Sample records for animal ecosystem engineers

  1. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

  2. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keveney, Matt

    This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

  3. Animals and Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

  4. Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    have reported strong declines in marine animal populations and the degradation of ocean ecosystems over past decades and centuries around the world [1­7], leading to a widespread perception of empty oceans and ecosystem degradation by implementing management and conservation measures. Some of these have been

  5. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  6. Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

  7. Mammoth ecosystem: Climatic areal, animal's density and cause of extinctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zimov; N. Zimov; G. Zimova; S. F. Chapin

    2008-01-01

    During the last glaciations Mammoth Ecosystem (ME) occupied territory from present-day France to Canada and from the Arctic islands to China. This ecosystem played major role in global carbon cycle and human settling around the planet. Causes of extinction of this ecosystem are debatable. Analyses of hundreds of radiocarbon dates of ME animal fossil remains showed that warming and moistening

  8. Large animal grazing and temporal patterns in ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shortgrass steppe ecosystem has a long evolutionary history of large animal grazing by bison, which were replaced by domesticated livestock in the mid 1800s. In addition, this ecosystem is characterized by a semi-arid environment with low annual precipitation amounts, but high inter- and intra-a...

  9. Avian ecosystem functions are influenced by small mammal ecosystem engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birds are important mobile link species that contribute to landscape-scale patterns by means of pollination, seed dispersal, and predation. Birds are often associated with habitats modified by small mammal ecosystem engineers. We investigated whether birds prefer to forage on degu (Octodon degus) runways by comparing their foraging effort across sites with a range of runway densities, including sites without runways. We measured granivory by granivorous and omnivorous birds at Rinconada de Maipú, central Chile. As a measure of potential bird foraging on insects, we sampled invertebrate prey richness and abundance across the same sites. We then quantified an index of plot-scale functional diversity due to avian foraging at the patch scale. Results We recorded that birds found food sources sooner and ate more at sites with higher densities of degu runways, cururo mounds, trees, and fewer shrubs. These sites also had higher invertebrate prey richness but lower invertebrate prey abundance. This implies that omnivorous birds, and possibly insectivorous birds, forage for invertebrates in the same plots with high degu runway densities where granivory takes place. In an exploratory analysis we also found that plot-scale functional diversity for four avian ecosystem functions were moderately to weakly correllated to expected ecosystem function outcomes at the plot scale. Conclusions Degu ecosystem engineering affects the behavior of avian mobile link species and is thus correlated with ecosystem functioning at relatively small spatial scales. PMID:24359802

  10. Does competition among ecosystem engineering species result in tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Production of ecosystem services depends on the ecological community structure at a given location. Ecosystem engineering species (EES) can strongly determine community structure, but do they consequently determine the production of ecosystem services? We explore this question ...

  11. Context dependence of marine ecosystem engineer invasion impacts on benthic ecosystem functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana de Moura Queirós; Jan Geert Hiddink; Gareth Johnson; Henrique Nogueira Cabral; Michel Joseph Kaiser

    2011-01-01

    Introduced ecosystem engineers can severely modify the functioning on invaded systems. Species-level effects on ecosystem\\u000a functioning (EF) are context dependent, but the effects of introduced ecosystem engineers are frequently assessed through\\u000a single-location studies. The present work aimed to identify sources of context-dependence that can regulate the impacts of\\u000a invasive ecosystem engineers on ecosystem functioning. As model systems, four locations where

  12. Ecosystem engineering in space and time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Hastings; James E. Byers; Jeffrey A. Crooks; Kim Cuddington; Clive G. Jones; John G. Lambrinos; Theresa S. Talley; William G. Wilson

    2007-01-01

    The ecosystem engineering concept focuses on how organisms physically change the abiotic environment and how this feeds back to the biota. While the concept was formally introduced a little more than 10 years ago, the underpinning of the concept can be traced back to more than a century to the early work of Darwin. The formal application of the idea

  13. Mammoth ecosystem: Climatic areal, animal's density and cause of extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S.; Zimov, N.; Zimova, G.; Chapin, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    During the last glaciations Mammoth Ecosystem (ME) occupied territory from present-day France to Canada and from the Arctic islands to China. This ecosystem played major role in global carbon cycle and human settling around the planet. Causes of extinction of this ecosystem are debatable. Analyses of hundreds of radiocarbon dates of ME animal fossil remains showed that warming and moistening of climate wasn't accompanied by animal extinction. On the opposite, on the north right after the warming rise of herbivore population was observed. Reconstruction of ME climatic areal showed that its climatic optimum lies within range of annual precipitation of 200-350 mm and average summer temperatures of +8-+12oC which corresponds with modern climate of Northern Siberia. Analyses of bones and skeletons concentrations in permafrost of Northern Siberia showed that animal density in ME was similar to African savannah. That was a high productive ecosystem that could sustain in wide variety of climates because numerous herbivores maintained there pastures themselves.

  14. Ecosystem Engineering across Environmental Gradients: Implications for Conservation and Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CAITLIN MULLAN CRAIN and MARK D. BERTNESS (; )

    2006-03-01

    This peer reviewed article from Bioscience is about the implications for conservation and management of ecosystem engineering. Ecosystem engineers are organisms whose presence or activity alters their physical surroundings or changes the flow of resources, thereby creating or modifying habitats. Because ecosystem engineers affect communities through environmentally mediated interactions, their impact and importance are likely to shift across environmental stress gradients. We hypothesize that in extreme physical environments, ecosystem engineers that ameliorate physical stress are essential for ecosystem function, whereas in physically benign environments where competitor and consumer pressure is typically high, engineers support ecosystem processes by providing competitor- or predator-free space. Important ecosystem engineers alleviate limiting abiotic and biotic stresses, expanding distributional limits for numerous species, and often form the foundation for community development. Because managing important engineers can protect numerous associated species and functions, we advocate using these organisms as conservation targets, harnessing the benefits of ecosystem engineers in various environments. Developing a predictive understanding of engineering across environmental gradients is important for furthering our conceptual understanding of ecosystem structure and function, and could aid in directing limited management resources to critical ecosystem engineers.

  15. Habitat-Mediated Facilitation and Counteracting Ecosystem Engineering Interactively Influence Ecosystem Responses to Disturbance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan S. Eklöf; Tjisse van der Heide; Serena Donadi; Els M. van der Zee; Robert OHara; Britas Klemens Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of an ecosystem following disturbance can be severely hampered or even shift altogether when a point disturbance exceeds a certain spatial threshold. Such scale-dependent dynamics may be caused by preemptive competition, but may also result from diminished self-facilitation due to weakened ecosystem engineering. Moreover, disturbance can facilitate colonization by engineering species that alter abiotic conditions in ways that exacerbate

  16. Animal Models for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Beahm, Elisabeth; Frye, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There is a critical need for adequate reconstruction of soft tissue defects resulting from tumor resection, trauma, and congenital abnormalities. To be sure, adipose tissue engineering strategies offer promising solutions. However, before clinical translation can occur, efficacy must be proven in animal studies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of animal models currently employed for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:18544014

  17. Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in coastal sediments: posing hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Olenin, Sergej; Reise, Karsten; Ysebaert, Tom

    2009-03-01

    Coastal sediments in sheltered temperate locations are strongly modified by ecosystem engineering species such as marsh plants, seagrass, and algae as well as by epibenthic and endobenthic invertebrates. These ecosystem engineers are shaping the coastal sea and landscape, control particulate and dissolved material fluxes between the land and sea, and between the benthos and the passing water or air. Above all, habitat engineering exerts facilitating and inhibiting effects on biodiversity. Despite a strongly growing interest in the functional role of ecosystem engineering over the recent years, compared to food web analyses, the conceptual understanding of engineering-mediated species interactions is still in its infancy. In the present paper, we provide a concise overview on current insights and propose two hypotheses on the general mechanisms by which ecosystem engineering may affect biodiversity in coastal sediments. We hypothesise that autogenic and allogenic ecosystem engineers have inverse effects on epibenthic and endobenthic biodiversity in coastal sediments. The primarily autogenic structures of the epibenthos achieve high diversity at the expense of endobenthos, whilst allogenic sediment reworking by infauna may facilitate other infauna and inhibits epibenthos. On a larger scale, these antagonistic processes generate patchiness and habitat diversity. Due to such interaction, anthropogenic influences can strongly modify the engineering community by removing autogenic ecosystem engineers through coastal engineering or bottom trawling. Another source of anthropogenic influences comes from introducing invasive engineers, from which the impact is often hard to predict. We hypothesise that the local biodiversity effects of invasive ecosystem engineers will depend on the engineering strength of the invasive species, with engineering strength defined as the number of habitats it can invade and the extent of modification. At a larger scale of an entire shore, biodiversity need not be decreased by invasive engineers and may even increase. On a global scale, invasive engineers may cause shore biota to converge, especially visually due to the presence of epibenthic structures.

  18. Abstract Banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are prominent ecosystem engineers that

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Jeff

    Abstract Banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are prominent ecosystem engineers-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are conspicuous ecosystem engineers in deserts of south- western

  19. Organisms as cooperative ecosystem engineers in intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Claire; Olivier, Frédéric; Paterson, David M.; Meziane, Tarik; Hubas, Cédric

    2014-09-01

    The importance of facilitative interactions and organismal ecosystem engineering for establishing the structure of communities is increasingly being recognised for many different ecosystems. For example, soft-bottom tidal flats host a wide range of ecosystem engineers, probably because the harsh physico-chemical environmental conditions render these species of particular importance for community structure and function. These environments are therefore interesting when focusing on how ecosystem engineers interact and the consequences of these interactions on community dynamics. In this review, we initially detail the influence on benthic systems of two kinds of ecosystem engineers that are particularly common in tidal flats. Firstly, we examine species providing biogenic structures, which are often the only source of habitat complexity in these environments. Secondly, we focus on species whose activities alter sediment stability, which is a crucial feature structuring the dynamics of communities in tidal flats. The impacts of these engineers on both environment and communities were assessed but in addition the interaction between ecosystem engineers was examined. Habitat cascades occur when one engineer favours the development of another, which in turn creates or modifies and improves habitat for other species. Non-hierarchical interactions have often been shown to display non-additive effects, so that the effects of the association cannot be predicted from the effects of individual organisms. Here we propose the term of “cooperative ecosystem engineering” when two species interact in a way which enhances habitat suitability as a result of a combined engineering effect. Finally, we conclude by describing the potential threats for ecosystem engineers in intertidal areas, potential effects on their interactions and their influence on communities and ecosystem function.

  20. Habitat creation and biodiversity maintenance in mangrove forests: teredinid bivalves as ecosystem engineers.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Ian W; Michie, Laura; Taylor, Ben W

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of dead wood in the intertidal zone of mature mangrove forests are tunnelled by teredinid bivalves. When the tunnels are exposed, animals are able to use tunnels as refuges. In this study, the effect of teredinid tunnelling upon mangrove forest faunal diversity was investigated. Mangrove forests exposed to long emersion times had fewer teredinid tunnels in wood and wood not containing teredinid tunnels had very few species and abundance of animals. However, with a greater cross-sectional percentage surface area of teredinid tunnels, the numbers of species and abundance of animals was significantly higher. Temperatures within teredinid-attacked wood were significantly cooler compared with air temperatures, and animal abundance was greater in wood with cooler temperatures. Animals inside the tunnels within the wood may avoid desiccation by escaping the higher temperatures. Animals co-existing in teredinid tunnelled wood ranged from animals found in terrestrial ecosystems including centipedes, crickets and spiders, and animals found in subtidal marine ecosystems such as fish, octopods and polychaetes. There was also evidence of breeding within teredinid-attacked wood, as many juvenile individuals were found, and they may also benefit from the cooler wood temperatures. Teredinid tunnelled wood is a key low-tide refuge for cryptic animals, which would otherwise be exposed to fishes and birds, and higher external temperatures. This study provides evidence that teredinids are ecosystem engineers and also provides an example of a mechanism whereby mangrove forests support intertidal biodiversity and nurseries through the wood-boring activity of teredinids. PMID:25276505

  1. Habitat creation and biodiversity maintenance in mangrove forests: teredinid bivalves as ecosystem engineers

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Laura; Taylor, Ben W.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of dead wood in the intertidal zone of mature mangrove forests are tunnelled by teredinid bivalves. When the tunnels are exposed, animals are able to use tunnels as refuges. In this study, the effect of teredinid tunnelling upon mangrove forest faunal diversity was investigated. Mangrove forests exposed to long emersion times had fewer teredinid tunnels in wood and wood not containing teredinid tunnels had very few species and abundance of animals. However, with a greater cross-sectional percentage surface area of teredinid tunnels, the numbers of species and abundance of animals was significantly higher. Temperatures within teredinid-attacked wood were significantly cooler compared with air temperatures, and animal abundance was greater in wood with cooler temperatures. Animals inside the tunnels within the wood may avoid desiccation by escaping the higher temperatures. Animals co-existing in teredinid tunnelled wood ranged from animals found in terrestrial ecosystems including centipedes, crickets and spiders, and animals found in subtidal marine ecosystems such as fish, octopods and polychaetes. There was also evidence of breeding within teredinid-attacked wood, as many juvenile individuals were found, and they may also benefit from the cooler wood temperatures. Teredinid tunnelled wood is a key low-tide refuge for cryptic animals, which would otherwise be exposed to fishes and birds, and higher external temperatures. This study provides evidence that teredinids are ecosystem engineers and also provides an example of a mechanism whereby mangrove forests support intertidal biodiversity and nurseries through the wood-boring activity of teredinids. PMID:25276505

  2. Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in coastal sediments: posing hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjeerd J. Bouma; Sergej Olenin; Karsten Reise; T. J. W. Ysebaert

    2009-01-01

    Coastal sediments in sheltered temperate locations are strongly modified by ecosystem engineering species such as marsh plants,\\u000a seagrass, and algae as well as by epibenthic and endobenthic invertebrates. These ecosystem engineers are shaping the coastal\\u000a sea and landscape, control particulate and dissolved material fluxes between the land and sea, and between the benthos and\\u000a the passing water or air. Above

  3. Genetic engineering applications in animal breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo H. Montaldo

    2006-01-01

    Abbreviations: ES: embryonic stem cells ESR: estrogen receptor locus IGF-I: insulin-like growth factor I MAS: Marker-assisted selection QTL: quantitative trait loci This paper discusses the use of genetic engineering applications in animal breeding, including a description of the methods, their potential and current uses and ethical issues. Genetic engineering is the name of a group of techniques used to identify,

  4. The Role of Exotic Marine Ecosystem Engineers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Crooks

    Of all invader impacts, those likeliest to have the most wide-reaching consequences are alterations to ecosystems, as they\\u000a can essentially “change the rules of existence” for broad suites of resident biota (Vitousek 1990). One often-considered class\\u000a of ecosystem-level effects of exotics is the disruption of energy or material fluxes (Chap. 17, Grosholz and Ruiz). For example,\\u000a the initiation of trophic

  5. Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

    To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

  6. THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy M. Narbonne

    2005-01-01

    The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, \\

  7. Habitat-Mediated Facilitation and Counteracting Ecosystem Engineering Interactively Influence Ecosystem Responses to Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Eklöf, Johan S.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Donadi, Serena; van der Zee, Els M.; O'Hara, Robert; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of an ecosystem following disturbance can be severely hampered or even shift altogether when a point disturbance exceeds a certain spatial threshold. Such scale-dependent dynamics may be caused by preemptive competition, but may also result from diminished self-facilitation due to weakened ecosystem engineering. Moreover, disturbance can facilitate colonization by engineering species that alter abiotic conditions in ways that exacerbate stress on the original species. Consequently, establishment of such counteracting engineers might reduce the spatial threshold for the disturbance, by effectively slowing recovery and increasing the risk for ecosystem shifts to alternative states. We tested these predictions in an intertidal mudflat characterized by a two-state mosaic of hummocks (humps exposed during low tide) dominated by the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii) and hollows (low-tide waterlogged depressions dominated by the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina). In contrast to expectations, seagrass recolonized both natural and experimental clearings via lateral expansion and seemed unaffected by both clearing size and lugworm addition. Near the end of the growth season, however, an additional disturbance (most likely waterfowl grazing and/or strong hydrodynamics) selectively impacted recolonizing seagrass in the largest (1 m2) clearings (regardless of lugworm addition), and in those medium (0.25 m2) clearings where lugworms had been added nearly five months earlier. Further analyses showed that the risk for the disturbance increased with hollow size, with a threshold of 0.24 m2. Hollows of that size were caused by seagrass removal alone in the largest clearings, and by a weaker seagrass removal effect exacerbated by lugworm bioturbation in the medium clearings. Consequently, a sufficiently large disturbance increased the vulnerability of recolonizing seagrass to additional disturbance by weakening seagrass engineering effects (sediment stabilization). Meanwhile, the counteracting ecosystem engineering (lugworm bioturbation) reduced that threshold size. Therefore, scale-dependent interactions between habitat-mediated facilitation, competition and disturbance seem to maintain the spatial two-state mosaic in this ecosystem. PMID:21829719

  8. Selenium Biotransformations in an Engineered Aquatic Ecosystem for Bioremediation of Agricultural Wastewater via Brine Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Selenium Biotransformations in an Engineered Aquatic Ecosystem for Bioremediation of Agricultural Supporting Information ABSTRACT: An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism

  9. Behavioural interactions between ecosystem engineers control community species richness.

    PubMed

    Gribben, Paul E; Byers, James E; Clements, Michael; McKenzie, Louise A; Steinberg, Peter D; Wright, Jeffrey T

    2009-11-01

    Behavioural interactions between ecosystem engineers may strongly influence community structure. We tested whether an invasive ecosystem engineer, the alga Caulerpa taxifolia, indirectly facilitated community diversity by modifying the behaviour of a native ecosystem engineer, the clam Anadara trapezia, in southeastern Australia. In this study, clams in Caulerpa-invaded sediments partially unburied themselves, extending >30% of their shell surface above the sediment, providing rare, hard substrata for colonization. Consequently, clams in Caulerpa had significantly higher diversity and abundance of epibiota compared with clams in unvegetated sediments. To isolate the role of clam burial depth from direct habitat influences or differential predation by habitat, we manipulated clam burial depth, predator exposure and habitat (Caulerpa or unvegetated) in an orthogonal experiment. Burial depth overwhelmingly influenced epibiont species richness and abundance, resulting in a behaviourally mediated facilitation cascade. That Caulerpa controls epibiont communities by altering Anadara burial depths illustrates that even subtle behavioural responses of one ecosystem engineer to another can drive extensive community-wide facilitation. PMID:19702633

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    ORIGINAL PAPER A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests- pletely alter the structure and composition of the subcanopy within northern deciduous forests to derail the long-term successional pathway of northern deciduous forests. It is no longer prudent to set

  11. THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narbonne, Guy M.

    2005-01-01

    The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, "failed experiments" in animal evolution, and perhaps representatives of other eukaryotic kingdoms. These soft-bodied organisms were preserved under (or rarely within) event beds of sand or volcanic ash, and four distinct preservational styles (Flinders-, Fermeuse-, Conception-, and Nama-style) profoundly affected the types of organisms and features that could be preserved. Even the earliest Ediacaran communities (575-565 Ma) show vertical and lateral niche subdivision of the sessile, benthic, filter-feeding organisms, which is strikingly like that of Phanerozoic and modern communities. Later biological and ecological innovations include mobility (>555 Ma), calcification (550 Ma), and predation (<549 Ma). The Ediacara biota abruptly disappeared 542 million years ago, probably as a consequence of mass extinction andor biological interactions with the rapidly evolving animals of the Cambrian explosio

  12. Advanced Animation Engine for User-Interface Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert J. N. Van Breemen; Yan Xue

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an improved animation system for user-interface robots. The animation system is based on the animation engine presented by van Breemen, A.J.N. (2004), and uses animation channels for playing and blending multiple animations concurrently. The presented improvement is twofold. First, this paper describes an extension to the computational structure of an animation channel. A fading mechanism is added

  13. Fast Physical Simulation Engines for Creating Dynamic Character Animations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsu YAMANE; Masaya HIRASHIMA; Yoshihiko NAKAMURA

    This paper presents our computational engines for physical simulation of human\\/animal characters, which are useful for synthesizing dynamic character animations. In particular, we focus on their extension to inverse dynamics calculation of musculoskeletal human model. Such model would be essential to future animation contents that require detailed and realistic characters. Keyword Character Animation, Musculoskeletal Model, Inverse Dynamics, Dynamics Simulation

  14. A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests of New Jersey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Baiser; Julie L. Lockwood; David La Puma; Myla F. J. Aronson

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers play a large role in physically structuring the ecosystem in which they are embedded. The focus of much\\u000a of the research surrounding these species is to document the impacts of a single engineer on community composition and ecosystem\\u000a processes. However, most ecosystems harbor multiple engineering species that interact in complex ways and rarely have the\\u000a dynamics of such

  15. Predicting effects of ecosystem engineering on species richness along primary productivity gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Iván Badano; Pablo Angel Marquet; Lohengrin Alexis Cavieres

    2010-01-01

    Physical ecosystem engineering is the process by which some species change the distribution of materials and energy in ecosystems. Although several studies have shown that this process is a driver of local species diversity, the current challenge is predicting when and where ecosystem engineering will have large or small impacts on communities, while also explaining why impacts vary in magnitude

  16. Ecosystem Engineers: From Pattern Formation to Habitat Creation E. Gilad,1,2

    E-print Network

    Meron, Ehud

    Ecosystem Engineers: From Pattern Formation to Habitat Creation E. Gilad,1,2 J. von Hardenberg,3 A ``ecosystem engineers.'' These species modulate the landscape and redistribute the water resources so as to allow the introduction of other species. A mathematical model is developed for a pair of ecosystem

  17. Environments and Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students explore the biosphere and its associated environments and ecosystems in the context of creating a model ecosystem, learning along the way about the animals and resources. Students investigate different types of ecosystems, learn new vocabulary, and consider why a solid understanding of one's environment and the interdependence of an ecosystem can inform the choices we make and the way we engineer our communities. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

  18. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  19. Abstract Ecosystem engineering the physical modifi-cation of habitats by organisms has been proposed as

    E-print Network

    -building beaver (Castor canadensis) are clear examples of ecosystem engineers that are abundant throughout by increasing habitat heterogeneity. Dams built by beaver (Castor canaden- sis) dramatically alter riparian

  20. Ecosystem engineers modulate exotic invasions in riparian plant communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corenblit, D.; Tabacchi, E.; Steiger, J.; Gonzales, E.; Planty-Tabacchi, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and invasibility of exotic plant species within different environments and at different spatial scales is still being discussed amongst scientists. In this study, patterns of native and exotic plant species richness and cover were examined in relation with ecosystem engineer effects of pioneer vegetation within the active tract of the Mediterranean gravel bed river Tech, South France. The floristic composition was characterized according to two distinct vegetation types corresponding to two habitats with contrasted conditions: (i) open and exposed alluvial bars dominated by herbaceous communities and (ii) islands and river margins partly stabilized by ecosystem engineer plants, disconnected from annual hydrogeomorphic disturbances, and covered by woody vegetation. A significant positive correlation between exotic and native plant species richness and cover was observed for the herbaceous and the woody types, indicating that both native and exotic richness benefit from the prevailing environmental conditions. However, significant differences in native and exotic specific richness and cover were found between these two vegetation types. Higher values of total species richness and Shannon diversity of native and exotic species were attained within the herbaceous vegetation type compared to the woody type. These differences may be related to changes in local exposure to hydrogeomorphic disturbances driven by engineer plant species, and to vegetation succession. A lower exotic cover within the woody vegetation type compared to the herbaceous type suggested an increase of resistance to invasion by exotic species during the biogeomorphic succession. The engineer effects of woody vegetation resulted in a decrease of alpha (?) diversity at patch scale but, in parallel, caused an increase in gamma (?) diversity at the scale of the studied river segment. Our study corroborates recent investigations that support the theory of biotic acceptance of exotic species by native species at the local scale within heterogeneous and disturbed environments.

  1. The effect of a nematode parasite on feeding and dung-burying behavior of an ecosystem engineer.

    PubMed

    Boze, Broox G V; Moore, Janice

    2014-07-01

    Dung beetles (genus Phanaeus) consume feces in both their larval and adults forms and because of their unique dietary niche, and behaviors associated with the burial of feces, are considered ecosystem engineers. In addition, because these insects subsist on a diet composed exclusively of feces, it is likely they encounter parasitic propagules more frequently than other animals do. Parasites often alter their host's behavior, so we set out to test whether Physocephalus sexalatus (a cosmopolitan nematode parasite of ungulates) does so in ways that affect the dung beetle's role as an ecosystem engineer and/or its predator-prey relationships (transmission of the parasite). Classic tests of anti-predator behavior did not reveal behavioral differences based on the beetles' infection status. However, this parasite did alter the beetles' behaviors in ways that could be critical for its role in fecal processing and therefore ecosystem engineering. Infected beetles exhibited anorexic behavior and consumed only half the amount of feces ingested by similar uninfected beetles. Infected beetles also buried less feces and did so in tunnels that were significantly shorter than those created by uninfected beetles. Fecal burial is naturally beneficial because it aerates the soil, incorporates nitrogenous compounds, and increases the flow of water thereby making soil and pastureland more productive. We showed that the nematode parasite P. sexalatus itself becomes an ecosystem engineer as it modifies the behavior of its already influential intermediate host. PMID:24737785

  2. Animal Models for Vascular Tissue-Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2013-01-01

    Due to rise in cardiovascular disease throughout the world, there is increasing demand for small diameter blood vessels as replacement grafts. The present review focuses on the animal models that have been used to test small-diameter TEVs with emphasis on the attributes of each model. Small animal models are used to test short-term patency and address mechanistic hypotheses; and large, pre-clinical animal models are employed to test long-term patency, remodeling and function in an environment mimicking human physiology. We also discuss recent clinical trials that employed laboratory fabricated TEVs and showed very promising results. Ultimately, animal models provide a testing platform for optimizing vascular grafts before clinical use in patients without suitable autologous vessels. PMID:23769861

  3. Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci Warkentin

    \\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

  4. Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci Warkentin

    2006-01-01

    Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

  5. Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Katharine F. Knowlton, Assistant Professor, Dairy Science, Virginia Tech during the past two decades, air quality issues have become an increasing concern. Odors have been

  6. Animal Models for the Evaluation of Tissue Engineering Constructs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. W. Oortgiesen; Gert J. Meijer; Rob B. M. Vries; X. Frank Walboomers; John A. Jansen

    \\u000a In the last decade, tissue engineering has attracted a considerable amount of attention in medical research. Obviously, tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs need to be tested for their safety and efficacy before they can be used in the daily clinic. At present, animal\\u000a models offer the best possibility to do so. Each medical specialty favors its own specific model to test tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs.

  7. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher B; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-11-01

    Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers, however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns. Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem engineer by quantifying the impacts of habitat and resource modifications caused by North American beavers (Castor canadensis) on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure and stream ecosystem function in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. We compared responses to beavers in three habitat types: (1) forested (unimpacted) stream reaches, (2) beaver ponds, and (3) sites immediately downstream of beaver dams in four streams. We found that beaver engineering in ponds created taxonomically simplified, but more productive, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Specifically, macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and number of functional feeding groups were reduced by half, while abundance, biomass and secondary production increased three- to fivefold in beaver ponds compared to forested sites. Reaches downstream of beaver ponds were very similar to natural forested sections. Beaver invasion effects on both community and ecosystem parameters occurred predominantly via increased retention of fine particulate organic matter, which was associated with reduced macroinvertebrate richness and diversity (via homogenization of benthic microhabitat) and increased macroinvertebrate biomass and production (via greater food availability). Beaver modifications to macroinvertebrate community structure were largely confined to ponds, but increased benthic production in beaver-modified habitats adds to energy retention and flow for the entire stream ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of beavers on taxa richness (negative) and measures of macroinvertebrate biomass (positive) were inversely related. Thus, while a generally positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem function has been found in a variety of systems, this work shows how they can be decoupled by responding to alterative mechanisms. PMID:17587063

  8. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Doody, J. Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D’Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general. PMID:26135472

  9. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D'Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general. PMID:26135472

  10. Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

    2013-01-01

    Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010–mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment. PMID:23532482

  11. Phosphorus-mobilization ecosystem engineering: the roles of cluster roots and carboxylate exudation in young P-limited ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lambers, Hans; Bishop, John G.; Hopper, Stephen D.; Laliberté, Etienne; Zúñiga-Feest, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Carboxylate-releasing cluster roots of Proteaceae play a key role in acquiring phosphorus (P) from ancient nutrient-impoverished soils in Australia. However, cluster roots are also found in Proteaceae on young, P-rich soils in Chile where they allow P acquisition from soils that strongly sorb P. Scope Unlike Proteaceae in Australia that tend to proficiently remobilize P from senescent leaves, Chilean Proteaceae produce leaf litter rich in P. Consequently, they may act as ecosystem engineers, providing P for plants without specialized roots to access sorbed P. We propose a similar ecosystem-engineering role for species that release large amounts of carboxylates in other relatively young, strongly P-sorbing substrates, e.g. young acidic volcanic deposits and calcareous dunes. Many of these species also fix atmospheric nitrogen and release nutrient-rich litter, but their role as ecosystem engineers is commonly ascribed only to their diazotrophic nature. Conclusions We propose that the P-mobilizing capacity of Proteaceae on young soils, which contain an abundance of P, but where P is poorly available, in combination with inefficient nutrient remobilization from senescing leaves allows these species to function as ecosystem engineers. We suggest that diazotrophic species that colonize young soils with strong P-sorption potential should be considered for their positive effect on P availability, as well as their widely accepted role in nitrogen fixation. Their P-mobilizing activity possibly also enhances their nitrogen-fixing capacity. These diazotrophic species may therefore facilitate the establishment and growth of species with less-efficient P-uptake strategies on more-developed soils with low P availability through similar mechanisms. We argue that the significance of cluster roots and high carboxylate exudation in the development of young ecosystems is probably far more important than has been envisaged thus far. PMID:22700940

  12. Moral imagination in tissue engineering research on animal models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Nordgren

    2004-01-01

    Animal experimentation is an integrated part of tissue engineering research. This paper investigates what scientists conducting such experimentation should reasonably take into consideration from an ethical point of view. It is argued that scientists should use their moral imagination in making fundamental ethical choices, in reflecting on legal regulation, in taking public opinion seriously, and in balancing human benefit and

  13. Greta: A Simple Facial Animation Engine Stefano Pasquariello1

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    the dynamics aspect of the human face. We have realized a Simple Facial Animation Engine (SFAE) where the 3D a pseudo-muscular approach to emulate the behaviour of face tissues and also includes particular features such as wrinkles and furrow to enhance its realism. In particular, the wrinkles have been implemented using bump

  14. Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the functionality of tropical forests can be maintained in moderately disturbed forest fragments. Conservation concepts for tropical forests should thus include not only remaining pristine forests but also functionally viable forest remnants. PMID:22114695

  15. Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on ecosystems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  16. Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

  17. Engineering control of airborne disease transmission in animal laboratories.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, W J; Bahnfleth, W P; Carey, D D

    2002-05-01

    We here present a review of the problem of controlling airborne disease transmission in animal research facilities, with emphasis on engineering design and air-treatment technologies. Dilution ventilation, pressurization control, source control, and air disinfection and removal systems are reviewed, and analytical studies on the effects of dilution ventilation, filtration, and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation are summarized. In addition, we discuss practical problems common to laboratory facilities and present a database of potential airborne pathogens and allergens that can be transmitted between humans and animals. We offer some conclusions regarding the design and selection of available technologies and components and provide cost estimates for various air-cleaning systems. PMID:12051655

  18. Cyber engineering co-intelligence digital ecosystem: The GOFASS methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Leong; Chia Bin Siak; Chunyan Miao

    2009-01-01

    Co-intelligence, also known as collective or collaborative intelligence, is the harnessing of human knowledge and intelligence that allows groups of people to act together in ways that seem to be intelligent. Co-intelligence Internet applications such as Wikipedia are the first steps toward developing digital ecosystems that support collective intelligence. Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are well fitted to co-Intelligence digital ecosystems because

  19. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  20. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  1. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha -1 when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha -1–$332.50 ha -1 based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25–$275 ha -1 averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision. PMID:25285202

  2. Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. Herzog

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on biodiversity within ecosystems and within species. Students visit a local area and collect leaves to demonstrate how diverse life can exist within a small area. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  3. Tabizi Pythons and Clendro Hawks: Using Imaginary Animals to Achieve Real Knowledge about Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Rockow

    2007-01-01

    In the engaging unit described here, imaginary organisms are used to teach a variety of topics related to ecosystems--food chains and energy flow, food webs, limiting factors, carrying capacity, and the effects of natural and human-made events on ecosystems. By inventing organisms, the teacher is able to control the level of complexity, and the number of organisms can be modified to meet each student's level. Because the organisms are figments of the imagination, the assignment is not complicated by students' prior knowledge. Once the unit is finished, the class can discuss the ecosystem and how it is similar to and different from real ecosystems.

  4. Partitioning the effects of an ecosystem engineer: kangaroo rats control community structure via multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R; Brashares, Justin S

    2012-05-01

    1.?Ecosystem engineers impact communities by altering habitat conditions, but they can also have strong effects through consumptive, competitive and other non-engineering pathways. 2.?Engineering effects can lead to fundamentally different community dynamics than non-engineering effects, but the relative strengths of these interactions are seldom quantified. 3.?We combined structural equation modelling and exclosure experiments to partition the effects of a keystone engineer, the giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), on plants, invertebrates and vertebrates in a semi-arid California grassland. 4.?We separated the effects of burrow creation from kangaroo rat density and found that kangaroo rats increased the diversity and abundance of other species via both engineering and non-engineering pathways. 5.?Engineering was the primary factor structuring plant and small mammal communities, whereas non-engineering effects structured invertebrate communities and increased lizard abundance. 6.?These results highlight the importance of the non-engineering effects of ecosystem engineers and shed new light on the multiple pathways by which strong-interactors shape communities. PMID:22098534

  5. Sustainable exploitation and management of autogenic ecosystem engineers: application to oysters in Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Wilberg, Michael J; Wiedenmann, John R; Robinson, Jason M

    2013-06-01

    Autogenic ecosystem engineers are critically important parts of many marine and estuarine systems because of their substantial effect on ecosystem services. Oysters are of particular importance because of their capacity to modify coastal and estuarine habitats and the highly degraded status of their habitats worldwide. However, models to predict dynamics of ecosystem engineers have not previously included the effects of exploitation. We developed a linked population and habitat model for autogenic ecosystem engineers undergoing exploitation. We parameterized the model to represent eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in upper Chesapeake Bay by selecting sets of parameter values that matched observed rates of change in abundance and habitat. We used the model to evaluate the effects of a range of management and restoration options including sustainability of historical fishing pressure, effectiveness of a newly enacted sanctuary program, and relative performance of two restoration approaches. In general, autogenic ecosystem engineers are expected to be substantially less resilient to fishing than an equivalent species that does not rely on itself for habitat. Historical fishing mortality rates in upper Chesapeake Bay for oysters were above the levels that would lead to extirpation. Reductions in fishing or closure of the fishery were projected to lead to long-term increases in abundance and habitat. For fisheries to become sustainable outside of sanctuaries, a substantial larval subsidy would be required from oysters within sanctuaries. Restoration efforts using high-relief reefs were predicted to allow recovery within a shorter period of time than low-relief reefs. Models such as ours, that allow for feedbacks between population and habitat dynamics, can be effective tools for guiding management and restoration of autogenic ecosystem engineers. PMID:23865228

  6. Effects of antagonistic ecosystem engineers on macrofauna communities in a patchy, intertidal mudflat landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklöf, J. S.; Donadi, S.; van der Heide, T.; van der Zee, E. M.; Eriksson, B. K.

    2015-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that strongly modify abiotic conditions and in the process alter associated communities. Different types of benthic ecosystem engineers have been suggested to facilitate different communities in otherwise similar marine environments, partly because they alter sediment conditions in contrasting ways. However, most studies testing this hypothesis have either not manipulated the presence of engineers, or have transplanted engineers into areas already dominated by other engineers, which limits the ability to assess the relative engineering effects. Here we combined a field survey and a field experiment to investigate if two contrasting ecosystem engineers - the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltei and the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina - facilitate different macrofauna communities. The study was performed in a sheltered mudflat area of the eastern Dutch Wadden Sea, where seagrasses and lugworms form a mosaic of spatially alternating seagrass-dominated elevations (hummocks) and lugworm-dominated depressions (hollows). Results showed that seagrasses facilitated some organisms (mainly attached epifauna) while lugworms facilitated others (primarily burrowing infauna), generating distinctly different macrofauna communities in hummocks and hollows. However, seagrasses had a much stronger effect on the macrofauna communities than lugworms, and competitively excluded lugworms. This contrasts with results from similar studies in hydrodynamically more exposed sand flats, where lugworms instead dominate communities and exclude seagrass. We therefore propose that effects of ecosystem engineering (acting primarily on a local scale) and variation in abiotic conditions (acting on larger scales, e.g., hydrodynamic gradients along the Dutch coastline) strongly interact to dictate the distribution and fitness of engineering species, and indirectly, the diversity and structure of associated benthic communities.

  7. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  8. Improving human and animal health using genetically engineered goats expressing lysozyme in their milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Murray; E. A. Maga

    The application of genetic engineering should not be undertaken lightly as it requires extensive infrastructure and inputs before the genetically engineered animal enters a breeding and selection scheme; it does not provide a mechanism for bypassing good animal breeding and selection practices. However, there are instances where GE can provide an opportunity to address a problem in animal agriculture for

  9. Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them fallows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use. PMID:20385814

  10. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management?s...

  11. Invasive ecosystem engineer selects for different phenotypes of an associated native species.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jeffrey T; Gribben, Paul E; Byers, James E; Monro, Keyne

    2012-06-01

    Invasive habitat-forming ecosystem engineers modify the abiotic environment and thus represent a major perturbation to many ecosystems. Because native species often persist in these invaded habitats but have no shared history with the ecosystem engineer, the engineer may impose novel selective pressure on native species. In this study, we used a phenotypic selection framework to determine whether an invasive habitat-forming ecosystem engineer (the seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia) selects for different phenotypes of a common co-occurring native species (the bivalve Anadara trapezia). Compared to unvegetated habitat, Caulerpa habitat has lower water flow, lower dissolved oxygen, and sediments are more silty and anoxic. We determined the performance consequences of variation in key functional traits that may be affected by these abiotic changes (shell morphology, gill mass, and palp mass) for Anadara transplanted into Caulerpa and unvegetated habitat. Both linear and nonlinear performance gradients in Anadara differed between habitats, and these gradients were stronger in Caulerpa compared to unvegetated sediment. Moreover, in Caulerpa alternate phenotypes performed well, and these phenotypes were different from the dominant phenotype in unvegetated sediment. By demonstrating that phenotype-performance gradients differ between habitats, we have highlighted a role for Caulerpa as an agent of selection on native species. PMID:22834366

  12. Ecosystem engineering varies spatially: A test of the vegetation modification paradigm for prairie dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can substantially modify aboveground and belowground structure of grassland and shrubland ecosystems, but generalizations about their engineering effect on aboveground vegetation structure are derived largely from intensive studies at a single site in the northern mixed p...

  13. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E

    2010-10-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can involve both trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs) and density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs). Using microcosms, I examined a plant --> predator --> consumer interaction pathway involving the exotic autogenic ecosystem engineer Centaurea maculosa; native Dictyna spiders (which exhibit density and trait [web-building] responses to C. maculosa); Dictyna's insect prey, Urophora affinis; and Urophora's host plant (a secondary receiver species) to quantify DMIIs and TMIIs in an autogenic engineered pathway. Both DMIIs and TMIIs were strong enough to reduce Urophora populations, but only DMIIs, which were 4.3 times stronger than TMIIs, were strong enough to also reduce Urophora's fecundity and increase the fecundity of its host plant. Prior field studies support these results, suggesting that the differences between DMIIs and TMIIs are even stronger in nature. This study illustrates that autogenic ecosystem engineers can initiate powerful indirect interactions that generally parallel predator-initiated interactions but also differ in important functional ways. PMID:20715973

  14. Habitat-mediated variation in the importance of ecosystem engineers for secondary cavity nesters in a nest web.

    PubMed

    Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Through physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials, ecosystem engineers modulate resource availability to other organisms and are major drivers of evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Understanding whether and how ecosystem engineers are interchangeable for resource users in different habitats is a largely neglected topic in ecosystem engineering research that can improve our understanding of the structure of communities. We addressed this issue in a cavity-nest web (1999-2011). In aspen groves, the presence of mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolour) nests was positively related to the density of cavities supplied by northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), which provided the most abundant cavities (1.61 cavities/ha). Flickers in aspen groves provided numerous nesting cavities to bluebirds (66%) and swallows (46%), despite previous research showing that flicker cavities are avoided by swallows. In continuous mixed forests, however, the presence of nesting swallows was mainly related to cavity density of red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), which provided the most abundant cavities (0.52 cavities/ha), and to cavity density of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), which provided few (0.14 cavities/ha) but high-quality cavities. Overall, sapsuckers and hairy woodpeckers provided 86% of nesting cavities to swallows in continuous forests. In contrast, the presence of nesting bluebirds in continuous forests was associated with the density of cavities supplied by all the ecosystem engineers. These results suggest that (i) habitat type may mediate the associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users, and (ii) different ecosystem engineers may be interchangeable for resource users depending on the quantity and quality of resources that each engineer supplies in each habitat type. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of the variation in the quantity and quality of resources provided by ecosystem engineers across habitats into models that assess community dynamics to improve our understanding of the importance of ecosystem engineers in shaping ecological communities. PMID:24587211

  15. Habitat-Mediated Variation in the Importance of Ecosystem Engineers for Secondary Cavity Nesters in a Nest Web

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Through physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials, ecosystem engineers modulate resource availability to other organisms and are major drivers of evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Understanding whether and how ecosystem engineers are interchangeable for resource users in different habitats is a largely neglected topic in ecosystem engineering research that can improve our understanding of the structure of communities. We addressed this issue in a cavity-nest web (1999–2011). In aspen groves, the presence of mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolour) nests was positively related to the density of cavities supplied by northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), which provided the most abundant cavities (1.61 cavities/ha). Flickers in aspen groves provided numerous nesting cavities to bluebirds (66%) and swallows (46%), despite previous research showing that flicker cavities are avoided by swallows. In continuous mixed forests, however, the presence of nesting swallows was mainly related to cavity density of red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), which provided the most abundant cavities (0.52 cavities/ha), and to cavity density of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), which provided few (0.14 cavities/ha) but high-quality cavities. Overall, sapsuckers and hairy woodpeckers provided 86% of nesting cavities to swallows in continuous forests. In contrast, the presence of nesting bluebirds in continuous forests was associated with the density of cavities supplied by all the ecosystem engineers. These results suggest that (i) habitat type may mediate the associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users, and (ii) different ecosystem engineers may be interchangeable for resource users depending on the quantity and quality of resources that each engineer supplies in each habitat type. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of the variation in the quantity and quality of resources provided by ecosystem engineers across habitats into models that assess community dynamics to improve our understanding of the importance of ecosystem engineers in shaping ecological communities. PMID:24587211

  16. Multi-Objective Analysis for Ecosystem Reconciliation on an Engineered Floodplain: The Yolo Bypass in California's Central Valley

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    i Multi-Objective Analysis for Ecosystem Reconciliation on an Engineered Floodplain: The Yolo. Suddeth September 2014 Hydrologic Sciences Using Multi-Objective Analysis for Ecosystem Reconciliation INTRODUCTION This study presents a multi-objective analysis for balancing ecological goals with human uses

  17. ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10

    E-print Network

    ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10 AERO Aerospace Science Laboratory C11 AGAD Agricultural Administration Building G8 AHF Animal Holding Facility G10 AQUA Boilermaker Aquatic Center D6 AR Armory G6 ARMS Armstrong (Neil) Hall of Engineering G5 ASTL

  18. FIELD CALIBRATION OF SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS FOR EVALUATING FATE AND EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram nega...

  19. Demography of the ecosystem engineer Crassostrea gigas, related to vertical reef accretion and reef persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walles, Brenda; Mann, Roger; Ysebaert, Tom; Troost, Karin; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2015-03-01

    Marine species characterized as structure building, autogenic ecosystem engineers are recognized worldwide as potential tools for coastal adaptation efforts in the face of sea level rise. Successful employment of ecosystem engineers in coastal protection largely depends on long-term persistence of their structure, which is in turn dependent on the population dynamics of the individual species. Oysters, such as the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), are recognized as ecosystem engineers with potential for use in coastal protection. Persistence of oyster reefs is strongly determined by recruitment and shell production (growth), processes facilitated by gregarious settlement on extant shell substrate. Although the Pacific oyster has been introduced world-wide, and has formed dense reefs in the receiving coastal waters, the population biology of live oysters and the quantitative mechanisms maintaining these reefs has rarely been studied, hence the aim of the present work. This study had two objectives: (1) to describe the demographics of extant C. gigas reefs, and (2) to estimate vertical reef accretion rates and carbonate production in these oyster reefs. Three long-living oyster reefs (>30 years old), which have not been exploited since their first occurrence, were examined in the Oosterschelde estuary in the Netherlands. A positive reef accretion rate (7.0-16.9 mm year-1 shell material) was observed, consistent with self-maintenance and persistent structure. We provide a framework to predict reef accretion and population persistence under varying recruitment, growth and mortality scenarios.

  20. Biomechanical considerations of animal models used in tissue engineering of bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. K. Liebschner

    2004-01-01

    Tissue engineering combines the aspects of cell biology, engineering, material science, and surgery to generate new functional tissue, and provides an important approach to the repair of segmental defects and in restoring biomechanical function. The development of tissue-engineering strategies into clinical therapeutic protocols requires extensive, preclinical experimentation in appropriate animal models. The ultimate success of any treatment strategy must be

  1. Ecosystem Engineering by Seagrasses Interacts with Grazing to Shape an Intertidal Landscape

    PubMed Central

    van der Heide, Tjisse; Eklöf, Johan S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; van der Zee, Els M.; Donadi, Serena; Weerman, Ellen J.; Olff, Han; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2012-01-01

    Self-facilitation through ecosystem engineering (i.e., organism modification of the abiotic environment) and consumer-resource interactions are both major determinants of spatial patchiness in ecosystems. However, interactive effects of these two mechanisms on spatial complexity have not been extensively studied. We investigated the mechanisms underlying a spatial mosaic of low-tide exposed hummocks and waterlogged hollows on an intertidal mudflat in the Wadden Sea dominated by the seagrass Zostera noltii. A combination of field measurements, an experiment and a spatially explicit model indicated that the mosaic resulted from localized sediment accretion by seagrass followed by selective waterfowl grazing. Hollows were bare in winter, but were rapidly colonized by seagrass during the growth season. Colonized hollows were heavily grazed by brent geese and widgeon in autumn, converting these patches to a bare state again and disrupting sediment accretion by seagrass. In contrast, hummocks were covered by seagrass throughout the year and were rarely grazed, most likely because the waterfowl were not able to employ their preferred but water requiring feeding strategy (‘dabbling’) here. Our study exemplifies that interactions between ecosystem engineering by a foundation species (seagrass) and consumption (waterfowl grazing) can increase spatial complexity at the landscape level. PMID:22905115

  2. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Sustainable Ecosystems: Domestic cats and their effect on wildlife populations.

    PubMed

    Kitts-Morgan, S E

    2015-03-01

    Domestic cats are estimated to kill billions of small mammals and birds each year. In certain areas of the world, it is not uncommon for either feral or free-ranging cats to have high population densities, creating concern regarding their level of hunting. Many cats are considered to be subsidized predators, as they receive care and food from humans. Arguments abound regarding the presence of cats in the habitats of native small mammals and birds and whether or not local ecosystems can sustain this predator-prey relationship. The effects of cats on native wildlife can depend on several factors, including cat classification (feral vs. free ranging vs. indoor-outdoor), geographical location (islands vs. mainland), and type of habitat (rural vs. suburban vs. urban). Feral and free-ranging cats may have a greater impact on native species on islands because habitat is severely limited. Continued urbanization and development of rural areas also creates fragmented habitats, and native species may struggle to survive with the added pressure of hunting by domestic cats. Additionally, cats in rural areas are frequently fed by humans, which can support high population densities and intensify pressure on native species. Species targeted by cats may also vary based on prey availability in different areas, but small mammals are generally preferred over birds, reptiles, or invertebrates. Domestic cats certainly have the potential to roam and hunt in very large areas inhabited by native species and loss of biodiversity is a major concern. Therefore, it is possible that ecosystems may not be able to sustain hunting by domestic cats. Because this predator-prey relationship is probably not sustainable, it is necessary to responsibly manage outdoor domestic cats. PMID:26020863

  3. Experimental investigations on the use of preheated animal fat as fuel in a compression ignition engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Senthil Kumar; A. Kerihuel; J. Bellettre; M. Tazerout

    2005-01-01

    The effect of fuel inlet temperature on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine is evaluated. A single cylinder direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 2.8kW at 1500rev\\/min is tested using preheated animal fat as fuel. Experiments are conducted at the fuel inlet temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°C. Animal fat at low

  4. A tissue engineering approach to bone repair in large animal models and in clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranieri Cancedda; Paolo Giannoni; Maddalena Mastrogiacomo

    2007-01-01

    The repair of large segmental bone defects due to trauma, inflammation and tumor surgery remains a major clinical problem. Animal models were developed to test bone repair by tissue engineering approaches, mimicking real clinical situations. Studies differed with regard to animals (dog, sheep, goat), treated bone (femur, tibia, mandible), chemistry and structure of the scaffolds. Still, an advantage in the

  5. Ecosystem engineering varies spatially: a test of the vegetation modification paradigm for prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Bruce W.; Augustine, David J.; Sedgwick, James A.; Lubow, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    Colonial, burrowing herbivores can be engineers of grassland and shrubland ecosystems worldwide. Spatial variation in landscapes suggests caution when extrapolating single-place studies of single species, but lack of data and the need to generalize often leads to ‘model system’ thinking and application of results beyond appropriate statistical inference. Generalizations about the engineering effects of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) developed largely from intensive study at a single complex of black-tailed prairie dogs C. ludovicianus in northern mixed prairie, but have been extrapolated to other ecoregions and prairie dog species in North America, and other colonial, burrowing herbivores. We tested the paradigm that prairie dogs decrease vegetation volume and the cover of grasses and tall shrubs, and increase bare ground and forb cover. We sampled vegetation on and off 279 colonies at 13 complexes of 3 prairie dog species widely distributed across 5 ecoregions in North America. The paradigm was generally supported at 7 black-tailed prairie dog complexes in northern mixed prairie, where vegetation volume, grass cover, and tall shrub cover were lower, and bare ground and forb cover were higher, on colonies than at paired off-colony sites. Outside the northern mixed prairie, all 3 prairie dog species consistently reduced vegetation volume, but their effects on cover of plant functional groups varied with prairie dog species and the grazing tolerance of dominant perennial grasses. White-tailed prairie dogs C. leucurus in sagebrush steppe did not reduce shrub cover, whereas black-tailed prairie dogs suppressed shrub cover at all complexes with tall shrubs in the surrounding habitat matrix. Black-tailed prairie dogs in shortgrass steppe and Gunnison's prairie dogs C. gunnisoni in Colorado Plateau grassland both had relatively minor effects on grass cover, which may reflect the dominance of grazing-tolerant shortgrasses at both complexes. Variation in modification of vegetation structure may be understood in terms of the responses of different dominant perennial grasses to intense defoliation and differences in foraging behavior among prairie dog species. Spatial variation in the engineering role of prairie dogs suggests spatial variation in their keystone role, and spatial variation in the roles of other ecosystem engineers. Thus, ecosystem engineering can have a spatial component not evident from single-place studies.

  6. Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Angélica L.; Crawford, Kerri M.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect—a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3–5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density. PMID:23862102

  7. Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer.

    PubMed

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Angélica L; Crawford, Kerri M; Sanders, Nathan J

    2013-01-01

    Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect-a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3-5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density. PMID:23862102

  8. In order to build up a system of international cooperative research in the field of animal biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School

    E-print Network

    Takahashi, Ryo

    biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School of Bioagricultural Spin-offs in Animal Biotechnology Project of Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program in Animal Biotechnology Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa

  9. Engineering plants for animal feed for improved nutritional value.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter E V

    2003-05-01

    Feed formulation to meet nutritional requirements of livestock is becoming increasingly challenging. Regulations have banned the use of traditional high-quality protein supplements such as meat-and-bone meal, pollution from animal excreta of N and P is an issue and antibiotics are no longer available as insurance against the impact of enteric infection and feed anti-nutritional factors. The improved genetic potential of livestock is increasing daily requirement for energy and protein (essential amino acids). To benefit from the enhanced growth potential of livestock diets with high nutrient density are needed that can be formulated from crops without increased cost. Genetic modification of commodity crops used to manufacture animal feed in order to improve the density and quality of available nutrients is a potential solution to some of these problems. Furthermore, crops may be used as biofactories to produce molecules and products used in animal feed with considerable reductions in manufacturing fixed costs. Nevertheless, there are considerable not insurmountable challenges, such as the creation of sufficient economic value to deliver benefit to all members in the feed production chain, which is an essential element of identity preserving and delivering the technology to livestock producers. Individual output traits in the major commodity crops may not provide sufficient value to adequately compensate all the members of the feed production chain. Successful adoption of output traits may rely on inserting combinations of agronomic input traits with specific quality traits or increasing the value proposition by inserting combinations of output traits. PMID:14506877

  10. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  11. Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

    Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

  12. Ecosystem engineering by annual intertidal seagrass beds: Sediment accretion and modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Arthur R.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; de Kort, Geertje L. J.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.

    2007-08-01

    Seagrasses are generally known as ecosystem engineers, as they reduce flow velocities in their canopies. In perennial subtidal meadows, this usually leads to increased net sedimentation rates and reduction of the grain size. The present study aims to describe the contribution of annual seagrass populations to these processes and elucidate the temporal dynamics. Sediment accretion and grain size modification were experimentally tested by transplanting seedlings of an annual intertidal eelgrass population to an unvegetated tidal flat. Within the planting units (79 shoots m -2) 4.7 mm of sediment accreted, whereas in the most dense parts of these units (199 shoots m -2) accretion amounted to 7.1 mm. The silt fraction (<63 ?m) increased and the sand fraction (63-500 ?m) decreased in the eelgrass beds, which provides evidence that higher silt content in seagrass beds is the result and not the cause of seagrass presence. Annual intertidal eelgrass beds significantly contribute to the immobilisation of sediment during the growing season with its magnitude depending on canopy density. During winter, the accumulated sediments were released again and could even induce additional erosion. Possible consequences of these sediment dynamics for the larger scale functioning of estuarine ecosystems are discussed.

  13. Multi-engine Animal Disease Diagnostic Expert System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAN Wen-xue; GUO Guo-qiang; WANG Jing-ren

    2008-01-01

    ?Abstract?The traditional disease diagnostic expertsy stemonly has a single reasoning process to use knowledge,so that its knowledge utilization is inefficient. Its conclusion has low accuracyand without contrast. This paper makes example ofgoat, modelings disease diagnostic knowledge base by the use of object-oriented knowledge representation. According to the training process and diagnostic model, it proposes the ideology of multi-engine ruling based

  14. Stereo Visualized Animation Content for the Learning of the Mechanism of Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoaki

    The stereo visualized animation contents have not been spread on the domain of education because of the difficulties and high cost of making that. On this study, we proposed an easy and low cost method of the stereo visualization for 3DCG-Animation. The easy and low cost stereo visualization system is composed of two ordinary liquid crystal projectors, a personal computer and a silver screen. In this paper, by using this method, we developed a stereo visualized 3DCG-animation content of 4 stroke cycle gasoline engine and used the content for the class of the machining practice exercise. Moreover, the learning effect of the content was examined with the questionnaire. The result of questionnaire showed that the stereo visualized 3DCG animation content was very helpful to understand the mechanism of engine.

  15. A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Sandali; Fabio Lavagetto; Paolo Pisano

    2005-01-01

    Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on

  16. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  17. Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research. PMID:24964011

  18. Teaching Habitat and Animal Classification to Fourth Graders Using an Engineering-Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marulcu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGO[TM] engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented.…

  19. Ecosystem engineering and predation: the multi-trophic impact of two ant species.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dirk; van Veen, F J Frank

    2011-05-01

    1. Ants are ubiquitous ecosystem engineers and generalist predators and are able to affect ecological communities via both pathways. They are likely to influence any other terrestrial arthropod group either directly or indirectly caused by their high abundance and territoriality. 2. We studied the impact of two ant species common in Central Europe, Myrmica rubra and Lasius niger, on an arthropod community. Colony presence and density of these two ant species were manipulated in a field experiment from the start of ant activity in spring to late summer. 3. The experiment revealed a positive influence of the presence of one ant colony on densities of decomposers, herbivores and parasitoids. However, in the case of herbivores and parasitoids, this effect was reversed in the presence of two colonies. 4. Generally, effects of the two ant species were similar with the exception of their effect on Braconidae parasitoid densities that responded positively to one colony of M. rubra but not of L. niger. 5. Spider density was not affected by ant colony manipulation, but species richness of spiders responded positively to ant presence. This effect was independent of ant colony density, but where two colonies were present, spider richness was significantly greater in plots with two M. rubra colonies than in plots with one colony of each ant species. 6. To test whether the positive ecosystem engineering effects were purely caused by modified properties of the soil, we added in an additional experiment (i) the soil from ant nests (without ants) or (ii) unmodified soil or (iii) ant nests (including ants) to experimental plots. Ant nest soil on its own did not have a significant impact on densities of decomposers, herbivores or predators, which were significantly, and positively, affected by the addition of an intact nest. 7. The results suggest an important role of both ant species in the grassland food web, strongly affecting the densities of decomposers, herbivores and higher trophic levels. We discuss how the relative impact via bottom-up and top-down effects of ants depends on nest density, with a relatively greater top-down predatory impact at higher densities. PMID:21244419

  20. Measuring ecosystem functioning of soil mega-aggregates produced by soil/litter mix-feeding animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, N.

    2009-04-01

    Some soil animals are soil/litter mix-feeders. They are known to produce long-lasting soil structures (e.g. casts and molting chamber), and these structures will modify resource availability and environmental conditions for plants and soil organisms. Good examples are epigeic Megascolecid earthworms (Uchida et al., 2004) and Xystodesmid millipeds (Toyota et al., 2006), both found in Japan. In this study we examined chemical, physical and biological properties of soil focusing on multi-functioning of aggregates made by these animals. Since 2003, we manipulated densities of epigeic earthworms in a field encloser (35 m2) (three replications) at a cool temperate forest in Japan. At a no-worm (NW) treatment, all the worms have been collected every year by hand. At the same place, we prepared a control treatment in an encloser (Closed control; CC) and outside the encloser (Open control; OC). We examined surface soil and plant growth after 5-years field manipulation of oak dominated forest. Growth of two Liliaceae forest floor herbs; Smilacina japonica and Polygonatum odoratum, and oak (Quercus crispula) seedlings and canopy oak trees were recorded. Reduction of aggregates after elimination of earthworms was observed in a field condition. The manipulation site showed decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, and P concentration and total carbon storage was also reduced. There was a negative significant correlation between casts abundance and soil NH4-N, and a positive significance was observed between casts abundance and growth of S. japonica, and oak seedlings. Radial growth of canopy oak trees was decreased at NW treatment compared to CC and OC. Leaf N contents of oak seedling at NW were significantly lower in NW, but canopy oak trees did not show any difference in leaf-N. Although S. japonica and P. odoratum were both found in a same forest floor, S. japonica is known as nutrient limited plants in spring, whereas P. odoratum is light limited. Oak seedlings are depending early growth on their seed nutrient, and the canopy oak trees seem to be nutrient limited. Thus in this forest, the nutrient condition mediated by earthworm activity was a strong factor influencing plant species-specific growth and this correlation was clear when we used the cast abundance as an independent factor but it was not clear when we used the worm abundance or biomass for explanation variables. In laboratory incubations, fresh casts of earthworm Metaphire hilgendorfi contained higher NH4-N which was mostly nitrified within 4-weeks. The 4-weeks aged casts of the earthworm and millipede Parafontaria laminata emitted significantly more N2O whereas the modified soil had strong CH4 acidification capacity. Therefore the animal effects on greenhouse effect gas should be evaluated for CO2, N2O and CH4 at the same time. We then confirmed that megaaggregates, probably cast origin, tended to contain more carbon than fine soil. Combining our data from various study sites in Japan, the amount of carbon contained in megaaggregates (> 2 mm) in 0-5 cm layer ranged from 200 to 1000 g C per m2. Animal feeding activities maintained substantial amount of surface soil aggregates. Therefore, the activity of soil/litter mix feeders can be linked to the carbon dynamics by evaluating worm's soil engineering effect.

  1. Fe-oxidizing microbes are hydrothermal vent ecosystem engineers at the Loihi Seamount (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. S.; McAllister, S.; Leavitt, A.; Emerson, D.; Moyer, C. L.; Glazer, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms (FeOM) colonize gradients of Fe(II) and oxygen, taking advantage of the available chemical energy. Vast communities of FeOM proliferate at deep sea hydrothermal vents, forming mineralized mats that range from centimeters to meters thick. Because these mats structure the environment for both FeOM and the entire microbial community, the Fe-oxidizers are acting as ecosystem engineers. What organisms are responsible for initiating these mats, and how does the physical structure and community composition develop as the mats mature? By connecting structure, function, and ecology, we can better interpret modern mat structures, as well as ancient fossilized mats. We have been studying Fe microbial mats at Loihi Seamount in Hawaii, a long-term study site that has become a model for Fe oxidation in marine hydrothermal systems. Recent improvements in ROV imaging systems allow us to see a great range of mat textures and colors, which may represent diverse habitats and/or different stages of mat development. With improved imaging and sampling techniques, we have been able to obtain discrete, intact samples of these delicate microbial mats. Previous bulk sampling methods showed that mats consist of a mixture of Fe-mineralized morphologies. Our analyses of intact mats show that mats are initiated by one type of structure-former (either a stalk-former like Mariprofundus ferrooxydans or a Zetaproteobacterial sheath-former). These microbes may be the vanguard organisms that stabilize chemical gradients in this dynamic environment, allowing colonization by other organisms (evidenced by branching tubes, fibrillar nests, and other morphologies). We will show evidence of the composition and development of these mats, and discuss parallels between these marine Fe mats and their freshwater counterparts, supporting the idea that FeOM engineer environments favorable for growth.

  2. Ecosystem engineering by a colonial mammal: how prairie dogs structure rodent communities.

    PubMed

    VanNimwegen, Ron E; Kretzer, Justin; Cully, Jack F

    2008-12-01

    As ecosystem engineers, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) physically alter their environment, but the mechanism by which these alterations affect associated faunal composition is not well known. We examined how rodent and vegetation communities responded to prairie dog colonies and landcover at the Cimarron National Grassland in southwest Kansas, USA. We trapped rodents and measured vegetation structure on and off colonies in 2000 and 2003. We plotted two separate ordinations of trapping grids: one based on rodent counts and a second based on vegetation variables. We regressed three factors on each ordination: (1) colony (on-colony and off-colony), (2) cover (shortgrass and sandsage), and (3) habitat (factorial cross of colony x cover). Rodent communities differed by colony but not cover. Vegetation differed across both gradients. Rodent responses to habitat reflected those of colony and cover, but vegetation was found to differ across cover only in the sandsage prairie. This interaction suggested that rodent composition responded to prairie dog colonies, but independently of vegetation differences. We conclude that burrowing and soil disturbance are more important than vegetation cropping in structuring rodent communities. PMID:19137937

  3. Earthworms, as ecosystem engineers, influence multiple aspects of a salamander's ecology.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Tami S

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers create habitat that can be used by other species in multiple ways, such as refugees from predators, places to breed, or areas with increased prey resources. I conducted a series of enclosure experiments to: (1) determine if salamanders use earthworm burrows, and (2) examine the potential influence of earthworm burrow use and indirect effects on salamander intra- and interspecific competition, predator avoidance, and seasonal performance. I found that one species of woodland salamander, Plethodon cinereus, used earthworm burrows 50% of the time when burrows were present. Neither adults nor juveniles of the congeneric P. glutinosus used earthworm burrows. Intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition by P. cinereus affected salamander behavior when earthworms were absent, with P. cinereus found under cover objects >70% of the time when alone or with a P. glutinosus, but only 40% of the time when with another P. cinereus. When earthworms were present, the behavior of P. cinereus was similar across salamander treatments. Earthworms decreased the amount of leaf litter and microinvertebrates, although this did not affect salamander mass. In subsequent experiments using only P. cinereus, the refuge provided by earthworm burrows increased the survival of P. cinereus over the winter and allowed P. cinereus to avoid being consumed by the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Because earthworm burrows provide a refuge for P. cinereus during intraspecific encounters, in the presence of a predator and over the winter, they may serve as an important belowground-aboveground linkage in eastern forests where salamanders are common. PMID:20848134

  4. Before the Endless Forms: Embodied Model of Transition from Single Cells to Aggregates to Ecosystem Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard V.; Valverde, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of complex multicellular systems and their associated developmental programs is one of the major problems of evolutionary biology. The advantages of cooperation over individuality seem well known but it is not clear yet how such increase of complexity emerged from unicellular life forms. Current multicellular systems display a complex cell-cell communication machinery, often tied to large-scale controls of body size or tissue homeostasis. Some unicellular life forms are simpler and involve groups of cells cooperating in a tissue-like fashion, as it occurs with biofilms. However, before true gene regulatory interactions were widespread and allowed for controlled changes in cell phenotypes, simple cellular colonies displaying adhesion and interacting with their environments were in place. In this context, models often ignore the physical embedding of evolving cells, thus leaving aside a key component. The potential for evolving pre-developmental patterns is a relevant issue: how far a colony of evolving cells can go? Here we study these pre-conditions for morphogenesis by using CHIMERA, a physically embodied computational model of evolving virtual organisms in a pre-Mendelian world. Starting from a population of identical, independent cells moving in a fluid, the system undergoes a series of changes, from spatial segregation, increased adhesion and the development of generalism. Eventually, a major transition occurs where a change in the flow of nutrients is triggered by a sub-population. This ecosystem engineering phenomenon leads to a subsequent separation of the ecological network into two well defined compartments. The relevance of these results for evodevo and its potential ecological triggers is discussed. PMID:23596506

  5. The feasibility of ureteral tissue engineering using autologous veins: an orthotopic animal model with long term results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an earlier study we demonstrated the feasibility to create tissue engineered venous scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. In this study we investigated the use of tissue engineered constructs for ureteral replacement in a long term orthotopic minipig model. In many different projects well functional ureretal tissue was established using tissue engineering in animals with short-time follow up (12 weeks). Therefore urothelial cells were harvested from the bladder, cultured, expanded in vitro, labelled with fluorescence and seeded onto the autologous veins, which were harvested from animals during a second surgery. Three days after cell seeding the right ureter was replaced with the cell-seeded matrices in six animals, while further 6 animals received an unseeded vein for ureteral replacement. The animals were sacrificed 12, 24, and 48 weeks after implantation. Gross examination, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), H&E staining, Trichrome Masson’s Staining, and immunohistochemistry with pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, smooth muscle alpha actin, and von Willebrand factor were performed in retrieved specimens. Results The IVP and gross examination demonstrated that no animals with tissue engineered ureters and all animals of the control group presented with hydronephrosis after 12 weeks. In the 24-week group, one tissue engineered and one unseeded vein revealed hydronephrosis. After 48 weeks all tissue engineered animals and none of the control group showed hydronephrosis on the treated side. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed a multilayer of urothelial cells attached to the seeded venous grafts. Conclusions Venous grafts may be a potential source for ureteral reconstruction. The results of so far published ureteral tissue engineering projects reveal data up to 12 weeks after implantation. Even if the animal numbers of this study are small, there is an increasing rate of hydronephrosis revealing failure of ureteral tissue engineering with autologous matrices in time points longer than 3 months after implantation. Further investigations have to prove adequate clinical outcome and appropriate functional long-term results. PMID:25381044

  6. 468 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, VOL. 56, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 The Effects of Moving Animation on Recall, Hedonic

    E-print Network

    Hui, Kai-Lung

    468 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, VOL. 56, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 The Effects of Moving Animation on Recall, Hedonic and Utilitarian Perceptions, and Attitude Yee-Lin Lai, Kevin K. Y. Kuan, Kai-Lung Hui, and Na Liu Abstract--An increasing number of firms are investing in mov- ing animation to create

  7. A Review and Rationale for the Use of Genetically Engineered Animals in the Study of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Longhi; Kathryn E. Saatman; Ramesh Raghupathi; Helmut L. Laurer; Philipp M. Lenzlinger; Peter Riess; Edmund Neugebauer; John Q. Trojanowski; Virginia M.-Y. Lee; M. Sean Grady; David I. Graham; Tracy K. McIntosh

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying secondary cell death after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood. Animal models of TBI recapitulate many clinical and pathologic aspects of human head injury, and the development of genetically engineered animals has offered the opportunity to investigate the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with cell dysfunction and death after TBI, allowing for the evaluation of

  8. From microcarriers to hydrodynamics: introducing engineering science into animal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Croughan, Matthew S; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2006-10-01

    Professor Daniel I.C. Wang has conducted research in animal cell culture for approximately 40 years. Over that long time period and still to this day, he successfully addresses a multitude of engineering challenges, taking a unique, creative, systems-driven but still fundamental approach. As mammalian cell culture has become the predominant method of manufacturing therapeutic proteins, the impact of his leadership, not only in research but also student recruitment and education, has played a key role in the success of the bio/pharmaceutical industry. PMID:16933297

  9. The facial animation engine: toward a high-level interface for the design of MPEG4 compliant animated faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Lavagetto; Roberto Pockaj

    1999-01-01

    We propose a method for implementing a high-level interface for the synthesis and animation of animated virtual faces that is in full compliance with MPEG-4 specifications. This method allows us to implement the simple facial object profile and part of the calibration facial object profile. In fact, starting from a facial wireframe and from a set of configuration files, the

  10. Designed ecosystem services: application of ecological principles in wastewater treatment engineering

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.; Smith, Val H.

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater treatment engineering and ecology have complementary goals and need to interact much more closely. Wastewater engineers and ecologists share strong interests in the structure and function of biological communities, ...

  11. Role of stem cells in large animal genetic engineering in the TALENs-CRISPR era.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and gene targeting technologies in mice has revolutionised the field of genetics. The relative ease with which genes can be knocked out, and exogenous sequences introduced, has allowed the mouse to become the prime model for deciphering the genetic code. Not surprisingly, the lack of authentic ESCs has hampered the livestock genetics field and has forced animal scientists into adapting alternative technologies for genetic engineering. The recent discovery of the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by upregulation of a handful of reprogramming genes has offered renewed enthusiasm to animal geneticists. However, much like ESCs, establishing authentic iPSCs from the domestic animals is still beset with problems, including (but not limited to) the persistent expression of reprogramming genes and the lack of proven potential for differentiation into target cell types both in vitro and in vivo. Site-specific nucleases comprised of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulated interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) emerged as powerful genetic tools for precisely editing the genome, usurping the need for ESC-based genetic modifications even in the mouse. In this article, in the aftermath of these powerful genome editing technologies, the role of pluripotent stem cells in livestock genetics is discussed. PMID:24305178

  12. The Facial Animation Engine: towards a high-level interface for the design of MPEG4 compliant animated faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Lavagetto; Roberto Pockaj

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for implementing a high-level interface for the synthesis and animation of animated virtual faces that is in full compliance with MPEG-4 specifications. This method allows us to implement the Simple Facial Object profile and part of the Calibration Facial Object Profile. In fact, starting from a facial wire-frame and from a set of

  13. Ecosystem health: I. Measuring ecosystem health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Herricks, Edwin E.; Kerster, Harold W.

    1988-07-01

    Ecosystem analysis has been advanced by an improved understanding of how ecosystems are structured and how they function. Ecology has advanced from an emphasis on natural history to consideration of energetics, the relationships and connections between species, hierarchies, and systems theory. Still, we consider ecosystems as entities with a distinctive character and individual characteristics. Ecosystem maintenance and preservation form the objective of impact analysis, hazard evaluation, and other management or regulation activities. In this article we explore an approach to ecosystem analysis which identifies and quantifies factors which define the condition or state of an ecosystem in terms of health criteria. We relate ecosystem health to human/nonhuman animal health and explore the difficulties of defining ecosystem health and suggest criteria which provide a functional definition of state and condition. We suggest that, as has been found in human/nonhuman animal health studies, disease states can be recognized before disease is of clinical magnitude. Example disease states for ecosystems are functionally defined and discussed, together with test systems for their early detection.

  14. Soil invertebrates as ecosystem engineers: Intended and accidental effects on soil and feedback loops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Jouquet; Jens Dauber; Jan Lagerlöf; Patrick Lavelle; Michel Lepage

    2006-01-01

    Termites, ants and earthworms are considered as soil engineers because of their effects on soil properties and their influence on the availability of resources for other organisms, including microorganisms and plants. However, the links between their impacts on the soil environment and the resulting modification of natural selection pressures on engineer as well as on other organisms have received little

  15. Designing an accompanying ecosystem for entrepreneurship students of agronomic and forestry engineering. Opinion and commitment of the faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Leovigilda; Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Lara-Vélez, Pablo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gallardo-Cobos, Rosa; Campillo, M. Carmen; Guerrero-Ginel, José E.

    2014-05-01

    The current context has called attention to the need of training engineers with new skills beyond the purely technical. Among others, fostering the entrepreneurial spirit has gained special prominence. In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a 12-year-experience of an entrepreneurship program for undergraduate students concluded that, for an adequate consolidation and evolution of the program, is important to establish a robust network with active participation of all actors involved. With this antecedent, a collective project conceived as an "ecosystem of support and accompaniment for entrepreneurs" is the approach proposed. The objective is to perform an evaluation of this model in terms of viability, usefulness, actions to be taken and degree of commitment. The key actors identified (undergraduate students, faculty, alumni, local and regional entrepreneurs, enterprises, public administration) have been involved in the evaluation process. This study focuses on the academic staff. For that aim, a survey to the entire faculty (N=128, response rate = 45%) and semi-structured interviews to 20 members have been performed. Data have been treated by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. Results suggest that there exists an agreement concerning the appropriateness of a collective project; there is a critical mass of teachers willing to be engaged; guidelines need to be incorporated in order to facilitate taking on tasks; main restrictions concern the existing asymmetry between formal requirements and those necessary for establishing the ecosystem. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This research work has been developed in the framework of the ALFA III programme financed by the European Union.

  16. Systematic evaluation of a tissue-engineered bone for maxillary sinus augmentation in large animal canine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaoyi Wang; Zhiyuan Zhang; Lunguo Xia; Jun Zhao; Xiaojuan Sun; Xiuli Zhang; Dongxia Ye; Hasan Uluda?; Xinquan Jiang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate the effects of a tissue-engineered bone complex for maxillary sinus augmentation in a canine model. Twelve sinus floor augmentation surgeries in 6 animals were performed bilaterally and randomly repaired with the following 3 groups of grafts: group A consisted of tissue-engineered osteoblasts\\/beta-TCP complex (n=4); group B consisted of beta-TCP alone (n=4);

  17. Preclinical Safety Evaluation of ASCs Engineered by FLPo/Frt-Based Hybrid Baculovirus: In Vitro and Large Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuei-Chang; Chang, Yu-Han; Lin, Chin-Yu; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-05-01

    We recently developed hybrid baculovirus (BV) vectors that exploited FLPo/Frt-mediated DNA minicircle formation. Engineering of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with the FLPo/Frt-based BV vectors enabled prolonged transgene expression and, after cell implantation into rabbits, ameliorated cartilage regeneration and bone repair. To translate the hybrid BV one step further toward clinical applications, here we assessed the biosafety profiles of the hybrid BV-engineered human ASCs (hASCs) in vitro and evaluated the immune responses elicited by the engineered porcine ASCs (pASCs) in large animals. We confirmed that the hybrid BV did not compromise the hASCs viability, immunosuppressive capacity, and surface characteristics. Neither did the hybrid BV cause chromosomal abnormality/transgene integration in vitro nor did it induce tumorigenicity in vivo. In the large animal study, pASCs were engineered with the hybrid BV expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and implanted into femoral bone defects in mini pigs. The hybrid BV-engineered pASCs enabled prolonged BMP2/VEGF expression and triggered the healing of massive segmental bone defects, while only eliciting transient antibody, cytokine, and local cellular immune responses stemming from the implantation procedure itself. These data altogether demonstrated the safety of the hybrid BV vectors for ASCs engineering and bone healing in large animals, hence implicating the potential in clinical applications. PMID:25602313

  18. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stief, P.

    2013-07-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments often is enhanced even more than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies revealed that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen.

  19. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stief, P.

    2013-12-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments is enhanced more strongly than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies reveal that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen.

  20. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  1. A clinically relevant large-animal model for evaluation of tissue-engineered cardiac surgical patch materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Cui; Jinsheng Li; Megumi Mathison; Fernando Tondato; Stephen P. Mulkey; Connie Micko; Nicolas A. F. Chronos; Keith A. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds may be useful as a tissue engineering approach toward myocardial regeneration in the infarcted heart. An appropriate large-animal model for testing the utility of biologically derived ECM in this application is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model for optimal procedural success during and after patch implantation surgery.Myocardial infarction (MI) was

  2. Process oriented thinking as a key for integration of ecohydrology, biotechnology and engineering for sustainable water resources management and ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalewski, M.

    2015-04-01

    The recent high rate of environmental degradation due to unsustainable use of water and other natural resources and mismanagement, is, in many cases, the result of a dominant sectoral approach, limited communication between different users and agencies, and lack of knowledge transfer between different disciplines, and especially lack of dialogue between environmental scientists and engineers. There is no doubt that the genuine improvement of human well-being has to be based on understanding the complexity of interactions between abiotic, biotic and socio-economic systems. The major drivers of biogeosphere evolution and function have been the cycles of water and nutrients in a complex array of differing climates and catchment geomorphologies. In the face of global climate change and unequally distributed human populations, the recent sectoral mechanistic approach in natural resources management has to be replaced by an evolutionary systems approach based on well-integrated problem-solving and policy-oriented environmental science. Thus the principles of ecohydrology should be the basis for further integration of ecology, hydrology, engineering, biotechnology and other environmental sciences. Examples from UNESCO IHP VII show how the integration of these will not only increase the efficiency of measures to harmonize ecosystem potentials with societal needs, but also significantly reduce the costs of sustainable environmental management.

  3. Sponge epibionts on ecosystem-engineering ascidians: The case of Microcosmus sabatieri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleni Voultsiadou; Marianthi Kyrodimou; Chryssanthi Antoniadou; Dimitris Vafidis

    2010-01-01

    The study of epibionts on habitat engineering ascidians is of increasing interest because changes in the population structure of the latter may affect associated communities, especially in the case of commercially exploited species. The solitary ascidian Microcosmus sabatieri lives on rocky cliffs in the Eastern Mediterranean and is harvested in certain Aegean areas. Its hard, wrinkled tunic is usually fouled

  4. Investigating Ecosystems in a Biobottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breene, Arnica; Gilewski, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Biobottles are miniature ecosystems made from 2-liter plastic soda bottles. They allow students to explore how organisms in an ecosystem are connected to each other, examine how biotic and abiotic factors influence plant and animal growth and development, and discover how important biodiversity is to an ecosystem. This activity was inspired by an…

  5. Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality

    E-print Network

    Delany, Mary E.

    Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions System". Dr. Mitloehner received his MS degree in Animal Science and Agricultural Engineering from joined the faculty in the Department of Animal Science at the University of California-Davis in 2002, Dr

  6. Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the interdependent relationships between species in the coral reef ecosystem. All populations in the reef ecosystem are a part of and depend on a global food web (a connected set of food chains) through which energy flows in one direction, from the sun into organism and eventually dissipating into the environment as heat. This food web includes ocean plants, the animals that feed on them, and the animals that feed on those animals. Energy is transferred between organisms and their environment along the way. Energy concentration diminishes at each step. The cycles of life continue indefinitely because organisms decompose after death and return food materials to the environment. Learning Outcomes:? Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.? Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).? Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.? Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.? Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.

  7. Caterpillars benefit from thermal ecosystem engineering by wandering albatrosses on sub-Antarctic Marion Island

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Brent J; Chown, Steven L

    2005-01-01

    Wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) nest on Southern Ocean islands, building elevated nests upon which they incubate eggs and raise chicks, and which the chicks occupy through winter. The nests support high invertebrate biomass, including larvae of the flightless moth Pringleophaga marioni. Here we argue that high biomass of P. marioni in the nests is not associated with nutrient loading as previously suspected, but that higher temperatures in the nests increase growth and feeding rate, and decrease deleterious repeated cold exposure, providing fitness advantages for P. marioni. Thus, wandering albatrosses may be serving as thermal engineers, modifying temperature and therefore enabling better resource use by P. marioni. PMID:17148324

  8. Self Contained Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A self contained ecosystem developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory is manufactured by Engineering and Research Associates. It is essentially a no-care aquarium which requires only natural or fluorescent light.

  9. Logic Animation and Logic Animation Platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Chen; Qiang Ge; Qingtang Liu; Zhiguo Si

    2009-01-01

    Logic animation, a new style of animation, was first proposed in the application of dynamic geometry software. The concept, features, and possible application prospects of logic animation are further introduced in details in this paper, compared with the traditional style of animation-time-sequential animation. Based on the design ideas of dynamic geometry software, Flash and game engine, the design of a

  10. Ecosystem Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristen L. Gunckel

    1999-09-01

    The Ecosystem Explorations curriculum includes eleven classroom lessons. The lessons are divided into two sections--Understanding Ecosystems and Human Connections to Ecosystems. The curriculum incorporates scientific inquiry skills, cooperative l

  11. Exploring an Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National 4-H Council

    2009-01-01

    In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based ecosystem called a terraqua column. The column (in a large soda bottle) includes pond water, duckweed, sand or gravel, and small snails. Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an ecosystem. This activity is aligned to National Science Standards (NS.5-8.3 Life Science).

  12. Coral Reef Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-28

    The Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to populations and ecosystems using coral reefs and their immediate environment as an example. Because the Standards and Benchmarks present the concepts of populations and ecosystems generically, without reference to a specific ecosystem or the organisms in the system, coral reefs are used to provide the context through which concepts in a marine ecosystem are explored.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef? Identify coral polyp structures and describe their functions.? Describe photosynthesis in the coral environment.? Describe the evolution of a typical reef system.? Use the shape of an individual coral to identify its common name, and classify entire coral reef ecosystems based on shape and location. ? Describe the process of coral polyp reproduction and growth.? Identify how the features and/or behavioral strategies of coral reef inhabitants enable them to survive in coral reef environments.Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Abiotic Setting? Identify the characteristics of an ecosystem, and describe the interdependence between biotic and abiotic features in an ecosystem.? Describe how the following abiotic factors provide coral with the energy needed to survive and grow within their ecosystem: sunlight, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.? Describe the optimal environmental conditions for coral reef growth, and explain the process of coral reef development (including the role of available sunlight and calcium).? Explain how the following environmental factors might affect coral ecosystems: increase in dissolved CO2, changes in global temperatures, increase in ocean water turbidity through water pollution.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence? Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.? Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).? Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.? Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.? Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis? Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).? Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).? Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. ? Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.? Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.? Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.

  13. Role of gene therapy in tissue engineering procedures in rheumatology: the use of animal models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. van der Kraan; Wim B. van den Berg

    2004-01-01

    Tissue engineering is not only the application of cells and scaffolds to generate a new tissue but should also bring into play biological principles to guide cellular behavior. A way to modify cellular behavior is genetic modification of the cells used for tissue engineering (gene therapy). In the field of rheumatic diseases, cellular modification by overexpressing anabolic factors, such as

  14. Skeletal tissue engineering—from in vitro studies to large animal models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Buma; Willem Schreurs; Nico Verdonschot

    2004-01-01

    Bone is a tissue with a strong regenerative potential. New strategies for tissue engineering of bone should therefore only focus on defects with a certain size that will not heal spontaneously. In the development of tissue-engineered constructs many variables may play a role, e.g. the source of the cells used, the design and mechanical properties of the scaffold and the

  15. Dorin, A., "Habitat: Engineering in a Simulated Audible Ecosystem", in M. Giacobini et al. (Eds.): EvoWorkshops, LNCS 5484, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009, pp.488-497

    E-print Network

    Dorin, Alan

    Dorin, A., "Habitat: Engineering in a Simulated Audible Ecosystem", in M. Giacobini et al. (Eds.): EvoWorkshops, LNCS 5484, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009, pp.488-497 Habitat: Engineering introduces a novel approach to generating audio or visual heterogeneity by simulating multi-level habitat

  16. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  17. The Climate Space Concept: Analysis of the Steady State Heat Energy Budget of Animals. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Several modules in the thermodynamic series considered the application of the First Law to…

  18. Vision system for animal cell recognition in a bio-engineering process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio FUKUDA; Mitsuru ISHIZUKA; Osamu HASEGAWA; Hajime ASAMA; T. Nagumune; I. Endo

    1990-01-01

    An expert system for the recognition and counting of cells using image processing for mass production of interferon beta is described. The biological cells which make interferon beta are taken from animals and cultured on microcarriers, plastic balls\\/beads 150-200 ?m in diameter floating in a culture solution. Cell images are obtained through a microscope connected to a TV camera. The

  19. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative

    E-print Network

    Tiegs, Scott

    ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative during their annual spawning runs, leading researchers to classify these fish as ecosystem engineers-analysis to evaluate potential sources of variability among studies in stream ecosystem responses to salmon. Results

  20. The Coral Reef Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-04-19

    Students examine a coral reef ecosystem to learn about its living and non-living parts and how they interact. They apply what they have learned to explore the world's biomes, including how the animals in each are adapted to their environment.

  1. Communication support for systems engineering - process modelling and animation with APRIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Philippi; Hermann Josef Hill

    2007-01-01

    The most important task in the early stages of systems engineering is the building of models which capture the relevant knowledge of a given application domain. A working communication with domain experts who possess this knowledge is crucial, since misunderstandings almost always lead to expensive system redesigns in later development stages. In this context, especially the modelling of systems behaviour

  2. A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

  3. Patch dynamics in a landscape modified by ecosystem engineers Justin P. Wright, William S. C. Gurney and Clive G. Jones

    E-print Network

    . Gurney and Clive G. Jones Wright, J. P., Gurney, W. S. C. and Jones, C. G. 2004. Patch dynamics@columbia.edu). Á/ C. G. Jones, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA. Á/ W. S. C. Gurney, Dept of Statistics and Modeling Science, Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, G1 1XH. Jones et al

  4. Evaluating Learning and Attitudes on Tissue Engineering: A Study of Children Viewing Animated Digital Dome Shows Detailing the Biomedicine of Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anna C.; Gonzalez, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art–science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made them think, 75% enjoyed it, and 89% felt that they learned something. We discuss the potential impact the films might have on public knowledge, health literacy, and attitudes toward the science of tissue engineering. PMID:21943030

  5. Governing the moral economy: Animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a ‘moral economy’ is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met. PMID:22507952

  6. Governing the moral economy: animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-07-01

    The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a 'moral economy' is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met. PMID:22507952

  7. Detection of Anthrax Toxin in the Serum of Animals Infected with Bacillus anthracis by Using Engineered Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Robert; Brasky, Kathleen; Geiger, Robert; Carrion, Ricardo; Hubbard, Gene B.; Leppla, Stephen; Patterson, Jean L.; Georgiou, George; Iverson, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Several strategies that target anthrax toxin are being developed as therapies for infection by Bacillus anthracis. Although the action of the tripartite anthrax toxin has been extensively studied in vitro, relatively little is known about the presence of toxins during an infection in vivo. We developed a series of sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection of both the protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) components of the anthrax exotoxin in serum. The assays utilize as capture agents an engineered high-affinity antibody to PA, a soluble form of the extracellular domain of the anthrax toxin receptor (ANTXR2/CMG2), or PA itself. Sandwich immunoassays were used to detect and quantify PA and LF in animals infected with the Ames or Vollum strains of anthrax spores. PA and LF were detected before and after signs of toxemia were observed, with increasing levels reported in the late stages of the infection. These results represent the detection of free PA and LF by ELISA in the systemic circulation of two animal models exposed to either of the two fully virulent strains of anthrax. Simple anthrax toxin detection ELISAs could prove useful in the evaluation of potential therapies and possibly as a clinical diagnostic to complement other strategies for the rapid identification of B. anthracis infection. PMID:16760326

  8. Skin cleaning with kerosene facilitates passage of carcinogens to the lungs of animals treated with used gasoline engine oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Roh, J H; Burks, D; Warshawsky, D; Talaska, G

    2000-04-01

    Solvents such as kerosene or gasoline may be used by workers to clean their skin following contact with oily materials. This practice is not recommended, as it is well known that the solvent will defat the skin. Many also suspect that solvent washing may increase exposure by carrying materials through the skin; however, there is little documentation of this. Auto mechanics may be exposed to used gasoline engine oil (UGEO), an animal carcinogen which forms carcinogen-DNA adducts in skin and lung following topical application. This study was designed to determine if cleaning with kerosene following exposure to UGEO altered absorption of carcinogens from this material. UGEO or new oil (NO) was applied to the shaved skins of groups of HSD-ICR mice for five days. At 1 or 8 hours after application, the treated skins were cleaned with either kerosene or a commercial cleaner, or were not cleaned. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last application, skins and lungs harvested, and DNA analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Five applications of UGEO significantly increased carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in both lungs and skin compared to animals treated with NO. DNA adduct levels in the skin were reduced significantly in groups washed with kerosene or commercial cleaner. Washing at one as opposed to eight hours after UGEO application resulted in lower adduct levels regardless of cleaner. DNA adduct levels in the lung were reduced when the commercial cleaner was used, again in a time-related fashion. However, cleaning with kerosene resulted in mean carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in the lung which were significantly higher than even the positive controls, regardless of cleaning time. This is the first demonstration that kerosene cleaning facilitates passage of carcinogens through the skin, resulting in higher levels of genetic damage in a critical internal organ. PMID:10750280

  9. Engineering Guidebook Bioengineering

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    Engineering Guidebook 2014-2015 Bioengineering Electrical Environmental Mechanical #12;Harvard SEAS Engineering Guidebook 2 What is engineering? In the simplest terms, engineers provide solutions to the world technologies, to protecting vital ecosystems by controlling pollution. At its core, engineering

  10. Impact of elevated levels of CO2 on animal mediated ecosystem function: the modification of sediment nutrient fluxes by burrowing urchins.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, S; Beesley, A; Berge, J A; Dashfield, S L; McNeill, C L; Needham, H R; Øxnevad, S

    2013-08-30

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to quantify the relationships between the presence and body size of two burrowing heart urchins (Brissopsis lyrifera and Echinocardium cordatum) and rates of sediment nutrient flux. Furthermore, the impact of seawater acidification on these relationships was determined during this 40-day exposure experiment. Using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, seawater was acidified to pHNBS 7.6, 7.2 or 6.8. Control treatments were maintained in natural seawater (pH?8.0). Under normocapnic conditions, burrowing urchins were seen to reduce the sediment uptake of nitrite or nitrate whilst enhancing the release of silicate and phosphate. In acidified (hypercapnic) treatments, the biological control of biogeochemical cycles by urchins was significantly affected, probably through the combined impacts of high CO2 on nitrifying bacteria, benthic algae and urchin behaviour. This study highlights the importance of considering biological interactions when predicting the consequences of seawater acidification on ecosystem function. PMID:23218873

  11. Coral Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-06-01

    Why study coral ecosystems? Having survived millions of years, coral reefs are among the oldest and most diverse ecosystems on earth. Learning about coral ecosystems encompasses many of the 9-12 grade science curriculum standards. Life cycles of organisms, biological structure and function of organisms, and the behaviors and adaptations of organisms to their environment are all topics easily studied through a focus on coral reefs. All populations in this ecosystem are interdependent and part of a global food web. Healthy coral ecosystems are important to the humans, plants, fish, and other organisms that depend on them. However, the increasing impact of climate changes and human activities is endangering the very survival of these ecosystems. Pollution, habitat loss, invasive species, and diseases are all threats to the survival of coral ecosystems around the globe. Learning about them- "their fragility and value"- will help students understand what is needed to protect them. This SciGuide highlights outstanding NOAA resources, such as online tutorials and complete, hands-on, inquiry based lesson plans from the National Ocean Services. These resources address three areas. First, students can study the biology of the coral organism, learning about types of coral and where they are found. Next, resources focus on the populations, habitat, and dynamics of coral ecosystems. Finally, teachers and students, through online data sources and activities, learn about conservation of our coral ecosystems. Natural threats, human disturbances, and the benefits of coral protection focus students on the real world importance of science learning.

  12. Animals and the invention of the Phanerozoic Earth system.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    Animals do not just occupy the modern biosphere, they permeate its structure and define how it works. Their unique combination of organ-grade multicellularity, motility and heterotrophic habit makes them powerful geobiological agents, imposing myriad feedbacks on nutrient cycling, productivity and environment. Most significantly, animals have 'engineered' the biosphere over evolutionary time, forcing the diversification of, for example, phytoplankton, land plants, trophic structure, large body size, bioturbation, biomineralization and indeed the evolutionary process itself. This review surveys how animals contribute to the modern world and provides a basis for reconstructing ancient ecosystems. Earlier, less animal-influenced biospheres worked quite differently from the one currently occupied, with the Ediacaran-Cambrian radiation of organ-grade animals marking a fundamental shift in macroecological and macroevolutionary expression. PMID:21190752

  13. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  14. Animal Cell Mitosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

  15. Poulard et al. (2009), Flood mitigation designs with respect to river ecosystem functions a problem oriented conceptual approach, Ecological Engineering (accepted for publication), authors' version

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2009-01-01

    Poulard et al. (2009), Flood mitigation designs with respect to river ecosystem functions 1 Flood mitigation designs with respect to river ecosystem functions ­ a problem oriented conceptual-31-155, Krakow, Poland Keywords : riverscape, dry dam, impact on ecosystems, flood mitigation

  16. ECOSYSTEM HEALTH: ENERGY INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Ecosystem Health and Ecological Integrity 2. Historical Background on Ecosystem Health 3. Energy Systems Analysis, Health and Emergy 4. Energy and Ecosystems 5. Direct Measures of Ecosystem Health 6. Indirect Measures of Ecosystem Health...

  17. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    animals. We create self-animating, autonomous agents which emulate the realistic appearance, movementArtificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior ¡ Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics

  18. AnimAl BehAvior AnimAl Biology Anthropology AviAn ScienceS BiochemiStry, moleculAr, cellulAr AnD DevelopmentAl Biology BiologicAl SyStemS engineering BiomeDicAl engineering BiophySicS BioStAtiSticS clinicAl reSeArch

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    , human evolution, molecular anthropology, archaeological theory, hunter-gatherers, and North American, animal management and welfare, physiology and behavior, behavior and conservation, primate behavior, behavioral ecology of nonhuman primates, biological anthropology, evolution of primate and human behavior

  19. Tried and True: Investigating ecosystems in a biobottle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnica Breene

    2008-02-05

    Biobottles are miniature ecosystems made from 2-liter plastic soda bottles. They allow students to explore how organisms in an ecosystem are connected to each other, examine how biotic and abiotic factors influence plant and animal growth and development, and discover how important biodiversity is to an ecosystem. This activity was inspired by an idea developed by the Rachel Carson Center for Natural Resources.

  20. Human driven transitions in complex model ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfoot, Mike; Newbold, Tim; Tittinsor, Derek; Purves, Drew

    2015-04-01

    Human activities have been observed to be impacting ecosystems across the globe, leading to reduced ecosystem functioning, altered trophic and biomass structure and ultimately ecosystem collapse. Previous attempts to understand global human impacts on ecosystems have usually relied on statistical models, which do not explicitly model the processes underlying the functioning of ecosystems, represent only a small proportion of organisms and do not adequately capture complex non-linear and dynamic responses of ecosystems to perturbations. We use a mechanistic ecosystem model (1), which simulates the underlying processes structuring ecosystems and can thus capture complex and dynamic interactions, to investigate boundaries of complex ecosystems to human perturbation. We explore several drivers including human appropriation of net primary production and harvesting of animal biomass. We also present an analysis of the key interactions between biotic, societal and abiotic earth system components, considering why and how we might think about these couplings. References: M. B. J. Harfoot et al., Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model., PLoS Biol. 12, e1001841 (2014).

  1. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    1 Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Six Projects Authorized by Section 7006(e for Peer Review, released December 16, 2004. The Report of the Chief of Engineers for ecosystem restoration for the Louisiana Coastal Area, dated January 31, 2005, (hereinafter referred to as the "restoration plan

  2. Animal models.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

  3. Louisiana Coastal Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana's coast and its degradation and restoration are major environmental issues being studied at the National Wetlands Research Center. Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable because of the tremendous amount of human activity that takes place along the coast. Information on ecological processes is essential to guide the development along the coast as well as to protect and restore wildlife habitat. Louisiana has about 40% of coastal wetlands in the lower 48 states; they support fish, waterfowl, and fur-bearing animals as well as unique cultures like that of the Acadians. The fish and wildlife resources of Louisiana's coast produce over $1 billion each year in revenues. But Louisiana has the highest coastal loss rate because of natural and human causes. Over the past three decades, Louisiana has lost as much as 35-40 mi2 (90-104 km2) of coastal wetlands a year. The National Wetlands Research Center is qualified to assess and monitor this ecosystem because of its proximity to the study area, a staff chosen for their expertise in the system, and a number of established partnerships with others who study the areas. The Center is often the lead group in partnerships with universities, other federal agencies, and private entities who study this ecosystem. Most of the Center's research and technology development performed for coastal wetlands are done at the Lafayette headquarters; some work is performed at the National Wetlands Research Center's project office in Baton Rouge, LA.

  4. Marine Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

  5. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-print Network

    Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Robert J. Hannemann The Gordon Institute and the Department of Mechanical Engineering Tufts University Retooling Our Energy Ecosystem: challenges and Chair of the Tufts Department of Mechanical Engineering. His technical and academic interests

  6. Boost Converter Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation, created by faculty at Dartmouth University, is a boost converter. The resource features other animations such as buck and discontinuous converters. They also add simple diode, bridge and half-wave rectifiers. Although simple in design, this can still be a useful resource for those interested in electrical engineering.

  7. Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

  8. A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Katie C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

  9. Myocardial and cerebral perfusion studies in animal models S65 In-vivo phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models

    E-print Network

    Jegelka, Stefanie

    of genetically engineered mouse models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is established by combining BT temper- ature (PC-SAM,SA Instruments,UK). MR experiments were performed on a 7T/8cm MR system (MRRS vasodilatation, rendering cerebral blood vessels more susceptible to vasoconstriction and reducing overall blood

  10. Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Mills, L. Scott

    Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation Steven W. Running and L. Scott Mills RFF REPORT ............................... 16 Expected Future Ecosystem Trends ................................................................................................................................................................ 27 #12; RUNNING AND MILLS 1 Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation Steven W. Running and L. Scott

  11. I Spy an Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Biology

    We hear the word ecosystems in the news and at school but just what are ecosystems? It turns out there are lots of ecosystems. You might even learn you have some inside you! Also in: Français | Español

  12. Skingineering I: engineering porcine dermo-epidermal skin analogues for autologous transplantation in a large animal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Braziulis; Thomas Biedermann; Fabienne Hartmann-Fritsch; Clemens Schiestl; Luca Pontiggia; Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth; Ernst Reichmann; Martin Meuli

    2011-01-01

    Background  Extended full thickness skin defects still represent a considerable therapeutic challenge as ideal strategies for definitive\\u000a autologous coverage are still not available. Tissue engineering of whole skin represents an equally attractive and ambitious\\u000a novel approach. We have recently shown that laboratory-grown human skin analogues with near normal skin anatomy can be successfully\\u000a transplanted on immuno-incompetent rats. The goal of the

  13. Functional Growth in Tissue-Engineered Living, Vascular Grafts Follow-Up at 100 Weeks in a Large Animal Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Hoerstrup; Ian Cummings; Mario Lachat; Frederick J. Schoen; Rolf Jenni; Sebastian Leschka; Stefan Neuenschwander; Dorthe Schmidt; Anita Mol; Christina Gunter; Mathias Gossi; Michele Genoni; Gregor Zund

    Background—Living autologous vascular grafts with the capacity for regeneration and growth may overcome the limitations of contemporary artificial prostheses. Particularly in congenital cardiovascular surgery, there is an unmet medical need for growing replacement materials. Here we investigate growth capacity of tissue-engineered living pulmonary arteries in a growing lamb model. Methods and Results—Vascular grafts fabricated from biodegradable scaffolds (ID 18l mm)

  14. Animal Cloning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

  15. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial

    E-print Network

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial Abstract Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem bound- aries and subsidize predators in recipient

  16. Biology is the study of life. Its scope ranges from the molecular to the ecosystem. It deals with fundamental questions such as the origin and evolution of plants and animals, interactions

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Biology is the study of life. Its scope ranges from the molecular to the ecosystem. It deals diseases, and the operation of the brain and the nervous system. The study of Biology has major practical. The programs in Biology provide students with an introduction to the broad spectrum of Biological Sciences

  17. Parallel ecological networks in ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Olff, Han; Alonso, David; Berg, Matty P.; Eriksson, B. Klemens; Loreau, Michel; Piersma, Theunis; Rooney, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In ecosystems, species interact with other species directly and through abiotic factors in multiple ways, often forming complex networks of various types of ecological interaction. Out of this suite of interactions, predator–prey interactions have received most attention. The resulting food webs, however, will always operate simultaneously with networks based on other types of ecological interaction, such as through the activities of ecosystem engineers or mutualistic interactions. Little is known about how to classify, organize and quantify these other ecological networks and their mutual interplay. The aim of this paper is to provide new and testable ideas on how to understand and model ecosystems in which many different types of ecological interaction operate simultaneously. We approach this problem by first identifying six main types of interaction that operate within ecosystems, of which food web interactions are one. Then, we propose that food webs are structured among two main axes of organization: a vertical (classic) axis representing trophic position and a new horizontal ‘ecological stoichiometry’ axis representing decreasing palatability of plant parts and detritus for herbivores and detrivores and slower turnover times. The usefulness of these new ideas is then explored with three very different ecosystems as test cases: temperate intertidal mudflats; temperate short grass prairie; and tropical savannah. PMID:19451126

  18. Animal Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

  19. Exploring Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2009-03-02

    Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

  20. Internet Geography: Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site about ecosystems and biomes contains a map of different ecosystems, and provides rainfall statistics for each biome. There are sections on tropical rainforest, taiga (or boreal forest), savanna, desert, and tundra ecosystems. Each section describes the biome and its origins, where it is found, and how humans impact it. In some cases, sustainable development of the ecosystem is explained.

  1. A Decade of Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R Carpenter; Monica G. Turner

    2007-01-01

    Ten years ago, Ecosystems was introduced as a ‘‘substrate for primary succession of the discipline‘‘ (Carpenter and Turner 1998). We envisioned Ecosystems as an arena for new ways of thinking and new kinds of progress in ecosystem science. We suggested four frontiers that seemed particularly important at that time. ‘‘People and ecosystems‘‘ addressed the study of social-ecological systems, including pressing

  2. Fort Collins Science Center: Ecosystem Dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zack

    2004-01-01

    Many challenging natural resource management issues require consideration of a web of interactions among ecosystem components. The spatial and temporal complexity of these ecosystem problems demands an interdisciplinary approach integrating biotic and abiotic processes. The goals of the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch are to provide sound science to aid federal resource managers and use long-term, place-focused research and monitoring on federal lands to advance ecosystem science. Current studies fall into five general areas. Herbivore-Ecosystem Interactions examines the efficacy of multiple controls on selected herbivore populations and cascading effects through predator-herbivore-plant-soil linkages. Riparian Ecology is concerned with interactions among streamflow, fluvial geomorphology, and riparian vegetation. Integrated Fire Science focuses on the effects of fire on plant and animal communities at multiple scales, and on the interactions between post-fire plant, runoff, and erosion processes. Reference Ecosystems comprises long-term, place-based studies of ecosystem biogeochemistry. Finally, Integrated Assessments is investigating how to synthesize multiple ecosystem stressors and responses over complex landscapes in ways that are useful for management and planning.

  3. The State of Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christi�¡n Samper (National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution; )

    2005-08-01

    The recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has illustrated that human actions have significantly transformed many of Earths ecosystems. The main findings describe how: humans changed ecosystems dramatically over the past 50 years, changes to ecosystem services may get worse in the next 50 years, global action at all levels can reverse the degradation, and how ecosystem degradation increases risks of sudden changes and reduces benefits for future generations.

  4. Translation of an Engineered Nanofibrous Disc-like Angle Ply Structure for Intervertebral Disc Replacement in a Small Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Martin, John T.; Milby, Andrew H.; Chiaro, Joseph A.; Kim, Dong Hwa; Hebela, Nader M.; Smith, Lachlan J.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated in the etiology of low back pain; however the current surgical strategies for treating symptomatic disc disease are limited. A variety of materials have been developed to replace disc components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosus (AF), and their combination into disc-like engineered constructs. We have previously shown that layers of electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) scaffold, mimicking the hierarchical organization of the native AF, have functional parity with native tissue. Likewise, we have combined these structures with cell-seeded hydrogels (as an NP replacement) to form disc-like angle ply structures (DAPS). The objective of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of DAPS in vivo. Through a series of studies, we developed a surgical approach to replace the rat caudal disc with an acellular DAPS and then stabilize the motion segment by external fixation. We then optimized cell infiltration into DAPS by including sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) layers interspersed throughout the angle-ply structure. Our findings illustrate that DAPS are stable in the caudal spine, are infiltrated by cells from the peri-implant space, and that infiltration is expedited by providing additional routes for cell migration. These findings establish a new in vivo platform in which to evaluate and optimize the design of functional disc replacements. PMID:24560621

  5. Character Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  6. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2004-02-05

    This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

  7. The state of the ecosystem on Anticosti Island, Québec.

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, A M

    2001-01-01

    The state of the ecosystem of Anticosti Island, Québec, was studied by veterinary students (n = 17) and faculty (n = 4) in the summer of 1999. The field of ecosystem health is an integrative science requiring the expertise of professionals in several disciplines, including socioeconomic, ecological, biophysical, human health, and animal health (1). PMID:11519275

  8. Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Caldwell; L. O. Björn; J. F. Bornman; S. D. Flint; G. Kulandaivelu; A. H. Teramura; M. Tevini

    1998-01-01

    Elevated solar UV-B radiation associated with stratospheric ozone reduction may exert effects on terrestrial ecosystems through actions on plants, microbes, and perhaps on some animals. At the ecosystem level, the effects are less well understood than at the molecular and organismal levels. Many of the most important, yet less predictable, consequences will be indirect effects of elevated UV-B acting through

  9. Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-28

    This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the natural and human causes of ecosystem stress. Human beings live near coral ecosystems and use them in a variety of ways. Increasing amounts of stress is brought on these ecosystems as humans continue to modify the surrounding environment as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening the stability and overall health of many coral reefs. Human activities may also exacerbate the impact of natural disturbances on coral reefs or compromise the ability of the reef to recover from events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, or disease. Learning Outcomes:? Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).? Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).? Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. ? Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.? Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.? Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.

  10. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  11. The Antarctic Ecosystem: Where Would It Be Without Krill?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to investigate the importance of krill to the Antarctic ecosystem by researching the animals that depend on it. Students will read and answer questions about krill; research Antarctic animals and take note of the place of each animal in the food chain; and draw an Antarctic food web, using the animals they have researched. They will conclude by writing paragraphs explaining the potential consequences of a decline in krill populations.

  12. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  13. The Impact of Nonnative Plants and Animals

    E-print Network

    The Impact of Nonnative Plants and Animals on Deer Mice Goll-ly! Don't Take a Knapweed! 58 of communities within an ecosystem, such as plant communities and communities of animals . You have to examine . The model could draw land areas of different sizes and shapes . I was surprised to see that large areas

  14. PERSISTENCE OF A SURROGATE FOR A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CELLULOLYTIC MICROORGANISM AND EFFECTS ON AQUATIC COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM PROPERTIES: MICROCOSM AND STREAM COMPARISONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research objectives were to: (1) determine the persistence of an introduced surrogate (Cellulomonas sp NRC 2406) for a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) in three streamlined habitats; sediments, growths of Cladophora (Chlorophyta), and leaf packs, (2) test ommunity a...

  15. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services. PMID:25599106

  16. Flash Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

  17. Computer Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  18. Logical animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Costa; R. J. Cunningham; J. Booth

    1990-01-01

    When a formal specification of requirements is presented as a logical theory, symbolic animation of the theory can assist with validation. An animator displays a logical model of the formal specification. We show how minimal models can be derived from a tableau proof system. Examples illustrate the use of animation with a simple data base andfor validating specifications in the

  19. Animal Scent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

  20. Sagebrush Ecosystem Conservation and Management

    E-print Network

    Aldridge, Cameron

    Sagebrush Ecosystem Conservation and Management: Ecoregional Assessment Tools and Models SagebrushEcosystemConservationandManagement Hanser Leu Knick Aldridge Sagebrush Ecosystem Conservation of the remaining strongholds of the sagebrush ecosystem. However, like most sagebrush habitats, threats

  1. The Ecosystem Science Center

    E-print Network

    The Ecosystem Science Center 2010-2011 Annual report Photo, by graduate student Alex of the Ecosystem Science Center for the period July 1, 2010 July 1, 2011 Introduction to ESC ­ A Message from .......................................... 40 1 #12;A Message from the ESC Director The Ecosystem Science Center has now completed its

  2. The Ecosystem Science Center

    E-print Network

    1 The Ecosystem Science Center 2011-2012 Annual report #12;2 Table of Contents This document summarizes the activities of the Ecosystem Science Center for the period from July 1, 2011 July 1, 2012 of the Ecosystem Science Center who supported this research project in Calumet watershed with a graduate research

  3. Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

    1997-01-01

    1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

  4. The polluted ecosystem game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Brock; W. D. Dechert

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of optimal management of ecosystems by developing a dynamic model of strategic behavior by users\\/communities of an ecosystem such as a lake, which is subject to pollution resulting from the users. More specifically, it builds a model of two ecosystems that are spatially connected. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper

  5. Ecosystem Health: Energy Indicators.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Just as for human beings health is a concept that applies to the condition of the whole organism, the health of an ecosystem refers to the condition of the ecosystem as a whole. For this reason, the study and characterization of ecosystems is fundamental to establishing accurate ...

  6. Animal Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site from Animal Planet offers visitors the very latest news about animals around the globe. Scroll along the map of the world, and then click on an icon. A pop-up window will appear with a synopsis of a news story, a link to the full story, and a list of related features on the Animal Planet Web site. A key to the map icons is provided. The full news story page also provides general information and trivia about each animal. This is a great resource for anyone wishing to keep informed about animal-related current events without having to register for an email newsletter.

  7. Trying to fit in: are patterns of orientation of a keystone grazer set by behavioural responses to ecosystem engineers or wave action?

    PubMed

    Fraser, Clarissa M L; Coleman, Ross A; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of animals varies at different temporal and spatial scales. At the smallest scale, distribution may be orientated in regard to particular environmental variables or habitat features. For animals on the rocky intertidal, the processes which set and maintain patterns of distribution and abundance in wave-exposed areas are well studied, with explanatory models focused on wave action and, more recently, the role of biogenic habitats. In contrast, patterns of orientation by intertidal animals have received less attention, although having ecological and fitness consequences. Here, we report tests of competing models to explain the observation that limpets on steeply sloped surfaces orientate downwards. A greater proportion of downwards-facing limpets was found in sheltered sites and areas without barnacles and this pattern was consistent across many shores and sampling occasions. Additionally, the frequency at which limpets were dislodged after a storm was independent of orientation. To test whether orientation is a behavioural response to habitat-forming barnacles, barnacles were removed and/or killed from patches of substrata and the change in proportion of downwards-facing limpets measured. The proportion increased with barnacle removal and this behaviour was a response to the structure of the barnacles, not a biotic effect associated with the living organism. Our study suggests that biogenic habitat not wave action sets patterns of limpet orientation and barnacle shells, regardless of whether the barnacle is alive or not, limit the ability of limpets to adopt a downward orientation. PMID:23996227

  8. Mercury in the ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological ecosystem are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.

  9. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-04-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 131/I, /sup 3/H, and /sup 239/Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs.

  10. CalPhotos: Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the University of California-Berkeley Digital Library Project (first mentioned in the April 16, 1999 Scout Report), this CalPhotos website connects visitors to 17,812 images of different animals. Site visitors can locate animal photographs using a search engine with free text fields for Scientific or Common name, Location, and Picture's ID, and drop-down menu fields for Photographer, Country, US State, Collection, and more. Visitors can also peruse extensive, hyperlinked listings of animals grouped under the following categories: Amphibians, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Mammals, and Reptiles. Animals are listed by both common and scientific name. The photographs come from a variety of sources, and are accompanied by usage guidelines. CalPhotos collections are also available for Fungi, Plants, People & Culture, and Landscapes & Habitats.

  11. Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Pook

    \\u000a Pendulums are an essential component of some engineering structures. Three of these are described in this chapter. These are\\u000a the Watt steam governor, cable cars, and tension leg platforms. The Watt steam governor was invented by James Watt to regulate\\u000a the supply of steam to his steam engines and hence keep the speed reasonably constant, irrespective of the load. It

  12. Water Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Kyrk

    This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

  13. NMR Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

  14. Astronomy Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

  15. Neurobiology: Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Blackwell Publishing, this entertaining series of animations is part of a companion website for _Neurobiology: Molecules, Cells and Systems_, a textbook by Gary G. Matthews. The ten instructive and easy-to-understand animations are worth a visit by anyone who has a curiosity about neurobiology. Animation titles include: Mechanosensory Transduction in Hair Cells, Granule Cell Migration Along Radial Glial Cells, Photo isomerization of Rhodopsin, and Propagation of the Action Potential, and more. For visitors lacking Macromedia Flash Player, which is necessary to view these animations, the site provides a link to a free Player download.

  16. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  17. Biodomes Engineering Design Project: Lessons 2-6

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this multi-day activity, students explore environments, ecosystems, energy flow and organism interactions by creating a scale model biodome, following the steps of the engineering design process. The Procedure section provides activity instructions for Biodomes unit, lessons 2-6, as students work through Parts 1-6 to develop their model biodome. Subjects include energy flow and food chains, basic needs of plants and animals, and the importance of decomposers. Students consider why a solid understanding of one's environment and the interdependence of an ecosystem can inform the choices we make and the way we engineer our own communities. This activity can be conducted as either a very structured or open-ended design.

  18. Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral, tritrophic interactions, deception and others). o Furthermore, applied aspects of animal-plant interactions

  19. Emergy and ecosystem complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulgiati, Sergio; Brown, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    The question "What drives complexity?" is addressed in this paper. To answer this question, we explore the way energy and material resources of different quality flow through ecosystems and support, directly and indirectly, ecosystems growth and development. Processes of resource transformation throughout the ecosystem build order, cycle materials, generate and sustain information. Energy drives all these processes and energetic principles explain much of what is observed, including energy degradation according to the laws of thermodynamics. Emergy, a quantitative measure of the global environmental work supporting ecosystem dynamics, is used here in order to provide a deeper understanding of complexity growth and decline in ecosystems. Ecosystem complexity is discussed in this paper in relation to changes in structure, organization and functional capacity, as explained by changes in emergy, empower, and transformity.

  20. GPS Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

  1. Excelsior Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkamp, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  2. Immunoassay Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Kyn Wai

    This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Bone­specific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

  3. Collision Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment

    This series of interactive Flash animation explores all aspects of the India-Eurasian continental collision. Animations show the motion of the two continents, the growth of the Himalayas, earthquakes resulting from their collision, and the incredible rate of erosion of the newly formed mountains.

  4. Ecosystem Services - Water Purification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-06-30

    This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy ecosystems by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how ecosystems remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once ecosystems are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.

  5. Science Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by Ant�³nio Cidad�£o.

  6. Engineering Engineering

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

  7. Integrated environmental monitoring at remote ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, D.A.; O'Rourke, T.P.; Staley, C.S.; White, G.J.; Wiersma, G.B. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA). Center for Environmental Monitoring and Assessment); Baker, G.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Smith, B.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (USA). Dept. of Forest Science); Clayton, J.L. (Forest Service, Boise, ID (USA). Intermountain Research Station); Greene, S.E. (Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (USA

    1988-08-01

    The first annual report reviews progress to date on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory(INEL) research project, Integrated Ecosystem and Pollutant Monitoring at Remote Wilderness Study Sites.'' The two primary objectives of this study are to apply, field test, and conceptually evaluate the US Forest Service guidelines for remote ecosystem monitoring and to provide an ongoing database on selected high-elevation ecosystem attributes, including physical, chemical, and biological parameters. The basic criteria for evaluation of the guidelines are usability, cost-effectiveness, data variability, alternative approaches, ecosystem conceptual approach, and quality assurance. The goal of the project is to identify a list of pollutant measurements and ecological attributes that will provide good, quality-assured data about a particular ecosystem. The present report covers each of the major components of the Forest Service guidelines except for regulatory and management constraints and visibility, which are not part of this project. Therefore, progress to date is provided as separate sections of the report for each of the following components: atomspheric environment, soils, aquatic chemistry, aquatic biology, salmonid fish, and plants (including forest ecosystem). 24 refs., 66 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Animal Presentations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kelly Godwin

    2009-10-05

    Students will pick an animal and create a presentation for the class about that animal. They will learn about research and PowerPoint while learning about animals. Also, students will build presentation skills. Kelly Godwin Instructional Architect 09/19/09 ASSURE Lesson Plan Analyze the learner The students are all in 4th grade so they are approximately 10 years old. Their academic abilities are that of a 10-year-old give or take 1 or 1.5 years. The students are mostly from the middle class suburbs. They have more than ...

  9. Toward understanding, managing, and protecting microbial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bodelier, Paul L E

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalyzing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity-conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper identifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology. PMID:21747797

  10. Toward Understanding, Managing, and Protecting Microbial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalyzing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity–conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper identifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology. PMID:21747797

  11. Creating Animation for Presentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Zongker

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Creating Animation for Presentationsby Douglas ZongkerChair of Supervisory Committee:Professor David H. SalesinComputer Science & EngineeringIn recent years the use of computer-generated slides to accompany live presentation has becomeincreasingly common. There is a potential for using computer graphics to increase the effectivenessof this type of presentation. The hardware for generating and projecting complex scenes andanimation is in place, yet few

  12. Buck Converter Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College features an animation of a buck converter. A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter. Its design is similar to the step-up boost converter, and like the boost converter it is a switched-mode power supply that uses two switches (a transistor and a diode), an inductor and a capacitor.

  13. Comparing Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-12-05

    As you complete this WebQuest I would like you to think about the story that you are going to be writing. You may choose to write a true animal story. This would be like the news article about the cat and the dog that we read in class. Or you may chose to write a pretend story about a pretend animal. This will be like the folktale we read about the frogs finding their music. Look for ideas and stories that you may want to write your story on. It is okay to change your mind, but you must write a story about an animal. Webquest Introduction: Think about something that you may want to write your story about. Ask yourself: -Do I want to write a true story? -Do I want to write a pretend story? -What kinds of animals ...

  14. Camera Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

  15. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  16. Screen Animals

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Laura

    2014-01-01

    of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), Jonathan Burt, Animals in Film (London: Reaktion, 2002), Cynthia Chris, Watching Wildlife (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), Raymond Bellour, Le Corps du cinéma: hypnoses, émotions, animalités (Paris: P.O.L., 2009...

  17. Earth on Edge: Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janet Overton

    This site provides information about the six ecosystems on which life on Earth most heavily depends: agricultural, forest, freshwater, grassland, coastal, and urban. It is part of a Public Broadcasting System (PBS) project, which includes a discussion guide. Ecosystems are described as communities of interacting organisms and the physical environment in which they live. The goods and services that ecosystems provide are said to form the foundation of human economies. Ecosystems purify air and water, help to control climate, and produce valuable soil-services. Site users may access a discussion guide to accompany the broadcast of the video/television program, which can be used in colleges, secondary schools, and in community groups. Case studies are taken from the companion book, World Resources 2000-2001: Ecosystems and People: The Fraying Web of Life, and from Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Agroecosystems (World Resources Institute). This online text includes profiles, case studies, and ecosystem assessments with references to ecosystems around the world. A list of additional resources includes links to environmental organizations, books, and periodicals.

  18. Science Sampler: Ecosystem Jenga!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Diandra L. Leslie-Pelecky

    2009-09-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately bal

  19. Ecosystems emerging: 1. conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard C. Patten; Milan Straškraba; Sven E. Jørgensen

    1997-01-01

    This second paper in the series on Ecosystems Emerging treats some properties of ecosystems derivable from the single elementary principle of conservation. These go beyond the mere balancing out of the matter and forces of nature.A brief sketch of a conservationless world is given, followed by an elementary background review of energy, matter and information. The main conservative quantities are

  20. Exploring virtual ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antão Vaz Almada; António Eduardo Dias; João Pedro Silva; Emanuel Marques dos Santos; Pedro José Pedrosa; António Sousa Câmara

    1996-01-01

    Browsing In Time & Space (BITS) is an interface designed to explore virtual ecosystems. A virtual ecosystem includes a three dimensional terrain model background, collections of man-made and natural objects, and behavior and interaction rules between the objects and the background. BITS is based on a virtual notepad and pen metaphor and is inspired in the concept of logging. Physical

  1. Where Will Ecosystems Go?

    SciTech Connect

    Janetos, Anthony C.

    2008-09-29

    Climate-induced changes in ecosystems have been both modeled and documented extensively over the past 15-20 years. Those changes occur in the context of many other stresses and interacting factors, but it is clear that many, if not most, ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate.

  2. Environmental Biology - Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave McShaffrey

    This resource explains how energy and pollutants move through an ecosystem, how ecosystems are balanced and how they may be affected by human activities. Concepts described include the roles of organisms, food chains and food webs, pyramids of biomass, biological magnification, and biogeochemical cycles such as water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous cycles.

  3. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal bone and investigate the effects of aging, therapeutic treatments, disease, and genetic variation. In contrast to traditional strength tests on small animal bones, fracture mechanics tests display smaller variation and therefore offer the possibility of reducing sample sizes. This article provides an analysis of what such tests measure and proposes methods to reduce errors associated with testing smaller than ideal specimens. PMID:18672104

  4. Organic Chemistry Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.

  5. The parasite connection in ecosystems and macroevolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolf Seilacher; Wolf-Ernst Reif; Peter Wenk

    2007-01-01

    In addition to their obvious negative effects (“pathogens”), endoparasites of various kinds play an important role in shaping\\u000a and maintaining modern animal communities. In the long-term, parasites including pathogens are indispensable entities of any\\u000a ecosystem. To understand this, it is essential that one changes the viewpoint from the host’s interests to that of the parasite.\\u000a Together with geographic isolation, trophic

  6. Ecosystem services and water economics

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Ecosystem services and water economics Florida Agricultural Commodity & Policy Outlook Conference, Food & Resource Economics Department, University of Florida/IFAS · Part II. Markets for Ecosystem preferences o Technological changes o Market competition o Recent: · Water availability · Ecosystem service

  7. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    E-print Network

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  8. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  9. Animal Tracks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

  10. Quantum and Ecosystem Entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, A. D.

    2008-06-01

    Ecosystems and quantum gases share a number of superficial similarities including enormous numbers of interacting elements and the fundamental role of energy in such interactions. A theory for the synthesis of data and prediction of new phenomena is well established in quantum statistical mechanics. The premise of this paper is that the reason a comparable unifying theory has not emerged in ecology is that a proper role for entropy has yet to be assigned. To this end, a phase space entropy model of ecosystems is developed. Specification of an ecosystem phase space cell size based on microbial mass, length, and time scales gives an ecosystem uncertainty parameter only about three orders of magnitude larger than Planck’s constant. Ecosystem equilibria is specified by conservation of biomass and total metabolic energy, along with the principle of maximum entropy at equilibria. Both Bose - Einstein and Fermi - Dirac equilibrium conditions arise in ecosystems applications. The paper concludes with a discussion of some broader aspects of an ecosystem phase space.

  11. Tracing Water Sources of Terrestrial Animal Populations with Stable Isotopes: Laboratory Tests with Crickets and Spiders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin E. McCluney; John L. Sabo

    2010-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the “water web”). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential

  12. Lessons on River Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dan Zalles

    The lesson activity titles are: What are systems? (Purpose: to have students understand what a "system" is, in the broadest sense) How is the natural environment of the tribal community a system? (Purpose: to tie what students learned during the year about the tribal community and its natural environment to the concept of what a "system" is) How did settlers of European descent change the tribe's ecosystem? (Purpose: to explore the connections between what European settlers did to the tribe's ecosystem and what the effects have been on the ecosystem) What can be done? What should be done? (Purpose: to explore and evaluate policy options for future environmental sustenance)

  13. Ecosystem approach to management I. "dynamic" ecosystem management v.

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Ecosystem approach to management I. "dynamic" ecosystem management v. the past "static" approach A. Past Resource Management Approach B. New ecosystem management approach C. Examples II. Using Natural Processes under Ecosystem Management A. Disturbance B. Succession C. Important types of natural

  14. Toward an integrated ecosystem perspective of invasive species impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Jones, Clive G.; Sousa, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    Progress in the study of ecosystem impacts of invasive species can be facilitated by moving from the evaluation of invasive species impacts on particular processes to the analysis of their overall effects on ecosystem functioning. Here we propose an integrative ecosystem-based approach to the analysis of invasive species impacts that is based on an understanding of the general mechanistic links between biotic factors, abiotic factors, and processes in ecosystems. Two general kinds of biotic mediation - direct and indirect - and two general mechanisms of invasive species impact - assimilatory-dissimilatory (uptake and release of energy and materials) and physical ecosystem engineering (physical environmental modification by organisms) - are most relevant. By combining the biotic mediation pathways and the general mechanisms, four general situations emerge that characterize a great many of the impacts invasive species can have on ecosystem processes. We propose ways to integrate these distinctive impacts into general mechanistic representations that link ecosystem processes with changes in biotic and abiotic states (changes in structure, composition, amount, process rates, etc.). In turn, these help generate predictions about the interplay of invasive species and other drivers of ecosystem processes that are of particular relevance to ecosystems where invasive species co-occur with other anthropogenic impacts.

  15. Light Pollution and Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Travis Longcore (University of Southern California; )

    2010-05-20

    Artificial light at night acts as a pollutant, with significant and adverse impacts to ecosystems. It can, for example, cause disorientation or act as an unnatural stimulus to wildlife, and disrupt reproduction for many species.

  16. THE COMPUTERIZED ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A generalized discussion of mathematical simulation used on the Great Lakes is presented for the layman. Illustrations of model utilization are presented and the complexities of ecosystem simulation are noted....

  17. Ecosystems in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madders, M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

  18. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  19. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  20. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  1. Animation aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

    1991-01-01

    Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

  2. Animal Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Pearson

    1884-01-01

    THE following instance of animal intelligence may interest some of your readers. While walking through the forest here the other day, I found a young jay upon the ground scarcely able to fly. As I stooped down to examine it I was somewhat startled by a swoop made at my head by the old birds, their wings actually touching my

  3. Ecosystem Management Strategies Katy Ransone

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Ecosystem Management Strategies Katy Ransone Biol 379- Dr. Dever 11/14/13 How we should manage as ecosystem management. The term 'ecosystem' is one that is somewhat loosely defined. In general, it includes all of the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factors in a specified area. With the ecosystem

  4. Is a collagen scaffold for a tissue engineered nucleus replacement capable of restoring disc height and stability in an animal model?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Wilke; Frank Heuer; Cornelia Neidlinger-Wilke; Lutz Claes

    2006-01-01

    The idea of a tissue engineered nucleus implant is to seed cells in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. This matrix may serve\\u000a as a scaffold for a tissue engineered nucleus implant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether implantation of the\\u000a collagen matrix into a spinal segment after nucleotomy is able to restore disc height and flexibility. The implant

  5. Allelopathy in Forested Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azim U. Mallik

    In the context of forestry, the concept of allelopathy has recently been expanded from a plant to plant interference phenomenon\\u000a to an ecosystem-level phenomenon that is influenced by ecosystem disturbance. This chapter reviews the latest development\\u000a in our understanding of forest allelopathy and the ways in which this new knowledge can be used in sustainable forest management.\\u000a Allelopathic effects of

  6. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  7. Animated Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

  8. Ecosystem growth and development.

    PubMed

    Fath, Brian D; Jørgensen, Sven E; Patten, Bernard C; Straskraba, Milan

    2004-11-01

    One of the most important features of biosystems is how they are able to maintain local order (low entropy) within their system boundaries. At the ecosystem scale, this organization can be observed in the thermodynamic parameters that describe it, such that these parameters can be used to track ecosystem growth and development during succession. Thermodynamically, ecosystem growth is the increase of energy throughflow and stored biomass, and ecosystem development is the internal reorganization of these energy mass stores, which affect transfers, transformations, and time lags within the system. Several proposed hypotheses describe thermodynamically the orientation or natural tendency that ecosystems follow during succession, and here, we consider five: minimize specific entropy production, maximize dissipation, maximize exergy storage (includes biomass and information), maximize energy throughflow, and maximize retention time. These thermodynamic orientors were previously all shown to occur to some degree during succession, and here we present a refinement by observing them during different stages of succession. We view ecosystem succession as a series of four growth and development stages: boundary, structural, network, and informational. We demonstrate how each of these ecological thermodynamic orientors behaves during the different growth and development stages, and show that while all apply during some stages only maximizing energy throughflow and maximizing exergy storage are applicable during all four stages. Therefore, we conclude that the movement away from thermodynamic equilibrium, and the subsequent increase in organization during ecosystem growth and development, is a result of system components and configurations that maximize the flux of useful energy and the amount of stored exergy. Empirical data and theoretical models support these conclusions. PMID:15527958

  9. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 84 (2001) 120 Economic and environmental threats of alien plant,

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 84 (2001) 1­20 Economic and environmental threats of alien. Precise economic costs associated with some of the most ecologically damaging alien species; Animals; Alien; Economic; Ecology; Environment; Agriculture; Non-indigenous 1. Introduction Quantifying

  10. Mapping cryptic invaders and invisability of tropical forest ecosystems: Chromolaena odorata in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chudamani Joshi

    2006-01-01

    For centuries, people continuously increased the rate of biological invasions and there is no sign of slowing down. From the depth of the Ocean to the crest of Himalayas, they are occupying pristine and semi-natural ecosystems at an alarming rate, threatening human, animal, plant as well as ecosystem health. Efforts to avoid or eradicate them are not achievable except for

  11. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  12. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  13. Brazilian minipig as a large-animal model for basic research and stem cell-based tissue engineering. Characterization and in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    STRAMANDINOLI-ZANICOTTI, Roberta Targa; CARVALHO, André Lopes; REBELATTO, Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi; SASSI, Laurindo Moacir; TORRES, Maria Fernanda; SENEGAGLIA, Alexandra Cristina; BOLDRINILEITE, Lidiane Maria; CORREA-DOMINGUEZ, Alejandro; KULIGOVSKY, Crisciele; BROFMAN, Paulo Roberto Slud

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is one of the most intensively researched medical issues. Pre-clinical studies in a large-animal model, especially in swine or miniature pigs, are highly relevant to human applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and expanded from different sources. Objective This study aimed at isolating and characterizing, for the first time, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from a Brazilian minipig (BR1). Also, this aimed to validate a new large-animal model for stem cell-based tissue engineering. Material and Methods Bone marrow (BM) was aspirated from the posterior iliac crest of twelve adult male BR1 under general anesthesia. MSCs were selected by plastic-adherence as originally described by Friedenstein. Cell morphology, surface marker expression, and cellular differentiation were examined. The immunophenotypic profile was determined by flow cytometry. The differentiation potential was assessed by cytological staining and by RT-PCR. Results MSCs were present in all minipig BM samples. These cells showed fibroblastic morphology and were positive for the surface markers CD90 (88.6%), CD29 (89.8%), CD44 (86.9%) and negative for CD34 (1.61%), CD45 (1.83%), CD14 (1.77%) and MHC-II (2.69%). MSCs were differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts as demonstrated by the presence of lipidic-rich vacuoles, the mineralized extracellular matrix, and the great presence of glycosaminoglycans, respectively. The higher gene expression of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (AP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type 2 (COLII) also confirmed the trilineage differentiation (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.031; respectively). Conclusions The isolation, cultivation, and differentiation of BM-MSCs from BR1 makes this animal eligible as a useful large-animal model for stem cell-based studies in Brazil. PMID:25025563

  14. Livestock as Ecosystem Engineers Justin Derner and

    E-print Network

    Tate, Kenneth

    .2 cm #12;1) Prairie dogs with moderate cattle grazing 2) Prescribed burns with moderate cattle grazing + Supplement Dormant-season Burns Prairie Dog Colonies Mountain Plover Nest & Foraging Locations A B a ab ab bc performance #12;Livestock performance with prairie dogs Derner, JD, JK Detling and MF Antolin. 2006

  15. Engineering Engineering

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    of global poverty and sustainability". An ESW course, offered by Civil & Environmental Engineering, teaches pride in us- ing a systems engineering approach. Contributions from students in CS, ECE, and MAE of Engineering and offers two undergrad degrees there: Computer Science and Information Science, Systems

  16. Prince William Sound: An Ecosystem in Transition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, reports on environmental recovery since the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. It provides explanations of ecosystem recovery, the toxicity of oil, oil weathering, and fingerprinting (determining where a hydrocarbon residue originated). As evidence of the resiliency of the ecosystem, there is a photo time series of a plot on Block Island and photos of recolonization on rocks at Herring Bay. To show how plants and animals are adjusting, there are graphs of the pink salmon harvest and abundance of periwinkle snails and rockweed cover in the years since the spill. Information is provided on findings of NOAA's long-term monitoring program at Prince William Sound to improve future oil spill cleanups.

  17. Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

  18. Character Animation Animation is a big topic

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Ben

    Character Animation 1 #12;Overview · Animation is a big topic · We will concentrate on character animation as is used in many games today ­ humans, animals, monsters, robots, etc. #12;Character is called a pose ­ the state of a skeleton at a particular time of animation #12;Regular layout 2 (no arcade

  19. Ecosystems and the value of adjacent protected areas to agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waltraud Kugler; Elli Broxham Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Without anthropogenic influence, Europe would not have the beautiful and rich landscape we see today. The development of open spaces through crop cultivation and animal husbandry has led to the wide diversity of landscape that exists in Europe… Over centuries people have bred livestock and cultivated plants especially suited to their local environment. Biologically valuable traditional agro-ecosystems developed within each

  20. Conservation of Priority Birds in Sagebrush Ecosystems1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrell D. Rich; Michael J. Wisdom; Victoria A. Saab

    Sagebrush ecosystems occupy over 62,000,000 ha of the western US. However, they have been degraded or completely eliminated by agricultural conversion, over- grazing by domestic livestock, invasion of exotic plants, expansion of pinyon and juniper woodlands, un- characteristic wildfires, and fragmentation. This habitat loss has led to an increasing number of special status species, including 630 plant and animal species

  1. Lipid Catabolism of Invertebrate Predator Indicates Widespread Wetland Ecosystem Degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Anteau; Alan D. Afton; Bradley Steven Launikonis

    2011-01-01

    Animals frequently undergo periods when they accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent energetically expensive activities, such as migration or breeding. During such periods, daily lipid-reserve dynamics (DLD) of sentinel species can quantify how landscape modifications affect function, health, and resilience of ecosystems. Aythya affinis (Eyton 1838; lesser scaup; diving duck) are macroinvertebrate predators; they migrate through an agriculturally dominated landscape in

  2. 1714(1) Winter 2006 Yellowstone Science NY ECOSYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Microbial Ecology and Energetics in Yellowstone Hot Springs John R. Spear, Jeffrey J. Walker, and Norman R things (plants, animals, etc.)andnon-livingthings (rocks, soil, water, etc.) in a given geographic area. Members of the other two domains, Bacteria and Archaea, are all microbial, and perform many ecosystem ser

  3. Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nichols; S. Spector; J. Louzada; T. Larsen; S. Amezquita; M. E. Favila

    2008-01-01

    Clear understanding of the links between ecological functions and biodiversity is needed to assess and predict the true environmental consequences of human activities. Several key ecosystem functions are provided by coprophagous beetles in the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), which feed on animal excreta as both adults and larvae. Through manipulating feces during the feeding process, dung beetles instigate a series

  4. Grays Lake Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.

  5. Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D.W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these ecosystems. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.

  6. Animal leptospirosis in small tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Cardinale, E; Michault, A

    2011-02-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Humans become infected through contact with the urine of carrier animals, directly or via contaminated environments. This review reports available data on animal leptospirosis in ten tropical islands: Barbados, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Grenada, Trinidad, New Caledonia, Hawaii, French Polynesia, La Réunion and Mayotte. Leptospirosis is endemic in these insular wild and domestic fauna. Each island presents a specific panel of circulating serovars, closely linked with animal and environmental biodiversity, making it epidemiologically different from the mainland. Rats, mongooses and mice are proven major renal carriers of leptospires in these areas but dogs also constitute a significant potential reservoir. In some islands seroprevalence of leptospirosis in animals evolves with time, inducing changes in the epidemiology of the human disease. Consequently more investigations on animal leptospirosis in these ecosystems and use of molecular tools are essential for prevention and control of the human disease. PMID:20875197

  7. Is Net Ecosystem Production Equal to Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation?

    E-print Network

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    as ecosystem scientists investigate more fully the controls on the C balance of the biosphere. However of a complete organic C balance for an ecosystem, which can be written as: DCorg ¼ GPP þ I À Re À E À Oxnb ð1Þ In aquatic ecosystems, NEP is usually measured directly from the mass balance of oxygen (O2) or carbon

  8. Natural ecosystem design and control imperatives for sustainable ecosystem services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard C. Patten

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability of ecosystem services to humanity will depend on knowledge of how ecosystems work in their natural states, which can then be carried over to managed states. The objective of this paper is to describe four properties of ecosystems taken as natural conditions to be maintained under exploitation. Three of these are design properties: near-steady-state or extremal dynamics, dominance of

  9. Introduction Ecosystem management has been

    E-print Network

    65(2) 1 Introduction Ecosystem management has been vigorously debated at many meetings, conferences, and workshops (Inter- agency Ecosystem Management Task Force, 1995; Malone, 1995; Stanley, 1995; Christensen et

  10. Ecosystem Restoration Research at GWERD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...

  11. Energetics of an Aquatic Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William H. Leonard (University of Nebraska; )

    1982-06-21

    This activity is meant to give students an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and the processes and concepts that they are composed of and to give students a feel for how ecosystems affect the larger community.

  12. POEM: PESTICIDE ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Orchard Ecosystem Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard ecosystem. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...

  13. Managing an NFC Ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Madlmayr; Josef Langer; Josef Scharinger

    2008-01-01

    Whereas several NFC trials are already established around the world, currently there are no mass rolls out yet. This is due to several technical as well as administrative issues that have to be dealt with before rolling out such a system. In this paper we present an approach for managing the B2B relations in an near field communication (NFC) ecosystem

  14. Biocomplexity in mangrove ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Feller, I C; Lovelock, C E; Berger, U; McKee, K L; Joye, S B; Ball, M C

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems. PMID:21141670

  15. TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terrestrial Habitats Project at the Western Ecology Division (Corvallis, OR) is developing tools and databases to meet the needs of Program Office clients for assessing risks to wildlife and terrestrial ecosystems. Because habitat is a dynamic condition in real-world environm...

  16. Case Study: Ecosystem Transformations

    E-print Network

    Nippert, Jesse

    142 Chapter 15 Case Study: Ecosystem Transformations Along The Colorado Front Range: Prairie Dog-tailed prairie dog. Directional changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry are altering the environment foothills and mixed-grass to short-grass prairie. Among these direc- tional changes are elevated average

  17. Boston Harbor Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates ecosystem zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.

  18. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  19. Pecos River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    E-print Network

    McDonald, A.; Hart, C.

    2004-01-01

    TR- 272 2004 Pecos River Ecosystem Monitoring Project C. Hart A. McDonald Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University - 146 - 2003 Pecos River Ecosystem Monitoring Project... Charles R. Hart, Extension Range Specialist, Fort Stockton Alyson McDonald, Extension Assistant – Hydrology, Fort Stockton SUMMARY The Pecos River Ecosystem Project is attempting to minimize the negative impacts of saltcedar on the river ecosystem...

  20. Ecosystem Task Force Meeting Minutes

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Ecosystem Task Force Meeting Minutes Date: April 28, 2011 Title of Meeting: Monthly Meeting. A focus on planning helps ground the Task Force because of the complexity of ecosystems. UNH-862-0785 sustainability.info@unh.edu http://www.sustainableunh.unh.edu/ #12;3.1. Ecosystem work has no defined parameters

  1. Is a collagen scaffold for a tissue engineered nucleus replacement capable of restoring disc height and stability in an animal model?

    PubMed

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Heuer, Frank; Neidlinger-Wilke, Cornelia; Claes, Lutz

    2006-08-01

    The idea of a tissue engineered nucleus implant is to seed cells in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. This matrix may serve as a scaffold for a tissue engineered nucleus implant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether implantation of the collagen matrix into a spinal segment after nucleotomy is able to restore disc height and flexibility. The implant basically consists of condensed collagen type-I matrix. For clinical use, this matrix will be used for reinforcing and supporting the culturing of nucleus cells. In experiments, matrixes were concentrated with barium sulfate for X-ray purposes and cell seeding was disclaimed in order to evaluate the biomechanical performance of the collagen material. Six bovine lumbar functional spinal units, aging between 5 and 6 months, were used for the biomechanical in-vitro test. In each specimen, an oblique incision was performed, the nucleus was removed and replaced by a collagen-type-I matrix. Specimens were mounted in a custom-built spine tester, and subsequently exposed to pure moments of 7.5 Nm to move within the three anatomical planes. Each tested stage (intact, nucleotomy and implanted) was evaluated for range of motion, neutral zone and change in disc height. Removal of the nucleus significantly reduced disc height by 0.84 mm in respect to the intact stage and caused an instability in the segment. Through the implantation of the tissue engineered nucleus it was possible to restore this height and stability loss, and even to increase slightly the disc height of 0.07 mm compared with the intact stage. There was no statistical difference between the stability provided by the implant and intact stage. Results of movements in lateral bending and axial rotation showed the same trend compared to flexion/extension. However, implant extrusions have been observed in three of six cases during the flexibility assessment. The results of this study directly reflect the efficacy of vital nucleus replacement to restore disc height and to provide stability to intervertebral discs. However, from a biomechanical point of view, the challenge is to employ an appropriate annulus fibrosus sealing method, which is capable to keep the nucleus implant in place over a long-time period. Securing the nucleus implant inside the disc is one of the most important biomechanical prerequisites if such a tissue engineered implant shall have a chance for clinical application. PMID:16868784

  2. Flash animation in introductory EE courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ferre; Wai Shan Lau; B. Ngo; E. A. Riskin; M. Soma; R. Christie; J. Harris; L. J. Collins; R. E. Lee; M. Campion

    2002-01-01

    We are developing interactive web pages for distance learning that use Macromedia Flash animation in undergraduate electrical engineering courses in circuits and signals and systems. We have animated key concepts such as steady-state analysis, time scale, time reversal, and convolution to allow students to better visualize these ideas. We are also developing ways to allow student input and immediate feedback

  3. Use of transgenic animals in toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Kirkland

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic and genetically engineered animals are being increasingly used in the study of diseases and for safety assessments for new products. There are four main areas in which they influence pharmaceutical development; two of these, new disease models and `humanized' animals for the assessment of biopharmaceuticals, have not yet made their impact upon toxicology and so will only be briefly

  4. An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Assess the Status of a Mediterranean Ecosystem, the Posidonia oceanica Seagrass Meadow

    PubMed Central

    Personnic, Sébastien; Boudouresque, Charles F.; Astruch, Patrick; Ballesteros, Enric; Blouet, Sylvain; Bellan-Santini, Denise; Bonhomme, Patrick; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Feunteun, Eric; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pastor, Jérémy; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Florent; Thibaut, Thierry; Ruitton, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Biotic indices, which reflect the quality of the environment, are widely used in the marine realm. Sometimes, key species or ecosystem engineers are selected for this purpose. This is the case of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely used as a biological quality element in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). The good quality of a water body and the apparent health of a species, whether or not an ecosystem engineer such as P. oceanica, is not always indicative of the good structure and functioning of the whole ecosystem. A key point of the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the ecosystem-based approach. Here, on the basis of a simplified conceptual model of the P. oceanica ecosystem, we have proposed an ecosystem-based index of the quality of its functioning, compliant with the MSFD requirements. This index (EBQI) is based upon a set of representative functional compartments, the weighting of these compartments and the assessment of the quality of each compartment by comparison of a supposed baseline. The index well discriminated 17 sites in the north-western Mediterranean (French Riviera, Provence, Corsica, Catalonia and Balearic Islands) covering a wide range of human pressure levels. The strong points of the EBQI are that it is easy to implement, non-destructive, relatively robust, according to the selection of the compartments and to their weighting, and associated with confidence indices that indicate possible weakness and biases and therefore the need for further field data acquisition. PMID:24933020

  5. An ecosystem-based approach to assess the status of a Mediterranean ecosystem, the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow.

    PubMed

    Personnic, Sébastien; Boudouresque, Charles F; Astruch, Patrick; Ballesteros, Enric; Blouet, Sylvain; Bellan-Santini, Denise; Bonhomme, Patrick; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Feunteun, Eric; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pastor, Jérémy; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Florent; Thibaut, Thierry; Ruitton, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Biotic indices, which reflect the quality of the environment, are widely used in the marine realm. Sometimes, key species or ecosystem engineers are selected for this purpose. This is the case of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely used as a biological quality element in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). The good quality of a water body and the apparent health of a species, whether or not an ecosystem engineer such as P. oceanica, is not always indicative of the good structure and functioning of the whole ecosystem. A key point of the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the ecosystem-based approach. Here, on the basis of a simplified conceptual model of the P. oceanica ecosystem, we have proposed an ecosystem-based index of the quality of its functioning, compliant with the MSFD requirements. This index (EBQI) is based upon a set of representative functional compartments, the weighting of these compartments and the assessment of the quality of each compartment by comparison of a supposed baseline. The index well discriminated 17 sites in the north-western Mediterranean (French Riviera, Provence, Corsica, Catalonia and Balearic Islands) covering a wide range of human pressure levels. The strong points of the EBQI are that it is easy to implement, non-destructive, relatively robust, according to the selection of the compartments and to their weighting, and associated with confidence indices that indicate possible weakness and biases and therefore the need for further field data acquisition. PMID:24933020

  6. Tissue engineering: the biophysical background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Curtis; Mathis Riehle

    2001-01-01

    Tissue engineering is the construction, repair or replacement of damaged or missing tissue in humans and other animals. This engineering may take place within the animal body or as tissue constructs to be made in a bioreactor for later grafting into the animal. The minimal set of materials for this are the appropriate types of cell. Usually, however, non-living substrata

  7. Animal Tails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

  8. Green River Lake and Dam interim plan benefits ecosystem By John Hickey

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    11 Green River Lake and Dam interim plan benefits ecosystem By John Hickey Hydrologic Engineering that water is released from Green River Dam in Kentucky. In May 2006, the interim plan was approved shown that operation of Green River Dam can be changed in ways that improve ecosystems while continuing

  9. Advances in Vent, Seep, Whale-and Wood-Fall Biology The study of chemosynthetic ecosystems as an

    E-print Network

    Levin, Lisa

    of rearing vent and whale-fall animals, and of creat- ing replicate whale-fall chemosynthetic habitats environments into a single volume. Animals inhabiting wood, whale, seep and hydrothermal vent ecosystems grow very slowly (Cordes et al.) at methane seeps. Animal phy- siology reveals novel adaptations

  10. How ecosystems organize their moisture storage requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    The moisture storage capacity in the root zone of ecosystems acts as a buffer against climatic variability and is a critical factor controlling many physical, biogeochemical and biological processes including land-atmosphere exchanges, rainfall-runoff generation, carbon cycling and nutrient dynamics. Notwithstanding its importance this storage capacity cannot be directly observed at catchment scale. Approaching this problem from a different angle, we can try to understand how adaptive systems cope with the variability of essential inputs through the creation of buffers. Surprisingly, there appears to be a strong correspondence between how societies and ecosystems try to safeguard their water supply. People build reservoirs to buffer against periods of water shortage; ecosystems essentially do the same by creating sufficient moisture storage in their root zone. Both try to do this at minimum expense: people by optimizing the amount of storage at minimum costs; and ecosystems by creating an optimum root zone buffer at minimum biomass investment. A classical engineering way for designing the size of a reservoir is the Rippl (1883) diagram, where tangents to the accumulated inflow determine the required storage. It is a logical method for people to size the storage required to satisfy the long-term water demand. Using this principle, over time, many societies have tried to regulate their rivers, leveling out the natural dynamics of the system. But are people unique in trying to even out unwanted fluctuations or to bridge periods of water shortage? Like societies, ecosystems adjust their storage buffer to climatic variability. Similar to the way in which engineers design reservoirs, we can estimate the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale on the basis of observed climate and hydrological data. This approach was proven to be remarkably accurate not only in 11 catchments of the Ping river in Thailand but also in 413 catchments across the USA, with diverse climate and land surface conditions. The results illustrate that ecosystems adjust their root zone storage to periods of drought or wetness, and that the maximum root zone storage is essentially a function of climate and land cover.

  11. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed <5% to total zooplankton in the Lazarev Sea, but 15% (max = 93%) to macrozooplankton in the East Antarctic. In addition to regional density distributions we have synthesized data on vertical distributions, seasonal cycles, and inter-annual density variation. Trophically, gymnosome are specialist predators on thecosomes, while thecosomes are considered predominantly herbivorous, capturing food with a mucous web. The ingestion rates of L. retroversa australis are in the upper range for sub-Antarctic mesozooplankton (31.2-4196.9 ng pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also contribute significantly to organic carbon flux through the production of fast sinking faecal pellets and mucous flocs, and rapid sinking of dead animals ballasted by their aragonite shells. Quantification of these contributions requires data on mucous web production rates, egestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, metabolic rates, and faecal pellet morphology for application to sediment trap studies. Based on the available data, pteropods are regionally significant components of the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem. However, there is an urgent need for focused research on this group in order to quantify how a decline in pteropod densities may impact on Southern Ocean ecosystems.

  12. Brominated Flame Retardants in North-East Atlantic Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Sørmo, Eugen G.; Bæk, Kine; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Gaustad, Hege; Ruus, Anders; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2007-01-01

    Background Concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are reported to increase in marine ecosystems. Objectives Characterize exposure to BFRs in animals from different trophic levels in North-East Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems along a latitudinal gradient from southern Norway to Spitsbergen, Svalbard, in the Arctic. Calanoid species were collected from the Oslofjord (59°N), Froan (64°N), and Spitsbergen (> 78°N); Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Oslofjord and Froan; polar cod (Boreogadus saida) from Bear Island (74°N) and Spitsbergen; harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) from the Oslofjord, Froan, and Spitsbergen; and ringed seal (Phoca vitulina) from Spitsbergen. Eggs of common tern (Sterna hirundo) were collected from the Oslofjord, and eggs of arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea) from Froan and Spitsbergen. Results Levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) generally decreased as a function of increasing latitude, reflecting distance from release sources. The clear latitudinal decrease in levels of BFRs was not pronounced in the two tern species, most likely because they are exposed during migration. The decabrominated compound BDE-209 was detected in animals from all three ecosystems, and the highest levels were found in arctic tern eggs from Spitsbergen. HBCD was found in animals from all trophic levels, except for in calanoids at Froan and Spitsbergen. Conclusions Even though the levels of PBDEs and HBCD are generally low in North-East Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems, there are concerns about the relatively high presence of BDE-209 and HBCD. PMID:18174948

  13. The parasite connection in ecosystems and macroevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seilacher, Adolf; Reif, Wolf-Ernst; Wenk, Peter

    2007-03-01

    In addition to their obvious negative effects (“pathogens”), endoparasites of various kinds play an important role in shaping and maintaining modern animal communities. In the long-term, parasites including pathogens are indispensable entities of any ecosystem. To understand this, it is essential that one changes the viewpoint from the host’s interests to that of the parasite. Together with geographic isolation, trophic arms race, symbiosis, and niche partitioning, all parasites (including balance strategists, i.e. seemingly non-pathogenic ones) modulate their hosts’ population densities. In addition, heteroxenic parasites control the balance between predator and prey species, particularly if final and intermediate hosts are vertebrates. Thereby, such parasites enhance the bonds in ecosystems and help maintain the status quo. As the links between eukaryotic parasites and their hosts are less flexible than trophic connections, parasite networks probably contributed to the observed stasis and incumbency of ecosystems over geologic time, in spite of continuous Darwinian innovation. Because heteroxenic parasites target taxonomic levels above that of the species (e.g. families), these taxa may have also become units of selection in global catastrophies. Macroevolutionary extrapolations, however, are difficult to verify because endoparasites cannot fossilize.

  14. Building an Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Charlotte C. Freeman N:C. Freeman; Charlotte ORG:Girls Preparatory School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

    1995-06-30

    This activity is designed to follow our students from grade 7 - 12. Each year adds to or builds upon previous years. The project is centered around a 400 gallon, 4 tank system which is placed in sunlight in the lobby of our science building. It was seeded with water from nearby rivers, lakes, ponds, and creeks. The only mechanical part is a pump which returns water from tank 4 back to tank 1. This aquatic ecosystem is a constant, woven through the curriculum as students progress through science. At the end of 3-5 science courses students have greater awareness of the role of detritivores and decomposers in the cycling of matter and understand how human activities may upset the balance in an ecosystem. One goal is for students to see the relationship between what is studied in a classroom and the real world; another is for them to understand the role of wetlands in making water suitable to sustain life.

  15. Primary production: Terrestrial ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Lieth

    1973-01-01

    The history of growth in understanding of primary productivity and in making estimates of biosphere production is reviewed. Two approaches to estimation of land production are discussed. Production may first be estimated by mean values for ecosystem types and the areas of these. A total production of 100×10\\u000a9 tons\\/year is thus estimated for the continents, making up 29% of

  16. Relighting Forest Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay E. Steele; Robert Geist

    2009-01-01

    Real-time cinematic relighting of large, forest ecosystems remains a challenging problem, in that important global illumination\\u000a effects, such as leaf transparency and inter-object light scattering, are difficult to capture, given tight timing constraints\\u000a and scenes that typically contain hundreds of millions of primitives. A solution that is based on a lattice-Boltzmann method\\u000a is suggested. Reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance parameters are

  17. SFRSF: Our Coastal Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page highlights the coastal ecosystems of southern Florida. Research displayed from poster presentations covers the coastal area habitats, sustaining and enhancing coastal waters, major coastal challenges, restoring and enhancing estuaries, and using science for effective resource management. The six estuaries discussed are the Caloosahatchee, Southwest Florida, Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, Florida Keys, and St. Lucie estuaries. Specific issues concerning each estuary are covered, and links are provided for additional information.

  18. Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai

    2010-02-01

    Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also enables the social and political changes required to ensure valuation of ecosystem functions and related biodiversity in ways beyond their measurement on an economic scale. PMID:19659684

  19. BMW Hydrogen Technology 3D Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tank and engine animation of the BMW Hydrogen 7 car. There are currently several hundred hydrogen vehicles in operation throughout the world. Soon it will number several thousand. There are also many hydrogen filling stations in operation throughout the world. This particular vehicle is an internal combustion engine that can change between hydrogen or petrol at the flick of a switch.

  20. Ecosystem approaches to human health.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N O

    2001-01-01

    The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function. PMID:11426267

  1. "Pleistocene Park" - A Glacial Ecosystem in a Warming World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Most people if asked what association they have to the phrase - ice age, will answer - "Mammoth". But mammoths are not only big wooly elephants which went extinct in the beginning of Holocene. They were also part of a great ecosystem, the Northern Steppe or Mammoth Ecosystem, which was the world's largest ecosystem for hundreds thousand of years. This ecosystem, with extremely high rates of biocycling, could maintain animal densities which can be hardly found anywhere in the modern world. Northern steppe played an important role in shaping the glacial climate of the planet. High albedo grasslands reflected a much bigger portion of sun heat back to the atmosphere. Cold soils and permafrost served as sinks of carbon, helping to keep greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at low levels. In the beginning of Holocene, simultaneously with wave of human expansion, an extinction wave took place. Tens of megafauna species became extinct at that time worldwide, while ones that resisted the extinction substantially dropped in numbers. The Northern Steppe ecosystem became imbalanced. Without large numbers of herbivores grazing and trampling the pasture, trees, shrubs and moss invaded grasslands. Within just a few hundreds years the mammoth ecosystem was gone, replaced by much lower productivity ecosystems. Already 14 thousand year ago, by simply increasing hunting pressure, humans managed to dramatically change Earth's appearance. We propose that by artificially maintaining a high animal density and diversity on a limited territory for extended period of time, it will be possible to reverse the shift, reestablishing the productive Northern Steppe ecosystem. Moss, shrubs and tree sprouts are not able to resist grazing pressure so they will be quickly replaced by grasses and herbs. Animals digesting all aboveground biomass would accelerate nutrition cycling and consequently increase bioproductivity. Higher bioproductivity would increase evapotranspiration, keeping soils dry and runoff low. This would further increase nutrient availability in the soil. Water limitation would force roots grow deeper to cold soil horizons where these roots (carbon) will be sequestered for a long period of time. After high productivity and high diversity of animals in the ecosystem is reached, this ecosystem will once again be able to compete and to expand. To test this hypothesis, we have started the experiment named "Pleistocene Park". For over 15 years we have brought different herbivore species to the fenced area in the Kolyma river lowland, keep them at high density and see the ecosystem transformation. Now Pleistocene Park is size of 20 km2 and home for 7 big herbivores species. It is a small version of how the Mammoth Steppe ecosystem looked in the past and may look in the future. Pleistocene Park is a place where scientists can conduct in situ research and see how restoration of the ice age ecosystem may help mitigate future climatic changes. Arctic is a weakly populated region with no possibilities for agriculture. Modern civilization treats bigger part of the Arctic as wastelands. So why don't turn this "wasteland" into something that can strongly benefit our civilization in the future?

  2. Good Ecosystem Governance: Balancing Ecosystems and Social Needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malin Falkenmark

    The overarching problem behind the need for good ecosystem governance is the fact that human needs for water, food, energy,\\u000a etc., generally demand manipulations of landscape components. Due to water’s role as the bloodstream of the biosphere, with\\u000a many parallel functions in the landscape, and ecosystems’ water-dependence, ecosystems tend to get impacted by those manipulations.\\u000a Societal activities that have to

  3. Spatial Data Analysis of Animal Feeding Operations and Water Quality in Iowa

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastes from animal feeding operations (AFOs) contain nutrients, pathogens, and pharmaceuticals posing potential risks to ecosystems and community health. Runoff from AFOs may enter nearby surface waters, contributing to local and downstream impairments. Facility-scale analyses re...

  4. Mapping invasive plant species in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems helps to understand the causes of their progres-

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Fuan "Alfonso"

    Abstract Mapping invasive plant species in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems helps to understand. Introduction The invasion of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems by non- indigenous plant and animal species of Optimal Dates for the Discrimination of Invasive Wetland Plant Species Using Derivative Spectral Analysis

  5. INVESTIGATING THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MESIC FOREST ECOSYSTEM: HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITHIN A COMPARATIVE PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan C. Carstens; Steven J. Brunsfeld; John R. Demboski; Jeffrey M. Good; Jack Sullivan

    2005-01-01

    We examine the evolution of mesic forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest of North America using a statistical phylogeography approach in four animal and two plant lineages. Three a priori hypotheses, which explain the disjunction in the mesic forest ecosystem with either recent dispersal or ancient vicariance, are tested with phylogenetic and coalescent methods. We find strong support in three

  6. Assessing risks to ecosystem quality

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystems are not organisms. Because ecosystems do not reproduce, grow old or sick, and die, the term ecosystem health is somewhat misleading and perhaps should not be used. A more useful concept is ``ecosystem quality,`` which denotes a set of desirable ecosystem characteristics defined in terms of species composition, productivity, size/condition of specific populations, or other measurable properties. The desired quality of an ecosystem may be pristine, as in a nature preserve, or highly altered by man, as in a managed forest or navigational waterway. ``Sustainable development`` implies that human activities that influence ecosystem quality should be managed so that high-quality ecosystems are maintained for future generations. In sustainability-based environmental management, the focus is on maintaining or improving ecosystem quality, not on restricting discharges or requiring particular waste treatment technologies. This approach requires management of chemical impacts to be integrated with management of other sources of stress such as erosion, eutrophication, and direct human exploitation. Environmental scientists must (1) work with decision makers and the public to define ecosystem quality goals, (2) develop corresponding measures of ecosystem quality, (3) diagnose causes for departures from desired states, and (4) recommend appropriate restoration actions, if necessary. Environmental toxicology and chemical risk assessment are necessary for implementing the above framework, but they are clearly not sufficient. This paper reviews the state-of-the science relevant to sustaining the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Using the specific example of a reservoir in eastern Tennessee, the paper attempts to define roles for ecotoxicology and risk assessment in each step of the management process.

  7. Declining Birds in Grassland Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the grassland ecosystem with respect to declining bird species. This report is the effort of a number of agencies to develop a strategy for addressing grassland bird information needs. Grasslands are the most imperiled ecosystem worldwide, and birds associated with this ecosystem are on a decline. This report addresses monitoring issues, species in concern, and the effects of habitat and landscape on grassland birds.

  8. Primitives for animation of algorithms 

    E-print Network

    Sudarsky, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    by calling some of these primitives at criti- cal points during its execution. The feasibility of this approach has been tested, by the development of animations for a wide variety of algorithms. Among them, sort- ing, searching, traversals, sequential... Objective Computer graphics have been used extensively by multiple areas of engineering, medicine and chemistry as a powerful communication tool. On the other hand, algorithm instruction, research and implementation have been using text as the basic...

  9. Statistical dynamic modeling on ecosystem patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Chen; Li He Chai; Xin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems are typical complex adaptive systems. By a universal principle (MFP) on pattern formation of ecosystems, the underlying microscopic dynamic mechanisms that induce complex patterns in ecosystems can be revealed. The ecosystem patterns are further simulated by invoking theoretical model of artificial neural network of Self-Organization Feature Map (SOM), by which evolution processes, structural classifications and fractal growth of ecosystem

  10. POLLUTION AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH - ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summers, Kevin. 2004. Pollution and Ecosystem Health - Assessing Ecological Condition of Coastal Ecosystems. Presented at the White Water to Blue Water (WW2BW) Miami Conference, 21-26 March 2004, Miami, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R973). Throughout the coastal regions and Large Mari...

  11. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R. Carpenter; Harold A. Mooney; John Agard; Doris Capistrano; Ruth S. Defries; Sandra Díaz; Thomas Dietz; Anantha K. Duraiappah; Alfred Oteng-Yeboah; Henrique Miguel Pereira; Charles Perrings; Walter V. Reid; José Sarukhan; Robert J. Scholes; Anne Whyte

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social-ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains

  12. Nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rabalais, Nancy N

    2002-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems respond variably to nutrient enrichment and altered nutrient ratios, along a continuum from fresh water through estuarine, coastal, and marine systems. Although phosphorus is considered the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton production in freshwater systems, the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and its contribution to acidification of fresh waters can be detrimental. Within the estuarine to coastal continuum, multiple nutrient limitations occur among nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon along the salinity gradient and by season, but nitrogen is generally considered the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton biomass accumulation. There are well-established, but nonlinear, positive relationships among nitrogen and phosphorus flux, phytoplankton primary production, and fisheries yield. There are thresholds, however, where the load of nutrients to estuarine, coastal and marine systems exceeds the capacity for assimilation of nutrient-enhanced production, and water-quality degradation occurs. Impacts can include noxious and toxic algal blooms, increased turbidity with a subsequent loss of submerged aquatic vegetation, oxygen deficiency, disruption of ecosystem functioning, loss of habitat, loss of biodiversity, shifts in food webs, and loss of harvestable fisheries. PMID:12077998

  13. Game Animals of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

  14. Animal Industries - 10 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2006-06-02

    Three-dimensional computer character animation is becoming more and more prevalent in the entertainment industry. As the demand grows, so does the need for tools that allow animators to create animations quickly. In this thesis, we present a...

  15. Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist

    E-print Network

    Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Wayne Singleton, Extension Reproductive Physiologist Photo Credits: Wayne Singleton AS-559-W Estrus Detection in Farm Animals Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Farm Animal Management @Purdue Farm Animal Management

  16. Bridge Rectifier Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an animation of a bridge rectifier circuit or diode bridge. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations. A link provides an optional Quicktime version of this same animation.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

  17. Seabird-driven shifts in Arctic pond ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Michelutti, Neal; Keatley, Bronwyn E.; Brimble, Samantha; Blais, Jules M.; Liu, Huijun; Douglas, Marianne S.V.; Mallory, Mark L.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Smol, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Migratory animals such as seabirds, salmon and whales can transport large quantities of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, greatly enriching recipient food webs. As many of these animals biomagnify contaminants, they can also focus pollutants at toxic levels. Seabirds arguably represent the most significant biovectors of nutrients and contaminants from the ocean to the land, given their sheer numbers and global distribution. However, long-term census data on seabirds are rare. Using palaeolimnological proxies, we show that a colony of Arctic seabirds has experienced climate-induced population increases in recent decades. We then document increasing concentrations of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls and cadmium, in pond sediments that are linked to biotransport by seabirds. Our findings suggest that climate-related shifts in global seabird populations will have the unexpected consequence of restructuring coastal ecosystems. PMID:18945662

  18. Biodiversity and Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-02-16

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  19. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther C. Peters; Nancy J. Gassman; Julie C. Firman; Robert H. Richmond; Elizabeth A. Power

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available

  20. Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Project Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change

    In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

  1. Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Koch; H. A. Mooney

    1996-01-01

    This book is a summary of the current research which addresses the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on terrestrial ecosystems and an identification of significant unresolved issues. Chapters address the carbon dioxide effects on trees and forests, unmanaged herbaceous ecosystems, and crops. Included are experimental studies, conceptual models, general mathematical models, dynamic simulation models.

  2. Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Gasser, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here we ask how altering litter species diversity affects species-specific decomposition rates and whether large litter-feeding soil animals control the litter diversity–function relationship in a temperate forest ecosystem. We found that decomposition of a given litter species changed greatly in the presence of litters from other cooccurring species despite unaltered climatic conditions and litter chemistry. Most importantly, soil fauna determined the magnitude and direction of litter diversity effects. Our data show that litter species richness and soil fauna interactively determine rates of decomposition in a temperate forest, suggesting a combination of bottom-up and top-down controls of litter diversity effects on ecosystem C and nutrient cycling. These results provide evidence that, in ecosystems supporting a well developed soil macrofauna community, animal activity plays a fundamental role for altered decomposition in response to changing litter diversity, which in turn has important implications for biogeochemical cycles and the long-term functioning of ecosystems with ongoing biodiversity loss. PMID:15671172

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a prominent role in the global carbon (C) cycle. errestrial ecosystems are currently accumulating C and it appears feasible to manage existing terrestrial (forest, agronomic, desert) ecosystems to maintain or increase C storage. orest ecosystems ca...

  4. Ecosystems, Organisms, and Machines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    EVELYN FOX KELLER (; )

    2005-12-01

    This peer reviewed article from Bioscience is about is the concept, and the term, "self-organization." The history of this term, originally introduced by Immanuel Kant to characterize the unique properties of living organisms, is inseparable from the history of biology. Only in the second half of the 20th century does it begin to acquire the promise of a physicalistic understanding. This it does with two critical transformations in the meaning of the term: first, with the advent of cybernetics and its dissolution of the boundary between organisms and machines, and second, with the mathematical triumphs of nonlinear dynamical systems theory and accompanying claims to having dissolved the boundary between organisms and such physical phenomena as thunderstorms. How do these transformations affect the applicability of self-organization to the ecosystem--that provocatively hybrid entity that is part organism, part machine, and perhaps even part thunderstorm?

  5. SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS is the virtual representative of Busch Entertainment Corporation's zoological and educational resources. The site provides access to online educational materials as well as program information for the SeaWorld/Busch Gardens theme parks. Materials include detailed information on marine animals, ecosystems, and zoological research programs of the parks. There are also news articles, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and information about the parks' on-site educational programs, tours, and student camps. The teachers' page features guides, classroom activities, information on television programming, and a catalog of publications. For children, there are games and coloring pages, downloadables (screensavers, desktops), and interactive features about marine animals and environments.

  6. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  7. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  8. Strategies to reduce nutrient losses from land applied animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued land application of animal manure to agriculture fields result in elevated soil N and P concentrations that exceed crop requirements and are lost to surface water bodies. Losses of N and P lead to accelerated eutrophication, seeing that in most freshwater ecosystems P is the most limited ...

  9. Exotic Animal Grief Packet

    E-print Network

    Exotic Animal Grief Packet 300 West Drake Road Fort Collins, CO 80523 (970) 491-4143 www.argusinstitute.colostate.edu #12;Grieving The Loss Of Your Exotic Pet When an animal enters our life, a distinct relationship is created. Animals provide a truly unique relationship we cannot replicate anywhere else. Exotic animals

  10. Animal Thinking An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    1 Animal Thinking An Introduction Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer The topic of this Strüngmann Forum--animal thinking--was not formulated as a question--"Do animals think?--but rather as a statement species alone. The issue of whether animals experience conscious recollections in some similar way

  11. Gesture Driven Facial Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyong Noh; Douglas Fidaleo; Ulrich Neumann

    2002-01-01

    Gesture driven facial animation (GDFA) overcomes limitations in conventional performance driven facial animation (PDFA) by providing a high level gesture layer as an interface between the sensing and animation mechanisms. GDFA maintains the same spirit of PDFA in that sensing and analysis provide automatic animation control. A distinguishing factor, however, is the high level abstraction of the information flow between

  12. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  13. Windows to the Universe: Biomes and Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    The Windows to the Universe website is maintained by the National Earth Science Teachers Association, and it has been around since the mid-1990s. One particularly interesting area of the site focuses in on the world of biomes and ecosystems. For those who might be unacquainted with such matters, biomes are large regions of the world with similar plants, animals, and other living things that are adapted to the region's climate and conditions. Visitors can use the interactive map to explore these various biomes, and learn about the natural history and current conditions in the dry steppes, Alpine tundra, and a dozen other biomes. Each section contains photographs and a narrative essay that describes in summary detail the key features of each biome.

  14. The ecosystem study on Rongelap Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.B.; Gessel, S.P.; Held, E.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    During the 1950`s and 1960`s, the Laboratory of Radiation Biology at the University of Washington carried out an intensive study of this Atoll, which was contaminated with radioactive fallout from the {open_quotes}Bravo shot{close_quotes} in 1954. This study involved many aspects of the environment and the plant and animal life: soils, land plants, marine life, birds, geology and hydrology, and human diets as well. In much of the research, the fortuitiously present radioactive isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, were tracers. Although the term {open_quotes}ecosystem study{close_quotes} was not in vogue at that time, it is clear that this was an early use of the ecosystem approach. Soil types and their development, the distribution of mineral elements in plants and soils, including predominant radionuclides, distribution and growth of native terrestrial plants in relation to topography and salinity, some aspects of the human diets, micronutrient nutrition of the coconut palm, island and islet development and stability, were given attention in the studies. Some of the findings in the various areas of study will be presented and discussed. 32 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Avian wildlife as sentinels of ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Smits, Judit E G; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2013-05-01

    Birds have been widely used as sentinels of ecosystem health reflecting changes in habitat quality, increased incidence of disease, and exposure to and effects of chemical contaminants. Numerous studies addressing these issues focus on the breeding period, since hormonal, behavioural, reproductive, and developmental aspects of the health can be observed over a relatively short time-span. Many body systems within individuals are tightly integrated and interdependent, and can be affected by contaminant chemicals, disease, and habitat changes in complex ways. Animals higher in the food web will reflect cumulative effects of multiple stressors. Such features make birds ideal indicators for assessing environmental health in areas of environmental concern. Five case studies are presented, highlighting the use of different species which have provided insight into ecosystem sustainability, including (i) the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances of sagebrush habitat on the greater northern sage grouse Centrocercus urophasianus; (ii) the high prevalence of disease in very specific passerine species in the Canary Islands closely paralleling deterioration of formerly productive desert habitat and ensuing interspecific stressors; (iii) fractures, abnormal bone structure, and associated biochemical aberrations in nestling storks exposed to acidic tailings mud from a dyke rupture at an iron pyrite mine near Sevilla, Spain; (iv) newly presented data demonstrating biochemical changes in nestling peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and associations with exposure to major chemical classes in the Great Lakes Basin of Canada; and (v) the variability in responses of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor to contaminants, biological and meteorological challenges when breeding in the Athabasca oil sands. PMID:23260372

  16. Ecosystem restoration on the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halvorson, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of natural habitat has become increasingly important over the last three decades in the United States, first as mitigation for development (especially in wetlands), and more recently in natural areas. This latter restoration has come about as land managing agencies have seen the need to reverse the impact of past land uses and agencies like the National Park Service have taken on the responsibility for less-than-pristine lands. Restorations have typically been carried out with little prior study and with no follow-up monitoring. On the Channel Islands, the need for restoration is great, but the desire is to base this restoration on sound ecological understanding. By conducting surveys, implementing long-term research and monitoring, and by conducting population and community dynamics research, the necessary data is obtained to arrive at such an understanding. Once management actions have been taken to effect restoration, monitoring is used to determine the success of those actions. The intention is to gain enough of an understanding of the islands' ecosystems that we can manage to restore, not just populations of native plants and animals, but also the processes of a naturally functioning ecosystem. ?? International Scientific Publications, New Delhi.

  17. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  18. Animal and Plant Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    wlcounts

    2012-04-04

    What are the similarities and differences between plant cells and animal cells? Use the graphic organizer. Graphic Organizer Go here and look at the diagram. Make notes about the anatomy of an animal cell in your graphic organizer. Anatomy of an Animal Cell Go to this website and explore the typical animal cell. Press start and interact with the model. Typical Animal Cell Take the plant cell tutorial with this link. Interact ...

  19. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    E-print Network

    Huang, Zhiyong

    International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering Vol. 13, No. 1 (2003) 1­25 c World Scientific Publishing Company VISUALIZING ANIMATION DATABASES AKANKSHA,§, Z. HUANG,¶, B@email.com Accepted 15 October 2002 We consider a repository of animation models and motions that can be reused

  20. Understanding Animal Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

    2009-01-01

    The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

  1. Coral Reef Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Helen T.

    Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

  2. Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Anderson; Joseph Mubanga; Eric M. Fevre; Kim Picozzi; Mark C. Eisler; Robert Thomas; Susan C. Welburn

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAnimal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species) and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study

  3. Plant & Animal Interdependency. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In every ecosystem, organisms rely on each other in unique relationships that ensure each other's survival. In Plant & Animal Interdependency, find out how plants and animals interact, cooperate and compete. All living things have basic needs and depend on other living things to meet those needs. Discover why the constant exchange of nutrients and…

  4. Entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Anand R

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is a vehicle of growth and job creation. America has understood it and benefitted most from following this philosophy. Governments around the world need to build and grow their entrepreneurial ecosystems ...

  5. Geospatial tools for Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient loads. ...

  6. Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. Most of the animals featured on the site are inhabitants of North America. Images of animal tracks also contain descriptions to help users become familiar with the distinctive qualities of each animal's print. This is an excellent resource for nature enthusiasts, animal search and rescue trackers, and everyone in between.

  7. Process-Based Thinking in Ecosystem Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Gray, Steven A.; Brooks, Wesley R.; Honwad, Sameer; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding complex systems such as ecosystems is difficult for young K-12 students, and students' representations of ecosystems are often limited to nebulously defined relationships between macro-level structural components inherent to the ecosystem in focus (rainforest, desert, pond, etc.) instead of generalizing processes across ecosystems

  8. Coastal Ecosystem Curriculum: Food Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This curriculum focuses on the coastal ecosystem in the Gulf of the Farallones, in the Pacific Ocean near San Francisco Bay. One goal of this curriculum is to teach about the natural connections in this ecosystem and how humans fit into it. Topics include the seasonal upwelling of ocean water, the feeding relationships among organisms in the open water, the sandy beach habitat along the shoreline, and human impacts on this environment, such as the 1984 oil spill from the tanker "Puerto Rican".

  9. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while grassland and woodland had decreased by about 1.5 million ha and 33,000 ha, respectively. Cropland expansion had increased water need for irrigation and decreased services produced by other ecosystems. This assessment helps understand connections between water and ESS better and contributes to water and land management in dry regions, particularly China.

  10. Functional traits, the phylogeny of function, and ecosystem service vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Sandra; Purvis, Andy; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Mace, Georgina M; Donoghue, Michael J; Ewers, Robert M; Jordano, Pedro; Pearse, William D

    2013-01-01

    People depend on benefits provided by ecological systems. Understanding how these ecosystem services – and the ecosystem properties underpinning them – respond to drivers of change is therefore an urgent priority. We address this challenge through developing a novel risk-assessment framework that integrates ecological and evolutionary perspectives on functional traits to determine species’ effects on ecosystems and their tolerance of environmental changes. We define Specific Effect Function (SEF) as the per-gram or per capita capacity of a species to affect an ecosystem property, and Specific Response Function (SRF) as the ability of a species to maintain or enhance its population as the environment changes. Our risk assessment is based on the idea that the security of ecosystem services depends on how effects (SEFs) and tolerances (SRFs) of organisms – which both depend on combinations of functional traits – correlate across species and how they are arranged on the species’ phylogeny. Four extreme situations are theoretically possible, from minimum concern when SEF and SRF are neither correlated nor show a phylogenetic signal, to maximum concern when they are negatively correlated (i.e., the most important species are the least tolerant) and phylogenetically patterned (lacking independent backup). We illustrate the assessment with five case studies, involving both plant and animal examples. However, the extent to which the frequency of the four plausible outcomes, or their intermediates, apply more widely in real-world ecological systems is an open question that needs empirical evidence, and suggests a research agenda at the interface of evolutionary biology and ecosystem ecology. PMID:24101986

  11. Animal representations and animal remains at Çatalhöyük

    E-print Network

    Russell, Nerissa; Meece, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    architectural installations and special deposits. Animal parts stuck into walls, reliefs, or pillars are clearly incorporated into the architecture, but so, too, are less visible bones built into walls, placed in pits in platforms, and arguably those placed... Level IX While geometric paintings are known from Level X, the earliest animal representation appears in Level IX. A single large black animal graces the north wall of building IX.8. Mellaart (1964e, 70, pI. XIVb) labels it a bull, but the species...

  12. Creating effective character animation 

    E-print Network

    Gerwig, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Several stages are involved in the creation of an graphics. effective, three-dimensional character animation. Before starting any work at the computer, the animator should consider what his characters will look like and how they will move, as well...

  13. Animals Making a Living

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    For most animals, finding food is a full-time job. This video segment explores the food-finding strategies of a variety of creatures, illustrating the idea that different animals have very different ways of getting enough to eat.

  14. Is It an Animal?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about animals. The probe specifically seeks to find out what characteristics students use to determine whether an organism is classified as an animal.

  15. Hydrogen bonds animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Northland Community and Technical College Biology Department

    2007-12-12

    This color animation of water molecules interacting and forming hydrogen bonds is a hybrid between a PowerPoint slide show an an animation. Students can replay portions or click next if they do not need to replay a segment.

  16. Animal marks and trails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-13

    Items in nature, such as twigs and leaves, can show bite and chew marks where animals have been eating off of plants. Animals make trails by traveling over the same area several times to get to a destination.

  17. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions I gave my dog ...

  18. Aquatic Animal Skeleton - Ribcage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; )

    2007-07-15

    The main purpose of an aquatic animal's ribcage is to protect its inner organs, such as the heart, from damage or injury. The ribcage is connected to the backbone of the animal and is made of mostly bone.

  19. Aquatic Animal Appendages - Flippers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-18

    Several aquatic animals have appendages, such as flippers, that are used as a source of locomotion. Depending on the type of animal, flippers come in different sizes and are usually associated with the same type of bone joints.

  20. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  1. Rock Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Use this interactive rock cycle animation to help you with your schoolwork! This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle.

  2. Fuel Cell Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Department of Energy - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Energy Education and Workforce Development

    This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

  3. Engineering Electrical &

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  4. Engineering Electrical &

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  5. Microconchids from microbialite ecosystem immediately after end-Permian mass extinction: ecologic selectivity and implications for microbialite ecosystem structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Chen, Z.; Wang, Y. B.; Ou, W.; Liao, W.; Mei, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) carbonate successions are often characterized by the presence of microbialite buildups worldwide. The widespread microbialites are believed as indication of microbial proliferation immediately after the P-Tr mass extinction. The death of animals representing the primary consumer trophic structure of marine ecosystem in the P-Tr crisis allows the bloom of microbes as an important primary producer in marine trophic food web structure. Thus, the PTB microbialite builders have been regarded as disaster taxa of the P-Tr ecologic crisis. Microbialite ecosystems were suitable for most organisms to inhabit. However, increasing evidence show that microbialite dwellers are also considerably abundant and diverse, including mainly foraminifers Earlandia sp. and Rectocornuspira sp., lingulid brachiopods, ostrocods, gastropods, and microconchids. In particular, ostracods are extremely abundant in this special ecosystem. Microconchid-like calcareous tubes are also considerably abundant. Here, we have sampled systematically a PTB microbialite deposit from the Dajiang section, southern Guizhou Province, southwest China and have extracted abundant isolated specimens of calcareous worm tubes. Quantitative analysis enables to investigate stratigraphic and facies preferences of microconchids in the PTB microbialites. Our preliminary result indicates that three microconchid species Microconchus sp., Helicoconchus elongates and Microconchus aberrans inhabited in microbialite ecosystem. Most microconchilds occurred in the upper part of the microbialite buildup and the grainstone-packstone microfacies. Very few microconchilds were found in the rocks bearing well-developed microbialite structures. Their stratigraphic and environmental preferences indicate proliferation of those metazoan organisms is coupled with ebb of the microbialite development. They also proliferated in some local niches in which microbial activities were not very active even if those microconchids occur in the PTB microbialite buildups. In addition, the combination of previously published data and present studies indicates that the PTB microbialite ecosystem contained much higher biodiversity than previously expected. The PTB microbialite ecosystems provided habitable niches for some particular fossil groups to survive the P-Tr mass extinction.

  6. UCF's Research Cluster of Excellence in CDSLR uses engineering, biology, climatology, social science, and resource management to put

    E-print Network

    Central Florida, University of

    UCF's Research Cluster of Excellence in CDSLR uses engineering, biology, climatology, social science, and resource management to put science and engineering research into practice. Advancing with interdisciplinary skills in environmental communication, ecosystem science, and water resources engineering

  7. Animal Concentration Areas Management

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Animal Concentration Areas Management W o r k S h e e t 4 W h y B e C o n C e r n e d ? When. Animal concentration areas are very busy places that can be difficult to manage. Good management involves of contaminated runoff to manage. The second principle is to divert polluted runoff from the animal concentration

  8. Purdue extension Animal Sciences

    E-print Network

    of the breeding season. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) indicates that less than 20% of beefPurdue extension AS-586-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West Lemenager, and Mr. Matt Claeys, Purdue Beef Team, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University A major

  9. Animals in Disguise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

  10. Invent an Animal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1979-01-01

    In this outdoor activity and game, learners explore how animals adapt for survival through coloration, markings and camouflage. By inventing, designing and hiding their own animal models, and hunting for other learners' hidden animals, learners investigate how predators and prey also use shape and behavior to blend into their habitats, so they can succeessfully hunt for food or escape from being eaten.

  11. Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret INRIA, Syntim Project B.P. 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France of animating complex repetitive geometries, like the effects produced by the wind in a wheat field, or fur], hypertextures [7], volumetric textures [4, 5]. Animating these objects is also a very important point

  12. Purdue extension Animal Sciences

    E-print Network

    , testing, quarantine, eradication, and recovery efforts prior to, during, and after the animal diseasePurdue extension AS-572-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West. of Animal Sciences, Purdue University; P. Brennan, Indiana State Poultry Association; M. Kopp, DVM, and M

  13. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  14. Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student

    E-print Network

    for individual animal identifi- cation. This system ensures a unique Farm Animal Management @Purdue Farm AnimalMichael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student AS-556-W Methods of Livestock Identification Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Animal identification is the basis

  15. Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; )

    2003-01-01

    The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

  16. Which insulin to use? Human or animal?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mohan

    The introduction of insulin was a breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes and it produced a remarkable increase in the life expectancy of diabetic patients. Animal-derived insulins have been used to treat pe o- ple with diabetes since insulin was first discovered and continuously subjected to various purification technologies. Genetically engineered human insulin was introduced in 1982 and now the

  17. Supporting the Software Testing Process through Specification Animation Tim Miller and Paul Strooper

    E-print Network

    Miller, Tim

    Supporting the Software Testing Process through Specification Animation Tim Miller and Paul and its implementation is an important part of software develop- ment. Specification animation allows us Strooper Software Verification Research Centre School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering

  18. Supporting the Software Testing Process through Specification Animation Tim Miller and Paul Strooper

    E-print Network

    Miller, Tim

    Supporting the Software Testing Process through Specification Animation Tim Miller and Paul and its implementation is an important part of software develop­ ment. Specification animation allows us Strooper Software Verification Research Centre School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering

  19. Integration of Multi-objective and Interactive Genetic Algorithms and its Application to Animation Design

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Integration of Multi-objective and Interactive Genetic Algorithms and its Application to Animation and Systems Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute human like motions in animation by computer graphics is a difficult task. Currently, motions

  20. National Science Foundation: The Secret Lives of Wild Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What are wild animals up to all the time? Curious minds want to know, and this interactive and visually stimulating site from the National Science Foundation is just the place to find out. First-time visitors should click over to the Introduction to learn about how the NSF's interdisciplinary team of scientists is designing innovative tracking and information-management systems to learn exactly how animals spend their minutes, days, and years negotiating within an ecosystem for food and mates. Moving on, visitors can click on one of five animals (such as Deer, Dragonfly, or Zebra) to learn about the tracking technology being used to study their movements and activities. Also, visitors can learn some quick facts about each animal, view a short movie of the animal in the wild, and find out who is currently conducting research. It's a great site, and one that could be effectively used in a biology or zoology course.

  1. Gastrointestinal tract microbiota and probiotics in production animals.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, Carl J; White, Bryan A

    2014-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiomes of production animals are now firmly established as a key feature underscoring animal health, development, and productivity. In particular, early gut colonization is critically important to the morphological and immunological development of the GIT, development of a functional fermentative environment, and neonatal resistance to pathogenic challenge. Although perturbations of an animal's GIT microbiome at any age can have profound consequences, perturbations during early GIT development can be particularly severe and result in significant and long-lasting sequelae. As the GIT microbiome matures, it exhibits significant diversity, ostensibly an important indicator of ecosystem health. Recognition of the immense importance of the GIT microbiota to the host has led to the development of probiotic and prebiotic feedstuffs with the express aim of ensuring animal health. We herein review the current collective understanding of the GIT microbiota of production animals. PMID:25384152

  2. Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from pastoral ecosystems of Uganda: Public Health significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clovice Kankya; Adrian Muwonge; Berit Djønne; Musso Munyeme; John Opuda-Asibo; Eystein Skjerve; James Oloya; Vigdis Edvardsen; Tone B Johansen

    2011-01-01

    Background  The importance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa at the human-environment-livestock-wildlife\\u000a interface has recently received increased attention. NTM are environmental opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.\\u000a Recent studies in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda detected NTM in humans with cervical lymphadenitis and cattle with lesions\\u000a compatible with bovine tuberculosis. However, little is known about the

  3. Expanding exergy analysis to account for ecosystem products and services.

    PubMed

    Hau, Jorge L; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2004-07-01

    Exergy analysis is a thermodynamic approach used for analyzing and improving the efficiency of chemical and thermal processes. It has also been extended for life cycle assessment and sustainability evaluation of industrial products and processes. Although these extensions recognize the importance of capital and labor inputs and environmental impact, most of them ignore the crucial role that ecosystems play in sustaining all industrial activity. Decisions based on approaches that take nature for granted continue to cause significant deterioration in the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services that are essential for every human activity. Accounting for nature's contribution is also important for determining the impact and sustainablility of industrial activity. In contrast, emergy analysis, a thermodynamic method from systems ecology, does account for ecosystems, but has encountered a lot of resistance and criticism, particularly from economists, physicists, and engineers. This paper expands the engineering concept of Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CEC) analysis to include the contribution of ecosystems, which leads to the concept of Ecological Cumulative Exergy Consumption (ECEC). Practical challenges in computing ECEC for industrial processes are identified and a formal algorithm based on network algebra is proposed. ECEC is shown to be closely related to emergy, and both concepts become equivalent if the analysis boundary, allocation method, and approach for combining global energy inputs are identical. This insight permits combination of the best features of emergy and exergy analysis, and shows that most of the controversial aspects of emergy analysis need not hinder its use for including the exergetic contribution of ecosystems. Examples illustrate the approach and highlight the potential benefits of accounting for nature's contribution to industrial activity. PMID:15296331

  4. Engineering Engineering Education

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

  5. COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    .8.1 The veterinary technicians will submit the white card, animal removal card, and complete animal medical record2.C.2 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR ANIMAL animal rooms and in the Laboratory Animal Facilities office, at all locations. 3.2 The animal removal

  6. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  7. Phylogenetic constraints on ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Dominique; Bell, Thomas; Barbera, Claire; Combe, Marine; Pommier, Thomas; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is consensus that biodiversity losses will result in declining ecosystem functioning if species have different functional traits. Phylogenetic diversity has recently been suggested as a predictor of ecosystem functioning because it could approximate the functional complementarity among species. Here we describe an experiment that takes advantage of the rapid evolutionary response of bacteria to disentangle the role of phylogenetic and species diversity. We impose a strong selection regime on marine bacterial lineages and assemble the ancestral and evolved lines in microcosms of varying lineage and phylogenetic diversity. We find that the relationship between phylogenetic diversity and productivity is strong for the ancestral lineages but brakes down for the evolved lineages. Our results not only emphasize the potential of using phylogeny to evaluate ecosystem functioning, but also they warn against using phylogenetics as a proxy for functional diversity without good information on species evolutionary history. PMID:23047675

  8. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  9. Badger ( Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Eldridge; W. G. Whitford

    2009-01-01

    In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for fossorial animals. Mounds created by badgers contained the lowest concentrations of total carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, mineral nitrogen and mineralizable nitrogen, inter-mound

  10. Quantifying habitat complexity in aquatic ecosystems CAROLY A. SHUMWAY,* HANS A. HOFMANN

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    structure in the habitat surveyed' (Lassau & Hochuli, 2004), clearly plays a role in shaping animal ecologyQuantifying habitat complexity in aquatic ecosystems CAROLY A. SHUMWAY,* HANS A. HOFMANN AND ADAM P of habitat complexity. Previous measures of habitat complexity have ranged from simple, habitat

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disrupters. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals an...

  12. A critical scale in plankton aggregations across coastal ecosystems Kelly J. Benoit-Bird,1

    E-print Network

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    A critical scale in plankton aggregations across coastal ecosystems Kelly J. Benoit-Bird,1 Emily L to patches of larger animals, we found that the majority of coherent aggregations of plankton at each site but not thickness. Our results suggest that ~5 m is a critical vertical scale below which aggregations of plankton

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, G. K.; Post, W. M.; Jastrow, J. D.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2002-05-01

    CSiTE, the Department of Energy's research consortium performs fundamental research in support of new methods to enhance carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems in an environmentally acceptable manner. The goal of CSiTE is to discover and characterize links between critical pathways and mechanisms across scales from the molecular to the landscape for creating larger, longer-lasting carbon pools in terrestrial ecosystems. This paper will present results relevant to increasing the biophysical potential of terrestrial C sequestration, but in addition will illustrate the importance of an integrative analysis in assessing this technological option (as well as all sequestration options). Our integrative approach involves six steps: (1) Identify promising technologies, (2) Understand controls on basic mechanisms at the site scale, (3) Perform sensitivity analyses over the range of applicable conditions (model, lab or field experiments), (4) Full C and greenhouse gas accounting, (5) Environmental impacts, and (6) Economic analysis including rate of adoption and cost tradeoffs. Many estimates of the potential contributions of sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems to the control of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration have been rather modest. Indeed, there are many uncertainties and ancillary issues (permanence, land availability, water supply, etc) that must be considered. However, terrestrial ecosystems have not been viewed to-date as a "technology" to be implemented. Rather, the emphasis has been on the promotion of practices that are likely to be implemented for other benefits. It may be possible to use the attributes of terrestrial ecosystems to a greater extent in sequestering carbon. In this paper, we will discuss how a technology view of terrestrial ecosystems may alter the estimated contributions. Examples to be addressed include changing land use, shifting agricultural methods, manipulating soil properties, and altering soil microbial systems.

  14. MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING Manufacturing engineering

    E-print Network

    MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING Manufacturing engineering transforms raw materials, parts, and operations, following a well- organized plan for each activity. Manufacturing engineering involves designing assuring a competitive level of productivity. The manufacturing engineering curriculum at WSU focuses

  15. Pestiviruses in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

    2006-08-25

    Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

  16. Effects of ozone on ecosystems -- ecosystem indicators of concern

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, J.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Ozone has been recognized as an important cause of damage to crops since the 1950s. Damage to trees was first identified in the 1960s and is now known to be widespread in both North America and Europe. Most impact studies have emphasized the importance of determining growth losses attributable to ozone and as a result have concentrated on species of commercial importance. This is illustrated by the critical loads approach to ozone risk assessment in Europe, which is currently based on the AOT40 -- 10 ppmh threshold. At higher levels, it has been argued that a 10% growth reduction occurs in European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Such an approach suffers from a number of serious limitations, not least the widespread impacts on ecosystems that may occur at lower ozone exposures and the very poor quantitative basis for setting this threshold. In Europe, there has been increasing emphasis on the conservation and management of species without any direct economic importance. This has arisen from a growing environmental awareness of the general public. The trend has been accelerated by the perceived environmental benefits of the large amounts of land that has been taken out of agricultural production (as a result of the ``set-aside`` policy of the European Union) and the public concern about the ecological and environmental impacts of industrial forestry. In agricultural landscapes, hedgerow species and weed species are being looked at as important parts of the agricultural ecosystem. In particular, weed species are an important part of the food chain for the wildlife present in such ecosystems. In forests, much greater emphasis is being given to the authenticity of the forest ecosystems. Particular emphasis is being given to ecosystem management techniques such as continuous cover forestry and the furthering of natural regeneration.

  17. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants. This research will form the foundation for future experiments into the genetic manipulation of plants to potentially promote greater or more specific symbiotic relationships between plant and Rhizobium allowing this biological phenomenon to be used in a greater number of crop types. Future technology developments could include the genetic engineering of crops suitable for in situ vadose zone 2 bioremediation (via microbes) and phytoremediation (through the crop, itself) in contaminated DOE sites.

  18. Dermatophytoses in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Chermette; Laerte Ferreiro; Jacques Guillot

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities,\\u000a high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their\\u000a great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible\\u000a for the majority of the cases,

  19. Chapter 1 Algorithm Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kerren; John T. Stasko

    An algorithm animation (AA) visualizes the behavior of an algorithm by producing an abstraction of both the data and the operations of the algorithm.\\u000a Initially it maps the current state of the algorithm into an image, which then is animated based on the operations between\\u000a two succeeding states in the algorithm execution. Animating an algorithm allows for better understanding of

  20. New Orleans Flooding Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

  1. Fun with Animals!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Crowell

    2012-10-06

    Animal Habitats Counting with Fish Count the swimming fish then match them by choosing the right number. Meerkat Grab-a-Snack Use your mouse to catch the meerkat's dinner, but look out for snakes! Save the sea creatures! Move the wonder pet's car by clicking the arrows. Collect all of the celery and salads to rescue the animals. Say What? Listen to the clue to match the animal ...

  2. Discovery Collection: Marine Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Breslof

    Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

  3. Animal Cloning 101

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  4. Animation, Part 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Green; David Stiller

    \\u000a What you saw in the last chapter was a compendium of traditional animation techniques—traditional not in the Flash animation\\u000a pioneer John Kricfalusi sense, but in the sense that they represent the basic tools Flash animators have used since time out\\u000a of mind. Some tools don’t change simply because they don’t have to; they’re that useful. The exciting part is that

  5. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  6. Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ALERT Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers January 1998 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-116 Disclaimer ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers WARNING! Exposure to animals or animal products in the workplace can cause asthma

  7. ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology

    E-print Network

    ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology Program The Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology (BSET) is a hands-on program based upon engineering technology fundamentals, engineering for employment or further education. The focus is on current engineering technology issues and applications used

  8. Global Climate Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacqueline Shinker

    1999-02-01

    The Global Climate Animations site contains animations of the Earth's climate system for educational and research purposes. The animations show the climatology of the seasonal cycle for selected climate variables for the time period 1959-1997, based on data from the NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. The individual frames in each animation show the map pattern of the long-term monthly averages for a particular climate variable, and reveal the temporal and spatial variations in that variable over the seasonal cycle.

  9. GEOHYDROLOGY IN SUPPORT OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The practical framework for ecosystem restoration is the watershed. The structure and function of riparian and wetland areas within the watershed provide water quality services for healthy aquatic ecosystems. Urbanization, agriculture and other pressures can produce point and n...

  10. Design Editorial A New Knowledge Ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial A New Knowledge Ecosystem As we cross another year of life for getting reliable answers. We are entering an era of a new knowledge ecosystem where information comes from

  11. RADICALLY CONTESTED ASSERTIONS IN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem management is a magnet for controversy, in part because some of its formulations rest on questionable assertions that are radically contested. These assertions are important to understanding much of the conflict surrounding ecosystem management and, therrefore, deserve...

  12. INVERTEBRATE CONSERVATION AND AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS (BOOK REVIEW)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical review of “Invertebrate Conservation and Agricultural Ecosystems,” by T. R. New (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK) is presented. The conclusion is that Invertebrate Conservation and Agricultural Ecosystems makes a worthwhile contribution to synthesizing pest management and conse...

  13. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  14. Coastline ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. de A. Richmond; D. Mueller-Dombois

    1972-01-01

    Coatline ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii were described in terms of vegetation composition and structure, and environmental components such as climate, physiography, exposure, substratum, and ground water. Vegetation patterns were related to these environmental components. Relevés were established in 22 study areas around Oahu to study the broader patterns of vegetation and environment, and 2 m wide belt-transects were laid out

  15. Ecosystem modelling: Science or technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauhs, M.

    1990-08-01

    Recent interest in ecosystem modelling emerges from large-scale problems such as acid deposition or climate change. Knowledge about future states of ecosystems can be based on management experience and scientific observation. The former cannot be extrapolated outside the range of past variations in boundary conditions. Thus, the long-term changes in the chemical or physical climate require the identification of key-processes for successful model predictions. This scientific task is implicitly based on assumptions about the appropriate scale of integration in space and time. No scientific discipline exists by which these assumptions can be formally derived at the ecosystem level. The example of modelling soil and water acidification is used to discuss the possible consequences of a technological or a scientific perception of the problem posed, respectively. These approaches often suffer from inconsistent treatment of their basic assumptions in the first case, and from lack of theory in the latter case. On the basis of the available data and theory the question posed remains undecided. However, there is a risk that focusing ecosystem research on technological perception becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.

  16. Coastal marine ecosystems of Mauritius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fagoonee

    1990-01-01

    The coastal ecosystems of Mauritius island (1850 km2, 20° S and 57° E, Indian Ocean) consist of lagoons, reefs, estuaries, mangroves, salt water wetlands, and sheltered bays. Fringing reefs almost completely surround the volcanic island, enclosing a series of lagoons of variable depths (1–4 m). Tides are not important but wave heights can reach 3 m. The zonation of lagoons

  17. EMAP WESTERN PILOT - COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort led by EPA's Office of Research and Development to advance the science of ecosystem condition monitoring and to demonstrate the application of EMAP monitoring and assessment m...

  18. SULFUR DYNAMICS OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been considerable advancement in the understanding of the S biogeochemistry of forested ecosystems. any recent studies have focused on ascertaining the impacts of acidic deposition of forest vegetation, soils and surface waters. ulfur dynamics effects the flux of both H...

  19. Planning for Ecosystem Service Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDor; Martin W. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Problem: Market mechanisms are emerging as means of offsetting the environmental effects of growth. Unfortunately, formal regulation of ecosystem markets is often separated from broader planning for urban development, resulting in offsets that are unsustainable in the face of future urban growth.Purpose: We aimed to assess how 2008 federal regulations that actively promote aquatic resource markets and encourage watershed planning

  20. Wilderness Ecosystems, Threats, and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Cole; Stephen F. McCool

    2000-01-01

    The Wilderness Act of 1964 gave wilderness managers a difficult and challenging mandate. Wilderness areas are to be kept in a wild and natural state—relatively free of human influence and human control. Their value is dependent on the degree to which they remain unmodified—a contrast to the highly modified world in which most of us live. However, even the ecosystems

  1. Future directions of ecosystem science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill; Galvin, Kathleen A.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about ecosystem structure and function has expanded greatly during the past few decades. Terrestrial and aquatic nutrient cycling, ecosystem energetics, population dynamics, belowground processes, and food webs have been studied at the plot, stand, watershed, and landscape levels at many locations around the globe. Ideas about terrestrial-atmospheric interactions and human interference in these processes have changed dramatically. There is new appreciation of the need to incorporate into ecosystem studies the interactions between human populations and the ecosystem, not only because humans affect ecosystem processes, but because these systems support human populations (Glantz 1988, Holden 1988, Parry et al. 1988, WCED 1987). Recent advances in ecosystem science are due, in part, to technological improvements in computing power, new laboratory and field physical and chemical analytical techniques, and satellite imagery for remote sensing of Earth's structure and dynamics. Modeling and geographic information systems have provided the capability for integrating multiple data sets with process simulations to generate hypotheses about regional ecosystem function. Concurrent with these scientific developments has been a growing concern about the links between the health of the environment and world-wide industrial, land, and resource-management practices. Environmental damage at the local level was widely recognized in the 1960s, prompting the environmental movement of that decade. Regional environmental problems with multiple effects and politically difficult solutions have been perceived more recently; the issue of acidic deposition provides an example of such a second-generation concern (Clark and Holling 1985). Today there is a growing awareness of global-scale environmental degradation brought about by the combined actions of all peoples on Earth (Clark 1989, Woodmansee et al. 1988). The three levels of environmental concern--local, regional, and global--have not replaced one another (Clark and Holling 1985). Instead, the effects are superimposed, creating what some perceive as impending global environmental crisis (Clark 1989, MacNeill 1989, WCED 1987). Public demands are developing for economic, political, social, and environmental efforts directed toward creating a state of global sustainability.

  2. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  3. An Operational Structure for Clarity in Ecosystem Service Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses used to value ecosystem services often confuse final ecosystem services with ecological functions that provide only indirect benefit. Extant categorizations of ecosystem services, such as that developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, do not ameliorate these cha...

  4. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Linking the evolution of habitat choice to ecosystem functioning

    E-print Network

    Steinfartz, Sebastian

    ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL RESEARCH Linking the evolution of habitat choice to ecosystem and in the behaviour of species can potentially alter ecosystem functioning. The reproduction of the central European of salamanders to pond reproduction can alter food web linkages across ecosystem boundaries by enhancing the flux

  5. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Maignan, F.; Arain, A.; Cescatti, A.; Gianelle, D.; Gough, C.; Gu, L.; Lafleur, P.; Laurila, T.; Marcolla, B.; Margolis, H.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Saigusa, N.; Vesala, T.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Koven, C.; Black, A.; Dellwik, E.; Don, A.; Hollinger, D.; Knohl, A.; Monson, R.; Munger, J.; Suyker, A.; Varlagin, A.; Verma, S.

    2011-07-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco) of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m-2 d-1), when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m-2 d-1). Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m-2 d-1) of 0.70(±0.33), 0.60(±0.38), 0.62(±0.43), 0.49(±0.22) and 0.27(±0.08), respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair) and soil (Tsoil) temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands). Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI), inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (QS) was higher than the one over time (interannual, QT). This can be expected because QS not only accounts for climate gradients across sites but also for (positively correlated) the spatial variability of substrate quantity. Thus, if the models estimate future warming impacts on Reco based on QS rather than QT, this could overestimate the impact of temperature changes.

  6. Payments for ecosystem services as commodity fetishism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolás Kosoy; Esteve Corbera

    2010-01-01

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) economically reward resource managers for the provision of ecosystem services and are thus characterised by (i) an ecological function subject to trade; (ii) the establishment of a standard unit of exchange; (iii) and supply, demand and intermediation flows between those who sell and buy ecosystem services. This paper departs from the term commodity fetishism, broadly

  7. Ecosystem Model Based Grid Resource Optimization Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunlan Wang; Tao Wang; Lei Tang; Dong Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Summary In this paper, the grid computing system is seemed as an ecosystem. The object of the optimization resource management is to promote the balance and evolution of the computing ecosystem. The architecture of the ecosystem model based grid resource management system is presented, which has the self-aware and self- optimization mechanism. The knowledge discovery based self-aware mechanism has the

  8. Terrestrial ecosystem processes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Barrett; R. A. Virginia; D. W. Hopkins; J. Aislabie; R. Bargagli; J. G. Bockheim; I. B. Campbell; W. B. Lyons; D. L. Moorhead; J. N. Nkem; R. S. Sletten; H. Steltzer; D. H. Wall; M. D. Wallenstein

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial environments of Victoria Land, Antarctica are ideal systems to test hypotheses about the sensitivity of ecosystem processes to climate variability, and the relationships between soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning because of their high sensitivity to climate change and their limited diversity. This region is also considered among the most pristine of ecosystems, and therefore may serve as an indicator

  9. 4, 44594506, 2007 C of ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 4459­4506, 2007 13 C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Central Amazonia A. de Ara discussion forum of Biogeosciences Implications of CO2 pooling on 13 C of ecosystem respiration and leaves.araujo@falw.vu.nl) 4459 #12;BGD 4, 4459­4506, 2007 13 C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Central Amazonia A. de Ara

  10. Quantifying Ecosystem Controls and Their Contextual Interactions

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Quantifying Ecosystem Controls and Their Contextual Interactions on Nutrient Export from Developing The complexity of natural ecosystems makes it difficult to compare the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors and to assess the effects of their interactions on ecosystem development. To improve our

  11. Ecosystem Modeling in IMAS Spatial Methods

    E-print Network

    Boone, Randall B.

    Ecosystem Modeling in IMAS #12;Savanna Spatial Methods #12;10 Integrated Management and Assessment be available. See the `About'boxes in SavView for contacts. Three Primary Tools used in IMAS Ecosystem Modeling'boxes in SavView for contacts. The Savanna Modeling System The Savanna Ecosystem Modeling System is a series

  12. Ecosystem Task Force FY11 Report

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Ecosystem Task Force FY11 Report ACTIVITIES Over the course of Fiscal Year 2010, members of the Ecosystem Task Force have worked with partners across the University to accomplish the following projects itself into subcommittees to focus on the various aspects of the campus ecosystem and in developing

  13. The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Forest; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Loreau, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate that c. 2-21 Pg C could be gradually emitted globally in remaining ecosystem fragments because of plant species loss caused by nearby habitat destruction. The wide range for this estimate reflects substantial uncertainties in how many plant species will be lost, how much species loss will impact ecosystem functioning and whether plant species loss will decrease soil carbon. Our exploratory analysis suggests that biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debts can be globally substantial, even when locally small, if they occur diffusely across vast areas of remaining ecosystems. There is substantial value in conserving not only the quantity (area), but also the quality (biodiversity) of natural ecosystems for the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. PMID:25430966

  14. EPA's Southwest Ecosystem Services Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) is studying ecosystem services and the benefits to human well-being provided by ecological services. As part of this research effort, the Southwest Ecosystem Services Research Progra...

  15. Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of ecosystem-based management (EBM) is to sustain the long-term capacity of the natural world to provide ecosystem services. A technical workshop was held with the object of moving toward identifying, mapping, quantifying, and valuing ecosystem services in the G...

  16. Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

    Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

  17. Optimal ecosystem management with structural dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Pedro Mota; Tiago Domingos

    2004-01-01

    We address the problem of optimal management of a self organizing ecosystem along ecological succession. A dynamic carrying capacity is interpreted as depicting the dynamics of habitat creation and occupation along ecological succession. The ecosystem may have three growth modes: pure compensation (concave ecosystem regeneration function), depensation (convex-concave regeneration function) and critical depensation (additionally having negative growth rates for low

  18. Balancing feedstock economics and ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the economic balance between production of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks and ecosystem services at the farm level. A literature review of the economics of ecosystem services, ecosystem service impacts of biofuel production, and economic factors influencing ...

  19. GLOBEC: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: A component of the US Global Change Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research initiative proposed by the oceanographic and fisheries communities to address the question of how changes in global environment are expected to affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea. The approach to this problem is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that determine both the abundance of key marine animal populations and their variances in space and time. The assumption is that the physical environment is a major contributor to patterns of abundance and production of marine animals, in large part because the planktonic life stages typical of most marine animals are intrinsically at the mercy of the fluid motions of the medium in which they live. Consequently, the authors reason that a logical approach to predicting the potential impact of a globally changing environment is to understand how the physical environment, both directly and indirectly, contributes to animal abundance and its variability in marine ecosystems. The plans for this coordinated study of of the potential impact of global change on ocean ecosystems dynamics are discussed.

  20. Evolution of Animal Photoperiodism

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Evolution of Animal Photoperiodism William E. Bradshaw and Christina M. Holzapfel Center.091305.110115 Copyright c 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1543-592X/07/1201-0001$20.00 Key Words circannual among animals in the temperate and polar regions of the world. 1 Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst.2007

  1. Animal Rights Without Controversy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Leslie; Cass R. Sunstein

    2007-01-01

    Many consumers would be willing to pay something to reduce the suffering of animals used as food. Unfortunately, they do not and cannot, because existing markets do not disclose the relevant treatment of animals, even though that treatment would trouble many consumers. Steps should be taken to promote disclosure so as to fortify market processes and to promote democratic discussion

  2. Animated Burn Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaping San Francisco

    An animation of the spread of the fire that consumed San Francisco in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. The animation, hosted by the Internet Archive, is a 21-second .avi file that is playable by QuickTime and other media players.

  3. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  4. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  5. Marketing Animal Facilitated Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine Howell-Newman; Robert L. Goldman

    1994-01-01

    Animal Facilitated Therapy (AFT) is the therapeutic use of the human-animal bond to improve a patient's physical and emotional health. It is an emerging treatment modality that is gaining acceptance among medical practitioners and healthcare administrators. Medical care has traditionally focused on the clinical well-being of the patient. But it is now widely recognized that emotional health is an integral

  6. Perspectives on algorithm animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc H. Brown

    1988-01-01

    Systems for animating algorithms have received considerable interest of late as effective means for understanding computer programs. Thus far, nothing has been reported in the literature concerning nature of the displays nor to what extent displays can be created automatically. This paper addresses these two issues. The first part presents a taxonomy of displays prevalent in algorithm animation systems; the

  7. Astronomy and Physics Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    H. Tahsiri

    These animations illustrate a variety of astronomical and planetary phenomena, such as the celestial sphere and wobble (precession) of Earth, the sidereal day, why the Earth has seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and many others. There are also animations of Kepler's laws; Newton's third law; retrograde motion; the physical concepts of work and energy; and relative velocity.

  8. Animal Anti-Freeze

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this outdoor winter activity, learners search for and create hibernation sites that will protect gelatin "animals" from freezing. Learners come to understand that hibernating animals need to take care in selecting a sleeping spot that will provide protection from the winter cold.

  9. Animal Behavior Biology 350

    E-print Network

    Arévalo, Elisabeth

    Animal Behavior Biology 350 Spring 2012 Course Description: This course is an introduction to the world of animal behavior, especially from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. Course content will combine discussion of behavioral mechanisms, ontogeny, phylogeny, and function, along with evolutionary

  10. Animal Diversity Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger Espinosa (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology)

    2006-04-20

    Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology, from the University of Michigan. It is a searchable encyclopedia, science learning tool and virtual museum. It has pages suggesting uses for the site in both undergraduate and K12 education.

  11. Plant-Animal Symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest H. L. Schwarz

    1895-01-01

    IN Prof. Stewart's collection at the Royal College of Surgeons there is a preparation of a mimosa which protects itself from browsing animals by providing in its great thorns a domicile for a species of vicious, stinging ants. I believe this example of plant-animal symbiosis comes from one of the West Indian Islands, while on the mainland of America the

  12. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  13. Rainforest Plant or Animal?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this craft activity, learners will compare and contrast the major functions of plants and animals. Through discussion, a group vote, and a Venn Diagram (to be filled with pictures), learners will develop their ability to understand the differences between plants and animals. This standards-based activity includes wrap up discussion questions and key vocabulary.

  14. Workshop on Molecular Animation

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary February 25–26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for: producing high quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories. PMID:20947014

  15. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections. PMID:19851698

  16. Should we enhance animals?

    PubMed

    Chan, S

    2009-11-01

    Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of "animal enhancement", at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. PMID:19880704

  17. Marine Animal Tracking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

    Students are introduced to the ideas and implications of animal tracking, which is useful within scientific and commercial industries. For instance, when planning coastal area development, it is important to take into consideration animal presence and movement. Students are engaged in an activity to monitor animal foraging behavior on a spatial scale by working in groups to track each others' movements as they travel a pre-determined course. They record their results individually and collaboratively in an attempt to understand animal movement regarding foraging behavior. Students also engage in a creative design activity, focusing on how they would design a tag for a marine animal of their choice. To conclude, students are questioned about data interpretation and how spatial information is important in relation to commercial, conservation and scientific research decisions.

  18. Workshop on molecular animation.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories. PMID:20947014

  19. Nature: Katrina's Animal Rescue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    There have been many stories that have come out in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and most of them have dealt with the human tragedies involved in this traumatic set of events. The people at the long-running PBS series, Nature, have created this website to complement a recent edition of the show that offered some insights into the effects the hurricane had on the animal population of Louisiana. On the site, visitors can take advantage of a number of special interactive features. These features allow visitors to ask questions of those involved in the animal rescue efforts and learn about the psychological and physical effects on animals. The site also contains a section where visitors can learn about other web-based resources, such as the homepages for Animal Rescue New Orleans and the Best Friends Animal Society.

  20. [Experimental animal research in the EU legislation].

    PubMed

    Bolliger, Gieri

    2002-01-01

    The legislation of the European Union captures experimental animal research only in part. Binding standards can be found in various legal records of the community-legislation, and in particular in the so-called guideline for animal experimentation 86/609/EWG. But these guidelines do not represent an actual animal protection measure but rather one of harmonisation with the primary goal of unification of the regulations of the participating states in order to prevent distortions of competition and trade barriers which could harm the common market. Although the guideline contains some practicable approaches in the direction of an up-to-date animal experimentation law, it only defines general goals which allows for considerable leeway in national implementation within the individual EU countries, and it has only a limited area of legal operation. On the one hand, only vertebrae are being included, and on the other, the law is only being applied in the area of applied research and protects only animals used in product- and substance-development or test procedures as well as those used in the framework of environmental protection. Various important fields of research are thus not subject to a common regulation and are assigned to national regulation. This concerns animal experimentation in education and training or for military or so-called defence-relevant medical purposes and, in particular, the whole area of basic research including the field of genetic engineering in animals with it's growing significance. The guideline is in need of widening it's scope of application as well as of various adjustments to recent scientific findings and developments in order to become suitable as a more restrictive animal protection law on the community level. It could also be desirable to include animal protection into the catalogue of community-goals in order to make it an independent component of the politics of the Union and to establish the groundwork for a decree of comprehensive and efficient regulations. PMID:12096325

  1. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Catford, Jane A; Vesk, Peter A; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions are a global phenomenon that threatens biodiversity, and few, if any, ecosystems are free from alien species. The outcome of human-mediated introductions is affected by the invasiveness of species and invasibility of ecosystems, but research has primarily focused on defining, characterizing and identifying invasive species; ecosystem invasibility has received much less attention. A prerequisite for characterizing invasibility is the ability to compare levels of invasion across ecosystems. In this paper, we aim to identify the best way to quantify the level of invasion by nonnative animals and plants by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics. We explore how interpretation and choice of these measures can depend on the objective of a study or management intervention. Based on our review, we recommend two invasion indices and illustrate their use by applying them to two case studies. Relative alien species richness and relative alien species abundance indicate the contribution that alien species make to a community. They are easy to measure, can be applied to various taxa, are independent of scale and are comparable across regions and ecosystems, and historical data are often available. The relationship between relative alien richness and abundance can indicate the presence of dominant alien species and the trajectory of invasion over time, and can highlight ecosystems and sites that are heavily invaded or especially susceptible to invasion. Splitting species into functional groups and examining invasion patterns of transformer species may be particularly instructive for gauging effects of alien invasion on ecosystem structure and function. Establishing standard, transparent ways to define and quantify invasion level will facilitate meaningful comparisons among studies, ecosystem types and regions. It is essential for progress in ecology and will help guide ecosystem restoration and management.

  2. Geohazards and Poverty: An Ecosystem Services Approach in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Lazar, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Ecosystem Services (ES) of river deltas often support high population densities, estimated at over 500 million people globally, with particular concentrations in South, South-East and East Asia and Africa. Further, a large proportion of delta populations experience extremes of poverty and are highly vulnerable to the environmental and ecological stress and degradation that is occurring. A systems dynamics approach is adopted to provide policy makers with the knowledge and tools to enable them to evaluate the effects of Geohazards and environmental stressors and associated policy decisions on people's livelihoods (Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation - ESPA Deltas). This is done by a multidisciplinary and multi-national team of policy analysts, social and natural scientists and engineers. The work presents a participatory approach to formally evaluating ecosystem services and poverty in the context of the wide range of environmetnal stressors and hazards. These changes include subsidence and sea level rise, land degradation and population pressure in delta regions. The approach will be developed, tested and applied in coastal Bangladesh. Rural livelihoods are inextricably linked with the natural ecosystems and low income farmers are highly vulnerable to changes in ecosystem services as they are impacted by geohazards and environmental stressors. Their health, wellbeing and financial security are under threat from many directions such as unreliable supplies of clean water, increasing salinisation of soils and flood, while in the longer term they are threatened by subsidence and sea-level rise. This study will contribute to the understanding of this present vulnerability and help the people who develop the relevant policy to make more informed choices about how best to reduce this vulnerability.

  3. Jellyfish in ecosystems, online databases, and ecosystem models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pauly; William Graham; Simone Libralato; Lyne Morissette; M. L. Deng Palomares

    2009-01-01

    There are indications that pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores (‘jellyfish’) have increased in abundance throughout the world,\\u000a or that outbreaks are more frequent, although much uncertainty surrounds the issue, due to the scarcity of reliable baseline\\u000a data. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the individual increases or outbreaks that are better documented, but direct\\u000a experimental or manipulative studies at the ecosystem

  4. Jellyfish in ecosystems, online databases, and ecosystem models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pauly; William Graham; Simone Libralato; Lyne Morissette; M. L. Deng Palomares

    There are indications that pelagic cnidar-ians and ctenophores (‘jellyfish’) have increased in abundance throughout the world,\\u000a or that outbreaks are more frequent, although much uncertainty surrounds the issue, due to the scarcity of reliable baseline\\u000a data. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the individual increases or outbreaks that are better documented, but direct\\u000a experimental or manipulative studies at the ecosystem

  5. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations. PMID:17097725

  6. Modelling ecosystem services in terrestrial systems

    PubMed Central

    Daily, Gretchen C

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a multi-disciplinary research community has documented the goods and services provided by ecosystems in specific sites scattered across the world. This research community has now begun to focus on creating methods and tools for mapping and valuing the ecosystem services produced on any landscape in the world. We describe some of these methods and tools and how they calculate and express ecosystem service provision and value on landscapes. We also describe methods for predicting landscape change. These predictions can be used by multi-ecosystem service models to assess potential changes and trade-offs in ecosystem service provision and values into the future. PMID:21173858

  7. Anthropogenic pollutants: a threat to ecosystem sustainability?

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Pollutants, including synthetic organic materials and heavy metals, are known to adversely affect physiological systems in all animal species studied to date. While many individual chemicals can perturb normal functions, the combined actions of multiple pollutants are of particular concern because they can exert effects even when each individual chemical is present at concentrations too low to be individually effective. The biological effects of pollutants differ greatly between species reflecting differences in the pattern of exposure, routes of uptake, metabolism following uptake, rates of accumulation and sensitivity of the target organs. Thus, understanding of the effects of pollutants on wildlife and ecosystems will require detailed study of many different species, representing a wide range of taxa. However, such studies can be informed by knowledge obtained in more controlled conditions which may indicate likely mechanisms of action and suitable endpoint measurements. Responses may be exacerbated by interactions between the effects of pollutants and environmental stressors, such as under-nutrition or osmotic stresses and so changes in such variables associated with climatic changes may exacerbate physiological responses to pollutant burdens. PMID:19833650

  8. Shifting seasons, climate change and ecosystem consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, Stephen; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah; Huntingford, Chris; Bell, James; Leech, David; Wanless, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, the seasonal timing of many biological events (e.g. flowering, breeding, migration) has shifted. These phenological changes are believed to be one of the most conspicuous biological indicators of climate change. Rates and directions of phenological change have differed markedly among species, potentially threatening the seasonal synchrony of key species interactions and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Differences in phenological change among-species at different trophic levels, and with respect to other broad species traits, are likely to be driven by variations in the climatic sensitivity of phenological events. However, as yet, inconsistencies in analytical methods have hampered broad-scale assessments of variation in climate sensitivity among taxonomic and functional groups of organisms. In this presentation, results will be presented from a current collaborative project (http://www.ceh.ac.uk/sci_programmes/shifting-seasons-uk.html) in which many UK long-term data sets are being integrated in order to assess relationships between temperature/precipitation, and the timing of seasonal events for a wide range of plants and animals. Our aim is to assess which organism groups (in which locations/habitats) are most sensitive to climate. Furthermore, the role of anthropogenic climate change as a driver of phenological change is being assessed.

  9. Climate change, parasitism and the structure of intertidal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Poulin, R; Mouritsen, K N

    2006-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating rapidly showing that temperature and other climatic variables are driving many ecological processes. At the same time, recent research has highlighted the role of parasitism in the dynamics of animal populations and the structure of animal communities. Here, the likely interactions between climate change and parasitism are discussed in the context of intertidal ecosystems. Firstly, using the soft-sediment intertidal communities of Otago Harbour, New Zealand, as a case study, parasites are shown to be ubiquitous components of intertidal communities, found in practically all major animal species in the system. With the help of specific examples from Otago Harbour, it is demonstrated that parasites can regulate host population density, influence the diversity of the entire benthic community, and affect the structure of the intertidal food web. Secondly, we document the extreme sensitivity of cercarial production in parasitic trematodes to increases in temperature, and discuss how global warming could lead to enhanced trematode infections. Thirdly, the results of a simulation model are used to argue that parasite-mediated local extinctions of intertidal animals are a likely outcome of global warming. Specifically, the model predicts that following a temperature increase of less than 4 degrees C, populations of the amphipod Corophium volutator, a hugely abundant tube-building amphipod on the mudflats of the Danish Wadden Sea, are likely to crash repeatedly due to mortality induced by microphallid trematodes. The available evidence indicates that climate-mediated changes in local parasite abundance will have significant repercussions for intertidal ecosystems. On the bright side, the marked effects of even slight increases in temperature on cercarial production in trematodes could form the basis for monitoring programmes, with these sensitive parasites providing early warning signals of the environmental impacts of global warming. PMID:16768861

  10. Interpreting stable and unstable ecosystem model behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Large-scale ecosystem models describe the fluxes of energy and matter within terrestrial ecosystem, using mechanistic descriptions of ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis, decomposition, mineralization, transpiration, evaporation, net primary production or net ecosystem carbon exchange. Currently, this type of ecosystem models is the main tool for analysing the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystem under scenarios of climate change. In this paper model simulations for three different ecosystems (Scots pine, Cembran pine and Common beech forest ecosystems) are analysed using the attractors of model behaviour, which are reconstructed from quasi-periodic model outputs. Stable and unstable attractor configurations are discussed according to (i) their ecological interpretation and (ii) the implications of the respective attractor configurations on predictive power of model outputs. The results show that large-scale ecosystem models may be used to: (i) determine the amount of information needed to model ecosystem behaviour, (ii) estimate the current resilience status of the modelled ecosystem, and (iii) detect situations where model application delivers meaningless results.

  11. Putting the Engine Back in Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cady, Fred

    Electrical and Computer Engineering programs across the nation are seeing a decrease in engineering student enrollment and retention. Electronic systems and components these days are far too small and complex to allow an inquisitive student to explore and satisfy their curiosity about how these gadgets work. These students often take to exploring mechanical systems instead and are thus led away from Electrical and Computer Engineering. Similarly, with advances in computer simulations of engineering circuits and models that produce realistic results, engineering programs have transitioned away from physical hardware and hands-on experimentation. This trend away from having students being able to "tinker" with real hardware is detrimental to their development into well rounded engineers. In addition, as globalization continues, engineers must broaden their team-work and technical skills. This paper describes a hardware, software and courseware learning ecosystem that has been created to capture student attention and develop a broader skill set. Laboratory and in-class exercises use POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) based laboratory modules to engage students in learning through exploration, critical thinking, and team and cooperative participation exercises. Laboratory and in-class exercises are designed to teach the student how to explore a new technology to be able to learn more about it. In fact, learning how to learn is a key outcome. Laboratory hardware is designed to provide easy connection to real-world devices and allow students to extend their explorations from classroom theory to the practical application of technology they are learning.

  12. Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program Approved by AACUC May 2003 Goals The goals of the Agricultural Animal Care Training Program are to ensure animal well-being, the validity and effectiveness of research and teaching activities, and the health and safety of animal care

  13. Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student

    E-print Network

    Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student AS-550-W Body Condition Scoring in Farm Animals Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Body condition scoring reserves, particularly fat and muscle, an animal possesses. If body condition scoring is conducted

  14. Animal models of adrenocortical tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beuschlein, Felix; Galac, Sara; Wilson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, research on human adrenocortical neoplasia has been dominated by gene expression profiling of tumor specimens and by analysis of genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to these tumors. Although these studies have identified key genes and associated signaling pathways that are dysregulated in adrenocortical neoplasms, the molecular events accounting for the frequent occurrence of benign tumors and low rate of malignant transformation remain unknown. Moreover, the prognosis for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma remains poor, so new medical treatments are needed. Naturally occurring and genetically engineered animal models afford a means to investigate adrenocortical tumorigenesis and to develop novel therapeutics. This comparative review highlights adrenocortical tumor models useful for either mechanistic studies or preclinical testing. Three model species – mouse, ferret, and dog – are reviewed, and their relevance to adrenocortical tumors in humans is discussed. PMID:22100615

  15. Thresholds of ecosystem response to nutrient enrichment from fish aggregations.

    PubMed

    Layman, Craig A; Allgeier, Jacob E; Yeager, Lauren A; Stoner, Elizabeth W

    2013-02-01

    Biogeochemical hotspots can be driven by aggregations of animals, via excretion, that provide a concentrated source of limiting nutrients for primary producers. In a subtropical seagrass ecosystem, we characterized thresholds of ecological change associated with such hotspots surrounding artificial reef habitats. We deployed reefs of three sizes to aggregate fishes at different densities (and thus different levels of nutrient supply via excretion) and examined seagrass characteristics that reflect ecosystem processes. Responses varied as a function of reef size, with higher fish densities (on larger reefs) associated with more distinct ecological thresholds. For example, adjacent to larger reefs, the percentage of P content (%P) of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) blades was significantly higher than background concentrations; fish densities on smaller reefs were insufficient to support sharp transitions in %P. Blade height was the only variable characterized by thresholds adjacent to smaller reefs, but lower fish densities (and hence, nutrient input) on smaller reefs were not sufficient for luxury nutrient storage by seagrass. Identifying such complexities in ecological thresholds is crucial for characterizing the extent to which biogeochemical hotspots may influence ecosystem function at a landscape scale. PMID:23691671

  16. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." Current and past supporters of the HEAR project include the U.S. Geologic Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, University of Hawaii, National Biological Information Infrastructure-Pacific Basin Information Node, and others. The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, A Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.

  17. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  18. The Vision of Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2008-04-01

    In their study of animal coloration, the students will be "hiding" animals from themselves. If the students cannot easily spot a fish, they may assume that the fish will be overlooked by another fish or by a preying bird or mammal. If a moth escapes the students' attention, they may assume that the moth will be likely to escape the attention of its real predators. This activity questions such assumptions. This free selection includes reproducible animal patterns, the Table of Contents, Introduction, and the Index.

  19. Animals eponyms in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, Vk

    2014-11-01

    The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF), and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD). PMID:25484417

  20. Biological Animation Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site produced by the Dolan DNA Learning Center of the Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory contains a number of high quality animations that explain processes important in bioanalytical chemistry. For example, one animation illustrates the process of Sanger sequencing and another explains what Gene Chips are and how they work. PCR, gel electrophoresis, cloning, model organisms and stem cell lines are also treated. The site allows the animations to be viewed or downloaded for PC or Mac, which means that they can be easily incorporated into lectures.