements. This flexibility ultimately allows the SATCOM link to handle more missions compared to static bandwidth allocations to each individual mission.

  13. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 [DA 11-1838] Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private...EA Licensing AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  14. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science Agricultural Communications Double Major Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    AGCM 3213 Layout and Design for Print AGCM 2113 Communication in Agriculture AGEC 3323 Ag Product production course ANSI 4863 Capstone for Animal Agriculture ANSI 4--3 Species production course ANSI 4College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science

  15. Suitability of ANSI standards for quantifying communication satellite system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cass, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    A study on the application of American National Standards X3.102 and X3.141 to various classes of communication satellite systems from the simple analog bent-pipe to NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is discussed. These standards are proposed as means for quantifying the end-to-end communication system performance of communication satellite systems. An introductory overview of the two standards are given followed by a review of the characteristics, applications, and advantages of using X3.102 and X3.141 to quantify with a description of the application of these standards to ACTS.

  16. MSFC Skylab instrumentation and communication system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, B. M.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the in-orbit performance of the instrumentation and communications systems installed on Skylab is presented. Performance is compared with functional requirements and the fidelity of communications. In-orbit performance includes processing engineering, scientific, experiment, and biomedical data, implementing ground-generated commands, audio and video communication, generating rendezvous ranging information, and radio frequency transmission and reception. A history of the system evolution based on the functional requirements and a physical description of the launch configuration is included. The report affirms that the instrumentation and communication system satisfied all imposed requirements.

  17. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  18. Development of a triple modality small animal planar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Weisenberger, Z. Lee, S. Majewski, B. Kross, V. Popov, B. Welch, R. Wojcik, C. Zorn

    2006-02-01

    Recently small animal research utilizing nuclear medicine based imaging has been combined with structural anatomical imaging from x-ray radiography providing a powerful tool for animal researchers. The addition of a third modality is the goal of our instrumentation development. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Case Western Reserve University have been collaborating on the development of a planar imaging system which in addition to radiopharmaceutical based functional imaging and x-ray radiography structural imaging also allows for the in vivo bioluminescence imaging thus providing another functional imaging modality. For the gamma camera we use is a Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillator array with individual crystal elements 1 mm × 1 mm × 5 mm in size and a 0.25 mm septum between each element. The gamma camera has a 10 cm diameter active area and can be used for 125I, 99mT and 111In radionuclide imaging. To acquire anatomical information we are using a Rad-Icon Shad-o-Box X-ray detector that provides a field of view of 5 cm × 10 cm. The x-ray source is a Source-Ray compact x-ray generator. We are using a Princeton Instruments cooled CCD based detector for the imaging of the bio-distribution of bioluminescence. All three imaging instruments will be integrated into a single light tight / x-ray tight enclosure.

  19. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. MULTIUSER DETECTION FOR COHERENT OPTICAL CDMA COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Brandt-Pearce, Maite

    MULTIUSER DETECTION FOR COHERENT OPTICAL CDMA COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS MaË? �tâ?? e Brandt communications using heterodyne detection has many advantages over direct­detection systems. CDMA employed over a coherent optical network enjoys the benefits of both co­ herent detection and broad bandwidth

  1. Master of Science in Engineering Concentration: Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    Master of Science in Engineering Concentration: Communication Systems Version date: August 14, 2014 Courses Total: 3 30 ENGR 510 + ENGR 589A Engineering Research Methods for Coursework option ENGR 510 (2 SCH) + ENGR589A-001 (1 SCH) 3 Communication Systems Total: 15 ELEN 525 Telecommunication Theory

  2. Multiple-User Adaptive-Array Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1985-01-01

    Weights for K-beam system computed K/6 times faster. In single-frequency adaptive-array communication system in whick K mobile users communicate with central station equipped with n-antenna array. Each K signal recoverable by taking specific weighted sum of n complex antenna voltages.

  3. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892.2050 Section 892.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving and communications system. (a) Identification....

  4. Antigone: Policy-based Secure Group Communication System

    E-print Network

    Prakash, Atul

    Antigone: Policy-based Secure Group Communication System and AMirD: Antigone-based Secure File Patrick McDaniel AT&T Labs - Research P.O. Box 971 Florham Park, NJ 07932-0971 Project web site: http://antigone.eecs.umich.edu This demonstration gives examples of how the Antigone policy-based secure group communication system supports

  5. Communications and control for electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.

    1992-01-01

    A long-term strategy for the integration of new control technologies for power generation and delivery is proposed: the industry would benefit from an evolutionary approach that would adapt to its needs future technologies as well as those that it has so far not heeded. The integrated operation of the entire system, including the distribution system, was proposed as a future goal. The AbNET communication protocols are reviewed, and additions that were made in 1991 are described. In the original network, traffic was controlled by polling at the master station, located at the substation, and routed by a flooding algorithm. In a revised version, the polling and flooding are modified. The question of interfacing low-energy measurement transducers or instrument transformers is considered. There is presently little or no agreement on what the output of optical current transducers (CT's) should be. Appendices deal with the calibration of current transducers; with Delta modulation, a simple means of serially encoding the output of an OCT; and with noise shaping, a method of digital signal processing that trades off the number of bits in a digital sample for a higher number of samples.

  6. Technology Evaluation of Programmable Communicating Thermostats with Radio Broadcast Data System Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth

    2008-10-31

    Programmable Communicating Thermostats are thermostats that can be programmed by the user to respond to signals indicating a grid-level system emergency or pricing event. The California Energy Commission is considering standards that would include a requirement for Programmable Communicating Thermostats in residential and small commercial applications. The current specification for Programmable Communicating Thermostats requires Radio Data System communications to Programmable Communicating Thermostats. This study tested the signal strength and reliability of Radio Data System signals at 40 customer sites within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, which is serviced by 17 radio stations that already transmit Radio Data System signals. The study also tested the functionality of a commercially available Programmable Communicating Thermostat for compliance with California Energy Commission design standards. Test results demonstrated that Radio Data System is capable of reliably sending price and emergency signals. This study also provides evidence that existing Programmable Communicating Thermostats, on receiving a Radio Data System pricing or event signal, are capable of automatically increasing set points to a customer-determined or utility-determined level, thus providing air-conditioning demand response within seconds or just a few (less than 5) minutes.

  7. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  8. Space Shuttle program communication and tracking systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R. S.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Sampaio, D. R.; Udalov, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program Communications and Tracking Systems Interface Analysis began April 18, 1983. During this time, the shuttle communication and tracking systems began flight testing. Two areas of analysis documented were a result of observations made during flight tests. These analyses involved the Ku-band communication system. First, there was a detailed analysis of the interface between the solar max data format and the Ku-band communication system including the TDRSS ground station. The second analysis involving the Ku-band communication system was an analysis of the frequency lock loop of the Gunn oscillator used to generate the transmit frequency. The stability of the frequency lock loop was investigated and changes to the design were reviewed to alleviate the potential loss of data due the loop losing lock and entering the reacquisition mode. Other areas of investigation were the S-band antenna analysis and RF coverage analysis.

  9. A simple integrated system for electrophysiologic recordings in animals

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Bernard J.; Miller, Neil R.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Flower, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    This technical note describes a modification to a fundus camera that permits simultaneous recording of pattern electroretinograms (pERGs) and pattern visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). The modification consists of placing an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) in the split-viewer pathway of a fundus camera, in a plane conjugate to the subject’s pupil. In this way, a focused image of the OLED can be delivered to a precisely known location on the retina. The advantage of using an OLED is that it can achieve high luminance while maintaining high contrast, and with minimal degradation over time. This system is particularly useful for animal studies, especially when precise retinal positioning is required. PMID:19137347

  10. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  11. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  12. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  13. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  14. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  15. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  16. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  17. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  18. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  19. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  20. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...e.g., tattoo, color code, ear tag, ear punch, etc.). All information...identification shall be made. (1) Plants, invertebrate animals, aquatic...study shall not be used. (j) All plant and animal test systems shall...

  1. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  2. Communication and remote control approaches to road surface carrying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Jin

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel control approach which is fusion techniques of factory automation/management and functions of hardware for computer communication. We describe the communication techniques between computer and programmable logic controller based on special system protocols. The developed controller innovated prior knowledge from some files, is considered as guides for the relevant controller designers and programmers, and a reference on establishing practical database for intelligent agents and on communication tasks.

  3. System architecture for an advanced Canadian communications satellite demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takats, P.; Irani, S.

    1992-03-01

    An advanced communications satellite system that provides single hop interconnectivity and interworking for both a personal communications network and an advanced private business network in the Ka and Ku bands respectively, is presented. An overall network perspective is discussed that studies the interface of such an advanced satellite communication system to the terrestrial network in the context of the Open Systems Interconnection model. It is shown that this proposed satellite system can dynamically establish links and efficiently allocate the satellite resource amongst the user terminal population for a mix of data and voice traffic.

  4. A Novel Modulation System For Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ih, C. S.; Hunsperger, R. G.; Kramer, J. J.; Tian, R.; Wang, X.; Kissa, K.; Butler, J.

    1988-05-01

    Optical waves have been established as a powerful means for information transmission. Because of the inherent device non-linearities and dispersions of the transmission media, we are far short of achieving its full potentials. Nearly all high speed optical communications in use today have been in digital form. It is still difficult to transmit high speed digital and broadband video simultaneously. Therefore to make the most efficient and flexible use of the optical medium, or to achieve a very broad bandwidth or both, an alternative approach is thus necessary. We propose a novel modulation method which achieves the equivalent of the conventional FDM system but uses the optical wave as the main carrier. The information is modulated directly on the laser and the (sub carriers are generated by the interference of two coherent optical waves, or a coherent pair. We shall call this system DBM (Double-Beam-Modulation) which is equivalent to DSBM (Double-Side-Band-Modulation) with the carrier suppressed. The modulator can be realized in many different ways [1-3]. Currently we are investigating the modulator using a SWAOM (Standing-Wave Acousto-Optical-Modulator) and SWSAW (Standing-Wave-Surface-Acoustic-Wave) for carrier frequencies to 3 GHz. We are also studying the feasibility of using SWOMSW (Standing-Wave-Opto-Magneto-Static-Wave) [4] to extend the frequency to tens of GHz range. Frequency locking of multiple stripe lasers may soon be possible for frequencies to 100 GHz. The characteristics, advantages, and technologies related to the DBM's are discussed. The recent experimental progress is presented.

  5. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  6. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 1: Analytical chapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I. (editor); Pelton, Joseph N. (editor); Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Analytical Chapters) of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel Satellite Communications Systems and Technology. The panel surveyed advanced technology being developed for commercial use in the satellite communications field in Europe, Japan, and Russia. All aspects of satellite communications were considered, including fixed, broadcast, mobile, personal communications, navigation, low earth orbit, and small satellites. The focus was on experimental and advanced technology being developed in R&D and demonstration programs rather than on today's production capabilities. Focus was on commercial satellite technology, and does not review defense-related or other confidential satellite communications capabilities. The NASA/NSF panel concluded that the United States has lost its leading position in many critical satellite communications technologies. Although U.S. industry retains a leading position in today's marketplace for satellite communications systems and services, this position is largely founded on technologies and capabilities developed in the 1960's and 1970's. Because the United States is losing ground with respect to a wide range of technologies and systems that will be key to future communications markets, the market share of the U.S. satellite communications industry is at risk.

  7. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 1; Analytic Chapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Raymond D.; Mahle, Christoph E.; Miller, Edward F.; Riley, Lance; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Edelson, Burton I.; Kwan, Robert K.; Helm, Neil R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1 (Analytical Chapters) of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel Satellite Communications Systems and Technology is presented. The panel surveyed advanced technology being developed for commercial use in the satellite communications field in Europe, Japan, and Russia. All aspects of satellite communications were considered, including fixed, broadcast, mobile, personal communications, navigation, low earth orbit, and small satellites. The focus of the study was on experimental and advanced technology being developed in R&D and demonstration programs rather than on today's production capabilities. The report focuses on commercial satellite technology, and does not review defense-related or other confidential satellite communications capabilities. The NASA/NSF panel concluded that the United States has lost its leading position in many critical satellite communications technologies. Although U.S. industry retains a leading position in today's marketplace for satellite communications systems and services, this position is largely founded on technologies and capabilities developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Because the United States is losing ground with respect to a wide range of technologies and systems that will be key to future communications markets, the market share of the U.S. satellite communications industry is at risk.

  8. [Food animal surveillance: search for a safe system?].

    PubMed

    Fries, R

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, meat inspection procedures have been established in the course of the last century. Techniques at that time available were used. This traditional approach has been taken over with the regularisation in the EEC. However, in order to scrutinise this approach as well as to specify modern tasks of meat inspection, a scientific and more basic approach is required and could read as follows: Pointing out the tasks of meat inspection as wanted by the specific society (human health, animal health and welfare as well as a certain quality level of the product). Collecting of particular criteria in order to ensure every task mentioned above. This could be addressed by use of a system based on the principles of Risk Analysis (identification and characterisation of a hazard (or unwanted item), consumer's exposure assessment). Having deduced the required criteria, for each of them an appropriate method must be available. Only then an overall system might be suggested, and only then particular techniques might be discussed. From examples is concluded, that the technical performance of meat inspection must be re-evaluated. Presently a total concept is not available. PMID:11766272

  9. Modelling the Evolution of Communication Systems 

    E-print Network

    Spike, Matthew John

    2012-11-28

    An framework using exemplar theory is used to recreate a number of published models of the evolution of communication. This is then used to examine the mechanics behind models of observational, feedback and reinforcement ...

  10. Impedance matching techniques for ethernet communication systems 

    E-print Network

    Kamprath, Richard Alan

    2007-09-17

    In modern local area networks, the communication signals sent from one computer to another across the lines of transmission are degraded because of reflection at the receiver. This reflection can be characterized through the impedances...

  11. Fiber Optic Multiplexer System For Marine Tactical Communication Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husbands, C. R.; Collins, M. W.

    1983-03-01

    Optical cable communications Systems have progressed to where they can be effectively employed in tactical(highly mobile) communications systems. The goal of a current Marine Corps program is to examine the replacement of CX-4566 (26-pair local distribution cable) with a fiber optic cable system. This replacement would reduce electromagnetic and radio frequency interference and crosstalk. However, the most significant benefit of fiber cable in tactical communications is the better than 10:1 saving in size and weight. This paper describes a demonstration system developed to replace CX-4566 cable assemblies. The fiber optic demonstration system is designed to interface with specific Marine Corps tactical communication shelters. The system mounts externally on the signal entry panel allowing operation with either metalic or fiber optic cable assemblies.

  12. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the housing, feeding, handling, and care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems from outside sources...

  13. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the housing, feeding, handling, and care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems from outside sources...

  14. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the housing, feeding, handling, and care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems from outside sources...

  15. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the housing, feeding, handling, and care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems from outside sources...

  16. The Use of Multiple Communication in Systemic Couples Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Siegel, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    Presents a clinical technique for working with troubled couples based on a particular theory of multiple communication in therapy. The technique, a "systemic couples reversal," prescribes a way of managing the multiple communications of stability, change, and meaningful Rorschach. Provides a theoretical map, clinical procedure, and clinical case…

  17. The Value System--A False Prophet for Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Howard P.

    The author questions the applicability of a value-system-contrast approach to intercultural communication. His two main reservations involve the deprivation and validity of value sets themselves and the potential dangers encounterable in using values as a guide to intercultural communication. Firstly, the non-scientific methods employed in…

  18. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Int. J. Commun. Syst. (2010)

    E-print Network

    Kim, Kwangjo

    2010-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Int. J. Commun. Syst. (2010) Published online. Received 28 February 2010; Revised 13 May 2010; Accepted 14 May 2010 KEY WORDS: lawful interception; ID the one-way data communications such as SMS/MMS and e-mail services. In such environments, escrowing

  19. Sequoia A Robust Communication Architecture for Collaborative Security Monitoring Systems

    E-print Network

    Li, Jun

    Sequoia ­ A Robust Communication Architecture for Collaborative Security Monitoring Systems Xun {kangxun, dayizhou, rao, lijun, lo}@cs.uoregon.edu Website: http://netsec.cs.uoregon.edu/research/sequoia.php ABSTRACT Our work involves the design, evaluation, and deployment of Sequoia, a robust communication

  20. An Experimental Study of the Emergence of Human Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were…

  1. Communicative Influence Strategies in a Group Decision Support System Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Craig R.

    Group decision support systems (GDDS) represent a technological aid for the decision-making process, combining communication, computers, and decision technologies to support problem formulation and solution in group meetings. A study examined communicative influence strategies used in a GDDS meeting. Subjects, 201 high- and low-influence persons…

  2. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 2; Site Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Carles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.; Miller, Edward F.; Riley, Lance

    1993-01-01

    Volume 2 of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology is presented. It consists of the site reports from the panel's visits to satellite communications facilities and laboratories in Europe, Japan, and Russia.

  3. Light communication systems. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    The design, performance, and application of laser, infrared, and visual communication systems are covered in the cited research reports. Transmission and equipment studies for space, atmospheric, and underwater light communication are presented. Topics covered include lasers, fiber optics, signal processing, transmission links, and data transmission. This updated bibliography contains 87 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  4. MULTI-USER COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: CAPACITY, DUALITY, AND COOPERATION

    E-print Network

    Jindal, Nihar

    the capacity of multi-user wireless communication channels. We first establish a duality relationship betweenMULTI-USER COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: CAPACITY, DUALITY, AND COOPERATION a dissertation submitted the Gaussian broadcast and multiple-access channels. This relationship allows us to characterize the capacity

  5. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks...Sites § 73.54 Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks...shall provide high assurance that digital computer and communication systems and...

  6. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks...Sites § 73.54 Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks...shall provide high assurance that digital computer and communication systems and...

  7. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks...Sites § 73.54 Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks...shall provide high assurance that digital computer and communication systems and...

  8. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...computer and communication systems and networks. 73.54 Section 73.54 Energy...computer and communication systems and networks. By November 23, 2009 each...computer and communication systems and networks are adequately protected against...

  9. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...computer and communication systems and networks. 73.54 Section 73.54 Energy...computer and communication systems and networks. By November 23, 2009 each...computer and communication systems and networks are adequately protected against...

  10. 76 FR 38374 - Applications for New Awards; Literacy Information and Communication System Regional Professional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Applications for New Awards; Literacy Information and Communication System Regional Professional Development.... Overview Information Literacy Information and Communication System Regional Professional Development... Literacy Information and Communication System (LINCS) Regional Professional Development Centers...

  11. 78 FR 31576 - Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components...importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components...after importation any two-way global satellite communication devices, system,...

  12. Secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.

  13. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Rö?ler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  14. A satellite system for land-mobile communications in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.

  15. Facility for the evaluation of space communications and related systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Communications Projects Branch has developed a facility for the evaluation of space communications systems and related types of systems, called the Advanced Space Communications (ASC) Laboratory. The ASC Lab includes instrumentation, testbed hardware, and experiment control and monitor software for the evaluation of components, subsystems, systems, and networks. The ASC lab has capabilities to perform radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and millimeter-wave characterizations as well as measurements using low, medium, or high data rate digital signals. In addition to laboratory measurements, the ASC Lab also includes integrated satellite ground terminals allowing experimentation and measurements accessing operational satellites through real space links.

  16. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  17. A Versatile Imaging System for In Vivo Small Animal Research Jianguo Qian

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Leah B.

    phantom and animal studies have demonstrated that these gamma cameras perform well for planar scintigraphy resolution and improved sensitivity using this new imaging technique. These studies in small-animal imagingA Versatile Imaging System for In Vivo Small Animal Research Jianguo Qian College of William & Mary

  18. ATCOM: Automatically Tuned Collective Communication System for SMP Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu

    2005-12-17

    Conventional implementations of collective communications are based on point-to-point communications, and their optimizations have been focused on efficiency of those communication algorithms. However, point-to-point communications are not the optimal choice for modern computing clusters of SMPs due to their two-level communication structure. In recent years, a few research efforts have investigated efficient collective communications for SMP clusters. This dissertation is focused on platform-independent algorithms and implementations in this area. There are two main approaches to implementing efficient collective communications for clusters of SMPs: using shared memory operations for intra-node communications, and overlapping inter-node/intra-node communications. The former fully utilizes the hardware based shared memory of an SMP, and the latter takes advantage of the inherent hierarchy of the communications within a cluster of SMPs. Previous studies focused on clusters of SMP from certain vendors. However, the previously proposed methods are not portable to other systems. Because the performance optimization issue is very complicated and the developing process is very time consuming, it is highly desired to have self-tuning, platform-independent implementations. As proven in this dissertation, such an implementation can significantly out-perform the other point-to-point based portable implementations and some platform-specific implementations. The dissertation describes in detail the architecture of the platform-independent implementation. There are four system components: shared memory-based collective communications, overlapping mechanisms for inter-node and intra-node communications, a prediction-based tuning module and a micro-benchmark based tuning module. Each component is carefully designed with the goal of automatic tuning in mind.

  19. Alternative force structuring strategies for military satellite communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, William P., Jr.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and examine alternative force structuring strategies for military satellite communication (MILSATCOM) systems. The study was undertaken due to the United States' reliance on relatively few, expensive satellites as critical communication links. Current anti-satellite weapons pose a definite threat to missions using this type of strategy. In response to this situation, proliferated MILSATCOM designs using low Earth circular orbits and a highly elliptical (Molniya) orbit were defined and analyzed. The objective of this effort was to compare the proliferated alternative systems' performance and cost with a current MILSATCOM system. The Fleet Satellite Communication (FLTSATCOM) system was used as the baseline system for comparison. Overall, both alternative force structuring strategies provided superior Earth coverage when subjected to satellite losses. This was especially evident in the European and Mideast theaters. The Molyniya constellation was the best alternative when considering system performance, system cost, current MILSATCOM system compatibility and the technology required for system implementation.

  20. An isolated working heart system for large animal models.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Matthew A; Southerland, Kevin W; Feger, Bryan J; Linder, Dean; Ali, Ayyaz A; Njoroge, Linda; Milano, Carmelo A; Bowles, Dawn E

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the late 19(th) century, the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus, and the subsequent development of the working heart model, have been invaluable tools for studying cardiovascular function and disease(1-15). Although the Langendorff heart preparation can be used for any mammalian heart, most studies involving this apparatus use small animal models (e.g., mouse, rat, and rabbit) due to the increased complexity of systems for larger mammals(1,3,11). One major difficulty is ensuring a constant coronary perfusion pressure over a range of different heart sizes - a key component of any experiment utilizing this device(1,11). By replacing the classic hydrostatic afterload column with a centrifugal pump, the Langendorff working heart apparatus described below allows for easy adjustment and tight regulation of perfusion pressures, meaning the same set-up can be used for various species or heart sizes. Furthermore, this configuration can also seamlessly switch between constant pressure or constant flow during reperfusion, depending on the user's preferences. The open nature of this setup, despite making temperature regulation more difficult than other designs, allows for easy collection of effluent and ventricular pressure-volume data. PMID:24962492

  1. A Systems Approach to Scaffold Communication Skills Development

    PubMed Central

    Er, Nelson L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement a communication skills development (CSD) system and evaluate its effectiveness in a clinical communications course. Design Students conducted baseline interviews and wrote SOAP notes, and based on faculty, patient, self- and peer assessments, set goals for improvement of their communication skills. Students participated in various activities to scaffold their learning, several of which took place in a web-based environment to enhance access and function for both students and faculty members. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Assessment Students' communication skills improved as evidenced by assessment scores. Student and faculty comments offered additional evidence of the effectiveness of standardized patient interviews, learning strategies, and assessment methods. Conclusion The CSD system effectively integrated various types of learning activities and feedback processes. The use of scaffolding strategies appeared to enhance the development of students' communication skills. PMID:18483601

  2. A fast full-body fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Keol; Jia, Jingfei; Fong, Christopher; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    Whole body in vivo optical imaging of small animals has widened its applications and increased the capabilities for preclinical researches. However, most commercial and prototype optical imaging systems are camera-based systems using epi- or trans- illumination mode, with limited views of small animals. And for more accurate tomographic image reconstruction, additional data and information of a target animal is necessary. To overcome these issues, researchers have suggested several approaches such as maximizing the detection area or using the information of other highresolution modalities such as CT, MRI or Ultrasound, or using multi-spectral signals. As one of ways to maximizing the detection area of a target animal, we present a new fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging system for small animals, which can image entire surface of a target animal simultaneously. This system uses double mirror reflection scheme and it consists of input unit, imaging unit with two conical mirrors, the source illumination part and the surface scanner, and the detection unit with an intensified CCD camera system. Two conical mirrors are configured that a larger size mirror captures a target animal surface, and a smaller size mirror projects this captured image onto a CCD camera with one acquisition. With this scheme, we could capture entire surface of a target animal simultaneously and improve back reflection issue between a mirror and an animal surface of a single conical mirror scheme. Additionally, we could increase accessibility to an animal for multi-modality integration by providing unobstructed space around a target animal.

  3. Dreamweaver and Flash: Strategies for Updating Communication Systems Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roger B.

    2004-01-01

    The rate of innovation and change impacting technology education communication systems instruction has been vigorous for longer than most people can remember. Trends have included analog systems being replaced by digital systems, integration of networks and system devices, computerization, optical storage, and wireless transmission of data. The…

  4. Automatic real-time pair-feeding system for animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A pair feeding method and apparatus are provided for experimental animals wherein the amount of food consumed is immediately delivered to a normal or control animal so that there is a qualitative, quantitative and chronological correctness in the pair feeding of the two animals. This feeding mechanism delivers precisely measured amounts of food to a feeder. Circuitry is provided between master and slave feeders so that there is virtually no chance of a malfunction of the feeding apparatus, causing erratic results. Recording equipment is also provided so that an hourly record is kept of food delivery.

  5. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication...

  6. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication...

  7. 46 CFR 169.713 - Engineroom communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...169.713 Section 169.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.713 Engineroom communication...

  8. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving and communications system. (a)...

  9. Engineering multicellular systems by cell-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Pai, Anand; Tanouchi, Yu; Collins, Cynthia H; You, Lingchong

    2009-08-01

    Synthetic biology encompasses the design of new biological parts and systems as well as the modulation of existing biological networks to generate novel functions. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the engineering of population-level behaviors using cell-cell communication. From the engineering perspective, cell-cell communication serves as a versatile regulatory module that enables coordination among cells in and between populations and facilitates the generation of reliable dynamics. In addition to exploring biological 'design principles' via the construction of increasingly complex dynamics, communication-based synthetic systems can be used as well-defined model systems to study ecological and social interactions such as competition, cooperation, and predation. Here we discuss the dynamic properties of cell-cell communication modules, how they can be engineered for synthetic circuit design, and applications of these systems. PMID:19733047

  10. Circuit-aware system design techniques for wireless communication

    E-print Network

    Huang, Everest W. (Everest Wang)

    2006-01-01

    When designing wireless communication systems, many hardware details are hidden from the algorithm designer, especially with analog hardware. While it is difficult for a designer to understand all aspects of a complex ...

  11. 7. Survivable low frequency communication system pathway, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Survivable low frequency communication system pathway, looking east - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  12. Coherent and Noncoherent Photonic Communications in Biological Systems

    E-print Network

    S. Mayburov

    2009-09-14

    The possible mechanisms of communications between distant bio-systems by means of optical and UV photons are studied. It is argued that their main production mechanism is owed to the biochemical reactions, occurring during the cell division.. In the proposed model the bio-systems perform such communications, radiating the photons in form of short periodic bursts, which were observed experimentally for fish and frog eggs1. For experimentally measured photon rates the communication algorithm is supposedly similar to the exchange of binary encoded data in computer net via optical channels

  13. Workload characterization for the space station data communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevcik, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a permanent manned space station in the early 1990's. The station will be used to support a wide variety of activities involving Earth and space observation, satellite maintenance, scientific experimentation, and commercial manufacturing. The control and monitoring of many of these activities will require extensive computer and communications system support. In order to identify an appropriate computer and communication system for supporting the space station, an attempt to characterize the space station's data communications subsystem workload is currently underway. Some of the special aspects of the workload characterization problem are discussed in connection with the space station, and some possible approaches are presented.

  14. A system for analysis and classification of voice communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.; Garland, L.

    1973-01-01

    A method for analysis and classification of verbal communications typically associated with manned space missions or simulations was developed. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 was devoted to identification of crew tasks and activities which require voice communication for accomplishment or reporting. Phase 2 entailed development of a message classification system and a preliminary test of its feasibility. The classification system permits voice communications to be analyzed to three progressively more specific levels of detail and to be described in terms of message content, purpose, and the participants in the information exchange. A coding technique was devised to allow messages to be recorded by an eight-digit number.

  15. An all digital low data rate communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.; Fan, M.

    1973-01-01

    The advent of digital hardwares has made it feasible to implement many communication system components digitally. With the exception of frequency down conversion, the proposed low data rate communication system uses digital hardwares completely. Although the system is designed primarily for deep space communications with large frequency uncertainty and low signal-to-noise ratio, it is also suitable for other low data rate applications with time-shared operation among a number of channels. Emphasis is placed on the fast Fourier transform receiver and the automatic frequency control via digital filtering. The speed available from the digital system allows sophisticated signal processing to reduce frequency uncertainty and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The practical limitations of the system such as the finite register length are examined. It is concluded that the proposed all-digital system is not only technically feasible but also has potential cost reduction over the existing receiving systems.

  16. Augmentation of a commercial satellite system for military communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butte, Eric G.; Thorburn, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Future U.S. MILSATCOM will rely on a complex satellite design to implement the TSAT satellite system that was developed on the Transformational Communication Architecture program. TSAT will deliver secured IP based, on-demand communication system to meet the needs of the military and the warfighter and will demand a very large satellite system, program, and an anticipated lengthy deployment time. An alternate system is proposed that can give IP based communications in a significantly shorter time frame. A constellation of commercial-like satellites, with transponded Ka-, Ku- and X-band, would nicely complement the MILSATCOM fleet. The services provided by these satellites would enable widespread communications services such as IP to the theatre, augmenting the DSCS, Wideband Gapfiller, and protected communications systems of MILSTAR and Advanced EHF. The capacity provided by the dedicated commercial satellites would help provide the capacity demanded by the warfighter as MILSATCOM transitions from today's technology to the TSAT system of tomorrow's Transformational Communications Architecture. This paper will discuss the satellite concept design and how it can augment the MILSATCOM fleet and show a more flexible approach of bandwidth management to support fixed and COTM terminals.

  17. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: implications for animals communicating in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-06-01

    Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats. PMID:25852069

  18. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  19. Methods for operating parallel computing systems employing sequenced communications

    DOEpatents

    Benner, R.E.; Gustafson, J.L.; Montry, G.R.

    1999-08-10

    A parallel computing system and method are disclosed having improved performance where a program is concurrently run on a plurality of nodes for reducing total processing time, each node having a processor, a memory, and a predetermined number of communication channels connected to the node and independently connected directly to other nodes. The present invention improves performance of the parallel computing system by providing a system which can provide efficient communication between the processors and between the system and input and output devices. A method is also disclosed which can locate defective nodes with the computing system. 15 figs.

  20. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. PMID:23899406

  1. 47 CFR 11.47 - Optional use of other communications methods and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Optional use of other communications methods and systems. 11.47 ...47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT... § 11.47 Optional use of other communications methods and systems. (a)...

  2. Exploiting Reconfigurable Antennas in Communication Systems with Delay-Sensitive Applications 

    E-print Network

    Hammad, Eman

    2012-02-14

    Wireless communication systems continue to face the challenge of time varying quality of the underlying communication channel. When a slow fading channel goes into a deep fade, the corresponding communication system might face successive decoding...

  3. A systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    In addition to but separate from the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper, without compromising safety. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo. The Blue Team process and results are summarized. The Associate Administrator for Space Communications subsequently convened a special management session to discuss the significance and implications of the Blue Team's report and to lay the groundwork and teamwork for the next steps, including the transition from engineering systems to systems engineering. The methodology and progress toward realizing the Code O Family vision and accomplishing the systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications are presented.

  4. Systems analysis of the space shuttle. [communication systems, computer systems, and power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.; Oh, S. J.; Thau, F.

    1975-01-01

    Developments in communications systems, computer systems, and power distribution systems for the space shuttle are described. The use of high speed delta modulation for bit rate compression in the transmission of television signals is discussed. Simultaneous Multiprocessor Organization, an approach to computer organization, is presented. Methods of computer simulation and automatic malfunction detection for the shuttle power distribution system are also described.

  5. Simulation system architecture design for generic communications link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Chit-Sang; Ratliff, Jim

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses a computer simulation system architecture design for generic digital communications systems. It addresses the issues of an overall system architecture in order to achieve a user-friendly, efficient, and yet easily implementable simulation system. The system block diagram and its individual functional components are described in detail. Software implementation is discussed with the VAX/VMS operating system used as a target environment.

  6. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alem, W. K.; Huth, G. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The particular Ku-band carrier, PN despreading, and symbol synchronization strategies, which were selected for implementation in the Ku-band transponder aboard the orbiter, were assessed and evaluated from a systems performance viewpoint, verifying that system specifications were met. A study was performed of the design and implementation of tracking techniques which are suitable for incorporation into the Orbiter Ku-band communication system. Emphasis was placed on maximizing tracking accuracy and communication system flexibility while minimizing cost, weight, and system complexity of Orbiter and ground systems hardware. The payload communication study assessed the design and performance of the forward link and return link bent-pipe relay modes for attached and detached payloads. As part of this study, a design for a forward link bent-pipe was proposed which employs a residual carrier but which is tracked by the existing Costas loop.

  7. Estimation of the demand for public services communications. [market research and economic analysis for a communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Market analyses and economic studies are presented to support NASA planning for a communications satellite system to provide public services in health, education, mobile communications, data transfer, and teleconferencing.

  8. COMMUNICATION VULNERABILITIES AND MITIGATIONS IN WIND POWER SCADA SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    1 COMMUNICATION VULNERABILITIES AND MITIGATIONS IN WIND POWER SCADA SYSTEMS American Wind Energy/ Abstract This paper focuses on securing wind power Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems security vulnerabilities. To address these new vulnerabilities in wind power SCADA systems, we apply

  9. Humans mimicking animals: A cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, William J.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Hitt, Laura; Frum, Chris A.; Lewis, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STS) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, STS regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or “expertise” in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations – human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations – we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. These results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages prior to the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins. PMID:22674283

  10. 30/20 GHz communications systems baseband processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L.; Sabourin, D.; Stilwell, J.; Mccallister, R.; Borota, M.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture and system design concepts for a commercial satellite communications system planned for the 1990's has been developed. The system provides data communications between the individual users via trunking and customer premise service terminals utilizing a central switching satellite operating in a time-division multiple-access mode. Baseband processing is employed to route and control traffic on an individual message basis while providing significant advantages in improved link margins and system flexibility. Key technology developments required to prove the flight readiness of the baseband processor design are being verified in the baseband processor proof-of-concept model described herein.

  11. Satellite communication system performance evaluation by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M. U.; Foster, W. A.; Strodtbeck, A. L.; Walker, J. L.

    Computer simulation procedures have become a valuable tool for the evaluation of the performance provided by satellite communication systems. The use of such procedures is facilitated by the use of a communication system simulation language. Such a language, called Systid, has been employed for several years in an American aerospace company. Systid was originally developed for large general purpose computers. Later Systid has been adapted for employment with the Communication System Simulator (CSS), a mini/AP system. Subsequently, the Systid translator has been modified to produce simulation code which is optimized for the CSS. The improvements with respect to the CSS/Systid system are discussed. The application of the simulator is illustrated with the aid of two examples.

  12. Karagz: A Hierarchical Modeling and Animation System for Turkish Shadow Theater

    E-print Network

    Güdükbay, Ugur

    Karagöz: A Hierarchical Modeling and Animation System for Turkish Shadow Theater by Ugur Güdükbay & Tolga Abaci In this paper, we describe a hierarchical modeling and animation system for the Turkish of the Turkish Shadow Theater by using model parameters related to the dierent parts of the body

  13. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Animal and other test system care. 792.90 Section 792.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the...

  15. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the...

  16. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792.90 Section 792.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792.90 Section 792.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a)...

  18. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 2: Site reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I. (editor); Pelton, Joseph N. (editor); Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology. It consists of the site reports from the panel's visits to satellite communications facilities and laboratories in Europe, Japan, and Russia. The Executive Summary of the panel's final report is published separately. Volume 1, also published separately, consists of the panel's analytical chapters. Information on ordering the Executive Summary and Volume 1 from the National Technical Information Service is included.

  19. Queueing models of picture archiving and communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmoradi, Hassan; Nilsson, Arne A.

    1990-08-01

    At present the management of radiological information is done manually in most hospitals. Images from the digital modalities (e.g. Computer- tomography scanners, X-ray machines) are converted into films and stored in a room. These films are then distributed manually and interpretation is done by reading the films through light boxes. With the advances in semiconductor technology and digital processing techniques it is now possible to automate these operations by using a digital system for archiving and communication of images. A Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), is a digital system for acquiring, storing, moving and displaying picture or image information .These systems are highly dependent on the new technology for mass storage of data on optical disks. In the medical environment, the ultimate goal of using digital images and PACS is tohave a radiology department without filmjackets 2,3 A typical PACS consists of a database of medical images, display stations, acquisition systems and the communications medium. There are two possible architectures for PACS, one is the distributed PACS where all the modules are linked together through a high speed communication medium, and the other is a centralized PACS where the acquisition nodes and the display stations are part of the system which comprises the image database 4. In this paper we present analytical queueing models of distributed PACS used in the medical environments. These models are for the image database, the picture viewing stations, and the communication channels.

  20. Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head-Mounted Display Virtual

    E-print Network

    and successfully described significantly more words when nonverbal communication was available to both participants; (b) it is important that nonverbal communication is bidirectional (real nonverbal feedback in addition to nonverbal communication from the describing participant); and (c) there are differences

  1. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  2. New laser communication and laser ranging of integration source system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guan-yu; Wang, Shuang; Shi, Haodong; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Duo-rui

    2014-12-01

    With the development of laser transmission technology, the laser ranging and communication technology integration, miniaturization has become an important research direction nowadays. Based on laser ranging and communication integration of the requirements, design the1064nm fiber laser system, to suffice laser communication, laser ranging and beacon beam of the requirements at the same time could be provide the coherent detection to signal beam. The simulation experiment the 1064nm of free space optical communication in the laboratory, the coherent detection sensitivity is higher than -22dBm, the bit error rate 10-7 laser communication system. Multiple laser ranging to build coherent beam experimental realization of the coupling efficiency is higher than 70%, the laser output power of greater than 21W. The light source system is designed in this paper can realize the previous several lasers to complete the task, not only has the advantage of integration and miniaturization, through the simulation experiment could satisfy the communication requirements of power laser ranging ,and it is ideal light for laser transmission integration technology.

  3. 47 CFR 90.625 - Other criteria to be applied in assigning channels for use in conventional systems of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...conventional systems of communication. 90.625 Section 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...conventional systems of communication. (a) Where an...a conventional system of communication, the applicant will...

  4. Communications satellite systems operations with the space station, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Dixon, J.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    A financial model was developed which described quantitatively the economics of the space segment of communication satellite systems. The model describes the economics of the space system throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The expected state-of-the-art status of communications satellite systems and operations beginning service in 1995 were assessed and described. New or enhanced space-based activities and associated satellite system designs that have the potential to achieve future communications satellite operations in geostationary orbit with improved economic performance were postulated and defined. Three scenarios using combinations of space-based activities were analyzed: a spin stabilized satellite, a three axis satellite, and assembly at the Space Station and GEO servicing. Functional and technical requirements placed on the Space Station by the scenarios were detailed. Requirements on the satellite were also listed.

  5. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  6. Improving Literacy Skills in Students with Complex Communication Needs Who Use Augmentative/Alternative Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    A structured intervention package including direct, scaffolded, instructional lessons was implemented using an error correction learning system and a picture book-based phonological and phonemic awareness activity for four participants with complex communication needs, ranging from 12 to 15 years, in a junior high school setting. Although…

  7. Communications system for zero-g simulation tests in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    System connects seven observers, diver, and spare station, and utilizes public address system with underwater speakers to provide two-way communications between test subject and personnel in control of life support, so that test personnel are warned immediately of malfunction in pressure suit or equipment.

  8. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  9. Video Transmission for Third Generation Mobile Communication Systems Hamid Gharavi

    E-print Network

    1 Video Transmission for Third Generation Mobile Communication Systems Hamid Gharavi National-0001 ABSTRACT This paper presents a method of transmitting video over the cdma2000 mobile system. In this method, the video bit-stream after splitting, is transmitted via the supplemental channels of the cdma2000 reverse

  10. Resolving Relationship Problems in Communication Disorders Treatment: A Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Judith R.

    1992-01-01

    Systems concepts from general systems theory and family therapy literature are presented as analytical tools to help professionals understand and change interactions with their clients having communication disorders. Two case examples that illustrate relationship problems are presented, and approaches taken to their resolution are described.…

  11. On the Role of Multimodal Communication in Telesurgery Systems

    E-print Network

    Hirche, Sandra

    On the Role of Multimodal Communication in Telesurgery Systems Robert Bauernschmitt5 Eva U. Braun5.Tobergte@dlr.de Abstract--Telesurgery systems integrate multimodal communi- cation and robotic technologies to enable on multimodal interaction in the context of telesurgery applications. These are results from the collaborative

  12. Antenna Array Mutual Coupling Effects on Cellular CDMA Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Blostein, Steven D.

    Antenna Array Mutual Coupling Effects on Cellular CDMA Communication Systems Alexander M. Wyglinski of mutual coupling and thus potentially lead to less accurate system performance predictions. Further­ more, methods for computing beampatterns which con­ sider mutual coupling effects are computationally inten

  13. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  14. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  15. Underground Mine Communication and Tracking Systems : A Survey

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Underground Mine Communication and Tracking Systems : A Survey Prasant Misra1 Diet Ostry2 Sanjay;Abstract This article presents a survey of the state-of-the art underground mine com- munication and tracking systems. Underground mines are extensive labyrinths. They employ hundreds of mining personnel

  16. Human Neural Systems for Face Recognition and Social Communication

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    perception, functional brain imaging, spatial attention, emotion, facial expression, semantic knowledge. Hoffman, and M. Ida Gobbini Face perception is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans, which underlies the perception of information that facilitates social communication. The system also has

  17. COMMUNICATION A Facile Reporter System for the Experimental

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Tracy

    such as Escherichia coli and some Gram-positive bacteria of the actinobacterial class, for example, StreptomycesCOMMUNICATION A Facile Reporter System for the Experimental Identification of Twin identification. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Edited by J. Karn Keywords: protein export; Tat system

  18. 5 Traditional Communication Architectures Existing multiprocessor systems do not provide a communication architecture in the sense that they do

    E-print Network

    von Eicken, Thorsten

    107 5 Traditional Communication Architectures Existing multiprocessor systems do not provide a communication architecture in the sense that they do not offer a well-defined layer of abstraction to which-defined low-level communication "layer" which is considered to be "close to the hardware" (or implemented

  19. Animated Historical Cancer Atlas - Geographic Information Systems & Science

    Cancer.gov

    Users may select to display a map of the continental U.S. or an individual state. This option is provided to focus attention on one specific state during animation. The data and Color-Groups are the same for a state, whether it is shown individually or as part of the entire United States. Alaska and Hawaii are not included in this atlas because the spatial data smoothing method employed is more reliable on contiguous areas.

  20. 77 FR 6000 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY: Federal...Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) units with part...

  1. A resistive heating system for homeothermic maintenance in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Kersemans, Veerle; Gilchrist, Stuart; Allen, Philip D.; Beech, John S.; Kinchesh, Paul; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Smart, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an MR-compatible resistive heater for temperature maintenance of anaesthetized animals. Materials and Methods An MR-compatible resistive electrical heater was formed from a tightly-wound twisted pair wire, interfaced to a homeothermic maintenance controller. Fat-suppressed images and localized spectra were acquired with the twisted pair heater and a near-identical single strand heater during operation at maximum power. Data were also acquired in the absence of heating to demonstrate the insensitivity of MR to distortions arising from the passage of current through the heater elements. The efficacy of temperature maintenance was examined by measuring rectal temperature immediately following induction of general anesthesia and throughout and after the acquisition of a heater artifact-prone image series. Results Images and spectra acquired in the presence and absence of DC current through the twisted pair heater were identical whereas the passage of current through the single strand wire created field shifts and lineshape distortions. Temperature that is lost during anesthesia induction was recovered within approximately 10–20 minutes of induction, and a stable temperature is reached as the animal's temperature approaches the set target. Conclusion The twisted pair wire heater does not interfere with MR image quality and maintains adequate thermal input to the animal to maintain body temperature. PMID:25863135

  2. Specification for installation of the crew activity planning system coaxial cable communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.; Roman, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    The specification used to install a broadband coaxial cable communication system to support remote terminal operations on the Crew Activity Planning system at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are reported. The system supports high speed communications between a Harris Slash 8 computer and one or more Sanders Graphic 7 displays.

  3. Unmanned Aircraft System Control and ATC Communications Bandwidth Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There are significant activities taking place to establish the procedures and requirements for safe and routine operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the barriers to overcome in achieving this goal is the lack of sufficient frequency spectrum necessary for the UAS control and air traffic control (ATC) communications links. This shortcoming is compounded by the fact that the UAS control communications links will likely be required to operate in protected frequency spectrum, just as ATC communications links are, because they relate to "safety and regularity of flight." To support future International Telecommunications Union (ITU) World Radio Conference (WRC) agenda items concerning new frequency allocations for UAS communications links, and to augment the Future Communications Study (FCS) Technology Evaluation Group efforts, NASA Glenn Research Center has sponsored a task to estimate the UAS control and ATC communications bandwidth requirements for safe, reliable, and routine operation of UAS in the NAS. This report describes the process and results of that task. The study focused on long-term bandwidth requirements for UAS approximately through 2030.

  4. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  5. Potential markets for a satellite-based mobile communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Peet, C. S.; Bengston, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the market needs for improved land mobile communications systems. Within the context of this objective, the following goals were set: (1) characterize the present mobile communications industry; (2) determine the market for an improved system for mobile communications; and (3) define the system requirements as seen from the potential customer's viewpoint. The scope of the study was defined by the following parameters: (1) markets were confined to U.S. and Canada; (2) range of operation generally exceeded 20 miles, but this was not restrictive; (3) the classes of potential users considered included all private sector users, and non-military public sector users; (4) the time span examined was 1975 to 1985; and (5) highly localized users were generally excluded - e.g., taxicabs, and local paging.

  6. On the stability of robotic systems with random communication rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yun, X.; Paul, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Control problems of sampled data systems which are subject to random sample rate variations and delays are studied. Due to the rapid growth of the use of computers more and more systems are controlled digitally. Complex systems such as space telerobotic systems require the integration of a number of subsystems at different hierarchical levels. While many subsystems may run on a single processor, some subsystems require their own processor or processors. The subsystems are integrated into functioning systems through communications. Communications between processes sharing a single processor are also subject to random delays due to memory management and interrupt latency. Communications between processors involve random delays due to network access and to data collisions. Furthermore, all control processes involve delays due to casual factors in measuring devices and to signal processing. Traditionally, sampling rates are chosen to meet the worst case communication delay. Such a strategy is wasteful as the processors are then idle a great proportion of the time; sample rates are not as high as possible resulting in poor performance or in the over specification of control processors; there is the possibility of missing data no matter how low the sample rate is picked. Asymptotical stability with probability one for randomly sampled multi-dimensional linear systems is studied. A sufficient condition for the stability is obtained. This condition is so simple that it can be applied to practical systems. A design procedure is also shown.

  7. Synchronization of system-of-systems interfaces in military satellite communications

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mark J. (Mark Jeffrey)

    2008-01-01

    Military systems continue to become more complex and nearly all are now part of one or more system of systems (SoS). Military satellite communications programs have expanded over the last decade from three distinct satellite ...

  8. Rodent Scope: A User-Configurable Digital Wireless Telemetry System for Freely Behaving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Kliese, Russell; Windels, Francois; Nolan, Christopher; Stratton, Peter; Sah, Pankaj; Wiles, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz–3 kHz) and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz–3 kHz). Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m. PMID:24587144

  9. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

    2013-01-01

    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its results and impact. We will highlight the insights gained by applying the Model Based System Engineering and provide recommendations for its applications and improvements.

  10. Striving for safety: communicating and deciding in sociotechnical systems

    PubMed Central

    Flach, John M.; Carroll, John S.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Hamilton, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    How do communications and decisions impact the safety of sociotechnical systems? This paper frames this question in the context of a dynamic system of nested sub-systems. Communications are related to the construct of observability (i.e. how components integrate information to assess the state with respect to local and global constraints). Decisions are related to the construct of controllability (i.e. how component sub-systems act to meet local and global safety goals). The safety dynamics of sociotechnical systems are evaluated as a function of the coupling between observability and controllability across multiple closed-loop components. Two very different domains (nuclear power and the limited service food industry) provide examples to illustrate how this framework might be applied. While the dynamical systems framework does not offer simple prescriptions for achieving safety, it does provide guides for exploring specific systems to consider the potential fit between organisational structures and work demands, and for generalising across different systems regarding how safety can be managed. Practitioner Summary: While offering no simple prescriptions about how to achieve safety in sociotechnical systems, this paper develops a theoretical framework based on dynamical systems theory as a practical guide for generalising from basic research to work domains and for generalising across alternative work domains to better understand how patterns of communication and decision-making impact system safety. PMID:25761155

  11. Reactive system verification case study: Fault-tolerant transputer communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis; Hamory, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactive program is one which engages in an ongoing interaction with its environment. A system which is controlled by an embedded reactive program is called a reactive system. Examples of reactive systems are aircraft flight management systems, bank automatic teller machine (ATM) networks, airline reservation systems, and computer operating systems. Reactive systems are often naturally modeled (for logical design purposes) as a composition of autonomous processes which progress concurrently and which communicate to share information and/or to coordinate activities. Formal (i.e., mathematical) frameworks for system verification are tools used to increase the users' confidence that a system design satisfies its specification. A framework for reactive system verification includes formal languages for system modeling and for behavior specification and decision procedures and/or proof-systems for verifying that the system model satisfies the system specifications. Using the Ostroff framework for reactive system verification, an approach to achieving fault-tolerant communication between transputers was shown to be effective. The key components of the design, the decoupler processes, may be viewed as discrete-event-controllers introduced to constrain system behavior such that system specifications are satisfied. The Ostroff framework was also effective. The expressiveness of the modeling language permitted construction of a faithful model of the transputer network. The relevant specifications were readily expressed in the specification language. The set of decision procedures provided was adequate to verify the specifications of interest. The need for improved support for system behavior visualization is emphasized.

  12. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  13. Evolution of sodium channels predates the origin of nervous systems in animals

    E-print Network

    Hillis, David

    Evolution of sodium channels predates the origin of nervous systems in animals Benjamin J M. Hillis, April 21, 2011 (sent for review February 15, 2011) Voltage-dependent sodium channels to animal sodium channels and has a putative ion selectivity filter intermediate between calcium and sodium

  14. Defining the Origins of the NOD-Like Receptor System at the Base of Animal Evolution

    E-print Network

    -Albrechts-University Kiel, Kiel, Germany 2 ARC Centre of Excellence in Coral Reef Studies and Comparative Genomics CentreDefining the Origins of the NOD-Like Receptor System at the Base of Animal Evolution Christina mechanisms at the base of animal evolution. Key words: Hydra, innate immunity, epithelial defense, NOD

  15. LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

  16. Systems Biology in Animal Breeding: Identifying relationships among markers, genes, and phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Systems Biology in Animal Breeding: Identifying relationships among markers, genes, and phenotypes” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 201...

  17. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for message-passing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  18. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for messagepassing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  19. Study and design on USB wireless laser communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihua; Zheng, Jiansheng; Ai, Yong

    2004-04-01

    We give the definition of USB wireless laser communication system (WLCS) and the brief introduction to the protocol of USB, the standard of hardware is also given. The paper analyses the hardware and software of USB WLCS. Wireless laser communication part and USB interface circuit part are discussed in detail. We also give the periphery design of the chip AN2131Q, the control circuit to realize the transformation from parallel port to serial bus, and the circuit of laser sending and receiving of laser communication part, which are simply, cheap and workable. And then the four part of software are analyzed as followed. We have consummated the ISR in the firmware frame to develop the periphery device of USB. We have debugged and consummated the 'ezload,' and the GPD of the drivers. Windows application performs functions and schedules the corresponding API functions to let the interface practical and beautiful. The system can realize USB wireless laser communication between computers, which distance is farther than 50 meters, and top speed can be bigger than 8 Mbps. The system is of great practical sense to resolve the issues of high-speed communication among increasing districts without fiber trunk network.

  20. ROBUS-2: A Fault-Tolerant Broadcast Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Miner, Paul S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reliable Optical Bus (ROBUS) is the core communication system of the Scalable Processor-Independent Design for Enhanced Reliability (SPIDER), a general-purpose fault-tolerant integrated modular architecture currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center. The ROBUS is a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast communication system with medium access control by means of time-indexed communication schedule. ROBUS-2 is a developmental version of the ROBUS providing guaranteed fault-tolerant services to the attached processing elements (PEs), in the presence of a bounded number of faults. These services include message broadcast (Byzantine Agreement), dynamic communication schedule update, clock synchronization, and distributed diagnosis (group membership). The ROBUS also features fault-tolerant startup and restart capabilities. ROBUS-2 is tolerant to internal as well as PE faults, and incorporates a dynamic self-reconfiguration capability driven by the internal diagnostic system. This version of the ROBUS is intended for laboratory experimentation and demonstrations of the capability to reintegrate failed nodes, dynamically update the communication schedule, and tolerate and recover from correlated transient faults.

  1. A general analysis of anti-jam communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Levitt, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    A general error bound is derived for a general anti-jam communication system which will serve as the basis for evaluating the performance of all such complex communication systems. The two most common spread spectrum techniques, coherent DS/BPSK and noncoherent FH/MFSK, are analyzed. Pulse jamming represents the worst type of jammer for DS/BPSK systems, and several receiver structures against such a jammer are examined. It is found that for low values of chip energy-to-noise ratios of O dB or less there is little difference between having or not having jammer state knowledge with a hard decision receiver. Soft decision receivers are shown to be useless against very narrow pulses without jammer state knowledge. Partial band jammers are close to the worst case jammer for FH/MFSK systems. The conclusions found for these systems are similar to those for the DS/BPSK systems.

  2. Improved Pose Measurement and Tracking System for Motion Correction of Awake, Unrestrained Small Animal SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Weisenberger, A G; Smith, M F

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system has been developed to provide 3D animal pose data for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system for awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained laboratory animals. The six degree of freedom animal position and orientation measurement data are time synchronized with the SPECT list mode data to provide for motion correction after the scan and before reconstruction. The tracking system employs infrared (IR) markers placed on the animal's head along with synchronized, strobed IR LEDs to illuminate the reflectors and freeze motion while minimizing reflections. A new design trinocular stereo image acquisition system using IEEE 1394 CMOS cameras acquires images of the animal with markers contained within a transparent enclosure. The trinocular configuration provides improved accuracy, range of motion, and robustness over the binocular stereo used previously. Enhanced software detects obstructions, automatically segments the markers, rejects reflections, performs marker correspondence, and calculates the 3D pose of the animal's head using image data from three cameras. The new hardware design provides more compact camera positioning with enhanced animal viewing through the 360 degree SPECT scan. This system has been implemented on a commercial scanner and tested using live mice and has been shown to be more reliable with higher accuracy than the previous system. Experimental results showing the improved motion tracking results are given.

  3. Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C. H.; Levis, C. A.; Mount-Campbell, C.; Gonsalvez, D. J.; Wang, C. W.; Yamamura, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Computer-based techniques for optimizing communications-satellite orbit and frequency assignments are discussed. A gradient-search code was tested against a BSS scenario derived from the RARC-83 data. Improvement was obtained, but each iteration requires about 50 minutes of IBM-3081 CPU time. Gradient-search experiments on a small FSS test problem, consisting of a single service area served by 8 satellites, showed quickest convergence when the satellites were all initially placed near the center of the available orbital arc with moderate spacing. A transformation technique is proposed for investigating the surface topography of the objective function used in the gradient-search method. A new synthesis approach is based on transforming single-entry interference constraints into corresponding constraints on satellite spacings. These constraints are used with linear objective functions to formulate the co-channel orbital assignment task as a linear-programming (LP) problem or mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Globally optimal solutions are always found with the MIP problems, but not necessarily with the LP problems. The MIP solutions can be used to evaluate the quality of the LP solutions. The initial results are very encouraging.

  4. A Picture Archiving and Communication System Module for Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Ricky K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a clinical picture archiving and communication system (PACS) module within the radiology department of a 700-bed teaching hospital. The system is composed of an integrated network of digital devices used to electronically acquire, store, manage, and display radiological text and image information. Preliminary evaluation based on formal survey and usage statistics show that the system is rapidly being accepted by radiologists and clinicians for the review and processing of pediatric digital images.

  5. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication channels mitigated the disadvantages of adding just one kind of nonverbal cue. No statistically significant differences were observed on measures of recall or transfer, or on the attitudinal survey. The research supports the notion that invoking a human-like presence in a virtual learning environment prompts strong expectations about the character's realism. When these expectations are not met, learning is hindered.

  6. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  7. MEMS-Based Communications Systems for Space-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLosSantos, Hector J.; Brunner, Robert A.; Lam, Juan F.; Hackett, Le Roy H.; Lohr, Ross F., Jr.; Larson, Lawrence E.; Loo, Robert Y.; Matloubian, Mehran; Tangonan, Gregory L.

    1995-01-01

    As user demand for higher capacity and flexibility in communications satellites increases, new ways to cope with the inherent limitations posed by the prohibitive mass and power consumption, needed to satisfy those requirements, are under investigation. Recent studies suggest that while new satellite architectures are necessary to enable multi-user, multi-data rate, multi-location satellite links, these new architectures will inevitably increase power consumption, and in turn, spacecraft mass, to such an extent that their successful implementation will demand novel lightweight/low power hardware approaches. In this paper, following a brief introduction to the fundamentals of communications satellites, we address the impact of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, in particular micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switches to mitigate the above mentioned problems and show that low-loss/wide bandwidth MEM switches will go a long way towards enabling higher capacity and flexibility space-based communications systems.

  8. The Globalstar mobile satellite system for worldwide personal communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedeman, Robert A.; Viterbi, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    Loral Aerospace Corporation along with Qualcomm Inc. have developed a satellite system which offers global mobile voice and data services to and from handheld and mobile user terminals with omni-directional antennas. By combining the use of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites with existing terrestrial communications systems and innovative, highly efficient spread spectrum techniques, the Globalstar system provides users with low-cost, reliable communications throughout the world. The Globalstar space segment consists of a constellation of 48 LEO satellites in circular orbits with 750 NM (1389 km) altitude. Each satellite communicates with the mobile users via the satellite-user links and with gateway stations. The gateway stations handle the interface between the Globalstar network and the OSTN/PLMN systems. Globalstar transceivers are similar to currently proposed digital cellular telephones in size and have a serial number that will allow the end user to make and receive calls from or to that device anywhere in the world. The Globalstar system is designed to operate as a complement to existing local, long-distance, public, private and specialized telecommunications networks. Service is primarily designed to serve the rural and thin route communications needs of consumers, government users, and private networks.

  9. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  10. Integrated communication and control systems. I - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halevi, Yoram; Ray, Asok

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an ICCS analysis focusing on discrete-time control systems subject to time-varying delays. The present analytical technique is applicable to integrated dynamic systems such as those encountered in advanced aircraft, spacecraft, and the real-time control of robots and machine tools via a high-speed network within an autonomous manufacturing environment. The significance of data latency and missynchronization between individual system components in ICCS networks is discussed in view of the time-varying delays.

  11. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Alan

    An informal introduction to the study of communication deals with the major topics in the field. It presents basic theories of communication and language, reviews how language takes on meaning, explains the stimulus-response and Piaget theories of learning, and presents major theories dealing with communications and society. These theories include…

  12. Spaceborne CO2 laser communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Mcavoy, N.; Johnson, E. H.; Goodwin, F. E.; Peyton, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Projections of the growth of earth-sensing systems for the latter half of the 1980's show a data transmission requirement of 300 Mbps and above. Mission constraints and objectives lead to the conclusion that the most efficient technique to return the data from the sensing satellite to a ground station is through a geosynchronous data relay satellite. Of the two links that are involved (sensing satellite to relay satellite and relay satellite to ground), a laser system is most attractive for the space-to-space link. The development of CO2 laser systems for space-to-space applications is discussed with the completion of a 300 Mpbs data relay receiver and its modification into a transceiver. The technology and state-of-the-art of such systems are described in detail.

  13. Statistical risk estimation for communication system design

    E-print Network

    Babuscia, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft are complex systems that involve many subsystems and multiple relationships among them. The design of a spacecraft is an evolutionary process that starts from requirements and evolves over time. During this ...

  14. Spaceborne CO2 laser communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Mcavoy, N.; Johnson, E. H.; Goodwin, F. E.; Peyton, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Projections of the growth of earth-sensing systems for the latter half of the 1980's show a data transmission requirement of 300 Mbps and above. Mission constraints and objectives lead to the conclusion that the most efficient technique to return the data from the sensing satellite to a ground station is through a geosynchronous data relay satellite. Of the two links that are involved (sensing satellite to relay satellite and relay satellite to ground), a laser system is most attractive for the space-to-space link. During 1975 a major step toward the development of CO2 laser systems for space-to-space applications is being completed. This step is the completion of a 300 Mbps data relay receiver and its modification into a transceiver. The technology and state-of-the-art of such systems are described in detail in this paper.

  15. Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) facsimile system directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This directory provides a system description, a station listing, and operating procedures for the Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) NASA Facsimile System. The NASA Facsimile System is a convenient and efficient means of spanning the distance, time, and cost of transmitting documents from one person to another. In the spectrum of communication techniques, facsimile bridges the gap between mail and data transmission. Facsimile can transmit in a matter of minutes or seconds what would take a day or more by mail delivery. The NASA Facsimile System is composed of several makes and models of facsimile machines. The system also supports the 3M FaxXchange network controllers located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  16. CATV Transmission in Optical Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Amanpreet; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh; Singh, Kulwinder

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze analog CATV transmission system where only one wavelength is used for transmission on which multiple analog RF channels modulated. We analyze different modulation distortions such as composite second order (CSO), composite triple beat (CTB) and intermodulation distortions at different frequencies. Good performance of CSO > -36 dBc and CTB > -41 dBc are obtained at 62.5 MHz, 125 MHz and 187.5 MHz in three tone directly modulated CATV transmission system.

  17. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...surveillance programs are maintained, and the owners of animals involved with animal disease control or surveillance programs. Such...or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing laboratories. Employee, cooperator, and...

  18. The Business Communication Course and the Moodle Framework System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krisko, Edina

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will argue that the use of learning content management systems is also justified in full-time education, especially in business education and communication studies. Nowadays not only multinational companies, but domestic medium enterprises also manage the training of new employees and existing staff with LCMSs. Companies in…

  19. Communication-Limited Stabilisability of Jump Markov Linear Systems

    E-print Network

    Nair, Girish

    begun to receive much attention. This may be traced to the fact that in many cutting edge applications, such as mobile telephone power control, micro-electromechanical systems and distributed tracking, communication. Beginning with [4] and continuing with [15, 1, 2, 6], a number of different coding and control schemes have

  20. The Globalstar satellite cellular communication system design and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Fred J.

    1998-01-01

    The Globalstar cellular communication satellite system is described, including its use of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) as the basic modulation scheme. Use of diversity for signal quality, as well as power control, is described. Complex phased arrays on the satellite are also described.

  1. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Group (JPEG) Std., Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) Test Pattern). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892.2050 Section 892.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. Sex Steroid-Dependent Modulation of Acoustic Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Sisneros, Joseph A.

    and estrogens are well-known modulators of vocal motor behaviors used during social and reproductiveChapter 7 Sex Steroid-Dependent Modulation of Acoustic Communication Systems in Fishes Karen P extant group of vertebrates, and in many vocal teleost species it is essential for their reproductive

  3. Communication Systems Simulator with Error Correcting Codes Using MATLAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, C.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Pardo, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics of a simulator for channel coding techniques used in communication systems, are described. This software has been designed for engineering students in order to facilitate the understanding of how the error correcting codes work. To help students understand easily the concepts related to these kinds of codes, a…

  4. Sensor and transmitter system for communication in pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Burnham, Alan K.

    2013-01-29

    A system for sensing and communicating in a pipeline that contains a fluid. An acoustic signal containing information about a property of the fluid is produced in the pipeline. The signal is transmitted through the pipeline. The signal is received with the information and used by a control.

  5. The Role of the Limbic System in Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamendella, John T.

    Linguistics has chosen as its niche the language component of human communication and, naturally enough, the neurolinguist has concentrated on lateralized language systems of the cerebral hemispheres. However, decoding a speaker's total message requires attention to gestures, facial expressions, and prosodic features, as well as other somatic and…

  6. National Institute for Literacy. Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each month, the Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS") will feature one of the three LINCS Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management, and Workforce Competitiveness--and introduce research-based resources that practitioners can use in their adult and family literacy programs and classrooms. This edition features the…

  7. Information versus Communication in Course Management System Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamuy, Eduardo; Galaz, Mirtha

    2010-01-01

    Web resources in Latin American higher education institutions have been reported to show a much stronger emphasis on Information than on Communication. A Course Management System (CMS), according to Social Constructivism framework, is an opportunity for fostering learning through interaction in a virtual environment for learning; hence,…

  8. A Hybrid Radio Frequency and Broadcast Visible Light Communication System

    E-print Network

    Little, Thomas

    -efficient LED materials and devices will replace old incandescent and fluorescent lighting. Among multiple advantages, VLC uses a vast unregulated and free spectrum [3]. Light signals also have the abilityA Hybrid Radio Frequency and Broadcast Visible Light Communication System Michael B. Rahaim , Anna

  9. A Prototype HTML Training System for Graphic Communication Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    This design research demonstrates a prototype content management system capable of training graphic communication students in the creation of basic HTML web pages. The prototype serve as a method of helping students learn basic HTML structure and commands earlier in their academic careers. Exposure to the concepts of web page creation early in…

  10. Global Optimization of Transmitter Placement in Wireless Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Shaffer, Clifford A.

    Global Optimization of Transmitter Placement in Wireless Communication Systems J. He , A. Verstak-mail: jihe@vt.edu Keywords: DIRECT algorithm, global optimization, parallel ray tracing, pattern search global optimization problems (GOP) subject to simple constraints. Jones et al. [7] named the algorithm

  11. Evolving Large Scale UAV Communication System Adrian Agogino

    E-print Network

    Tumer, Kagan

    Evolving Large Scale UAV Communication System Adrian Agogino UCSC at NASA Ames Mail Stop 269 Corvallis, OR 97331 Kagan.Tumer@ oregonstate.edu ABSTRACT Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have traditionally powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to fly long term missions at high altitudes. This will revo

  12. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3700 - Nonpowered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered communication system. 890.3700 Section 890.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3710 - Powered communication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered communication system. 890.3710 Section 890.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3710...

  2. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication in Trapped Ion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yeqin; Gao, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    We propose a feasible scheme for implementing quantum secure direct communication in trapped ion systems. According to the results measured by the sender, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.

  3. Quantum Communication in the Ion-Trapped System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiong

    2015-09-01

    A theoretical scheme of quantum communication is proposed in the context of ion-trapped systems. According to the results, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.

  4. Chemistry-inspired Programmable Hardware in Communication and Networking Systems

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Thomas

    Chemistry-inspired Programmable Hardware in Communication and Networking Systems Massimo Monti April, 2014 Abstract Chemistry-inspired algorithms represent a novel approach to control dynamics of using Chemistry-inspired algorithms range from the design (i.e., enabling runtime programmability

  5. Ocean Systems Test and Evaluation Data Communications Plan

    E-print Network

    Ocean Systems Test and Evaluation Program Data Communications Plan May 2006 noaaNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Ocean Service Center for Operational Ocean Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce The Center

  6. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  7. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  8. POLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System

    E-print Network

    Glowinski, Roland

    of these architectures depend critically upon locality of reference. Massively parallel supercomputer architectures locality of reference as­ sumes several new characteristics in distributed memory architectures. DataPOLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System CM--200 William George Ralph G

  9. RAPID COMMUNICATION Signal Timing Across the Macaque Visual System

    E-print Network

    Schall, Jeffrey D.

    RAPID COMMUNICATION Signal Timing Across the Macaque Visual System MATTHEW T. SCHMOLESKY,1 of cortical areas (see Maunsell 1987; Audie G. Leventhal. Signal timing across the macaque visual Nowak et al the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) and in cortical in macaque, such as the M and P layers of LGNd

  10. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  11. Animation of Dawn's Path Through the Solar System - Duration: 62 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the path of NASA's Dawn spacecraft through the solar system, on its way to orbit the two most massive objects in the main asteroid belt. Dawn arrives at the protoplanet Vesta i...

  12. Self and other in communication and cognition: the role of auto-communication and intersubjectivity in autopoiesis of psychic systems.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2008-06-01

    By referring to Niklas Luhmann's theory of self-referential systems, Aldo Mascareño (2008, submitted for publication) gives an account of system-environment interrelatedness, explaining how social and individual constitute each other through the process of communication and co-creation of meanings. Two possible extensions to his account are discussed. Firstly, auto-communication within the system that happens without any external reference needs to be taken into account while describing the existence and constant re-creation of psychic systems. Secondly, in order for the system and environment or two systems to communicate, an imagined and temporary intersubjectivity between the two needs to be assumed. PMID:18516657

  13. Optical amplifiers for optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Sadakuni

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of progress has been made in the area of optical amplifiers and many experiments using them have been conducted aiming at practical applications to various transmission systems. This paper reviews recent developments in optical amplifiers, focusing on Er-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), and their prospective applications. Included are introductory amplification theory to clarify the features of optical amplifiers, comparison of optical amplifiers focusing on EDFAs and semiconductor laser amplifiers (SLAs), and recent typical system applications using EDFAs, including IM/DD transmission, analog transmission, coherent transmission, FDM transmission and other applications.

  14. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  15. Communicating Georeferenced Statistics - Geographic Information Systems & Science

    Cancer.gov

    The State Cancer Profiles website brings together data collected from public health surveillance systems in order to characterize the cancer burden in a standardized manner. It is hoped that health planners, policy makers and cancer information providers will be be able to use these descriptive cancer statistics to prioritize investements in cancer control.

  16. Internet-Based System for Voice Communication With the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.

  17. Conformal, Transparent Printed Antenna Developed for Communication and Navigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1999-01-01

    Conformal, transparent printed antennas have advantages over conventional antennas in terms of space reuse and aesthetics. Because of their compactness and thin profile, these antennas can be mounted on video displays for efficient integration in communication systems such as palmtop computers, digital telephones, and flat-panel television displays. As an array of multiple elements, the antenna subsystem may save weight by reusing space (via vertical stacking) on photovoltaic arrays or on Earth-facing sensors. Also, the antenna could go unnoticed on automobile windshields or building windows, enabling satellite uplinks and downlinks or other emerging high-frequency communications.

  18. How A.I. and multi-robot systems research will accelerate our understanding of social animal

    E-print Network

    Khan, Zia

    of social animal studies, the problem is compounded by the multiplicity of animals interacting with oneHow A.I. and multi-robot systems research will accelerate our understanding of social animal animal behavior?." As we show, we are able to contribute at several levels: First, using algorithms

  19. Communication and control in an integrated manufacturing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Throne, Robert D.; Muthuswamy, Yogesh K.

    1987-01-01

    Typically, components in a manufacturing system are all centrally controlled. Due to possible communication bottlenecking, unreliability, and inflexibility caused by using a centralized controller, a new concept of system integration called an Integrated Multi-Robot System (IMRS) was developed. The IMRS can be viewed as a distributed real time system. Some of the current research issues being examined to extend the framework of the IMRS to meet its performance goals are presented. These issues include the use of communication coprocessors to enhance performance, the distribution of tasks and the methods of providing fault tolerance in the IMRS. An application example of real time collision detection, as it relates to the IMRS concept, is also presented and discussed.

  20. C. T. Lin, S. P. Shieh / Chain Authentication in Mobile Communication Systems Chain Authentication in Mobile Communication

    E-print Network

    Shieh, Shiuhpyng Winston

    C. T. Lin, S. P. Shieh / Chain Authentication in Mobile Communication Systems 1 Chain Authentication in Mobile Communication Systems Chern-Tang Lin, Shiuh-Pyng Shieh Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Chiao Tung University Taiwan, ROC 30050 Tel: +886-35-731876 Fax: +886

  1. Communication between lymphatic and venous systems in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lenan; Takeda, Kazu; Kato, Shigeki; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    The lymphatic system in mice consists of lymphatic vessels and 22 types of lymph nodes. Metastatic tumor cells in the lymphatic system spread to distant organs through the venous system. However, the communication routes between the lymphatic and venous systems have not been fully elucidated. Here, we identify the communication routes between the lymphatic and venous systems in the axillary and subiliac regions of MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr inbred mice, which develop systemic swelling of lymph nodes up to 10mm in diameter, allowing investigation of the topography of the lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels. Using a gross anatomy dissection approach, the efferent lymphatic vessels of the proper axillary lymph node were shown to communicate with the subclavian vein. Furthermore, we found that the thoracoepigastric vein, which connects the subclavian vein and inferior vena cava, runs adjacent to the subiliac and proper axillary lymph nodes, and receives venous blood from these lymph nodes routed through small branches. The direction of blood flow in the thoracoepigastric vein occurred in two directions in the intermediate region between the proper axillary lymph node and subiliac lymph node; one to the subclavian vein, the other to the inferior vena cava. This paper reveals the anatomy of the communication between the lymphatic and venous systems in the axillary and subiliac regions of the mouse, and provides new insights relevant to the investigation of the mechanisms of lymph node metastasis and cancer immunology, and the development of diagnostic and treatment methods for lymph node metastasis, including drug delivery systems. PMID:26009246

  2. Shuttle/payload communications and data systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1980-01-01

    The payload/orbiter functional command signal flow and telemetry signal flow are discussed. Functional descriptions of the various orbiter communication/avionic equipment involved in processing a command to a payload either from the ground through the orbiter by the payload specialist on the orbiter are included. Functional descriptions of the various orbiter communication/avionic equipment involved in processing telemetry data by the orbiter and transmitting the processed data to the ground are presented. The results of the attached payload/orbiter single processing and data handling system evaluation are described. The causes of the majority of attached payload/orbiter interface problems are delineated. A refined set of required flux density values for a detached payload to communicate with the orbiter is presented.

  3. Robust Framework for System Architecture and Hand-offs in Wireless and Cellular Communication Systems 

    E-print Network

    Varma, Vishal V.

    2010-01-14

    FRAMEWORK FOR SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND HANDOFFS IN WIRELESS AND CELLULAR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS A Dissertation by VISHAL VINOD VARMA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2008 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ROBUST FRAMEWORK FOR SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND HANDOFFS IN WIRELESS AND CELLULAR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS A Dissertation by VISHAL VINOD VARMA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  4. System identification of perilymphatic fistula in an animal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Casselbrant, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    An acute animal model has been developed in the chinchilla for the study of perilymphatic fistulas. Micropunctures were made in three sites to simulate bony, round window, and oval window fistulas. The eye movements in response to pressure applied to the external auditory canal were recorded after micropuncture induction and in preoperative controls. The main pressure stimulus was a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) that rapidly changed between plus and minus 200 mm of water. The PRBS stimulus, with its wide frequency bandwidth, produced responses clearly above the preoperative baseline in 78 percent of the runs. The response was better between 0.5 and 3.3 Hz than it was below 0.5 Hz. The direction of horizontal eye movement was toward the side of the fistula with positive pressure applied in 92 percent of the runs. Vertical eye movements were also observed. The ratio of vertical eye displacement to horizontal eye displacement depended upon the site of the micropuncture induction. Thus, such a ratio measurement may be clinically useful in the noninvasive localization of perilymphatic fistulas in humans.

  5. Interactive video audio system: communication server for INDECT portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulec, Martin; Voznak, Miroslav; Safarik, Jakub; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Mehic, Miralem

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with presentation of the IVAS system within the 7FP EU INDECT project. The INDECT project aims at developing the tools for enhancing the security of citizens and protecting the confidentiality of recorded and stored information. It is a part of the Seventh Framework Programme of European Union. We participate in INDECT portal and the Interactive Video Audio System (IVAS). This IVAS system provides a communication gateway between police officers working in dispatching centre and police officers in terrain. The officers in dispatching centre have capabilities to obtain information about all online police officers in terrain, they can command officers in terrain via text messages, voice or video calls and they are able to manage multimedia files from CCTV cameras or other sources, which can be interesting for officers in terrain. The police officers in terrain are equipped by smartphones or tablets. Besides common communication, they can reach pictures or videos sent by commander in office and they can respond to the command via text or multimedia messages taken by their devices. Our IVAS system is unique because we are developing it according to the special requirements from the Police of the Czech Republic. The IVAS communication system is designed to use modern Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services. The whole solution is based on open source software including linux and android operating systems. The technical details of our solution are presented in the paper.

  6. The Iridium (tm) system: Personal communications anytime, anyplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatlelid, John E.; Casey, Larry

    The Iridium system is designed to provide handheld personal communications between diverse locations around the world at any time and without prior knowledge of the location of the personal units. This paper provides an overview of the system, the services it provides, its operation, and an overview of the commercial practices and relatively high volume satellite production techniques which will make the system cost effective. A constellation of 66 satellites will provide an orbiting, spherical-shell, infrastructure for this global calling capability. The satellites act as tall cellular towers and allow convenient operation for portable handheld telephones. The system will provide a full range of services including voice, paging, data, geolocation, and fax capabilities. Motorola is a world leader in the production of high volume, high quality, reliable telecommunications hardware. One of Iridium's goals is to apply these production techniques to high reliability space hardware. Concurrent engineering, high performance work teams, advanced manufacturing technologies, and improved assembly and test methods are some of the techniques that will keep the Iridium system cost effective. Mobile, global, flexible personal communications are coming that will allow anyone to call or receive a call from/to anyplace at anytime. The Iridium system will provide communications where none exist today. This connectivity will allow increased information transfer, open new markets for various business endeavors, and in general increase productivity and development.

  7. Awareness-based communication management in the MASSIVE systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, Chris

    1998-09-01

    The MASSIVE-1 and MASSIVE-2 distributed virtual environment systems are based on an explicit model of user communication requirements known as the spatial model of interaction; this model addresses the general issue of managing communication in large space-based systems such as DVEs. The goals of the spatial model are to guide the distribution and presentation of information in a way which facilitates collaboration between participants (based on observed patterns of interaction in real-world environments) and which is also efficient and appropriate. The MASSIVE-1 system emphasized the spatial model's `aura' concept as the basis for a distinct shared service in an otherwise wholly unicast peer-to-peer system. This approach was effective for relatively small systems but could not be extended to make general use of multicast communication (to reduce total bandwidth requirements). The MASSIVE-2 system added the concept of `third-party objects' which support the definition and management of multiple multicast groups for updates and continuous media distribution.

  8. The Iridium (tm) system: Personal communications anytime, anyplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatlelid, John E.; Casey, Larry

    1993-01-01

    The Iridium system is designed to provide handheld personal communications between diverse locations around the world at any time and without prior knowledge of the location of the personal units. This paper provides an overview of the system, the services it provides, its operation, and an overview of the commercial practices and relatively high volume satellite production techniques which will make the system cost effective. A constellation of 66 satellites will provide an orbiting, spherical-shell, infrastructure for this global calling capability. The satellites act as tall cellular towers and allow convenient operation for portable handheld telephones. The system will provide a full range of services including voice, paging, data, geolocation, and fax capabilities. Motorola is a world leader in the production of high volume, high quality, reliable telecommunications hardware. One of Iridium's goals is to apply these production techniques to high reliability space hardware. Concurrent engineering, high performance work teams, advanced manufacturing technologies, and improved assembly and test methods are some of the techniques that will keep the Iridium system cost effective. Mobile, global, flexible personal communications are coming that will allow anyone to call or receive a call from/to anyplace at anytime. The Iridium system will provide communications where none exist today. This connectivity will allow increased information transfer, open new markets for various business endeavors, and in general increase productivity and development.

  9. Statistical Rick Estimation for Communication System Design --- A Preliminary Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuscia, A.; Cheung, K.-M.

    2012-02-01

    Spacecraft are complex systems that involve different subsystems with multiple relationships among them. For these reasons, the design of a spacecraft is a time-evolving process that starts from requirements and evolves over time across different design phases. During this process, a lot of changes can happen. They can affect mass and power at the component level, at the subsystem level, and even at the system level. Each spacecraft has to respect the overall constraints in terms of mass and power: for this reason, it is important to be sure that the design does not exceed these limitations. Current practice in system models primarily deals with this problem, allocating margins on individual components and on individual subsystems. However, a statistical characterization of the fluctuations in mass and power of the overall system (i.e., the spacecraft) is missing. This lack of adequate statistical characterization would result in a risky spacecraft design that might not fit the mission constraints and requirements, or in a conservative design that might not fully utilize the available resources. Due to the complexity of the problem and to the different expertise and knowledge required to develop a complete risk model for a spacecraft design, this article is focused on risk estimation for a specific spacecraft subsystem: the communication subsystem. The current research aims to be a proof of concept of a risk-based design optimization approach, which can then be further expanded to the design of other subsystems as well as to the whole spacecraft. The objective of this research is to develop a mathematical approach to quantify the likelihood that the major design drivers of mass and power of a space communication system would meet the spacecraft and mission requirements and constraints through the mission design lifecycle. Using this approach, the communication system designers will be able to evaluate and to compare different communication architectures in a risk trade-off perspective. The results described in this article include a baseline communication system design tool and a statistical characterization of the design risks through a combination of historical mission data and expert opinion contributions. An application example of the communication system of a university spacecraft is presented. IPNPR Volume 42-189 Tagged File.txt

  10. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market. PMID:24235215

  11. Payload system tradeoffs for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    System level trade-offs carried out during Mobile Satellite (M-SAT) design activities are described. These trade-offs relate to the use of low level beam forming, flexible power and spectrum distribution, and selection of the number of beams to cover the service area. It is shown that antenna performance can be improved by sharing horns between beams using a low level beam forming network (BFN). Additionally, greatly increased power utilization is possible using a hybrid matrix concept to share power between beams.

  12. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  13. Space Station Information System requirements for integrated communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marker, W.; Whitelaw, V.; Muratore, J.; Bigham, J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Space Station Information System (SSIS) requirements for integrated end-to-end communications are presented. The SSIS is defined as the integrated set of space and ground data and information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open System Interconnection (OSI). These SSIS requirements include grades of service, priority classifications, systems management, flow control, bandwidth allocation, and standard SSIS data services.

  14. The 30/20 GHz communications system functional requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siperko, C. M.; Frankfort, M.; Markham, R.; Wall, M.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of 30/20 GHz usage in satellite systems to be used in support of projected communication requirements of the 1990's are defined. A requirements analysis which develops projected market demand for satellite services by general and specialized carriers and an analysis of the impact of propagation and system constraints on 30/20 GHz operation are included. A set of technical performance characteristics for the 30/20 GHz systems which can serve the resulting market demand and the experimental program necessary to verify technical and operational aspects of the proposed systems is also discussed.

  15. TREE ANIMATION FOR A 3D INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION SYSTEM FOR HURRICANE IMPACTS

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    TREE ANIMATION FOR A 3D INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION SYSTEM FOR HURRICANE IMPACTS Peter A. Singh1 , Na of Computer Science Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA 2 International Hurricane Research in an interactive system that visualizes the effects caused by a hurricane's impact on a virtual city. The system

  16. Systems Biology of Sponges Understanding the evolution of integration in animals -new

    E-print Network

    Duffy, Ken

    Systems Biology of Sponges Understanding the evolution of integration in animals - new input from systems biology? Dr. Michael Nickel Department of Zoology, Biological Institute Stuttgart University Thursday, November 23rd, 2006 Abstract: So far, systems biology approaches have been adapted to a limited

  17. Communication: On nucleation statistics in small systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2014-08-01

    Non-stationary random formation of stable nuclei from a small metastable system is considered. Distribution of waiting times to observe the first nucleus is examined, and it is shown that the steady-state nucleation rate is given by inverse of the standard deviation, which is independent of the post-critical size n where the nucleus is detected. The mean time, on the other hand, is n-sensitive and contains additional information on transient nucleation and growth effects. The method is applied to Monte Carlo data on nucleation in a cold two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet with Metropolis dynamics, where nucleation rates obtained earlier from low-temperature cluster expansions can provide a strict independent test.

  18. Communications support for lunar missions using the TDRS II system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Jacqueline; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Guion, William S.; Shapiro, Phillip

    1992-01-01

    For several years NASA has been performing systems engineering analysis for lunar exploration scenarios with studies focused mainly on lunar communications, data systems and operations. Two basic earth-region communications architectures have been seriously considered, ground terminal architectures such as the deep space network (DSN) and geosynchronous relay satellites such as the tracking and data relay satellite II (TDRS II). An overview of TDRS II is given and lunar coverage, data rate capability, impacts to ground based elements, availability and operational scenarios are discussed. Development of the system is scheduled to begin soon and TDRS II can provide substantial support to early lunar missions without modification. Coverage and data rates are adequate and FLO missions can be supported. With enhancement nearly continuous coverage can be provided. TDRS II is a viable architecture and low cost option and should be considered as an alternative to the currently baselined DSN for precursor and possibly FLO missions.

  19. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Struven, Warren C. (San Carlos, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  20. On modeling of integrated communication and control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Luen-Woei; Ray, Asok

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical modeling scheme proposed by Ray and Halevi (1988) for integrated communication and control systems is considered analytically, with an emphasis on the effect of introducing varying and distributed time delays to account for asynchronous time-division multiplexing in the communication part of the system. Ray and Halevi applied a state-transition concept to transform the original continuous-time model into a discrete-time model; the same approach was used by Kalman and Bertram (1959) to model various types of sampled data systems which are not subject to induced delays. The relationship between the two modeling schemes is explored, and it is shown that, although the Kalman-Bertram method has the advantage of a unified approach, it becomes inconvenient when varying delays appear in the control loop.