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1

Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in \\

R. S. Wotton

2005-01-01

2

Ecosystem engineering, experiment, and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that philosophers should pay more attention to the idea of ecosystem engineering and to the scientific literature\\u000a surrounding it. Ecosystem engineering is a broad but clearly delimited concept that is less subject to many of the “it encompasses too much” criticisms that philosophers\\u000a have directed at niche construction. The limitations placed on the idea of ecosystem engineering

Trevor Pearce

3

Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#  

PubMed Central

Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of microbial ecosystem engineering. We argue that simply engineering individual microbes will lead to fragile homogenous populations that are difficult to sustain, especially in highly heterogeneous and unpredictable environments. Instead, engineered microbial ecosystems are likely to be more robust and able to achieve complex tasks at the spatial and temporal resolution needed for truly programmable biology.

Mee, Michael T; Wang, Harris H

2012-01-01

4

Ecosystems, sustainability, and animal agriculture.  

PubMed

The long-term sustainability of animal agriculture is examined in an ecological context. As an aid to defining agriculture, animal agriculture, and sustainable agriculture, a broad overview of the structural and functional aspects of ecosystems is presented. Energy output/cultural energy input ratios were then calculated for 11 beef cattle management systems as relative measures of their long-term sustainability. Energy output was estimated by direct conversion of whole body mass of steers to caloric values. Cultural energy inputs were estimated using published forage and cereal grain production budgets in combination with estimated organic matter intakes. Cultural energy inputs included raw materials, manufacturing, distribution, maintenance, and depreciation of all equipment and products used in a 250-animal cow-calf farm/ranch operation. Management systems evaluated included 1) spring calving with slaughter beginning at either weaning (age of calf approximately 6 mo) or after 84, 168, or 252 d in postweaning finishing lot; 2) spring calving with slaughter beginning at about 18 mo of age after either 0, 42, 84, or 126 d in finishing lot; and 3) fall calving with slaughter beginning at about 14 mo of age after either 63, 126, or 189 d in finishing lot. Estimated efficiencies were < 1.0 in all treatments, even when assumed marketed calf crop was 100%. Product energy output/cultural energy input ratios ranged from a high of .40 in the spring calving--stocker--126 d in finishing lot treatment to a low of .23 in the spring calving--slaughter at weaning treatment. The low levels of efficiency were found to be largely the result of the interaction effects of the high levels of cultural energy required to maintain a productive cow herd and grow and finish calves in the rather harsh environment of the Northern Great Plains. Results pointedly reveal the high level of dependency of the U.S. beef cattle industry on fossil fuels. These findings in turn bring into question the ecological and economic risks associated with the current technology driving North American animal agriculture. PMID:8791214

Heitschmidt, R K; Short, R E; Grings, E E

1996-06-01

5

Conservation of prairie dog ecosystem engineering may support arthropod beta and gamma diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem engineering by animals can create new habitats and increase the heterogeneity of the habitat mosaic that in turn can increase plant and animal diversity. Prairie dogs in North America alter both the above- and below-ground structure of the landscape and create novel habitats in grassland ecosystems. The ground-dwelling arthropod community associated with Gunnison's prairie dog modified habitats is compositionally

R. K. Bangert; C. N. Slobodchikoff

2006-01-01

6

Context dependence of marine ecosystem engineer invasion impacts on benthic ecosystem functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced ecosystem engineers can severely modify the functioning on invaded systems. Species-level effects on ecosystem\\u000a functioning (EF) are context dependent, but the effects of introduced ecosystem engineers are frequently assessed through\\u000a single-location studies. The present work aimed to identify sources of context-dependence that can regulate the impacts of\\u000a invasive ecosystem engineers on ecosystem functioning. As model systems, four locations where

Ana de Moura Queirós; Jan Geert Hiddink; Gareth Johnson; Henrique Nogueira Cabral; Michel Joseph Kaiser

2011-01-01

7

Ecosystem engineers and geomorphological signatures in landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeomorphologists study the roles of biota in landscape formation and decay. Ecologists interested in ecosystem engineering study environmental change caused by biota and the consequences for the engineer, other organisms, and ecological processes. The interface is geomorphological change, an interface both are aware of but study somewhat independently and differently. Interaction and integration among the two fields is the goal of this special issue. Here I take an ecological perspective of geomorphological change caused by ecosystem engineers in patches within landscapes that I hope can help facilitate this goal. I ask the following general questions: When will an ecosystem engineering species create a geomorphological signature in a landscape? What, in qualitative terms, is such a signature? How can the signature be estimated and how long will it last? What engineer attributes and ecological factors will determine signature change? What creates complications? How do the answers inform whether or not life leaves a geomorphological signature? To attempt answers, I develop a provisional, general theory of ecosystem engineering signatures that draws on and integrates a geomorphological foundation of balance between formation and decay; landscape patch dynamics; a general framework for ecosystem engineering; and empirical studies. I treat a landscape engineering signature as the balance of rates of formation (F) and rates of decay (D) across patches whose ratio value (F/D) can be transformed (> 1), intermediate (1) or untransformed (< 1). I suggest amenable systems for study. I describe how the signature can be estimated and evaluated for potential persistence, and how to identify when decay or engineer density and per capita engineering activity control the signature. I examine the influences on shifts from transformed to untransformed signatures, and vice versa, at constant and changing rates of decay. I show how the likelihood of signature shifts depends on: 1. engineer density in the landscape and per patch; 2. per capita engineering activity as structure per patch and patches per engineer, or its contribution for engineers occurring in groups; 3. the degree of patch maintenance, abandonment, and re-engineering of abandoned patches; and in some situations, 4. the direction of the signature shift that is considered. I use this to illustrate how different ecological factors affecting engineer species (e.g., abiotic resources and conditions, natural enemies) and engineer feedbacks can drive signature transitions. I address complications and how they might be dealt with for situations where an engineer species causes formation and decay; when multiple engineering species co-occur; and when patches are materially interconnected. I end by considering whether life leaves a geomorphological signature, using this to contrast my approach with biogeomorphology, and asking what a hypothetical analysis of signature patterns across many engineer species/landscape combinations might imply for the interface of ecology and biogeomorphology.

Jones, Clive G.

2012-07-01

8

Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems.  

PubMed

Many marine populations and ecosystems have experienced strong historical depletions, yet reports of recoveries are increasing. Here, we review the growing research on marine recoveries to reveal how common recovery is, its magnitude, timescale and major drivers. Overall, 10-50% of depleted populations and ecosystems show some recovery, but rarely to former levels of abundance. In addition, recovery can take many decades for long-lived species and complex ecosystems. Major drivers of recovery include the reduction of human impacts, especially exploitation, habitat loss and pollution, combined with favorable life-history and environmental conditions. Awareness, legal protection and enforcement of management plans are also crucial. Learning from historical recovery successes and failures is essential for implementing realistic conservation goals and promising management strategies. PMID:21852017

Lotze, Heike K; Coll, Marta; Magera, Anna M; Ward-Paige, Christine; Airoldi, Laura

2011-08-17

9

Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions  

SciTech Connect

With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to airborne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

Newman, J.R.; Schreiber, R.K.

1984-07-01

10

Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

Newman, James R.; Schreiber, R. Kent

1984-07-01

11

Ecosystem Engineering across Environmental Gradients: Implications for Conservation and Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience is about the implications for conservation and management of ecosystem engineering. Ecosystem engineers are organisms whose presence or activity alters their physical surroundings or changes the flow of resources, thereby creating or modifying habitats. Because ecosystem engineers affect communities through environmentally mediated interactions, their impact and importance are likely to shift across environmental stress gradients. We hypothesize that in extreme physical environments, ecosystem engineers that ameliorate physical stress are essential for ecosystem function, whereas in physically benign environments where competitor and consumer pressure is typically high, engineers support ecosystem processes by providing competitor- or predator-free space. Important ecosystem engineers alleviate limiting abiotic and biotic stresses, expanding distributional limits for numerous species, and often form the foundation for community development. Because managing important engineers can protect numerous associated species and functions, we advocate using these organisms as conservation targets, harnessing the benefits of ecosystem engineers in various environments. Developing a predictive understanding of engineering across environmental gradients is important for furthering our conceptual understanding of ecosystem structure and function, and could aid in directing limited management resources to critical ecosystem engineers.

CAITLIN MULLAN CRAIN and MARK D. BERTNESS (;)

2006-03-01

12

Ecosystems, Sustainability, and Animal Agriculture 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sustainability of animal agriculture is examined in an ecological context. As an aid to defining agriculture, animal agriculture, and sustainable agriculture, a broad overview of the structural and functional aspects of ecosystems is presented. Energy output\\/cultural energy input ratios were then calculated for 11 beef cattle management systems as relative measures of their long-term sustainability. Energy output was

R. K. Heitschmidt; R. E. Short; E. E. Grings

2010-01-01

13

Genetic Engineering and the Integrity of Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering evokes a number of objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. The concept of animal integrity is often invoked to articulate these kind of objections. Moreover, in reaction to the advent of genetic engineering, the concept has been extended from the level of

Rob De Vries

2006-01-01

14

Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the adjacent areas of open channel with minimal macrophyte growth. Uprooting resistances were considerable and differences were found both between species and over the annual growth cycle. T. latifolia showed the greatest uprooting resistance and P. arundinacea the lowest uprooting resistance. Maximum uprooting resistance for all species was in June. The sampled sediments were found to be a store of metals. For all macrophyte species, the below-ground tissues (roots and rhizomes) generally had greater metal concentrations than above-ground tissues (stem and leafs). The results from this research will help inform the use of macrophytes in the management of sediment-contaminated urban rivers.

Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

2012-04-01

15

Biodiversity's Response to Ecosystem Productivity Depends on Historical Plant and Animal Relationships  

NSF Publications Database

... Ecosystem Productivity Depends on Historical Plant and Animal Relationships The experiment using ... NSF), have discovered part of the answer: how plant and animal communities originally assembled is a ...

16

Microbial assemblages as ecosystem engineers of sediment stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Sediment erosion and transport is a governing factor in the ecological and commercial health of aquatic ecosystems from the\\u000a watershed to the sea. There is now a general consensus that biogenic mediation of submersed sediments contributes significantly\\u000a to the resistance of the bed to physical forcing. This important ecosystem function has mainly been linked to microalgae (“ecosystem\\u000a engineers”) and their

Sabine Ulrike Gerbersdorf; Robert Bittner; Helen Lubarsky; Werner Manz; David M. Paterson

2009-01-01

17

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

18

Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health.  

PubMed

The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brownstein, John S; Madoff, Lawrence C; McCraw, Sarah L; Gurr, Sarah J

2012-04-11

19

Engineering animal models of dystonia.  

PubMed

Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal involuntary movements that are prolonged and often cause twisting and turning. Several genetically modified worms, fruit flies, and rodents have been generated as models of genetic dystonias, in particular DYT1, DYT11, and DYT12 dystonias. Although these models do not show overt dystonic symptoms, the rodent models exhibit motor deficits in specialized behavioral tasks, such as the rotarod and beam-walking tests. For example, in a rodent model of DYT12 dystonia, which is generally stress triggered, motor deficits are observed only after the animal is stressed. Moreover, in a rodent model of DYT1 dystonia, the motor and electrophysiological deficits can be rescued by trihexyphenidyl, a common anticholinergic medication used to treat dystonic symptoms in human patients. Biochemically, the DYT1 and DYT11 animal models also share some similarities to patients, such as a reduction in striatal D2 dopamine receptor and binding activities. In addition, conditional knockout mouse models for DYT1 and DYT11 dystonia demonstrate that loss of the causal dystonia-related proteins in the striatum leads to motor deficits. Interestingly, loss of the DYT1 dystonia causal protein in Purkinje cells shows an improvement in motor performance, suggesting that gene therapy targeting of the cerebellum or intervention in its downstream pathways may be useful. Finally, recent studies using DYT1 dystonia worm and mouse models led to a potential novel therapeutic agent, which is currently undergoing clinical trials. These results indicate that genetic animal models are powerful tools to elucidate the pathophysiology and to further develop new therapeutics for dystonia. PMID:23893455

Oleas, Janneth; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Deandrade, Mark P; Pisani, Antonio; Li, Yuqing

2013-06-15

20

The Role of Exotic Marine Ecosystem Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all invader impacts, those likeliest to have the most wide-reaching consequences are alterations to ecosystems, as they\\u000a can essentially “change the rules of existence” for broad suites of resident biota (Vitousek 1990). One often-considered class\\u000a of ecosystem-level effects of exotics is the disruption of energy or material fluxes (Chap. 17, Grosholz and Ruiz). For example,\\u000a the initiation of trophic

Jeffrey A. Crooks

21

Non-indigenous invasive bivalves as ecosystem engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several non-indigenous bivalve species have been colonising aquatic ecosystems worldwide, in some cases with great ecological\\u000a and economic impacts. In this paper, we focus on the ecosystem engineering attributes of non-indigenous invasive bivalves\\u000a (i.e., the capacities of these organisms to directly or indirectly affect the availability of resources to other species by\\u000a physically modifying the environment). By reviewing the ecology

Ronaldo Sousa; Jorge L. Gutiérrez; David C. Aldridge

2009-01-01

22

Behavioural interactions between ecosystem engineers control community species richness.  

PubMed

Behavioural interactions between ecosystem engineers may strongly influence community structure. We tested whether an invasive ecosystem engineer, the alga Caulerpa taxifolia, indirectly facilitated community diversity by modifying the behaviour of a native ecosystem engineer, the clam Anadara trapezia, in southeastern Australia. In this study, clams in Caulerpa-invaded sediments partially unburied themselves, extending >30% of their shell surface above the sediment, providing rare, hard substrata for colonization. Consequently, clams in Caulerpa had significantly higher diversity and abundance of epibiota compared with clams in unvegetated sediments. To isolate the role of clam burial depth from direct habitat influences or differential predation by habitat, we manipulated clam burial depth, predator exposure and habitat (Caulerpa or unvegetated) in an orthogonal experiment. Burial depth overwhelmingly influenced epibiont species richness and abundance, resulting in a behaviourally mediated facilitation cascade. That Caulerpa controls epibiont communities by altering Anadara burial depths illustrates that even subtle behavioural responses of one ecosystem engineer to another can drive extensive community-wide facilitation. PMID:19702633

Gribben, Paul E; Byers, James E; Clements, Michael; McKenzie, Louise A; Steinberg, Peter D; Wright, Jeffrey T

2009-08-21

23

Habitat-Mediated Facilitation and Counteracting Ecosystem Engineering Interactively Influence Ecosystem Responses to Disturbance  

PubMed Central

Recovery of an ecosystem following disturbance can be severely hampered or even shift altogether when a point disturbance exceeds a certain spatial threshold. Such scale-dependent dynamics may be caused by preemptive competition, but may also result from diminished self-facilitation due to weakened ecosystem engineering. Moreover, disturbance can facilitate colonization by engineering species that alter abiotic conditions in ways that exacerbate stress on the original species. Consequently, establishment of such counteracting engineers might reduce the spatial threshold for the disturbance, by effectively slowing recovery and increasing the risk for ecosystem shifts to alternative states. We tested these predictions in an intertidal mudflat characterized by a two-state mosaic of hummocks (humps exposed during low tide) dominated by the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii) and hollows (low-tide waterlogged depressions dominated by the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina). In contrast to expectations, seagrass recolonized both natural and experimental clearings via lateral expansion and seemed unaffected by both clearing size and lugworm addition. Near the end of the growth season, however, an additional disturbance (most likely waterfowl grazing and/or strong hydrodynamics) selectively impacted recolonizing seagrass in the largest (1 m2) clearings (regardless of lugworm addition), and in those medium (0.25 m2) clearings where lugworms had been added nearly five months earlier. Further analyses showed that the risk for the disturbance increased with hollow size, with a threshold of 0.24 m2. Hollows of that size were caused by seagrass removal alone in the largest clearings, and by a weaker seagrass removal effect exacerbated by lugworm bioturbation in the medium clearings. Consequently, a sufficiently large disturbance increased the vulnerability of recolonizing seagrass to additional disturbance by weakening seagrass engineering effects (sediment stabilization). Meanwhile, the counteracting ecosystem engineering (lugworm bioturbation) reduced that threshold size. Therefore, scale-dependent interactions between habitat-mediated facilitation, competition and disturbance seem to maintain the spatial two-state mosaic in this ecosystem.

Eklof, Johan S.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Donadi, Serena; van der Zee, Els M.; O'Hara, Robert; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

2011-01-01

24

Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

25

Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers,\\u000a however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships\\u000a between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns.\\u000a Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem

Christopher B. Anderson; Amy D. Rosemond

2007-01-01

26

Ecosystem engineers activate mycorrhizal mutualism in salt marshes.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that ecosystem engineers should have their most dramatic effects when they enable species, through habitat amelioration, to live in zones where physical and biological conditions would otherwise suppress or limit them. Mutualisms between mycorrhizal fungi and plants are key determinants of productivity and biodiversity in most terrestrial systems, but are thought to be unimportant in wetlands because anoxic sediments exclude fungal symbionts. Our field surveys revealed arbuscular mycorrhizal associations on salt marsh plant roots, but only in the presence of crabs that oxygenate soils as a by-product of burrowing. Field experiments demonstrate that fungal colonization is dependent on crab burrowing and responsible for nearly 35% of plant growth. These results highlight ecosystem engineers as ecological linchpins that can activate and maintain key mutualisms between species. Our findings align salt marshes with other important biogenic habitats whose productivity is reliant on mutualisms between the primary foundation species and micro-organisms. PMID:17845290

Daleo, Pedro; Fanjul, Eugenia; Mendez Casariego, Agustina; Silliman, Brian R; Bertness, Mark D; Iribarne, Oscar

2007-10-01

27

A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests of New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem engineers play a large role in physically structuring the ecosystem in which they are embedded. The focus of much\\u000a of the research surrounding these species is to document the impacts of a single engineer on community composition and ecosystem\\u000a processes. However, most ecosystems harbor multiple engineering species that interact in complex ways and rarely have the\\u000a dynamics of such

Benjamin Baiser; Julie L. Lockwood; David La Puma; Myla F. J. Aronson

2008-01-01

28

Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands). Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight) were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW). The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the role of this ecosystem engineer may be variable and sometimes have no or even negative effects on stability, conversely to what it should be expected based on current research knowledge.

Rossi, Francesca; Gribsholt, Britta; Gazeau, Frederic; Di Santo, Valentina; Middelburg, Jack J.

2013-01-01

29

Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.  

PubMed

Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands. PMID:20132960

Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

2010-02-04

30

The influence of animals on phosphorus cycling in lake ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic animals directly influence the cycling of phosphorus in lakes through feeding and excretion. Traditionally, animals (zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) have been assigned only minor roles in the process of freshwater phosphorus cycling. They were regarded as consumers without much regulating influence. Today there is growing evidence that animals, predators and herbivores, directly or indirectly can control biomass of

Gunnar Andersson; Wilhelm Granéli; Jan Stenson

1988-01-01

31

Effects of an Ecosystem Engineer on Belowground Movement of Microarthropods  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem engineers affect other species by changing physical environments. Such changes may influence movement of organisms, particularly belowground where soil permeability can restrict dispersal. We investigated whether earthworms, iconic ecosystem engineers, influence microarthropod movement. Our experiment tested whether movement is affected by tunnels (i.e., burrows), earthworm excreta (mucus, castings), or earthworms themselves. Earthworm burrows form tunnel networks that may facilitate movement. This effect may be enhanced by excreta, which could provide resources for microarthropods moving along the network. Earthworms may also promote movement via phoresy. Conversely, negative effects could occur if earthworms alter predator-prey relationships or change competitive interactions between microarthropods. We used microcosms consisting of a box connecting a “source” container in which microarthropods were present and a “destination” container filled with autoclaved soil. Treatments were set up within the boxes, which also contained autoclaved soil, as follows: 1) control with no burrows; 2) artificial burrows with no excreta; 3) abandoned burrows with excreta but no earthworms; and 4) earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) present in burrows. Half of the replicates were sampled once after eight days, while the other half were sampled repeatedly to examine movement over time. Rather than performing classical pairwise comparisons to test our hypotheses, we used AICc to assess support for three competing models (presence of tunnels, excreta, and earthworms). More individuals of Collembola, Mesostigmata, and all microarthropods together dispersed when tunnels were present. Models that included excreta and earthworms were less well supported. Total numbers of dispersing Oribatida and Prostigmata+Astigmata were not well explained by any models tested. Further research is needed to examine the impact of soil structure and ecosystem engineering on movement belowground, as the substantial increase in movement of some microarthropods when corridors were present suggests these factors can strongly affect colonization and community assembly.

Cameron, Erin K.; Proctor, Heather C.; Bayne, Erin M.

2013-01-01

32

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

33

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

34

Quantifying the complexities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae's ecosystem engineering via fermentation.  

PubMed

The theory of niche construction suggests that organisms may engineer environments via their activities. Despite the potential of this phenomenon being realized by Darwin, the capability of niche construction to generally unite ecological and evolutionary biology has never been empirically quantified. Here I quantify the fitness effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae's ecosystem engineering in a natural ferment in order to understand the interaction between ecological and evolutionary processes. I show that S. cerevisiae eventually dominates in fruit niches, where it is naturally initially rare, by modifying the environment through fermentation (the Crabtree effect) in ways which extend beyond just considering ethanol production. These data show that an additional cause of S. cerevisiae's competitive advantage over the other yeasts in the community is due to the production of heat via fermentation. Even though fermentation is less energetically efficient than respiration, it seems that this trait has been selected for because its net effect provides roughly a 7% fitness advantage over the other members of the community. These data provide an elegant example of niche construction because this trait clearly modifies the environment and therefore the selection pressures to which S. cerevisiae, and other organisms that access the fruit resource, including humans, are exposed to. PMID:18724717

Goddard, Matthew R

2008-08-01

35

Biodiversity of Plants and Animals in Mountain Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Synopsis  Biodiversity in NW China is discussed. Four specific issues are dealt with in this chapter: (i) plant responses to grazing;\\u000a (ii) plant invasions; (iii) the responses to management of valued rangeland biota (plants and animals); and (iv) vulnerability\\u000a to climate change. Case studies in Gansu and in Xinjiang are presented.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Biodiversity is a multifaceted phenomenon involving the

Zhao Cheng-Zhang; Victor Squires

36

Tabizi Pythons and Clendro Hawks: Using Imaginary Animals to Achieve Real Knowledge about Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes how he used to teach a unit on food webs and ecosystems using actual food webs as models. However, the models used by the author tend to be either too simplistic or too complicated for his students. A few years ago, he solved these problems by making up his own food web, complete with invented plants and animals. The model has…

Rockow, Michael

2007-01-01

37

Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile.  

PubMed

Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers, however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns. Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem engineer by quantifying the impacts of habitat and resource modifications caused by North American beavers (Castor canadensis) on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure and stream ecosystem function in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. We compared responses to beavers in three habitat types: (1) forested (unimpacted) stream reaches, (2) beaver ponds, and (3) sites immediately downstream of beaver dams in four streams. We found that beaver engineering in ponds created taxonomically simplified, but more productive, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Specifically, macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and number of functional feeding groups were reduced by half, while abundance, biomass and secondary production increased three- to fivefold in beaver ponds compared to forested sites. Reaches downstream of beaver ponds were very similar to natural forested sections. Beaver invasion effects on both community and ecosystem parameters occurred predominantly via increased retention of fine particulate organic matter, which was associated with reduced macroinvertebrate richness and diversity (via homogenization of benthic microhabitat) and increased macroinvertebrate biomass and production (via greater food availability). Beaver modifications to macroinvertebrate community structure were largely confined to ponds, but increased benthic production in beaver-modified habitats adds to energy retention and flow for the entire stream ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of beavers on taxa richness (negative) and measures of macroinvertebrate biomass (positive) were inversely related. Thus, while a generally positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem function has been found in a variety of systems, this work shows how they can be decoupled by responding to alterative mechanisms. PMID:17587063

Anderson, Christopher B; Rosemond, Amy D

2007-06-22

38

Environments and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the biosphere and its associated environments and ecosystems in the context of creating a model ecosystem, learning along the way about the animals and resources. Students investigate different types of ecosystems, learn new vocabulary, and consider why a solid understanding of oneâs environment and the interdependence of an ecosystem can inform the choices we make and the way we engineer our communities. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

39

Animal models for vascular tissue-engineering.  

PubMed

Because of rise in cardiovascular disease throughout the world, there is increasing demand for small diameter blood vessels as replacement grafts. The present review focuses on the animal models that have been used to test small-diameter TEVs with emphasis on the attributes of each model. Small animal models are used to test short-term patency and address mechanistic hypotheses; and large, preclinical animal models are employed to test long-term patency, remodeling and function in an environment mimicking human physiology. We also discuss recent clinical trials that employed laboratory fabricated TEVs and showed very promising results. Ultimately, animal models provide a testing platform for optimizing vascular grafts before clinical use in patients without suitable autologous vessels. PMID:23769861

Swartz, Daniel D; Andreadis, Stelios T

2013-06-13

40

Obstructive nephropathy: insights from genetically engineered animals.  

PubMed

Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), (myo)fibroblast accumulation, increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and tubular atrophy. During the last decade genetically modified animals are increasingly used to study the development of obstructive nephropathy. Although the use of these animals (mainly knockouts) has highlighted some pitfalls of this approach (compensation by closely related gene products, absence of temporal knockouts) it has brought important information about the role of specific gene-products in the pathogenesis of obstructive nephropathy. Besides confirming the important pathologic role for angiotensin II (Ang II) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in obstructive nephropathy, these animals have shown the complexity of the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis involving a large number of closely functionally related molecules. More interestingly, the use of these animals has led to the discovery of unexpected and contradictory roles (both potentially pro- and antifibrotic) for Ang II, for ECM degrading enzymes matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue plasminogen activators (PAs), for plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and for the adhesion molecule osteopontin (OPN) in obstructive nephropathy. Further use of these animals, especially in combination with pharmacologic tools, should help to better identify potential antifibrotic strategies in obstructive nephropathy. PMID:16105023

Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P

2005-09-01

41

Students grasp complex concepts through animation [power engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents examples which show how computer animation may be used in teaching electrical power engineering subjects. The topics covered include: transmission system transients; power transformer saturation; and electric machine operation

J. Hess; C. Richard; H. Brown; D. Smith; Boyu Hou; Yilu Liu; Wilson Xu

1998-01-01

42

Role of genetically engineered animals in future food production.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) animals are likely to have an important role in the future in meeting the food demand of a burgeoning global population. There have already been many notable achievements using this technology in livestock, poultry and aquatic species. In particular, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to produce virus-resistant animals is a rapidly-developing area of research. However, despite the promise of this technology, very few GE animals have been commercialised. This review aims to provide information so that veterinarians and animal health scientists are better able to participate in the debate on GE animals. PMID:23438464

McColl, K A; Clarke, B; Doran, T J

2013-03-01

43

‘Ethical concepts regarding the genetic engineering of laboratory animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic value and animal integrity are two key concepts in the debate on the ethics of the genetic engineering of laboratory\\u000a animals. These concepts have, on the one hand, a theoretical origin and are, on the other hand, based on the moral beliefs\\u000a of people not directly involved in the genetic modification of animals. This ‘external’ origin raises the question

R. B. M. de Vries

2006-01-01

44

Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

Traci Warkentin

45

Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

Traci Warkentin

2006-01-01

46

Phosphorus-mobilization ecosystem engineering: the roles of cluster roots and carboxylate exudation in young P-limited ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxylate-releasing cluster roots of Proteaceae play a key role in acquiring phosphorus (P) from ancient nutrient-impoverished soils in Australia. However, cluster roots are also found in Proteaceae on young, P-rich soils in Chile where they allow P acquisition from soils that strongly sorb P. Scope Unlike Proteaceae in Australia that tend to proficiently remobilize P from senescent leaves, Chilean Proteaceae produce leaf litter rich in P. Consequently, they may act as ecosystem engineers, providing P for plants without specialized roots to access sorbed P. We propose a similar ecosystem-engineering role for species that release large amounts of carboxylates in other relatively young, strongly P-sorbing substrates, e.g. young acidic volcanic deposits and calcareous dunes. Many of these species also fix atmospheric nitrogen and release nutrient-rich litter, but their role as ecosystem engineers is commonly ascribed only to their diazotrophic nature. Conclusions We propose that the P-mobilizing capacity of Proteaceae on young soils, which contain an abundance of P, but where P is poorly available, in combination with inefficient nutrient remobilization from senescing leaves allows these species to function as ecosystem engineers. We suggest that diazotrophic species that colonize young soils with strong P-sorption potential should be considered for their positive effect on P availability, as well as their widely accepted role in nitrogen fixation. Their P-mobilizing activity possibly also enhances their nitrogen-fixing capacity. These diazotrophic species may therefore facilitate the establishment and growth of species with less-efficient P-uptake strategies on more-developed soils with low P availability through similar mechanisms. We argue that the significance of cluster roots and high carboxylate exudation in the development of young ecosystems is probably far more important than has been envisaged thus far.

Lambers, Hans; Bishop, John G.; Hopper, Stephen D.; Laliberte, Etienne; Zuniga-Feest, Alejandra

2012-01-01

47

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

48

Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.  

PubMed

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380

Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

2011-05-14

49

A Service Search Engine for the Industrial Digital Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital ecosystem (DE) is comprised of heterogeneous and distributed species which can play the dual role of service provider and service requester. Nowadays, DE lacks semantic search support, which means it cannot provide a reliable and trustworthy link between service providers and service requesters. To solve this issue, we design a conceptual framework of a service- ontology-based semantic service search

Hai Dong; Farookh Khadeer Hussain; Elizabeth Chang

2011-01-01

50

Partitioning the effects of an ecosystem engineer: kangaroo rats control community structure via multiple pathways.  

PubMed

1.?Ecosystem engineers impact communities by altering habitat conditions, but they can also have strong effects through consumptive, competitive and other non-engineering pathways. 2.?Engineering effects can lead to fundamentally different community dynamics than non-engineering effects, but the relative strengths of these interactions are seldom quantified. 3.?We combined structural equation modelling and exclosure experiments to partition the effects of a keystone engineer, the giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), on plants, invertebrates and vertebrates in a semi-arid California grassland. 4.?We separated the effects of burrow creation from kangaroo rat density and found that kangaroo rats increased the diversity and abundance of other species via both engineering and non-engineering pathways. 5.?Engineering was the primary factor structuring plant and small mammal communities, whereas non-engineering effects structured invertebrate communities and increased lizard abundance. 6.?These results highlight the importance of the non-engineering effects of ecosystem engineers and shed new light on the multiple pathways by which strong-interactors shape communities. PMID:22098534

Prugh, Laura R; Brashares, Justin S

2011-11-18

51

Role of two contrasting ecosystem engineers ( Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa) on the food intake rate of Cerastoderma edule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seagrasses are well known ecosystem engineers that can significantly influence local hydrodynamics and the abundance and biodiversity of macrobenthic organisms. This study focuses on the potential role of the seagrass canopy structure in altering the abundance of filter-feeding organisms by modifying the hydrodynamic driven food supply. We quantified the effect of two ecosystem engineers with contrasting canopy properties (i.e. Zostera

Fernando G. Brun; Elleke van Zetten; Eva Cacabelos; Tjeerd J. Bouma

2009-01-01

52

European rabbits as ecosystem engineers: warrens increase lizard density and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammals that build extensive open burrow systems are often classified as ecosystem engineers, since they have the potential\\u000a to modulate the availability of resources for themselves and other organisms. Lizards may benefit from the heterogeneity created\\u000a by these structures, especially if coupled with an increased offer of sites for refuge and thermoregulation. However, information\\u000a about these engineering effects by burrowing

Lucía Gálvez Bravo; Josabel Belliure; Salvador Rebollo

2009-01-01

53

Habitat complexity and community composition: relationships between different ecosystem engineers and the associated macroinvertebrate assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of ecosystem engineers inhabiting coastal environments have been reported structuring different kinds of communities.\\u000a The magnitude of this influence often depends on the habitat complexity introduced by the engineers. It is commonly accepted\\u000a that an increase in habitat complexity will result in an increase in diversity and\\/or abundance in the associated fauna. The\\u000a rocky salt marshes along the

María Cruz Sueiro; Alejandro Bortolus; Evangelina Schwindt

54

Fish, Floods, and Ecosystem Engineers: Aquatic Conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Okavango Delta, Botswana, is a major wetland surrounded by the Kalahari Desert. The delta supports a diverse fish fauna that depends on highly seasonal flooding from inflowing rivers, and on the actions of ecosystem engineers (hippopotamuses, elephants, and termites), for creation and maintenance of their habitats. Conflicts in resource use, especially water, are likely to affect fish populations and the Okavango ecosystem in the near future. We present conceptual models of this remarkable aquatic ecosystem in relation to fish and fisheries as the basis for future research and conservation efforts. Developing understanding of the environmental flow requirements of the delta is key to the management of the Okavango Delta as an ecosystem supporting diverse and abundant fish and wildlife. Once developed, this understanding can be used to allocate water within the Okavango watershed.

Peter Moyle (University of California at Davis;Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology)

2009-01-01

55

Systems engineering methodology for structuring and calibrating lake ecosystem models  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is presented which makes use of both theory-based and data-based information to structure and calibrate low-order dynamic models for lake ecosystem analysis. A brief historical review explores the inductive and deductive aspects of past modeling efforts and describes the motivation for this research. A methodology, summarized in a flowchart, is discussed in terms of data analysis, conceptualization, development of a mathematical model, calibration, and three feedback stages for validity checks. This approach has been applied to the study of nutrient cycling in the south basin of Lake George, NY. The results of several iterations of the methodology are given and discussed in terms of statistical validity and agreement with biological theory. The final model is a set of difference equations containing two state variables and three external variables, and shows a good fit to the existing data. This is one of the first lake ecosystem studies to make extensive use of data in order to develop model relationships and estimate parameters.

Roberts, G.F.; Di Cesare, F.

1982-01-01

56

Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?  

EPA Science Inventory

Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management?s...

57

Invasive ecosystem engineer selects for different phenotypes of an associated native species.  

PubMed

Invasive habitat-forming ecosystem engineers modify the abiotic environment and thus represent a major perturbation to many ecosystems. Because native species often persist in these invaded habitats but have no shared history with the ecosystem engineer, the engineer may impose novel selective pressure on native species. In this study, we used a phenotypic selection framework to determine whether an invasive habitat-forming ecosystem engineer (the seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia) selects for different phenotypes of a common co-occurring native species (the bivalve Anadara trapezia). Compared to unvegetated habitat, Caulerpa habitat has lower water flow, lower dissolved oxygen, and sediments are more silty and anoxic. We determined the performance consequences of variation in key functional traits that may be affected by these abiotic changes (shell morphology, gill mass, and palp mass) for Anadara transplanted into Caulerpa and unvegetated habitat. Both linear and nonlinear performance gradients in Anadara differed between habitats, and these gradients were stronger in Caulerpa compared to unvegetated sediment. Moreover, in Caulerpa alternate phenotypes performed well, and these phenotypes were different from the dominant phenotype in unvegetated sediment. By demonstrating that phenotype-performance gradients differ between habitats, we have highlighted a role for Caulerpa as an agent of selection on native species. PMID:22834366

Wright, Jeffrey T; Gribben, Paul E; Byers, James E; Monro, Keyne

2012-06-01

58

Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia  

PubMed Central

The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them fallows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use.

McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stephen; Iriarte, Jose; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

2010-01-01

59

Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.  

PubMed

Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the functionality of tropical forests can be maintained in moderately disturbed forest fragments. Conservation concepts for tropical forests should thus include not only remaining pristine forests but also functionally viable forest remnants. PMID:22114695

Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Naumann, Clas M; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

2011-11-16

60

The effect of termites as ecosystem engineers in the humid tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of termites as "ecosystem engineers" in humid tropical ecosystems are manyfold and range from the modification of content and composition of organic matter in soils, changes of the soil structure, over effects on the composition of vegetation, to the enhancement of biodiversity of other organisms. An overview if given over findings of recent years with a focus on termites in Amazonian rain forests. Factors that determine termite distribution and diversity are then discussed, and the pests status of termites is shortly reviewed, on the basis of which management strategies for this particular group of soil organisms are outlined.

Martius, C.

2001-12-01

61

Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

Stewart, Timothy W.

2007-01-01

62

Major Changes in the Ecology of the Wadden Sea: Human Impacts, Ecosystem Engineering and Sediment Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow soft-sediment systems are mostly dominated by species that, by strongly affecting sediment dynamics, modify their\\u000a local environment. Such ecosystem engineering species can have either sediment-stabilizing or sediment-destabilizing effects\\u000a on tidal flats. They interplay with abiotic forcing conditions (wind, tide, nutrient inputs) in driving the community structure\\u000a and generating spatial heterogeneity, determining the composition of different communities of associated species,

Britas Klemens Eriksson; Tjisse van der Heide; Johan van de Koppel; Theunis Piersma; Henk W. van der Veer; Han Olff

2010-01-01

63

Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

2012-01-01

64

Evidence for and geomorphologic consequences of a reptilian ecosystem engineer: The burrowing cascade initiated by the Gopher Tortoise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical ecosystem engineers often make major, durable physical constructs that can provide living space for other species and can structure local animal communities over evolutionary time. In Florida, a medium sized chelonian, the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) will excavate extensive subterranean chambers that can endure for long periods of time. The tortoise starts a 'burrowing cascade', by first excavating a larger burrow that may extend 10 m, which is then re-engineered by Florida Mice (Podomys floridanus) and other rodents that dig smaller side-burrows and pockets. This sequence is often followed by an invertebrate, the camel cricket (Ceuthophilus labibuli) which is reported to excavate even smaller chambers. Our first aim was to quantify the zoogeomorphic impact of this burrowing cascade by measuring the amount of soil excavated in a large sample of burrows in two communities. Secondly, we hypothesized that the high biodiversity reported for these structures might be related to the quasi-fractal nature of the geometry, following the work of Frontier (1987). To visualize this underground geometry, we used high-resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), which provided images and insights previously unobtainable using excavations or 2D GPR. Our images verified that the active tortoise burrow had a spiraling shape, but also showed splits in the larger burrow apparently dug by tortoises. For the first time, the smaller Florida Mouse burrows were imaged, showing side loops that exit and re-renter the tortoise burrow. This study also presents new information by making the discovery of numerous remnants of past tortoise burrows underground in the sampling grid surrounding the active burrow. Our third aim was to interpret our field results with previous ecological field studies to evaluate the strength of evidence that this species ranks as an ecosystem engineer.

Kinlaw, A.; Grasmueck, M.

2012-07-01

65

Role of two contrasting ecosystem engineers ( Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa ) on the food intake rate of Cerastoderma edule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seagrasses are well known ecosystem engineers that can significantly influence local hydrodynamics and the abundance and biodiversity\\u000a of macrobenthic organisms. This study focuses on the potential role of the seagrass canopy structure in altering the abundance\\u000a of filter-feeding organisms by modifying the hydrodynamic driven food supply. We quantified the effect of two ecosystem engineers\\u000a with contrasting canopy properties (i.e. Zostera

Fernando G. Brun; Elleke van Zetten; Eva Cacabelos; Tjeerd J. Bouma

2009-01-01

66

Tabizi Pythons and Clendro Hawks: Using Imaginary Animals to Achieve Real Knowledge about Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the engaging unit described here, imaginary organisms are used to teach a variety of topics related to ecosystems--food chains and energy flow, food webs, limiting factors, carrying capacity, and the effects of natural and human-made events on ecosystems. By inventing organisms, the teacher is able to control the level of complexity, and the number of organisms can be modified to meet each student's level. Because the organisms are figments of the imagination, the assignment is not complicated by students' prior knowledge. Once the unit is finished, the class can discuss the ecosystem and how it is similar to and different from real ecosystems.

Rockow, Michael

2007-01-01

67

Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.  

PubMed

The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value. PMID:22571623

de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

2012-06-25

68

Ecosystem Engineering by Seagrasses Interacts with Grazing to Shape an Intertidal Landscape  

PubMed Central

Self-facilitation through ecosystem engineering (i.e., organism modification of the abiotic environment) and consumer-resource interactions are both major determinants of spatial patchiness in ecosystems. However, interactive effects of these two mechanisms on spatial complexity have not been extensively studied. We investigated the mechanisms underlying a spatial mosaic of low-tide exposed hummocks and waterlogged hollows on an intertidal mudflat in the Wadden Sea dominated by the seagrass Zostera noltii. A combination of field measurements, an experiment and a spatially explicit model indicated that the mosaic resulted from localized sediment accretion by seagrass followed by selective waterfowl grazing. Hollows were bare in winter, but were rapidly colonized by seagrass during the growth season. Colonized hollows were heavily grazed by brent geese and widgeon in autumn, converting these patches to a bare state again and disrupting sediment accretion by seagrass. In contrast, hummocks were covered by seagrass throughout the year and were rarely grazed, most likely because the waterfowl were not able to employ their preferred but water requiring feeding strategy (‘dabbling’) here. Our study exemplifies that interactions between ecosystem engineering by a foundation species (seagrass) and consumption (waterfowl grazing) can increase spatial complexity at the landscape level.

van der Heide, Tjisse; Eklof, Johan S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; van der Zee, Els M.; Donadi, Serena; Weerman, Ellen J.; Olff, Han; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

2012-01-01

69

Post-mortem ecosystem engineering by oysters creates habitat for a rare marsh plant.  

PubMed

Oysters are ecosystem engineers in marine ecosystems, but the functions of oyster shell deposits in intertidal salt marshes are not well understood. The annual plant Suaeda linearis is associated with oyster shell deposits in Georgia salt marshes. We hypothesized that oyster shell deposits promoted the distribution of Suaeda linearis by engineering soil conditions unfavorable to dominant salt marsh plants of the region (the shrub Borrichia frutescens, the rush Juncus roemerianus, and the grass Spartina alterniflora). We tested this hypothesis using common garden pot experiments and field transplant experiments. Suaeda linearis thrived in Borrichia frutescens stands in the absence of neighbors, but was suppressed by Borrichia frutescens in the with-neighbor treatment, suggesting that Suaeda linearis was excluded from Borrichia frutescens stands by interspecific competition. Suaeda linearis plants all died in Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora stands, regardless of neighbor treatments, indicating that Suaeda linearis is excluded from these habitats by physical stress (likely water-logging). In contrast, Borrichia frutescens, Juncus roemerianus, and Spartina alterniflora all performed poorly in Suaeda linearis stands regardless of neighbor treatments, probably due to physical stresses such as low soil water content and low organic matter content. Thus, oyster shell deposits play an important ecosystem engineering role in influencing salt marsh plant communities by providing a unique niche for Suaeda linearis, which otherwise would be rare or absent in salt marshes in the southeastern US. Since the success of Suaeda linearis is linked to the success of oysters, efforts to protect and restore oyster reefs may also benefit salt marsh plant communities. PMID:22644048

Guo, Hongyu; Pennings, Steven C

2012-05-29

70

Diorama Engine - A 3D Directing Tool for 3D Computer Animation Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in 3D computer graphics technologies have enabled 3D computer animation to become a popular method of storytelling. However, the tools which provide access to the technology are targeted mainly at trained professionals, and are seldom easy enough for a director to use. We present Diorama engine, a 3D directing tool for 3D computer animation. Diorama engine is a

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara

2003-01-01

71

Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem.  

PubMed

Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches. PMID:24132201

Hardman-Mountford, Nick J; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J W; Aiken, Jim

2013-10-16

72

Applications of stable isotopes to study plant-animal relationships in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As natural tracers, stable isotopes have been extensively used in plant physiological, ecological and envi- ronmental research. Recently, animal physiological ecologists have also applied stable isotope techniques to study plant- animal relationships. The isotopic compositions of animal body generally reflect and integrate their diets over a time period ranging from hours to years to the lifetime of an indi- vidual.

Jianzhu WANG; Guanghui Lin; Jianhui Huang; Xingguo Han

2004-01-01

73

Bone Assemblages Track Animal Community Structure over 40 Years in an African Savanna Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstructing ancient communities depends on how accurately fossil assemblages retain information about living populations. We report a high level of fidelity between modern bone assemblages and living populations based on a 40-year study of the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya. Relative abundance of 15 herbivorous species recorded in the bone assemblage accurately tracks the living populations through major changes in

Anna K. Behrensmeyer

2009-01-01

74

Ecosystem engineers on plants: indirect facilitation of arthropod communities by leaf-rollers at different scales.  

PubMed

Ecosystem engineering is a process by which organisms change the distribution of resources and create new habitats for other species via non-trophic interactions. Leaf-rolling caterpillars can act as ecosystem engineers because they provide shelter to secondary users. In this study, we report the influence of leaf-rolling caterpillars on speciose tropical arthropod communities along both spatial scales (leaf-level and plant-level effects) and temporal scales (dry and rainy seasons). We predict that rolled leaves can amplify arthropod diversity at both the leaf and plant levels and that this effect is stronger in dry seasons, when arthropods are prone to desiccation. Our results show that the abundance, richness, and biomass of arthropods within several guilds increased up to 22-fold in naturally and artificially created leaf shelters relative to unaltered leaves. These effects were observed at similar magnitudes at both the leaf and plant scales. Variation in the shelter architecture (funnel, cylinders) did not influence arthropod parameters, as diversity, abundance, orbiomass, but rolled leaves had distinct species composition if compared with unaltered leaves. As expected, these arthropod parameters on the plants with rolled leaves were on average approximately twofold higher in the dry season. Empty leaf rolls and whole plants were rapidly recolonized by arthropods over time, implying a fast replacement of individuals; within 15-day intervals the rolls and plants reached a species saturation. This study is the first to examine the extended effects of engineering caterpillars as diversity amplifiers at different temporal and spatial scales. Because shelter-building caterpillars are ubiquitous organisms in tropical and temperate forests, they can be considered key structuring elements for arthropod communities on plants. PMID:23951711

Vieira, Camila; Romero, Gustavo Q

2013-07-01

75

Applications of stable isotopes to study plant-animal relationships in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As natural tracers, stable isotopes have been extensively used in plant physiological, ecological and environmental research.\\u000a Recently, animal physiological ecologists have also applied stable isotope techniques to study plantanimal relationships.\\u000a The isotopic compositions of animal body generally reflect and integrate their diets over a time period ranging from hours\\u000a to years to the lifetime of an individual. When animal living

Jianzhu Wang; Guanghui Lin; Jianhui Huang; Xingguo Han

2004-01-01

76

Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

77

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts  

PubMed Central

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley—Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus.

Rowntree, Jennifer K.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

78

Ecosystem engineering by annual intertidal seagrass beds: Sediment accretion and modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seagrasses are generally known as ecosystem engineers, as they reduce flow velocities in their canopies. In perennial subtidal meadows, this usually leads to increased net sedimentation rates and reduction of the grain size. The present study aims to describe the contribution of annual seagrass populations to these processes and elucidate the temporal dynamics. Sediment accretion and grain size modification were experimentally tested by transplanting seedlings of an annual intertidal eelgrass population to an unvegetated tidal flat. Within the planting units (79 shoots m-2) 4.7 mm of sediment accreted, whereas in the most dense parts of these units (199 shoots m-2) accretion amounted to 7.1 mm. The silt fraction (<63 ?m) increased and the sand fraction (63 500 ?m) decreased in the eelgrass beds, which provides evidence that higher silt content in seagrass beds is the result and not the cause of seagrass presence. Annual intertidal eelgrass beds significantly contribute to the immobilisation of sediment during the growing season with its magnitude depending on canopy density. During winter, the accumulated sediments were released again and could even induce additional erosion. Possible consequences of these sediment dynamics for the larger scale functioning of estuarine ecosystems are discussed.

Bos, Arthur R.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; de Kort, Geertje L. J.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.

2007-08-01

79

Industrialized Animal Production—A Major Source of Nutrient and Microbial Pollution to Aquatic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock production has undergone massive industrialization in recent decades. Nationwide, millions of swine, poultry, and cattle are raised and fed in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) owned by large, vertically integrated producer corporations. The amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in animal manure produced by CAFOs is enormous. For example, on the North Carolina Coastal Plain alone an estimated 124,000

Michael A. Mallin; Lawrence B. Cahoon

2003-01-01

80

The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.  

PubMed

An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23554402

de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2013-04-01

81

Bad Ethics, Good Ethics and the Genetic Engineering of Animals in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineers have been remiss in addressing ethical and social issues emerging from this powerful new technology, a technology whose implications for agriculture are profound. As a conse- quence of this failure, society has been uneasy about genetic engineering of animals and has had difficulty distinguishing between genuine and spurious ethical issues the technology occasions. Many of the most prominent

Bernard E. Rollin

2010-01-01

82

Coprolites as evidence for plant-animal interaction in Siluro-Devonian terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FEW remarkable finds document the colonization of land by animals and plants in the mid-Palaeozoic1-3, but much rarer is unequivocal evidence for plant-animal interaction4,5. Here we announce the discovery of coprolites (fossil faeces) in Upper Silurian (412 Myr) and Lower Devonian (390 Myr) rocks from the Welsh Borderland that pre-date examples of similar composition in the Carboniferous by about

Dianne Edwards; Paul A. Selden; John B. Richardson; Lindsey Axe

1995-01-01

83

Agent-Based Simulation of Animal Behaviour. Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper it is shown how animal behavior can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behavior, varying from purely reactive behavior to pro-active, social and adaptive behavior. The compositional devel...

C. M. Jonker J. Treur

1998-01-01

84

Reactor Engineering in Large Scale Animal Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article mainly addresses the issues associated with the engineering of large-scale free suspension culture in agitated\\u000a bioreactors >10,000 L because they have become the system of choice industrially. It is particularly concerned with problems\\u000a that become increasingly important as the scale increases. However, very few papers have been written that are actually based\\u000a on such large-scale studies and the few

Alvin W. Nienow

2006-01-01

85

Bone assemblages track animal community structure over 40 years in an African savanna ecosystem.  

PubMed

Reconstructing ancient communities depends on how accurately fossil assemblages retain information about living populations. We report a high level of fidelity between modern bone assemblages and living populations based on a 40-year study of the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya. Relative abundance of 15 herbivorous species recorded in the bone assemblage accurately tracks the living populations through major changes in community composition and habitat over intervals as short as 5 years. The aggregated bone sample provides an accurate record of community structure time-averaged over four decades. These results lay the groundwork for integrating paleobiological and contemporary ecological studies across evolutionary and ecological time scales. Bone surveys also provide a useful method of assessing population changes and community structure for modern vertebrates. PMID:19461002

Western, David; Behrensmeyer, Anna K

2009-05-22

86

Molecular profiling of soil animal diversity in natural ecosystems: Incongruence of molecular and morphological results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem facing ecologists is obtaining a complete picture of the highly complex soil community. While DNA-based methods are routinely used to assess prokaryote community structure and diversity in soil, approaches for measuring the total faunal community are not yet available. This is due to difficulties such as designing primers specific to a range of soil animals while excluding

Tiehang Wu; Edward Ayres; Grace Li; Richard D. Bardgett; Diana H. Wall; James R. Garey

2009-01-01

87

Brucellosis at the animal\\/ecosystem\\/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely

J. Godfroid; H. C. Scholz; T. Barbier; C. Nicolas; P. Wattiau; D. Fretin; A. M. Whatmore; A. Cloeckaert; J. M. Blasco; I. Moriyon; C. Saegerman; J. B. Muma; S. Al Dahouk; H. Neubauer; J.-J. Letesson

2011-01-01

88

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

89

Seasonal zooplankton dynamics in Lake Michigan: disentangling impacts of resource limitation, ecosystem engineering, and predation during a critical ecosystem transition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined seasonal dynamics of zooplankton at an offshore station in Lake Michigan from 1994 to 2003 and 2007 to 2008. This period saw variable weather, declines in planktivorous fish abundance, the introduction and expansion of dreissenid mussels, and a slow decline in total phosphorus concentrations. After the major expansion of mussels into deep water (2007–2008), chlorophyll in spring declined sharply, Secchi depth increased markedly in all seasons, and planktivorous fish biomass declined to record-low levels. Overlaying these dramatic ecosystem-level changes, the zooplankton community exhibited complex seasonal dynamics between 1994–2003 and 2007–2008. Phenology of the zooplankton maximum was affected by onset of thermal stratification, but there was no other discernable effect due to temperature. Interannual variability in zooplankton biomass during 1994 and 2003 was strongly driven by planktivorous fish abundance, particularly age-0 and age-1 alewives. In 2007–2008, there were large decreases in Diacyclops thomasi and Daphnia mendotae possibly caused by food limitation as well as increased predation and indirect negative effects from increases in Bythotrephes longimanus abundance and in foraging efficiency associated with increased light penetration. The Bythotrephes increase was likely driven in part by decreased predation from yearling and older alewife. While there was a major decrease in epilimnetic–metalimnetic herbivorous cladocerans in 2007–2008, there was an increase in large omnivorous and predacious calanoid copepods, especially those in the hypolimnion. Thus, changes to the zooplankton community are the result of cascading, synergistic interactions, including a shift from vertebrate to invertebrate planktivory and mussel ecosystem impacts on light climate and chlorophyll.

Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Cavaletto, Joann F.; Liebig, James R.; Stow, Craig Stow; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.

2012-01-01

90

Before the Endless Forms: Embodied Model of Transition from Single Cells to Aggregates to Ecosystem Engineering  

PubMed Central

The emergence of complex multicellular systems and their associated developmental programs is one of the major problems of evolutionary biology. The advantages of cooperation over individuality seem well known but it is not clear yet how such increase of complexity emerged from unicellular life forms. Current multicellular systems display a complex cell-cell communication machinery, often tied to large-scale controls of body size or tissue homeostasis. Some unicellular life forms are simpler and involve groups of cells cooperating in a tissue-like fashion, as it occurs with biofilms. However, before true gene regulatory interactions were widespread and allowed for controlled changes in cell phenotypes, simple cellular colonies displaying adhesion and interacting with their environments were in place. In this context, models often ignore the physical embedding of evolving cells, thus leaving aside a key component. The potential for evolving pre-developmental patterns is a relevant issue: how far a colony of evolving cells can go? Here we study these pre-conditions for morphogenesis by using CHIMERA, a physically embodied computational model of evolving virtual organisms in a pre-Mendelian world. Starting from a population of identical, independent cells moving in a fluid, the system undergoes a series of changes, from spatial segregation, increased adhesion and the development of generalism. Eventually, a major transition occurs where a change in the flow of nutrients is triggered by a sub-population. This ecosystem engineering phenomenon leads to a subsequent separation of the ecological network into two well defined compartments. The relevance of these results for evodevo and its potential ecological triggers is discussed.

Sole, Ricard V.; Valverde, Sergi

2013-01-01

91

The effect of sewage discharge on the ecosystem engineering activities of two East African fiddler crab species: consequences for mangrove ecosystem functioning.  

PubMed

A number of studies have suggested that mangrove forests and their faunal components may be pre-adapted to the impact of organic waste discharge, making them possible natural wastewater treatment wetlands. However, the results from recent research are contradictory. Some studies have shown that negative effects, sometimes subtle and difficult to observe, can be detected on specific biotic components of forests subjected to organic pollution. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the ecosystem engineering activities of a fiddler crab community dominating the landward belts of Kenyan mangrove forests. The total processed sediment produced by burrowing and foraging activities in a population from a peri-urban mangrove area receiving untreated domestic sewage was compared with that from a forest not affected by urban wastewater. The results showed how the peri-urban site hosted a higher biomass of crabs, which produced a significantly lower amount of processed sediment compared with the pristine site, resulting in a lower total top sediment mixing activity of the crabs. Thus, the present study showed a link between sewage exposure and top sediment reworking by crabs, which is potentially beneficial for mangrove growth and ecosystem functioning. This represents a possible example of cryptic ecological degradation in mangal systems. PMID:21047678

Bartolini, Fabrizio; Cimò, Filippo; Fusi, Marco; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Lopes, Gil Penha; Cannicci, Stefano

2010-10-16

92

The Iron Redox Engine Drives Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron (Fe) is the most abundant redox-active metal on earth and thus is a dominant driver of redox sensitive biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In terrestrial ecosystems, coupled Fe-carbon (C) and Fe-nitrogen (N) cycling directly affect greenhouse gas production through fermentative and respiratory processes, and indirectly affect greenhouse gas dynamics through microbial competition for C and electron donors. Fe-phosphorus (P) cycling influences nutrient availability, particularly in highly weathered Fe-rich soils, and ultimately feeds back on net primary productivity and C storage. Recent research documenting rapid high magnitude fluctuations in soil oxygen and redox potential in upland soils highlights the relevance of Fe biogeochemistry. We review recent research on Fe redox biogeochemical cycling in relation to C, N, and P transformations. A significant amount of C oxidation can result from Fe reduction leading to the production and emission of CO2. In humid tropical forests with rapidly fluctuating redox potential, Fe reduction accounted for up to 44% of soil C oxidation, an amount equivalent to approximately one third of total annual litterfall C inputs to soils. Microorganisms capable of Fe reduction are extremely abundant in these soils (6% of total microbial cells), and likely drive the high rate of Fe associated C oxidation. However, abiotic Fe oxidation may indirectly oxidize C through the production of free radicals. This process has the potential to oxidize complex C molecules, previously thought to be degraded only by microbial enzymes. Iron redox reactions indirectly affect methane (CH4) emissions from soil. Competition for acetate between methanogens and Fe reducers may ultimately decrease the emissions of CH4 from soils. However, laboratory studies in slurries and intact cores suggest that Fe reducers and methanogens may be spatially segregated in soils. Iron directly interacts with N cycling in soils in a number of ways. Iron oxidation can be coupled with NO3- or NO2- reduction resulting in N2, N2O, or NH4+ production. Iron reduction can catalyze NH4+ oxidation to N2, NO2-, or NO3- through a newly described process call Feammox. Nitrite or NO3- produced via Feammox can be subsequently reduced to N2O via denitrification or to NH4+ via dissimilatory reduction. Iron interacts with P cycling through the effects of redox on Fe-P bonds. Evidence suggests that P sorbed to Fe oxides is liberated during Fe reduction, and can re-react with Fe(III) under oxidizing conditions. This results in short pulses of P availability in fluctuating redox environments such as humid, upland soils. Fe-P redox dynamics may facilitate P retention and higher P-use efficiency in high rainfall environments. Our results show that Fe is a key biogeochemical engine in soil systems, particularly under conditions of fluctuating redox. Biogeochemical cycles coupled with Fe result in greenhouse gas production and impact nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. The redox sensitivity of these reactions suggests that they are likely to be particularly responsive to changes in precipitation, temperature, and other drivers of soil water dynamics associated with climate change.

Silver, W. L.; Hall, S. J.; Liptzin, D.; Yang, W. H.

2011-12-01

93

Resource Quantity and Quality Determine the Inter-Specific Associations between Ecosystem Engineers and Resource Users in a Cavity-Nest Web  

PubMed Central

While ecosystem engineering is a widespread structural force of ecological communities, the mechanisms underlying the inter-specific associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users are poorly understood. A proper knowledge of these mechanisms is, however, essential to understand how communities are structured. Previous studies suggest that increasing the quantity of resources provided by ecosystem engineers enhances populations of resource users. In a long-term study (1995-2011), we show that the quality of the resources (i.e. tree cavities) provided by ecosystem engineers is also a key feature that explains the inter-specific associations in a tree cavity-nest web. Red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicusnuchalis) provided the most abundant cavities (52% of cavities, 0.49 cavities/ha). These cavities were less likely to be used than other cavity types by mountain bluebirds (Sialiacurrucoides), but provided numerous nest-sites (41% of nesting cavities) to tree swallows (Tachycinetabicolour). Swallows experienced low reproductive outputs in northern flicker (Colaptesauratus) cavities compared to those in sapsucker cavities (1.1 vs. 2.1 fledglings/nest), but the highly abundant flickers (33% of cavities, 0.25 cavities/ha) provided numerous suitable nest-sites for bluebirds (58%). The relative shortage of cavities supplied by hairy woodpeckers (Picoidesvillosus) and fungal/insect decay (<10% of cavities each, <0.09 cavities/ha) provided fewer breeding opportunities (<15% of nests), but represented high quality nest-sites for both bluebirds and swallows. Because both the quantity and quality of resources supplied by different ecosystem engineers may explain the amount of resources used by each resource user, conservation strategies may require different management actions to be implemented for the key ecosystem engineer of each resource user. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of both resource quantity and quality into models that assess community dynamics to improve conservation actions and our understanding of ecological communities based on ecosystem engineering.

Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

2013-01-01

94

Resource Quantity and Quality Determine the Inter-Specific Associations between Ecosystem Engineers and Resource Users in a Cavity-Nest Web.  

PubMed

While ecosystem engineering is a widespread structural force of ecological communities, the mechanisms underlying the inter-specific associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users are poorly understood. A proper knowledge of these mechanisms is, however, essential to understand how communities are structured. Previous studies suggest that increasing the quantity of resources provided by ecosystem engineers enhances populations of resource users. In a long-term study (1995-2011), we show that the quality of the resources (i.e. tree cavities) provided by ecosystem engineers is also a key feature that explains the inter-specific associations in a tree cavity-nest web. Red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicusnuchalis) provided the most abundant cavities (52% of cavities, 0.49 cavities/ha). These cavities were less likely to be used than other cavity types by mountain bluebirds (Sialiacurrucoides), but provided numerous nest-sites (41% of nesting cavities) to tree swallows (Tachycinetabicolour). Swallows experienced low reproductive outputs in northern flicker (Colaptesauratus) cavities compared to those in sapsucker cavities (1.1 vs. 2.1 fledglings/nest), but the highly abundant flickers (33% of cavities, 0.25 cavities/ha) provided numerous suitable nest-sites for bluebirds (58%). The relative shortage of cavities supplied by hairy woodpeckers (Picoidesvillosus) and fungal/insect decay (<10% of cavities each, <0.09 cavities/ha) provided fewer breeding opportunities (<15% of nests), but represented high quality nest-sites for both bluebirds and swallows. Because both the quantity and quality of resources supplied by different ecosystem engineers may explain the amount of resources used by each resource user, conservation strategies may require different management actions to be implemented for the key ecosystem engineer of each resource user. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of both resource quantity and quality into models that assess community dynamics to improve conservation actions and our understanding of ecological communities based on ecosystem engineering. PMID:24040324

Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

2013-09-11

95

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Right from its inception, a main strength of Flash has been its animation capabilities. Despite the arrival of ActionScript\\u000a programming shifting the focus somewhat, animation (or tweening in Flash authoring terms) is still considered a core feature of Flash. As yet, we have no timeline functionality for animating\\u000a 3D objects aside from some limited 2.5 effects (the “postcards in space”

Rob Bateman; Richard Olsson

96

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

97

Engineering the rabbit digestive ecosystem to improve digestive health and efficacy.  

PubMed

In rabbits, the bacterial and archaeal community of caecal ecosystem is composed mostly of species not yet described and very specific to that species. In mammals, the digestive ecosystem plays important physiological roles: hydrolysis and fermentation of nutrients, immune system regulation, angiogenesis, gut development and acting as a barrier against pathogens. Understanding the functioning of the digestive ecosystem and how to control its functional and specific diversity is a priority, as this could provide new strategies to improve the resistance of the young rabbit to digestive disorders and improve feed efficiency. This review first recalls some facts about the specificity of rabbit digestive microbiota composition in the main fermentation compartment, and its variability with some new insights based on recent molecular approaches. The main functions of the digestive microbiota will then be explained. Finally, some possible ways to control rabbit caecal microbiota will be proposed and a suitable timing for action will be defined. PMID:23769161

Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Cauquil, L; Gidenne, T

2013-06-17

98

Ecological Engineering of the City: The Urban Ecosystem. Urban Ecology Series, No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cities of the world are great engineering feats. From the earliest dwellings of man constructed out of the raw materials of the environment, man has used his ingenuity to work engineering wonders that improve the circumstances of human life. By engineering technological skills, human beings have altered the environment to suit varied…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

99

A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).

Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo

2005-03-01

100

Contrasting impacts of invasive engineers on freshwater ecosystems: an experiment and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion by common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in shallow lakes have been followed by stable-state changes from a macrophyte-dominated clear water state to a phytoplankton-dominated\\u000a turbid water state. Both invasive carp and crayfish are, therefore, possible drivers for catastrophic regime shifts. Despite\\u000a these two species having been introduced into ecosystems world-wide, their relative significance on

Shin-ichiro S. Matsuzaki; Nisikawa Usio; Noriko Takamura; Izumi Washitani

2009-01-01

101

Detritus processing, ecosystem engineering and benthic diversity: a test of predator-omnivore interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 . Interference between species from different functional groups may influence ecosys- tem functioning and biological diversity. This study tested whether interactions between predacious cutthroat trout and an omnivorous signal crayfish modified the crayfish's trophic and engineering effects within a detrital-based, stream benthic community. 2. We show in a trough experiment that omnivorous crayfish through their trophic and engineering

Yixin Zhang; John S. Richardson; Junjiro N. Negishi

2004-01-01

102

N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant, confers protection to animals exposed to DEPs from oxidative stress-induced damage to the lung. To study this, male C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with either NACA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline, were exposed to DEPs (15mg/m(3)) or filtered air (1.5-3h/day) for nine consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last exposure. NACA-treated animals exposed to DEP had significant decreases in the number of macrophages and the amount of mucus plug formation in the lungs, as compared to the DEP-only exposed animals. In addition, DEP-exposed animals, pretreated with NACA, also experienced significantly lower oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Further, DEP-induced toxicity in the lungs was reversed in NACA-treated animals, as indicated by the lactate dehydrogenase levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-antioxidant, NACA, can protect the lungs from DEP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress related damage. PMID:19429263

Banerjee, Atrayee; Trueblood, Max B; Zhang, Xinsheng; Manda, Kalyan Reddy; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip D; Hagen, Donald E; Ercal, Nuran

2009-03-13

103

Subantarctic Macquarie Island – a model ecosystem for studying animal-derived nitrogen sources using 15 N natural abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants collected from diverse sites on subantarctic Macquarie Island varied by up to 30‰ in their leaf ?15N values. 15N natural abundance of plants, soils, animal excrement and atmospheric ammonia suggest that the majority of nitrogen utilised\\u000a by plants growing in the vicinity of animal colonies or burrows is animal-derived. Plants growing near scavengers and animal\\u000a higher in the food

Peter D. Erskine; Dana M. Bergstrom; Susanne Schmidt; George R. Stewart; Craig E. Tweedie; Justine D. Shaw

1998-01-01

104

Field calibration of soil-core microcosms for evaluating fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram-negative Pseudomonas sp. RC1, which was an aggressive root colonizer, and Gram-positive Streptomyces lividans TK24. The model GEMs were added to surface soil in separate studies, with RC1 studied throughout the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), while TK24 was studied throughout a ten month period. Also, RC1 was used in studies conducted during two consecutive field seasons (1988 to 1990) to determine how year-to-year field variability influenced the calibration of microcosms with the field. The main conclusions of this research were that intact soil-core microcosms can be useful to simulate the field for studies of microbial fate and effects on ecosystem structural and functional properties. In general, microcosms in the growth chamber, which simulated average field variations, were similar to the field for most parameters or differences could be attributed to the great extremes in temperature that occurred in the field compared to the microcosms. Better controls of environmental variables including temperature and moisture will be necessary to more closely simulate the field for future use of microcosms for risk assessment. 126 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

Bolton, H Jr; Fredrickson, J K; Bentjen, S A; Workman, D J; Li, S W; Thomas, J M

1991-04-01

105

Role of two contrasting ecosystem engineers ( Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa) on the food intake rate of Cerastoderma edule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seagrasses are well known ecosystem engineers that can significantly influence local hydrodynamics and the abundance and biodiversity of macrobenthic organisms. This study focuses on the potential role of the seagrass canopy structure in altering the abundance of filter-feeding organisms by modifying the hydrodynamic driven food supply. We quantified the effect of two ecosystem engineers with contrasting canopy properties (i.e. Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa) on the food intake rate of a suspension-feeding bivalve Cerastoderma edule living in these seagrass meadows. Field experiments were carried out in two seagrass beds ( Z. noltii and C. nodosa) and bare sediment, located on sandflat characterised by a relatively high hydrodynamic energy from waves and currents. Results demonstrated that the filter-feeding rate was almost twofold increased when C. edule was inhabiting Z. noltii meadows (1.10 ± 0.24 ?g Chl g Fresh Weight-1) when compared to cockles living on the bare sediment (0.65 ± 0.14 ?g Chl g FW-1). Intermediate values were found within C. nodosa canopy (0.97 ± 0.24 ?g Chl g FW-1), but filter feeding rate showed no significant differences with values for Z. noltii meadows. There were no apparent correlations between canopy properties and filter-feeding rates. Our results imply that food refreshment within the seagrass canopies was enough to avoid food depletion. We therefore expect that the ameliorated environmental conditions within vegetated areas (i.e. lower hydrodynamic conditions, higher sediment stability, lower predation pressure…) in combination with sufficient food supply to prevent depletion within both canopies are the main factors underlying our observations.

Brun, Fernando G.; van Zetten, Elleke; Cacabelos, Eva; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

2009-03-01

106

Desert Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Desert Ecosystems site describes the geology and climate, plants and animals, and cultural history of the main U.S. desert regions including: the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin, and the Colorado/Sonoran desert. There are also descriptions and photos of water in the desert, coyotes, the desert tortoise, and the creosote bush.

107

Assessing impacts of ecosystem engineers on community organization: a general approach illustrated by effects of a high-Andean cushion plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Badano, E. I., Jones, C. G., Cavieres, L. A. and Wright, J. P. 2006. Assessing impacts of ecosystem engineers on community organization: a general approach illustrated by effects of a high-Andean cushion plant. ? Oikos 115: 369 ? 385. Comparative and integrative tools are of fundamental value in ecology for understanding outcomes of biological processes, and making generalizations and predictions.

Ernesto I. Badano; Clive G. Jones; Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Justin P. Wright

2006-01-01

108

Revisiting the concept of components in software engineering from a software ecosystem perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of economic and social issues in Software Engineering (SE) was pointed out as a challenge for the next years, since SE needs to treat issues beyond the technical side, which requires observing it in another perspective. In this sense, this paper revisits the concept of components in SE through a sociotechnical construction. Based on a ranking of its

Rodrigo Pereira dos Santos; Cláudia Maria Lima Werner

2010-01-01

109

Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern African elephants affect habitats and ecosystems in significant ways. They push over trees to feed on upper branches and often peel large sections of bark to eat. These destructive habits sometimes transform woody vegetation into grasslands. Systems of elephant trails may be used and re-used for centuries, and create incised features that extend for many kilometers on migration routes. Elephants, digging in search of water or mineral sediments, may remove several cubic meters of sediments in each excavation. Wallowing elephants may remove up to a cubic meter of pond sediments each time they visit water sources. Accumulations of elephant dung on frequented land surfaces may be over 2 kg per square meter. Elephant trampling, digging, and dust-bathing may reverse stratigraphy at archeological localities. This paper summarizes these types of effects on biotic, geomorphic, and paleontological features in modern-day landscapes, and also describes several fossil sites that indicate extinct proboscideans had very similar effects, such as major sediment disturbances.

Haynes, Gary

2012-07-01

110

Impacts by heavy-oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka on intertidal ecosystems: recovery of animal community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a heavy-oil spill from the Nakhodka on an intertidal animal community, and the recovery process of animals from the damage were surveyed from the autumn of 1997 to the spring of 2001. The field study was carried out in the rocky coast of Imago-Ura Cove, located along the Sea of Japan, where clean-up operations for oil pollution

Tomoko Yamamoto; Masahiro Nakaoka; Teruhisa Komatsu; Hiroshi Kawai; Kouichi Ohwada

2003-01-01

111

Terrestrial ecosystems. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning ecosystems on the earth. Topics include environmental effects, aquatic ecosystems, pollutions effects, food chains, forests, microorganisms, plants, radionuclides, and soils. Also covered are wetlands, animals, biomass, habitats, ozone, radiations, and genetic engineering. (Contains 200 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1992-01-01

112

Designing a Closed Ecological System to Support Animal Populations for Greater than Thirty Days: Palm Sized Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of closed ecological systems (CES) has wide implications for study of ecological interactions both on earth and in space. Our design problem was to create closed ecological systems that were able to support animal grazer populations for greater than thirty days. CES were developed for freshwater and marine systems, in 75 mL Tissue culture flasks. Systems were studied

K. Durance; A. Bryant; J. Benthuysen; P. Cheung; H.-K. Isern; Gavan Kaizawa-Miyata; Jonathan Lowry; F. Lowry; J. Phillips; F. Taub

2001-01-01

113

Animal Adaptations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will participate in classroom discussions and visit a website to learn more about animals and how well (or poorly) theyve adapted to satisfying their needs in their natural habitats. This will help move them toward the goal, in later grades, of understanding ecosystems.The Kratts' Creatures website used in this lesson provides students with a simple, visual means for familiarizing themselves with basic world ecosystems as well as some examples of the animals that occupy them.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2002-04-29

114

Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments often is enhanced even more than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies revealed that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen.

Stief, P.

2013-07-01

115

Investigating Ecosystems in a Biobottle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biobottles are miniature ecosystems made from 2-liter plastic soda bottles. They allow students to explore how organisms in an ecosystem are connected to each other, examine how biotic and abiotic factors influence plant and animal growth and development, and discover how important biodiversity is to an ecosystem. This activity was inspired by an…

Breene, Arnica; Gilewski, Donna

2008-01-01

116

Reduction of Sample Size Requirements by Bilateral Versus Unilateral Research Designs in Animal Models for Cartilage Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Advanced tissue engineering approaches for articular cartilage repair in the knee joint rely on translational animal models. In these investigations, cartilage defects may be established either in one joint (unilateral design) or in both joints of the same animal (bilateral design). We hypothesized that a lower intraindividual variability following the bilateral strategy would reduce the number of required joints. Standardized osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of 18 rabbits. In 12 animals, defects were produced unilaterally (unilateral design; n=12 defects), while defects were created bilaterally in 6 animals (bilateral design; n=12 defects). After 3 weeks, osteochondral repair was evaluated histologically applying an established grading system. Based on intra- and interindividual variabilities, required sample sizes for the detection of discrete differences in the histological score were determined for both study designs (?=0.05, ?=0.20). Coefficients of variation (%CV) of the total histological score values were 1.9-fold increased following the unilateral design when compared with the bilateral approach (26 versus 14%CV). The resulting numbers of joints needed to treat were always higher for the unilateral design, resulting in an up to 3.9-fold increase in the required number of experimental animals. This effect was most pronounced for the detection of small-effect sizes and estimating large standard deviations. The data underline the possible benefit of bilateral study designs for the decrease of sample size requirements for certain investigations in articular cartilage research. These findings might also be transferred to other scoring systems, defect types, or translational animal models in the field of cartilage tissue engineering.

Orth, Patrick; Zurakowski, David; Alini, Mauro; Cucchiarini, Magali

2013-01-01

117

Skeletal tissue engineering—from in vitro studies to large animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a tissue with a strong regenerative potential. New strategies for tissue engineering of bone should therefore only focus on defects with a certain size that will not heal spontaneously. In the development of tissue-engineered constructs many variables may play a role, e.g. the source of the cells used, the design and mechanical properties of the scaffold and the

Pieter Buma; Willem Schreurs; Nico Verdonschot

2004-01-01

118

Guidance for Industry: Regulation of Genetically Engineered Animals Containing Heritable Recombinant DNA Constructs. Final Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its first demonstration as proof of principle by Cohen and Boyer in 1973, recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has been applied to microorganisms, plants, and animals. Various agencies across the US government (USG) have provided guidance and regulatio...

2009-01-01

119

Zinc-finger nucleases: a powerful tool for genetic engineering of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of genetically modified animals or plants with gene-targeted deletions or modifications is a powerful tool\\u000a to analyze gene function, study disease and produce organisms of economical interest. Until recently, the generation of animals\\u000a with gene targeted manipulations has been accomplished by homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells or cloning\\u000a through nuclear transfer and has been limited

Séverine Rémy; Laurent Tesson; Séverine Ménoret; Claire Usal; Andrew M. Scharenberg; Ignacio Anegon

2010-01-01

120

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

121

Genetic engineering of milk composition: modification of milk components in lactating transgenic animals.  

PubMed

Recent progress in recombinant DNA technology as well as in embryo manipulation and transfer has made the introduction of specific genes into the germline of animals relatively commonplace. With appropriate genetic constructs expression of the inserted genes in transgenic animals can be controlled in a tissue-specific and in a differentiation-specific manner; thus, it is now possible to consider alteration of the composition of milk produced by a lactating animal in any of a variety of ways. There is a growing list of foreign milk proteins that have been expressed, and one can envisage placing almost any protein gene of interest under the control of the cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements of a milk protein gene. Modification of milk composition can be extended not only to the proteins of commodity value but also, by manipulation of key metabolic enzymes, to fat, lactose, and other minerals in milk. PMID:8328404

Yom, H C; Bremel, R D

1993-08-01

122

Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2009-01-01

123

Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made them think, 75% enjoyed it, and 89% felt that they learned something. We discuss the potential impact the films might have on public knowledge, health literacy, and attitudes toward the science of tissue engineering. PMID:21943030

Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

2011-12-02

124

Evaluating Learning and Attitudes on Tissue Engineering: A Study of Children Viewing Animated Digital Dome Shows Detailing the Biomedicine of Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art–science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made them think, 75% enjoyed it, and 89% felt that they learned something. We discuss the potential impact the films might have on public knowledge, health literacy, and attitudes toward the science of tissue engineering.

Wilson, Anna C.; Gonzalez, Laura L.

2012-01-01

125

Brain implantations of engineered gaba-releasing cells suppress tremor in an animal model of Parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional approaches in the treatment of Parkinson's disease have typically been directed at restoring dopaminergic tone in the neostriatum of the basal ganglia. Nevertheless, the vast majority of neostriatal efferent projections use GABA as their neurotransmitter. Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major basal ganglia output area that is a target of these GABAergic projections, and research from animal

B. B. Carlson; S. Behrstock; A. J. Tobin; J. D. Salamone

2003-01-01

126

Diorama engine: a 3D video storyboard editor for 3D computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this sketch, we will demonstrate a video storyboard tool targeted for 3D computer animation. Our tool provides limited but specialized functions of standard 3D computer graphics software, focusing on ease of scene construction, camera control and the ability to preview in realtime. This allows for quicker and easier creation of video storyboards over existing approaches.

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara; Mitsuru Kaneko

2002-01-01

127

Replacement of a tracheal defect with a tissue-engineered prosthesis: Early results from animal experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe major problems in the development of tracheal prosthesis are anastomotic dehiscence and stenosis, caused by poor epithelialization of the prosthetic graft. We developed a novel tracheal prosthesis with viable mucosa transplanted from the oral cavity and reported excellent long-term results after thoracic tracheal replacements in dogs. In the current study, we used tissue-engineering techniques to construct a mucosal prosthetic

Jhingook Kim; Soo Won Suh; Ji Yeon Shin; Jin Hoon Kim; Yong Soo Choi; Hojoong Kim

2004-01-01

128

N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs.

Atrayee Banerjee; Max B. Trueblood; Xinsheng Zhang; Kalyan Reddy Manda; Prem Lobo; Philip D. Whitefield; Donald E. Hagen; Nuran Ercal

2009-01-01

129

Designing an Action Selection Engine for Behavioral Animation of Intelligent Virtual Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a new action selection scheme for behavioral animation in computer graphics. This scheme provides a powerful\\u000a mechanism for the determination of the sequence of actions to be performed by the virtual agents emulating real world’s life.\\u000a In particular, the present contribution focuses on the description of the system architecture and some implementation issues.\\u000a Then, the performance of

Francisco Luengo; Andrés Iglesias

2005-01-01

130

Sodium reabsorption in aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron: news and contributions from genetically engineered animals.  

PubMed

The precise adaptation of renal sodium excretion to systemic needs is to a large extent achieved by the regulation of sodium re-absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Transcellular sodium re-absorption by the segment-specific cells of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (often called principal cells) is mainly controlled at the level of the expression and activity levels of the epithelial sodium channel, the apical amiloride-sensitive sodium influx pathway. Recent investigations have identified the first early aldosterone-induced proteins that act on epithelial sodium channel function in expression systems. Indirect evidence suggests that one of these aldosterone-induced proteins, the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase SGK1, plays a central integratory role in the control of epithelial sodium channel surface expression and activity, also in the mammalian kidney. Gene-modified animals lacking epithelial sodium channel subunits or expressing mutant subunits have substantiated the central role of the epithelial sodium channel in sodium re-absorption and blood pressure control, as well as for neonatal lung liquid clearance. Mice overexpressing or lacking specific hormones or their receptors have been used to study their role in sodium transport regulation, but the study of mouse physiology appears to lag behind the generation of gene-modified mice. Nonetheless, these new animal models have had a strong impact on research, by stimulating the integration of knowledge and techniques learned from reductionistic molecular approaches into tissue and animal studies, thus breaking down barriers and stimulating collaborations. PMID:11195050

Verrey, F

2001-01-01

131

Governing the moral economy: Animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science  

PubMed Central

The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a ‘moral economy’ is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met.

Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

2012-01-01

132

Governing the moral economy: animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science.  

PubMed

The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a 'moral economy' is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met. PMID:22507952

Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

2012-03-29

133

Total disc replacement using a tissue-engineered intervertebral disc in vivo: new animal model and initial results.  

PubMed

Study type: ?Basic science Introduction: ?Chronic back pain due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is among the most important medical conditions causing morbidity and significant health care costs. Surgical treatment options include disc replacement or fusion surgery, but are associated with significant short- and long-term risks.1 Biological tissue-engineering of human intervertebral discs (IVD) could offer an important alternative.2 Recent in vitro data from our group have shown successful engineering and growth of ovine intervertebral disc composites with circumferentially aligned collagen fibrils in the annulus fibrosus (AF) (Figure 1).3 Figure 1 Tissue-engineered composite disc a Experimental steps to generate composite tissue-engineered IVDs3b Example of different AF formulations on collagen alignment in the AF. Second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence images of seeded collagen gels (for AF) of 1 and 2.5 mg/ml over time. At seeding, cells and collagen were homogenously distributed in the gels. Over time, AF cells elongated and collagen aligned parallel to cells. Less contraction and less alignment is noted after 3 days in the 2.5 mg/mL gel. c Imaging-based creation of a virtual disc model that will serve as template for the engineered disc. Total disc dimensions (AF and NP) were retrieved from micro-computer tomography (CT) (left images), and nucleus pulposus (NP) dimensions alone were retrieved from T2-weighted MRI images (right images). Merging of MRI and micro-CT models revealed a composite disc model (middle image)-Software: Microview, GE Healthcare Inc., Princeton, NJ; and slicOmatic v4.3, TomoVision, Montreal, Canada. d Flow chart describing the process for generating multi-lamellar tissue engineered IVDs. IVDs are produced by allowing cell-seeded collagen layers to contract around a cell-seeded alginate core (NP) over time Objective: ?The next step is to investigate if biological disc implants survive, integrate, and restore function to the spine in vivo. A model will be developed that allows efficient in vivo testing of tissue-engineered discs of various compositions and characteristics. Methods: ?Athymic rats were anesthetized and a dorsal approach was chosen to perform a microsurgical discectomy in the rat caudal spine (Fig. 2,Fig. 3). Control group I (n?=?6) underwent discectomy only, Control group II (n?=?6) underwent discectomy, followed by reimplantation of the autologous disc. Two treatment groups (group III, n?=?6, 1 month survival; group IV, n?=?6, 6 months survival) received a tissue-engineered composite disc implant. The rodents were followed clinically for signs of infection, pain level and wound healing. X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed postoperatively and up to 6 months after surgery (Fig. 6,Fig. 7). A 7 Tesla MRI (Bruker) was implemented for assessment of the operated level as well as the adjacent disc (hydration). T2-weighted sequences were interpreted by a semiquantitative score (0?=?no signal, 1?=?weak signal, 2?=?strong signal and anatomical features of a normal disc). Histology was performed with staining for proteoglycans (Alcian blue) and collagen (Picrosirius red) (Fig. 4,Fig. 5). Figure 2 Disc replacement surgery a Operative situs with native disc that has been disassociated from both adjacent vertebrae b Native disc (left) and tissue-engineered implant (right) c Implant in situ before wound closureAF: Annulus fi brosus, nP: nucleus pulposus, eP: endplate, M: Muscle, T: Tendon, s: skin, art: artery, GP: Growth plate, B: BoneFigure 3 Disc replacement surgery. Anatomy of the rat caudal disc space a Pircrosirius red stained axial cut of native disc space b Saffranin-O stained sagittal cut of native disc spaceFigure 4 Histologies of three separate motion segments from three different rats. Animal one?=?native IVD, Animal two?=?status after discectomy, Animal three?=?tissue-engineered implant (1 month) a-c H&E (overall tissue staining for light micrsocopy) d-f Alcian blue (proteoglycans) g-i Pi

Gebhard, Harry; Bowles, Robby; Dyke, Jonathan; Saleh, Tatianna; Doty, Stephen; Bonassar, Lawrence; Härtl, Roger

2010-08-01

134

Natural Resources, the Environment, and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of teacher guides includes: Ecosystems and Climate, Wildlife - Just One Piece of the Picture, Integrated Pest Management, Soil and Ecosystems, Sustainable Agriculture, and The Web of Life - Understanding Ecosystems. Each guide includes a subject overview, objectives, and student activities. By the end, students should be able to understand the effect of climate on ecosystems; the interrelationships of animals with components of their natural ecosystem; how ecosystems benefit from using an integrated pest management program; soil compaction and its effect on water filtration, plant growth, and seed germination; sustainable agriculture and agroecology; and the concept of ecosystems and interdependence. Spanish translation available.

135

Natural Resources, the Environment, and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of teacher guides includes: Ecosystems and Climate, Wildlife - Just One Piece of the Picture, Integrated Pest Management, Soil and Ecosystems, Sustainable Agriculture, and The Web of Life - Understanding Ecosystems. Each guide includes a subject overview, objectives, and student activities. By the end, students should be able to understand the effect of climate on ecosystems; the interrelationships of animals with components of their natural ecosystem; how ecosystems benefit from using an integrated pest management program; soil compaction and its effect on water filtration, plant growth, and seed germination; sustainable agriculture and agroecology; and the concept of ecosystems and interdependence.

2007-12-12

136

ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Human societies derive many essential goods from natural ecosystems, including seafood, game animals, fodder, fuelwood, timber, and pharmaceutical products. These goods represent important and familiar parts of the economy. What has been less appreciated until recently is that natural ecosystems also perform fundamental life-support services without which human civilizations would cease to thrive. These include the purification of air

Gretchen C. Daily; Susan Alexander; Paul R. Ehrlich; Larry Goulder; Jane Lubchenco; Pamela A. Matson; Harold A. Mooney; Sandra Postel; Stephen H. Schneider; David Tilman; George M. Woodwell

1997-01-01

137

Classy non-wovens based on animate L. gasseri-inanimate poly(vinyl alcohol): upstream application in food engineering.  

PubMed

We explored electrospinning as a feasible and practicable mode for encapsulation and stabilization of Lactobacillus gasseri. The utilized nanocomposite was prepared using sol-gel composed of animate L. gasseri and inanimate PVA. The objective was to examine the ability of electrospinning method to protect functional properties of probiotic L. gasseri. The PVA was used as an encapsulation matrix as it is biocompatible and hydrophilic in nature thus facilitate an easy revival of bacteria. The characterization of as-spun bioproduct was done by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, SEM, and TEM, whereas thermal behavior was analyzed by thermogravimetry. The viability was confirmed by traditional pour plate method and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, to test whether the functionality of L. gasseri was affected, the encapsulated L. gasseri were fed to mouse for colonization. Our results pointed out that encapsulated bacteria were viable for months, and their metabolism was not affected by immobilization; thus, they could be used in food engineering and trade. PMID:23306644

Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Khil, Myung-Seob; Hwang, I H

2013-01-11

138

Impact of elevated levels of CO2 on animal mediated ecosystem function: The modification of sediment nutrient fluxes by burrowing urchins.  

PubMed

A mesocosm experiment was conducted to quantify the relationships between the presence and body size of two burrowing heart urchins (Brissopsis lyrifera and Echinocardium cordatum) and rates of sediment nutrient flux. Furthermore, the impact of seawater acidification on these relationships was determined during this 40-day exposure experiment. Using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, seawater was acidified to pHNBS 7.6, 7.2 or 6.8. Control treatments were maintained in natural seawater (pH?8.0). Under normocapnic conditions, burrowing urchins were seen to reduce the sediment uptake of nitrite or nitrate whilst enhancing the release of silicate and phosphate. In acidified (hypercapnic) treatments, the biological control of biogeochemical cycles by urchins was significantly affected, probably through the combined impacts of high CO2 on nitrifying bacteria, benthic algae and urchin behaviour. This study highlights the importance of considering biological interactions when predicting the consequences of seawater acidification on ecosystem function. PMID:23218873

Widdicombe, S; Beesley, A; Berge, J A; Dashfield, S L; McNeill, C L; Needham, H R; Oxnevad, S

2012-12-04

139

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

140

Ecosystem Valuation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as a collaborative project of the US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA-Sea Grant Office, and University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, this new Website examines how economists attempt to assign values to ecosystem services. The site is well organized and outlines general and specific topics under the following sections: The Big Picture, Essentials of Ecosystem Valuation, Dollar-based Ecosystem Valuation Methods, Ecosystem Benefit Indicators, and Links. Topics are explained in terms that laypersons will understand (a glossary is also provided) but without compromising the quality of information. Anyone interested in learning more about this controversial but increasingly important area will find this site an excellent starting point.

141

Antarctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In contrast with its largely lifeless interior, the Antarctic coastal marine environment supports a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the region's living bounty in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-01-17

142

Recovery in complex ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ecosystem theory has a deceptively simple representation of recovery. In actual practice,recovery is affected by the\\u000a frequency and extent of disturbances and by the spatial heterogeneity of the ecological system. Environmental changes may\\u000a pass through thresholds causing recovery to a different plant and animal community. The sheer complexity of the system combined\\u000a with unanticipated synergistic effects can make recovery

Robert V. O‘Neill

1998-01-01

143

Saltwater Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Add some water to a terrestrial ecosystem and you can expect a boost in productivity. It is, after all, essential for life;\\u000a most land-based creatures live their lives with only a small tolerance for desiccation. Now add more water, so that the ecosystem\\u000a is periodically or permanently flooded. This is too much water for many organisms, and it will quickly

Douglas J. Spieles

144

Easy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If a picture is worth 1,000 words, then a good animation islike a classic short story--a simple tale simply told.Animations are particularly effective in the teaching ofmathematics because motion is often fundamental to theconcept at hand, and a well-designed animation is usuallyan excellent way to introduce such a concept. In thischapter, we describe two ways to make animations and postthem on your course websites. Once you master the process,you will be surprised at how easy it is to build and post yourown animations. This is a chapter in the Visualization in Science Education section of the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.

Paul Blanchard (Boston University;)

2004-12-01

145

Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (?34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report ?34S, ?13C and ?15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in ?34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = -2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2?). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only ?13C and ?15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen ?34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy ?15N values coupled with light ?34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow a clearer identification of the marine and/or freshwater 14C reservoir effects that are known to exist in human bone collagen.

Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

2013-11-01

146

The Ecosystem Functions Model: A Tool for Restoration Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The Ecosystem Functions Model (EFM) is a planning tool that analyzes ecosystem response to changes in flow regime. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) is developing the EFM and envisions environmental planners, biologists, and engineers using the model to help determine whether proposed alternatives (e.g., reservoir operations or levee alignments) would maintain, enhance, or diminish

John T. Hickey; Chris N. Dunn

147

Animals in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following books relate to the issues surrounding the use of animals for both food and clothing. Farmers may appreciate the increased productivity of factory farming, but the view of animals as production units and the sometimes questionable treatment of animals in some factory farms raises ethical concerns for those interested in animal welfare issues. Genetic engineering, of both plants

Beth Roberts

2004-01-01

148

Digital Ecosystems: Ecosystem-Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We view Digital Ecosystems to be the digital counterparts of biological ecosystems. Here, we are concerned with the creation\\u000a of these Digital Ecosystems, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems to evolve high-level software\\u000a applications. Therefore, we created the Digital Ecosystem, a novel optimisation technique inspired by biological ecosystems,\\u000a where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration

Gerard Briscoe; Suzanne Sadedin; Philippe De Wilde

2011-01-01

149

A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

Clarke, Katie C.

2010-01-01

150

A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

Clarke, Katie C.

2010-01-01

151

Math Animated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains courseware for single and many-variables calculus designed for introductory undergraduate physics and engineering students. Included are text explanations and solved exercises, supported by animated and interactive graphics. The graphics make the material useful for a broader audience in both the classroom and by individual students. These materials use MathML and SVG. The free Firefox browser can be used to view, these resources without any plugins on Windows, Mac and Linux.

Dagan, Samuel

2005-10-09

152

Skingineering I: engineering porcine dermo-epidermal skin analogues for autologous transplantation in a large animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Extended full thickness skin defects still represent a considerable therapeutic challenge as ideal strategies for definitive\\u000a autologous coverage are still not available. Tissue engineering of whole skin represents an equally attractive and ambitious\\u000a novel approach. We have recently shown that laboratory-grown human skin analogues with near normal skin anatomy can be successfully\\u000a transplanted on immuno-incompetent rats. The goal of the

Erik Braziulis; Thomas Biedermann; Fabienne Hartmann-Fritsch; Clemens Schiestl; Luca Pontiggia; Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth; Ernst Reichmann; Martin Meuli

2011-01-01

153

Preparation of new tissue engineering bone-CPC\\/PLGA composite and its application in animal bone defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the feasibility of implanting the biocomposite of calcium phosphate cement (CPC)\\/polylactic acid-polyglycolic\\u000a acid (PLGA) into animals for bone defects repairing, the biocomposite of CPC\\/PLGA was prepared and its setting time, compressive\\u000a strength, elastic modulus, pH values, phase composition of the samples, degradability and biocompatibility in vitro were tested.\\u000a The above-mentioned composite implanted with bone marrow stromal cells was

Zhi Zheng; Jian-long Wang; Lei Mi; Yong Liu; Guang-hui Hou; Dan Chen; Bai-yun Huang

2010-01-01

154

Engineering and design of vessels for sea transport of animals: the Australian design regulations for livestock carriers.  

PubMed

The author outlines the principles underlying the standards employed by the Australian Marine Safety Authority to regulate live animal carriers, vessels used for sea transport of livestock, that operate from Australia. The standards are contained in regulations adopted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority known as Marine Orders. The Cargo and Cargo Handling-Livestock Marine Order has evolved over time with subsequent 'issues' of the order as a consequence of operational experience and specific research. Recent changes have focused on the need to have adequate redundancy in systems and equipment of ships. A history of the development of these regulations is given and is followed by a description of the principles employed to develop the provisions contained in the regulations. PMID:20405430

Schultz-Altmann, Alexander G T

155

PERSISTENCE OF A SURROGATE FOR A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CELLULOLYTIC MICROORGANISM AND EFFECTS ON AQUATIC COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM PROPERTIES: MICROCOSM AND STREAM COMPARISONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research objectives were to: (1) determine the persistence of an introduced surrogate (Cellulomonas sp NRC 2406) for a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) in three streamlined habitats; sediments, growths of Cladophora (Chlorophyta), and leaf packs, (2) test ommunity a...

156

Persistence of a Surrogate for a Genetically Engineered Cellulolytic Microorganism and Effects on Aquatic Community and Ecosystem Properties: Mesocosm and Stream Comparisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our research objectives were to (i) determine the persistence of an introduced surrogate (Cellulomonas sp. NRC 2406) for a genetically engineered microorganism in sediments, growths of Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta), and leaf packs, (ii) test communit...

T. L. Bott L. A. Kaplan

1993-01-01

157

CHIHUAHUAN DESERT FAUNA: EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter addresses the direct and indirect effects of animals on ecosystem processes and/or their effects on ecosystem properties. This has been the primary focus of animal studies on the Jornada Experimental Range (JER) and the Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center (CDRRC) during the twen...

158

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

159

Consideration of Ecosystem for ICME  

SciTech Connect

As the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) emerges as a hot topic, computation, experimentation, and digital database are identified as its three major components. Efforts are being actively made from various aspects to bring ICME to reality. However, many factors that would affect ICEM development still remain vague. This paper is an attempt to discuss the needs for establishing a database centered ecosystem to facilitate ICEM development.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL

2013-01-01

160

Impacts of Climate Change Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents one of three animated films for schoolchildren, commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. An emotive and visual animation conveys the effects climate change will have on marine ecosystems and suggests ways to minimize our impact.

2010-01-01

161

Internet Geography: Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site about ecosystems and biomes contains a map of different ecosystems, and provides rainfall statistics for each biome. There are sections on tropical rainforest, taiga (or boreal forest), savanna, desert, and tundra ecosystems. Each section describes the biome and its origins, where it is found, and how humans impact it. In some cases, sustainable development of the ecosystem is explained.

162

Landscape ecosystems of the University of Michigan Biological Station: Ecosystem diversity and ground-cover diversity  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research is to provide an understanding of the three-dimensional (air-earth-organism) units of the landscape of the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) that the author calls landscape ecosystem types, or simply ecosystems. Specifically, he has focused on the kinds, spatial location and patterns, and composition (physiography, soil, vegetation) of the local landscape ecosystem types of UMBS and Colonial Point. Future research on the functioning of these ecosystems together with inventories of their plant and animal life will add significantly to the landscape ecology research that has been initiated. A major reason for this research is to provide the conceptual basis and baseline data for understanding ecosystem change. Although it is popular to speak of climate change, entire ecosystems change; some components change faster than others.

Pearsall, D.R.

1995-12-31

163

Sensors for observing ecosystem status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislative drivers are listed, as they provide one context in which ecosystem studies are undertaken. In addition to literature cited within the text the paper contains some useful web links to assist the reader in making an informed instrument choice, as the authors feel that the topic is so broad, it is impossible to discuss all relevant systems or to provide appropriate detail for those discussed. This is therefore an introduction to how and why ecosystem status is currently observed, what variables are quantified, from what platforms, using remote sensing or in-situ measurements, and gives examples of useful sensor based tools. Starting with those presently available, to those under development and also highlighting sensors not yet realised but desirable for future studies.

Kröger, S.; Parker, E. R.; Metcalfe, J. D.; Greenwood, N.; Forster, R. M.; Sivyer, D. B.; Pearce, D. J.

2009-04-01

164

Sensors for observing ecosystem status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislative drivers are listed, as they provide one context in which ecosystem studies are undertaken. In addition to literature cited within the text the paper contains some useful web links to assist the reader in making an informed instrument choice, as the authors feel that the topic is so broad, it is impossible to discuss all relevant systems or to provide appropriate detail for those discussed. It is therefore an introduction to how and why ecosystem status is currently observed, what variables are quantified, from what platforms, using remote sensing or in-situ measurements, and gives examples of useful sensor based tools. Starting with those presently available, to those under development and also highlighting sensors not yet realised but desirable for future studies.

Kröger, S.; Parker, E. R.; Metcalfe, J. D.; Greenwood, N.; Forster, R. M.; Sivyer, D. B.; Pearce, D. J.

2009-11-01

165

ECOSYSTEM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermodynamically, ecosystem growth and development is the process by which energy throughflow and stored biomass increase. Several proposed hypotheses describe the natural tendencies that occur as an ecosystem matures, and here, we consider five: minimum entropy production, maxi...

166

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)|

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

167

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

168

Digital ecosystem ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Ecosystems is a neoteric terminology and there are two major definitions about it respectively from Soluta.Net and from Digital Ecosystem and Business Intelligence Institute. In this paper, to solve the ambiguous problem in Digital Ecosystem's definitions and to help researchers better understand what it is, by means of ontology, we propose a conceptual model to completely illustrate the concepts

Hai Dong; Farookh Khadeer Hussain

2007-01-01

169

Populations and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this particular publications, students will explores topics such as different types of ecosystems, biological indicators, streams and life within them, micro ecosystems, terrestrial ecosystems, issues in ecology, and ecological footprints.

Lefever, Mary

2007-09-01

170

Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

1997-01-01

171

ACID PRECIPITATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Man-induced change in the chemical climate of the earth has increased. Recent research has demonstrated that atmospheric deposition contains both beneficial nutrients and injurious substances; plants, animals, and ecosystems vary greatly in susceptibility; injury is most likely w...

172

Mercury in the ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological ecosystem are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.

Mitra, S.

1986-01-01

173

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

174

Ecosystem Services - Water Purification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy ecosystems by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how ecosystems remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once ecosystems are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-30

175

36 CFR 219.9 - Diversity of plant and animal communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...both maintain the diversity of plant and animal communities...provide for the diversity of plant and animal communities, within...and aquatic ecosystems and watersheds in the plan area, including...Rare aquatic and terrestrial plant and animal communities;...

2013-07-01

176

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

177

Business modeling for service ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we mainly propose a business model under the modeling framework for service ecosystems. We analyze the progress in modeling business ecosystems, digital ecosystems and service ecosystems. We point out the research gaps in modeling service ecosystems, especially those resulted from overlooking the essence of service. To address those gaps, we present an architecture of modeling framework for

Pingfeng Liu; Peilu Zhang; Guihua Nie

2010-01-01

178

Application of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for the Production of Improved Human and Animal Vaccines with Particular Reference to Tropical Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Background and justification (Important infectious diseases, Techniques involved in attacking the problems, Construction of Recombinant DNA, Cell technology, The potential use of Recombinant DNA Technology for production of human and animal vacc...

A. Bukhari U. Pettersson

1982-01-01

179

Miller Indexes Examples Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-D animation is a visualization of the Miller indices (Miller indexes) showing approximately 24 various possible planes. The 3 intercepts are shown along with the plane notation. This would be useful for understanding reciprocal lattice vectors, specifically in crystallographic studies for electrical engineering.

2009-07-22

180

YARN: Animating Software Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem that faces the study of software evolution is how to explore the aggregated and cumulative effects of changes that occur within a software system over time. In this paper we describe an approach to modeling, extracting, and animating the architectural evolution of a software sys- tem. We have built a prototype tool called YARN (Yet An- other Reverse-engineering

Abram Hindle; Zhen Ming Jiang; Walid Koleilat; Michael W. Godfrey; Richard C. Holt

2007-01-01

181

Earth on Edge: Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the six ecosystems on which life on Earth most heavily depends: agricultural, forest, freshwater, grassland, coastal, and urban. It is part of a Public Broadcasting System (PBS) project, which includes a discussion guide. Ecosystems are described as communities of interacting organisms and the physical environment in which they live. The goods and services that ecosystems provide are said to form the foundation of human economies. Ecosystems purify air and water, help to control climate, and produce valuable soil-services. Site users may access a discussion guide to accompany the broadcast of the video/television program, which can be used in colleges, secondary schools, and in community groups. Case studies are taken from the companion book, World Resources 2000-2001: Ecosystems and People: The Fraying Web of Life, and from Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Agroecosystems (World Resources Institute). This online text includes profiles, case studies, and ecosystem assessments with references to ecosystems around the world. A list of additional resources includes links to environmental organizations, books, and periodicals.

Overton, Janet

182

Ecosystems emerging: 1. conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This second paper in the series on Ecosystems Emerging treats some properties of ecosystems derivable from the single elementary principle of conservation. These go beyond the mere balancing out of the matter and forces of nature.A brief sketch of a conservationless world is given, followed by an elementary background review of energy, matter and information. The main conservative quantities are

Bernard C. Patten; Milan Straškraba; Sven E. Jørgensen

1997-01-01

183

Science Sampler: Ecosystem Jenga!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately bal

Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.; Rousseau, Joe; Umphlett, Natalie; Laungani, Ramesh; Brosius, Tierney

2009-09-01

184

What Is Ecosystem Management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolving concept of ecosystem management is the focus of much current debate. To clarify discussion and provide a frammork for implementatiotq I trace the histor- ical development of ecosystem management, provide a working definitioq and summarize dominant themes taken from an extensive literature reuiew. The general goal of maintaining ecological integ?Yty is discussed along with five specific goals: maintaining

R. Edward Grumbine

1994-01-01

185

SEVEN PILLARS OF ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem management is widely proposed in the popular and professional literature as the modern and preferred way of managing natural resources and ecosystems. Advocates glowingly describe ecosystem management as an approach that will protect the environment, maintain healthy ec...

186

Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality  

SciTech Connect

The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

Leitner, P.

1981-09-01

187

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

188

Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

189

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

190

Animal Models for Porcine Xenotransplantation Products ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... assist devices containing porcine cells/tissues as a ... or proposals; Discuss animal husbandry issues; ... engineered source animals*; Provide definitive ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

191

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

192

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

193

Mascot animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.

Shinji Ameda; Kumiko Arai; Tomonori Isogaya; Taiki Ito; Chihiro Iwamoto; Mari Kameyama; Haruki Kato; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Satoko Matsumaru; Hiroki Matsuoka; Takato Nakai; Moemi Nakano; Kumiko Obora; Naomi Ogura; Koichi Okamura; Yuko Sato; Tetsuro Satomi; Mio Sawaguchi; Nobuhiko Suzuki; Yugo Takahashi; Mai Takayanagi; Keigo Takeshige; Naomi Tanaka; Takeshi Tsuzaki; Yoshihumi Uehiro; Shuhei Yamada; Koji Yamamoto; Melanie Beisswenger; Toru Ogura; Takeshi Saito; Takayuki Sato; Atsushi Sugito; Seiichi Tsuji

2009-01-01

194

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Mcgreevey, Paul

2010-01-01

195

Lessons on River Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson activity titles are: What are systems? (Purpose: to have students understand what a "system" is, in the broadest sense) How is the natural environment of the tribal community a system? (Purpose: to tie what students learned during the year about the tribal community and its natural environment to the concept of what a "system" is) How did settlers of European descent change the tribe's ecosystem? (Purpose: to explore the connections between what European settlers did to the tribe's ecosystem and what the effects have been on the ecosystem) What can be done? What should be done? (Purpose: to explore and evaluate policy options for future environmental sustenance)

Zalles, Dan

196

Ecosystem Ecology of the Golden Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various mammalian examples of “dominant species” such as the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; Seagle 2003), “keystone species” such as the blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus; McNaughton et al. 1988), and “ecological engineers” such as the beaver (Castor canadensis; Naiman et al. 1994) have been described, clearly representing species that strongly influence various aspects of ecosystem\\u000a structure and function. Small rodents have

Steven W. Seagle

197

Goal-Oriented Requirements Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements engineers need to make sure that the requirements models and specifications they are building do accurately capture what stakeholders really want. Requirements animation has been recognized to be a promising approach to support this. The principle is to simulate an executable version of the requirements model and to visualize the simulation in some form appealling to stakeholders. Most animation

Hung Tran Van; Axel Van Lamsweerde; Philippe Massonet; Christophe Ponsard

2004-01-01

198

CalPhotos: Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California-Berkeley Digital Library Project (first mentioned in the April 16, 1999 Scout Report), this CalPhotos website connects visitors to 17,812 images of different animals. Site visitors can locate animal photographs using a search engine with free text fields for Scientific or Common name, Location, and Picture's ID, and drop-down menu fields for Photographer, Country, US State, Collection, and more. Visitors can also peruse extensive, hyperlinked listings of animals grouped under the following categories: Amphibians, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Mammals, and Reptiles. Animals are listed by both common and scientific name. The photographs come from a variety of sources, and are accompanied by usage guidelines. CalPhotos collections are also available for Fungi, Plants, People & Culture, and Landscapes & Habitats.

2007-01-01

199

CalPhotos: Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California-Berkeley Digital Library Project (first mentioned in the April 16, 1999 Scout Report), this CalPhotos website connects visitors to 17,812 images of different animals. Site visitors can locate animal photographs using a search engine with free text fields for Scientific or Common name, Location, and Picture's ID, and drop-down menu fields for Photographer, Country, US State, Collection, and more. Visitors can also peruse extensive, hyperlinked listings of animals grouped under the following categories: Amphibians, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Mammals, and Reptiles. Animals are listed by both common and scientific name. The photographs come from a variety of sources, and are accompanied by usage guidelines. CalPhotos collections are also available for Fungi, Plants, People & Culture, and Landscapes & Habitats.

200

Ecosystems in the Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)|

Madders, M.

1975-01-01

201

Light Pollution and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artificial light at night acts as a pollutant, with significant and adverse impacts to ecosystems. It can, for example, cause disorientation or act as an unnatural stimulus to wildlife, and disrupt reproduction for many species.

Travis Longcore (University of Southern California;)

2010-05-20

202

Principles of Ecosystem Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protection of estuarine ecosystems requires a comprehensive coastal zone management program with specific environmental controls set within this larger framework. The coastal flood-plain may be designated an area of environmental concern, or conservat...

J. Clark P. J. Sarokwash

1975-01-01

203

Limiting Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit, designed to span two class periods, helps students understand that physical factors, particularly temperature and precipitation, limit the growth of plant ecosystems. The activity begins with a discussion in which students develop their own ideas about the role of temperature, precipitation, and environment on plant growth. They will then examine X-Y graphs of vegetation growth, temperature, and precipitation versus month for four diverse ecosystems to determine which climatic factor is limiting growth. A worksheet and scoring rubric are provided.

204

Delineation of ecosystem regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of developing reliable estimates of ecosystem productivity, ecosystem classification needs to be placed within a geographical framework of regions or zones. This paper explains the basis for the regions delineated on the 1976 mapEcoregions of the United States. Four ecological levels are discussed—domain, division, province, and section—based on climatic and vegetational criteria. Statistical tests are needed to

Robert G. Bailey; Fort Collins

1983-01-01

205

Ecosystem thresholds with hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is one of the common effects of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems and is becoming an increasingly prevalent\\u000a problem worldwide. The causes of hypoxia are associated with excess nutrient inputs from both point and non-point sources,\\u000a although the response of coastal marine ecosystems is strongly modulated by physical processes such as stratification and\\u000a mixing. Changes in climate, particularly temperature,

Daniel J. Conley; Jacob Carstensen; Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer; Carlos M. Duarte

2009-01-01

206

General Equilibrium of an Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems and economies are inextricably linked: ecosystem models and economic models are not linked. Consequently, using either type of model to design policies for preserving ecosystems or improving economic performance omits important information. Improved policies would follow from a model that links the systems and accounts for the mutual feedbacks by recognizing how key ecosystem variables influence key economic variables,

JOHN TSCHIRHART

2000-01-01

207

What is a healthy ecosystem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid deterioration of the world's major ecosystems has intensified the need for effective environmental monitoring and the development of operational indicators of ecosystem health. Ecosystem health represents a desired endpoint of environmental management, but it requires adaptive, ongoing definition and assessment. We propose that a healthy ecosystem is one that is sustainable – that is, it has the ability to

Robert Costanza; Michael Mageau

1999-01-01

208

Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.

2008-10-06

209

Contrasting Ecosystem-Effects of Morphologically Similar Copepods  

PubMed Central

Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering) and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction). Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis) have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning.

Matthews, Blake; Hausch, Stephen; Winter, Christian; Suttle, Curtis A.; Shurin, Jonathan B.

2011-01-01

210

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

211

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

212

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

213

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

214

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)|

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

215

Engineering role models: do non-human species have the answers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shift from traditional engineering approaches to ecologically-based techniques will require changing societal values regarding ‘how and what’ is defined as engineering and design. Non-human species offer many ecological engineering examples that are often beneficial to ecosystem function and other biota. For example, organisms known as ‘ecosystem engineers’ build, modify, and destroy habitat in their quest for food and survival.

A. D. Rosemond; C. B. Anderson

2003-01-01

216

DNA: Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute makes available twenty-five short, narrated animations about DNA at this link. The animations are viewable as video clips and topics include, but are not limited to DNA structure, DNA replication, transcription and translation, mutations in DNA, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and shotgun sequencing.

Institute, Howard H.

2009-09-04

217

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)|

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

218

``Animal Intelligence''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review of my monograph on ``Animal Intelligence,'' in a recent number of NATURE, Mr. Lloyd Morgan credits me with upholding the theory that we have sensations caused by outgoing currents which innervate muscles, and with depending on that theory in some of my own statements about the nature of animals' consciousness. A careless and ambiguous sentence of mine

Edward L. Thorndike

1898-01-01

219

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by António Cidadão.

220

Ecosystem Structure and Survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem survival through chronic and/or episodic water stress requires not only physiological adaptations by the vegetation to the water stress but also an accessible store of water removed from environmental evaporative demand. The existence of such a store at depth is corroborated by recent observations from many biomes, including the seasonally-dry Amazon, which show enhanced productivity during the dry season thanks to hydraulic redistribution of soil water resources by deep-rooted trees. Additionally, we present new hydrologic observations from a small, steep, temperate forested watershed along the Northern Californian coast. The differences between upslope and downslope hydrology and ecosystem dynamics suggest that ecosystem resilience may be dependent on diverse functional and structural attributes of plants, which are species dependent. These plant attributes may, in addition, reflect plant adaptation to, and plant modification of, the local hydrologic setting that feeds back on other biogeochemical cycles and even on climate.

Fung, I.; Lee, J.; Dawson, T. E.

2008-12-01

221

Engineering sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses sustainable development, a policy which attempts to balance environmental preservation and economic growth, and promises a way to provide a decent life for Earth's human inhabitants without destroying the global ecosystem. Sustainable development is an effort to use technology to help clean up the mess it helped make, and engineers will be central players in its success

Prendergast

1993-01-01

222

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

223

Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.

Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

2012-01-01

224

Organic Chemistry Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.

225

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)|

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

226

Animate Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".

227

Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.

2010-05-14

228

Animal bites  

MedlinePLUS

... infected with a virus that can cause rabies. Bats may spread this disease. Rabies is rare but ... and wild animals, such as skunks, raccoons, and bats, also bite thousands of people each year. If ...

229

Animal Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Raising, fattening, and slaughtering the animals needed to produce meat for the increasing United States population generate as much waste as a human population of over 2 billion people. Modern techniques required to produce this much meat efficiently and...

1971-01-01

230

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING frequently observed in your columns accounts of remarkable instances of reasoning power in animals, I am tempted to send you the following notes, which may perhaps be not without interest to the readers of NATURE.

R. J. Harvey Gibson

1884-01-01

231

Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE term `animal husbandry' is gradually becoming more employed by both administrators and scientists concerned with the live stock industry. That it is differently employed by different speakers is the apology for what follows.

A. D. Buchanan Smith

1930-01-01

232

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

233

Animal experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of animals are used every year in oftentimes extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation\\u000a of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more\\u000a or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context\\u000a correspond to the “3Rs” concept as

Roman Kolar

2006-01-01

234

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

235

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

236

Fog, Clouds and the Maintenance of Ecosystems: Mist Opportunities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the significance of occult precipitation-- otherwise known as fog or cloud water (terms used interchangeably here)--in the maintenance of ecosystems? More than a century of natural history observations and decades of research have demonstrated that occult precipitation does deliver water, nutrients, and pollutants to coastal and montane ecosystems, but that its ecological importance is likely to vary by ecosystem. Still, many key ecological questions about the role of fog in the maintenance of ecosystems remain unanswered: For example, what is the effect of fog water and nutrient inputs on annual productivity or rates of nutrient cycling? Are soil processes affected by fog water input to ecosystems? To what extent do plants or animals actually use cloud or fog-delivered nutrients, and if they do, what are the mechanisms? Does fog input control the distribution and abundance of plant and/or animal species? If so, are the mechanisms hydrologic, physical (i.e., influence on temperature or light) and/or nutrient based? Although many of the early observations and research suggested that the delivery of water was one of the more important roles of fog in ecosystem maintenance, we and others have demonstrated that nutrient, as well as pollutants in fog are often 3-10x more concentrated than rain water, and can range up to 100x more concentrated. In some ecosystems, such as old growth forests on Chiloe Island, Chile, we have shown that comparatively large nutrient (e.g., nitrogen) loads can be delivered to ecosystems via a small amount (10s of cms/year) of fog water deposition. Thus, a little fog water has the potential to influence ecosystem processes. In addition, we have hypothesized that "the ocean may be feeding the forest," i.e., the source of the nutrients in fog water may be the ocean. In contrast to this fog subsidy, the ecological function of some high-elevation forests in the northeastern United States has been shown to be negatively impacted, in part, by immersion in acidic clouds. In fog-enshrouded ecosystems such as these, it is of enormous ecological relevance to quantify how occult precipitation contributes to their maintenance or decline. Here I offer a brief review of the state-of-knowledge and summarize some of our recent results on occult precipitation and ecosystem function demonstrating that fog water inputs are spatially heterogeneous, controlled by canopy architecture and exposure, and, in many ecosystems, an order of magnitude lower than rain water inputs. Finally, I point to some of the mist opportunities-- the research needs in regard to where and how occult precipitation may be important in ecosystem processes.

Weathers, K. C.

2006-12-01

237

Animal signals.  

PubMed

The study of animal signals began in earnest with the publication in 1872 of Charles Darwin's The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which laid the basis for a comparative study of signals across all animals, including humans. Yet even before Darwin, the exceptional diversity of animal signals has gripped the attention of natural historians and laymen alike, as these signals represent some of the most striking features of the natural world. Structures such as the long ornamented tail of the peacock, the roaring sounds of howler monkeys, audible kilometers away, and the pheromone trails laid by ants to guide their nestmates to resources are each examples of animal signals (Figure 1). Indeed, because signals evolved for the purpose of communicating (Box 1), their prominence can be hard for even a casual observer to overlook. Animal signals therefore raise many scientific questions: What are their functions? What information do they transmit? How are they produced? And why did they evolve? PMID:24070440

Laidre, Mark E; Johnstone, Rufus A

2013-09-23

238

Natural ecosystem design and control imperatives for sustainable ecosystem services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability of ecosystem services to humanity will depend on knowledge of how ecosystems work in their natural states, which can then be carried over to managed states. The objective of this paper is to describe four properties of ecosystems taken as natural conditions to be maintained under exploitation. Three of these are design properties: near-steady-state or extremal dynamics, dominance of

Bernard C. Patten

2010-01-01

239

Animal liberation or animal research?  

PubMed

The first wave of protest against animal research began over a hundred years ago and lasted for about 40 years. The present wave of protest has only existed for the past 20 years but it is already far more serious, and more violent, than the first. In this Special Feature, Mark Matfield reviews the history of the animal liberation movement, and predicts that unless the scientific community makes a greater effort to inform the public about why animal research is necessary and the humane way in which it is conducted, pharmacological and other areas of biomedical research could become seriously restricted. PMID:1796494

Matfield, M J

1991-11-01

240

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

241

BIOGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Loadings of excess organic wastes and associated nutrients to aquatic systems has numerous deleterious consequences with respect to the ecosystem services provided by these important ecosystems including perturbation of organic matter and nutrient cycling rates, reduction in diss...

242

Ecosystem Restoration Research at GWERD  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...

243

Biocomplexity in mangrove ecosystems.  

PubMed

Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems. PMID:21141670

Feller, I C; Lovelock, C E; Berger, U; McKee, K L; Joye, S B; Ball, M C

2010-01-01

244

Thermodynamic stability of ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of ecosystems during periods of stasis in their macro-evolutionary trajectory is studied from a non-equilibrium thermodynamic perspective. Individuals of the species are considered as units of entropy production and entropy exchange in an open thermodynamic system. Within the framework of the classical theory of irreversible thermodynamics, and under the condition of constant external constraints, such a system will

K. Michaelian

2005-01-01

245

Valuing Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of the services provided top human societies by natural ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles has recently been the topic of discussion and research. Here I review some of the basic economic principles necessary for understanding some of the questions that arise in this area. I argue that even with the best possible data and scientific understanding, the sense in

Geoffrey M. Heal

2001-01-01

246

Limiting Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to understand that physical factors - temperature and precipitation - limit the growth of vegetative ecosystems. Students observe and record seasonal changes in their local study site. They establish that these phenomena follow annual cycles and conclude the activity by creating displays that illustrate the repeating pattern associated with the appearance and disappearance of seasonal markers.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

247

Ecosystem Services: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused reprint explains how natural ecosystems produce services upon which we are dependent. For example, they: provide us with clean water and air, pollinate our crops and disperse seeds, protect us from extreme weather and ultraviolet light, and control pests and disease-carrying organisms.

Ecological Society of America (;)

2000-06-01

248

Boston Harbor Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates ecosystem zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.

249

Subsurface ecosystem resilience: long-term attenuation of subsurface contaminants supports a dynamic microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propensity for groundwater ecosystems to recover from contamination by organic chemicals (in this case, coal-tar waste) is of vital concern for scientists and engineers who manage polluted sites. The microbially mediated cleanup processes are also of interest to ecologists because they are an important mechanism for the resilience of ecosystems. In this study we establish the long-term dynamic nature

Jane M Yagi; Edward F Neuhauser; John A Ripp; David M Mauro; Eugene L Madsen

2010-01-01

250

Using DCOM to support interoperability in forest ecosystem management decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest ecosystems exhibit complex dynamics over time and space. Management of forest ecosystems involves the need to forecast future states of complex systems that are often undergoing structural changes. This in turn requires integration of quantitative science and engineering components with socio-political, regulatory, and economic considerations. The amount of data, information and knowledge involved in the management process is often

W. D. Potter; S. Liu; X. Deng; H. M. Rauscher

2000-01-01

251

75 FR 62313 - Establishing the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...engine for the entire United States; its waters sustain a diverse and vibrant ecosystem; and the Gulf's culture, natural beauty, and historic significance are unique. Each year, millions of tourists visit the Gulf to vacation, swim, boat,...

2010-10-08

252

Machine Learning in Ecosystem Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging eld of Ecosystem Informatics applies meth- ods from computer science and mathematics to address fundamental and applied problems in the ecosystem sciences. The ecosystem sciences are in the midst of a revolution driven by a combination of emerging tech- nologies for improved sensing and the critical need for better science to help manage global climate change. This paper

Thomas G. Dietterich

2007-01-01

253

Ecosystems in the Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Habitats, ecology and evolution are a few of the many metaphors commonly associated with the domain of biological ecosystems. Surprisingly, these and other similar biological metaphors are proving to be equally associated with a phenomenon known as digital ecosystems. Digital ecosystems make a direct connection between biological properties and…

Louviere, Gregory

2011-01-01

254

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

255

Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

256

The Effect of Various Ecosystems on the Levels of Fecal Coliforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if various ecosystems affect the levels of fecal coliforms. An ecosystem, or ecological system, is a community that has all the physical aspects of its habitat such as the water, soil, and weather. Fecal coliforms are a special group of bacteria, which live and reproduce in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.

X. W. Belcher

2002-01-01

257

Mapping cryptic invaders and invisability of tropical forest ecosystems: Chromolaena odorata in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries, people continuously increased the rate of biological invasions and there is no sign of slowing down. From the depth of the Ocean to the crest of Himalayas, they are occupying pristine and semi-natural ecosystems at an alarming rate, threatening human, animal, plant as well as ecosystem health. Efforts to avoid or eradicate them are not achievable except for

Chudamani Joshi

2006-01-01

258

Desert USA: Desert Animals And Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is a miracle that life can survive in the extreme conditions of the desert. Users can learn about mammals (including wolves), insects and spiders, fish and birds(including hawks), and reptiles and amphibians (including rattlesnakes) that have adapted and, in fact, thrive in the harsh desert ecosystems. Links to related topics such as animal survival in the desert and animal rescues are included.

2000-01-01

259

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2011-02-28

260

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

261

Computer Electronics Meet Animal Brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

computers for simulation, data collection, and data analysis, but not to interact directly with nerve tissue in live, behaving animals. Although digital computers and nerve tissue both use voltage waveforms to trans-mit and process information, engineers and neu-robiologists have yet to cohesively link the elec-tronic signaling of digital computers with the electronic signaling of nerve tissue in freely behav-ing animals.

Chris Diorio; Jaideep Mavoori

2003-01-01

262

Animation aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

1991-01-01

263

Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of…

Jaenisch, Rudolf

1988-01-01

264

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an excellent paper on ``Animal Intelligence'' (NATURE, vol. xxvi. p. 523), Mr. C. Lloyd Morgan says that ``The brute has to be contented with the experience he inherits or individually acquires. Man, through language spoken or written, profits by the experience of his fellows. Even the most savage tribe has traditions extending back to the father's father. May there

Fritz Mueller; S. GOSTAGE

1883-01-01

265

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE columns of NATURE have sometimes been open to statements illustrating the practical sagacity of animals of the lower classes. Allow me to place before you the history of an occurrence which appears to prove the power of organisation in the common house-mouse.

G. A. B

1883-01-01

266

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE following notes of facts observed in New Zealand may be thought of interest; in some way they may serve to illustrate Mr. Romanes' work on ``Animal Intelligence'' : they are submitted without making an attempt to distinguish where they may overlap the fine line between instinct and intelligence. Cases which may show apparent intelligence or the reverse are recorded

T. H. Potts

1884-01-01

267

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NATURE frequently contains notices of intelligence in animals, I have ventured to send you the inclosed note from the Reading local paper, as containing a remarkable fact regarding intelligence in a blind horse. The writer, Mr. Gostage, is quite trustworthy, and I have taken pains to verify the truth of his statements.

Joseph Stevens; S. Gostage

1883-01-01

268

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL remarkable instances of intelligence in animals have been given in recent numbers of NATURE. Possibly the following instance of reasoning power in an elephant may not be without interest:-Some years ago I was ascending the lower part of the Darjeeling Hill Road, in the Himalaya Mountains, from Terai. At a certain part of the road, where we met a

F. R. Mallet

1883-01-01

269

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the terms ``ass'' and, at any rate in Germany, ``ox'' (Ochs) are very generally applied to stupid persons, those who have observed the bovine and asinine genera know that this is an injustice to those animals; and the following instances of particular intelligence displayed by two of the thus maligned beasts seem worth recording.

L. C. Hurt

1902-01-01

270

Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

Jaenisch, Rudolf

1988-01-01

271

Continental Margins: Linking Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of Global, Local and Human Forcings on Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems, IMBER/LOICZ Continental Margins Open Science Conference; Shanghai, China, 17-21 September 2007; More than 100 scientists from 25 countries came together to address global, regional, local, and human pressures interactively affecting continental margin biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs, and society. Continental margins cover only 12% of the global ocean area yet account for more than 30% of global oceanic primary production. In addition, continental margins are the most intensely used regions of the world's ocean for natural commodities, including productive fisheries and mineral and petroleum resources. The land adjacent to continental margins hosts about 50% of the world's population, which will bear many direct impacts of global change on coastal margins. Understanding both natural and human-influenced alterations of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems on continental margins and the processes (including feedbacks) that threaten sustainability of these systems is therefore of global interest.

Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris; Rabalais, Nancy; Middelburg, Jack; Roy, Sylvie; Liu, Kon-Kee; Thomas, Helmuth; Zhang, Jing

2008-02-01

272

Environmental education for all engineers.  

PubMed

Environmental engineering education at universities is a rapidly changing field globally. Traditionally it has resided in the civil engineering program addressing water and wastewater quality, treatment, design and regulatory issues. In recent years environmental engineering has become a much broader field encompassing water, wastewater, soil pollution, air pollution, risk assessment, ecosystems, human health, toxicology, sustainable development, regulatory aspects and much more. The need to introduce environmental engineering/green engineering/pollution prevention/design for the environment concepts to undergraduate engineering students has become recognized to be increasingly important. This need is being driven in part through the US Engineering Accreditation Commission Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology criteria 2000. Thus there has been a major shift in environmental engineering education and it no longer resides only within the civil engineering discipline. This paper focuses on the development of innovative curricula for a brand new engineering program at Rowan University that integrates environmental education for all engineers. A common course known as "engineering clinic" was developed for all engineering students throughout their eight semesters of engineering education. One of the clinic goals is to integrate engineering design and the environment. The program, in its seventh year, indicates successful implementation of environmental education in all four engineering disciplines in their course work and clinics. PMID:15193090

Jahan, K; Everett, J W; Hesketh, R P; Jansson, P M; Hollar, K

2004-01-01

273

Western Hemlock Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old- growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington, USA, during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy-covariance measurements of water-vapor fluxes above the forest (Ee) and at the forest floor (Eu) to examine

Michael H. Unsworth; Kyaw Tha

274

SFRSF: Our Coastal Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page highlights the coastal ecosystems of southern Florida. Research displayed from poster presentations covers the coastal area habitats, sustaining and enhancing coastal waters, major coastal challenges, restoring and enhancing estuaries, and using science for effective resource management. The six estuaries discussed are the Caloosahatchee, Southwest Florida, Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, Florida Keys, and St. Lucie estuaries. Specific issues concerning each estuary are covered, and links are provided for additional information.

275

Linking species richness, biodiversity and ecosystem function in soil ...  

Treesearch

... a solid, liquid and gaseous matrix that is continually changing in response to natural and ... Recent advances in molecular techniques in systematics have provided ... plant and animal species on ecosystem function and subsequent microbial ... function of microbial and faunal communities interact and their importance to ...

276

Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept.  

PubMed

Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also enables the social and political changes required to ensure valuation of ecosystem functions and related biodiversity in ways beyond their measurement on an economic scale. PMID:19659684

Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai

2009-07-29

277

Dynamics of computational ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Huberman and Hogg [in The Ecology of Computation, edited by B. A. Huberman (North-Holland, 1988), pp. 77-115] analyzed the dynamics of resource allocation in a model of computational ecosystems which incorporated many of the features endemic to large distributed processing systems, including distributed control, asynchrony, resource contention, and cooperation among agents and the concomitant problems of incomplete knowledge and delayed information. In this paper we supplement an analysis of several simple examples of computational ecosystems with computer simulations to gain insight into the effects of time delays, cooperation, multiple resources, inhomogeneity, etc. The simulations verify Huberman and Hogg's prediction of persistent oscillations and chaos, and confirm the Ceccatto-Huberman [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 3443 (1989)] prediction of extremely long-lived metastable states in computational ecosystems. Extending the analysis to inhomogeneous systems, we show that they can be more stable than homogeneous systems because agents with different computational needs settle into different strategic niches, and that overly clever local decision-making algorithms can induce chaotic behavior.

Kephart, J. O.; Hogg, T.; Huberman, B. A.

1989-07-01

278

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

279

Animal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Clinical research has delineated the nature and severity of acute and chronic cerebral disturbances in relation to abnormal\\u000a glucose metabolism, as reviewed in the previous chapters of this book. By comparison, insight into the pathophysiology is\\u000a still limited and evidence for effective treatment is largely lacking. Studies in animal models may help to fill in these\\u000a gaps in our knowledge.

Geert Jan Biessels

280

Integrating Climate and Ecosystems Science to Inform Marine Ecosystem Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has consistently been identified as a top threat to sensitive marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. However, such assessments are made largely by reference to coarse-scale global climate models and limited empirical research from single disciplines. This paper describes a NOAA-wide effort to bring together climatologists, ecologists, oceanographers, and ecosystem managers to identify critical climate-ecosystem connections, and to develop a suite of integrated information products that will improve an ecosystem manager's ability to identify potential climate impacts and variability at scales relevant to the ecosystems they manage. This Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) project references historical climatologies against ecological impacts to provide more relevant, quantified information to ecosystem stewards seeking to understand and plan for future environmental stresses.

Shein, K. A.; Marzin, C.; Hendee, J.; Pirhalla, D.; Causey, B.; Brandon, T. B.

2011-12-01

281

Predator-prey molecular ecosystems.  

PubMed

Biological organisms use intricate networks of chemical reactions to control molecular processes and spatiotemporal organization. In turn, these living systems are embedded in self-organized structures of larger scales, for example, ecosystems. Synthetic in vitro efforts have reproduced the architectures and behaviors of simple cellular circuits. However, because all these systems share the same dynamic foundations, a generalized molecular programming strategy should also support complex collective behaviors, as seen, for example, in animal populations. We report here the bottom-up assembly of chemical systems that reproduce in vitro the specific dynamics of ecological communities. We experimentally observed unprecedented molecular behaviors, including predator-prey oscillations, competition-induced chaos, and symbiotic synchronization. These synthetic systems are tailored through a novel, compact, and versatile design strategy, leveraging the programmability of DNA interactions under the precise control of enzymatic catalysis. Such self-organizing assemblies will foster a better appreciation of the molecular origins of biological complexity and may also serve to orchestrate complex collective operations of molecular agents in technological applications. PMID:23176248

Fujii, Teruo; Rondelez, Yannick

2012-12-17

282

The parasite connection in ecosystems and macroevolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to their obvious negative effects (“pathogens”), endoparasites of various kinds play an important role in shaping and maintaining modern animal communities. In the long-term, parasites including pathogens are indispensable entities of any ecosystem. To understand this, it is essential that one changes the viewpoint from the host’s interests to that of the parasite. Together with geographic isolation, trophic arms race, symbiosis, and niche partitioning, all parasites (including balance strategists, i.e. seemingly non-pathogenic ones) modulate their hosts’ population densities. In addition, heteroxenic parasites control the balance between predator and prey species, particularly if final and intermediate hosts are vertebrates. Thereby, such parasites enhance the bonds in ecosystems and help maintain the status quo. As the links between eukaryotic parasites and their hosts are less flexible than trophic connections, parasite networks probably contributed to the observed stasis and incumbency of ecosystems over geologic time, in spite of continuous Darwinian innovation. Because heteroxenic parasites target taxonomic levels above that of the species (e.g. families), these taxa may have also become units of selection in global catastrophies. Macroevolutionary extrapolations, however, are difficult to verify because endoparasites cannot fossilize.

Seilacher, Adolf; Reif, Wolf-Ernst; Wenk, Peter

2007-03-01

283

Animal behavior and animal welfare.  

PubMed

The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

Houpt, K A

1991-04-15

284

The WSRC Engineering Analyzer  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a multi-platform, multi-program engineering analysis tool that runs in either real-time or post-process modes, providing the analyst with a consistent, adaptable interface for 2-d color animation of time-oriented engineering data on any X-terminal.

Beckmeyer, R.R.; Buckner, M.R.

1992-01-01

285

The Tragedy of Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief Abstract. Current economic,incentives encourage the development,of private lands for marketable commodities,at the expense of ecosystem services. Reinforcing this market failure, property law assigns no legal rights to ecosystem services. Abstract.Derived from funds of natural capital, ecosystem services contribute greatly to human welfare yet are rarely traded in markets. Supporting, regulating, and some cultural and provisioningecosystem services are decliningdue to

Christopher L. Lant; J. B. Ruhl; Steven E. Kraft

2008-01-01

286

Illustrations of Interconnectedness in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces the idea of interconnectedness among ecosystem components and describes a number of scenarios that illustrate the concept. Interconnectedness is a fundamental ecological concept, a common theme in natural resource/environmental science programs and a foundational component of ecosystem-based management of natural resources. Two introductory activities require students to diagram ecosystem interconnections. Brief descriptions of 13 additional scenarios are provided, along with references to and descriptions of supporting video, print and web-based resources.

Cudmore, Wynn

2010-08-20

287

Functional traits, the phylogeny of function, and ecosystem service vulnerability  

PubMed Central

People depend on benefits provided by ecological systems. Understanding how these ecosystem services – and the ecosystem properties underpinning them – respond to drivers of change is therefore an urgent priority. We address this challenge through developing a novel risk-assessment framework that integrates ecological and evolutionary perspectives on functional traits to determine species’ effects on ecosystems and their tolerance of environmental changes. We define Specific Effect Function (SEF) as the per-gram or per capita capacity of a species to affect an ecosystem property, and Specific Response Function (SRF) as the ability of a species to maintain or enhance its population as the environment changes. Our risk assessment is based on the idea that the security of ecosystem services depends on how effects (SEFs) and tolerances (SRFs) of organisms – which both depend on combinations of functional traits – correlate across species and how they are arranged on the species’ phylogeny. Four extreme situations are theoretically possible, from minimum concern when SEF and SRF are neither correlated nor show a phylogenetic signal, to maximum concern when they are negatively correlated (i.e., the most important species are the least tolerant) and phylogenetically patterned (lacking independent backup). We illustrate the assessment with five case studies, involving both plant and animal examples. However, the extent to which the frequency of the four plausible outcomes, or their intermediates, apply more widely in real-world ecological systems is an open question that needs empirical evidence, and suggests a research agenda at the interface of evolutionary biology and ecosystem ecology.

Diaz, Sandra; Purvis, Andy; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Mace, Georgina M; Donoghue, Michael J; Ewers, Robert M; Jordano, Pedro; Pearse, William D

2013-01-01

288

Investigating Local Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this Science NetLinks lesson is to guide students through investigations of the habitats of local plants and animals; to explore some of the ways animals depend on plants and each other. In order to learn about living environments, young children should begin with direct observation of their immediate surroundings, such as a backyard, schoolyard or local pond. As students observe their environment, they should have many opportunities to record and communicate their findings using words and pictures.

Science Netlinks;

2000-12-06

289

Putting the Engine Back in Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electrical and Computer Engineering programs across the nation are seeing a decrease in engineering student enrollment and retention. Electronic systems and components these days are far too small and complex to allow an inquisitive student to explore and satisfy their curiosity about how these gadgets work. These students often take to exploring mechanical systems instead and are thus led away from Electrical and Computer Engineering. Similarly, with advances in computer simulations of engineering circuits and models that produce realistic results, engineering programs have transitioned away from physical hardware and hands-on experimentation. This trend away from having students being able to "tinker" with real hardware is detrimental to their development into well rounded engineers. In addition, as globalization continues, engineers must broaden their team-work and technical skills. This paper describes a hardware, software and courseware learning ecosystem that has been created to capture student attention and develop a broader skill set. Laboratory and in-class exercises use POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) based laboratory modules to engage students in learning through exploration, critical thinking, and team and cooperative participation exercises. Laboratory and in-class exercises are designed to teach the student how to explore a new technology to be able to learn more about it. In fact, learning how to learn is a key outcome. Laboratory hardware is designed to provide easy connection to real-world devices and allow students to extend their explorations from classroom theory to the practical application of technology they are learning.

Cady, Fred; Mclellan, John

2011-05-25

290

POLLUTION AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH - ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Summers, Kevin. 2004. Pollution and Ecosystem Health - Assessing Ecological Condition of Coastal Ecosystems. Presented at the White Water to Blue Water (WW2BW) Miami Conference, 21-26 March 2004, Miami, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R973). Throughout the coastal regions and Large Mari...

291

Ecosystem Services Research Program: LTG 4: Ecosystem specific studies: wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Includes review of ecosystem services derived from marine coastal, Great Lakes coastal, and isolated wetlands. Of particular interest is the development of guidelines to implement the 2008 EPA and ACE rules which require, for the first time, that specific ecosystem services be c...

292

"Pleistocene Park" - A Glacial Ecosystem in a Warming World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most people if asked what association they have to the phrase - ice age, will answer - "Mammoth". But mammoths are not only big wooly elephants which went extinct in the beginning of Holocene. They were also part of a great ecosystem, the Northern Steppe or Mammoth Ecosystem, which was the world's largest ecosystem for hundreds thousand of years. This ecosystem, with extremely high rates of biocycling, could maintain animal densities which can be hardly found anywhere in the modern world. Northern steppe played an important role in shaping the glacial climate of the planet. High albedo grasslands reflected a much bigger portion of sun heat back to the atmosphere. Cold soils and permafrost served as sinks of carbon, helping to keep greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at low levels. In the beginning of Holocene, simultaneously with wave of human expansion, an extinction wave took place. Tens of megafauna species became extinct at that time worldwide, while ones that resisted the extinction substantially dropped in numbers. The Northern Steppe ecosystem became imbalanced. Without large numbers of herbivores grazing and trampling the pasture, trees, shrubs and moss invaded grasslands. Within just a few hundreds years the mammoth ecosystem was gone, replaced by much lower productivity ecosystems. Already 14 thousand year ago, by simply increasing hunting pressure, humans managed to dramatically change Earth's appearance. We propose that by artificially maintaining a high animal density and diversity on a limited territory for extended period of time, it will be possible to reverse the shift, reestablishing the productive Northern Steppe ecosystem. Moss, shrubs and tree sprouts are not able to resist grazing pressure so they will be quickly replaced by grasses and herbs. Animals digesting all aboveground biomass would accelerate nutrition cycling and consequently increase bioproductivity. Higher bioproductivity would increase evapotranspiration, keeping soils dry and runoff low. This would further increase nutrient availability in the soil. Water limitation would force roots grow deeper to cold soil horizons where these roots (carbon) will be sequestered for a long period of time. After high productivity and high diversity of animals in the ecosystem is reached, this ecosystem will once again be able to compete and to expand. To test this hypothesis, we have started the experiment named "Pleistocene Park". For over 15 years we have brought different herbivore species to the fenced area in the Kolyma river lowland, keep them at high density and see the ecosystem transformation. Now Pleistocene Park is size of 20 km2 and home for 7 big herbivores species. It is a small version of how the Mammoth Steppe ecosystem looked in the past and may look in the future. Pleistocene Park is a place where scientists can conduct in situ research and see how restoration of the ice age ecosystem may help mitigate future climatic changes. Arctic is a weakly populated region with no possibilities for agriculture. Modern civilization treats bigger part of the Arctic as wastelands. So why don't turn this "wasteland" into something that can strongly benefit our civilization in the future?

Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

2011-12-01

293

Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available

Esther C. Peters; Nancy J. Gassman; Julie C. Firman; Robert H. Richmond; Elizabeth A. Power

1997-01-01

294

Fronts in Large Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic fronts shape marine ecosystems; therefore front mapping and characterization are among the most important aspects of physical oceanography. Here we report on the first global remote sensing survey of fronts in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LME). This survey is based on a unique frontal data archive assembled at the University of Rhode Island. Thermal fronts were automatically derived with

Igor M. Belkin; Peter C. Cornillon; Kenneth Sherman

2009-01-01

295

Understanding ecosystems using statistical physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will show, based on analytic theory and computer simulations, that ecosystems are organized in the vicinity of a new type of phase transition quite akin to Bose-Einstein condensation but occurring in a living system without quantum features. A special case of our model is akin to neutral theory, which postulates that an ecosystem can be characterized by random birth

Igor Volkov

2005-01-01

296

Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiment Site (GLEES), a 600 ha research watershed at 3200-3400 m elevation in the Snowy Range of SE Wyoming, has been established to examine the effects of atmospheric deposition on alpine and subalpine ecosystems. This docu...

R. C. Musselman

1994-01-01

297

Biodiversity and aquatic ecosystem functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem functioning depends on multiple interactions between physical, chemical and biological determinants. Indeed, ecosystem processes (productivity and nutrient recycling) result directly from the diversity of functional traits in the biotic communities, which is in turn determined by the species composition and diversity. This species diversity results from both biotic introductions and environmental pressures. As a result, changes in biodiversity in

J.-F. Humbert; U. Dorigo

298

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue

299

Describing Services for Service Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service ecosystems are electronic market places and emerge as a result of the shift toward service economies. The aim of service ecosystems is to trade services over the internet. There are still obstacles that impede this new form of market places. Two of these challenges are addressed in this paper: (1) identication of appropriate service proper- ties to specify service

Gregor Scheithauer; Stefan Augustin; Guido Wirtz

2008-01-01

300

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)|

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

301

Environments that Induce Synthetic Microbial Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Interactions between microbial species are sometimes mediated by the exchange of small molecules, secreted by one species and metabolized by another. Both one-way (commensal) and two-way (mutualistic) interactions may contribute to complex networks of interdependencies. Understanding these interactions constitutes an open challenge in microbial ecology, with applications ranging from the human microbiome to environmental sustainability. In parallel to natural communities, it is possible to explore interactions in artificial microbial ecosystems, e.g. pairs of genetically engineered mutualistic strains. Here we computationally generate artificial microbial ecosystems without re-engineering the microbes themselves, but rather by predicting their growth on appropriately designed media. We use genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism to identify media that can sustain growth for a pair of species, but fail to do so for one or both individual species, thereby inducing putative symbiotic interactions. We first tested our approach on two previously studied mutualistic pairs, and on a pair of highly curated model organisms, showing that our algorithms successfully recapitulate known interactions, robustly predict new ones, and provide novel insight on exchanged molecules. We then applied our method to all possible pairs of seven microbial species, and found that it is always possible to identify putative media that induce commensalism or mutualism. Our analysis also suggests that symbiotic interactions may arise more readily through environmental fluctuations than genetic modifications. We envision that our approach will help generate microbe-microbe interaction maps useful for understanding microbial consortia dynamics and evolution, and for exploring the full potential of natural metabolic pathways for metabolic engineering applications.

Klitgord, Niels; Segre, Daniel

2010-01-01

302

Construction Engineering Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) research facility is part of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (USAERDC) of the Army Corps of Engineers' research and development organization. CERL "conducts research and development in infrastructure and environmental sustainment." New technologies that the lab develops are used "to help military installations provide and maintain quality training lands and facilities for soldiers and their families." Some applications are also found in the private sector. The research is organized into numerous themes, including the study of enduring buildings, ecosystem management, land use planning, and seismic engineering. The website describes each of the themes and offers a link to its database of publications and products/capabilities. Visitors can also search the database by keyword. Another section of the website describes the portal software used to develop and maintain the website.

303

Community and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eight-week investigation of ecology and community asks groups of students to make computer presentations to communicate information they have found from the Internet and other sources. Topics include interrelationships between ecosystems, factors affecting nature's balance, habitats, and possible solutions to environmental problems. Students use the scientific method, data collection and analysis, and problem solving techniques to construct their projects. The site provides rubrics, research links, activities to help students along the way and teacher notes about using this project in the curriculum. This project was designed by K-12 teachers to demonstrate engaged learning and effective use of technology. It is structured in such a way that students are responsible for their own learning, and is collaborative, student-driven, and technology dependent.

Dove, Cheryl

1998-05-01

304

Animal leptospirosis in small tropical areas.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Humans become infected through contact with the urine of carrier animals, directly or via contaminated environments. This review reports available data on animal leptospirosis in ten tropical islands: Barbados, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Grenada, Trinidad, New Caledonia, Hawaii, French Polynesia, La Réunion and Mayotte. Leptospirosis is endemic in these insular wild and domestic fauna. Each island presents a specific panel of circulating serovars, closely linked with animal and environmental biodiversity, making it epidemiologically different from the mainland. Rats, mongooses and mice are proven major renal carriers of leptospires in these areas but dogs also constitute a significant potential reservoir. In some islands seroprevalence of leptospirosis in animals evolves with time, inducing changes in the epidemiology of the human disease. Consequently more investigations on animal leptospirosis in these ecosystems and use of molecular tools are essential for prevention and control of the human disease. PMID:20875197

Desvars, A; Cardinale, E; Michault, A

2010-09-28

305

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

306

Templates of food–habitat resources for the organization of soil animals in temperate and tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems are shaped and maintained by plant–decomposer interactions. The food and habitat of animal populations are biogenic and are mainly of plant origin (plant litter) in terrestrial ecosystems. Primary resources of the food-habitat template for the organization of soil animals are provided by the primary production of plants, and are then modified through decomposition

Hiroshi Takeda; Takuya Abe

2001-01-01

307

Long term flux ecosystem exchange over a Mediterranean shrubland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only a few long-term studies on inter-annual variability in energy and mass exchanges of Mediterranean shrubland ecosystems have been recently published. Since maquis ecosystems experience a wide variation in inter-annual rainfall and temperature, inter-annual differences in CO2 fluxes are expected. Mediterranean-type ecosystems normally show two main peaks of growth (in spring and fall) and experience sometimes pronounced summer drought periods. Consequently, Mediterranean-type ecosystem behavior is even more complex and responds more dramatically to perturbations in water conditions. In this paper, six years of energy and mass fluxes measured using eddy covariance (EC) technique over a secondary succession shrubland ecosystem (maquis) located in Sardinia, Italy are reported. The main objectives are to understand dynamics of ecosystem carbon cycling and to identify the driving factors affecting ecosystem exchanges. Eddy flux and meteorological data are presented along with soil respiration information. Footprint analysis, friction velocity method, and other turbulent parameters were calculated to verify the accuracy of the eddy covariance CO2 measurements. The energy partitioning exhibited clear seasonal patterns with increasing Bowen ratio values during the drought season. Peak CO2 uptake occurred during spring and autumn showing an evident decrease in summer. The estimate of NEE showed differences among years depending on drought and temperature conditions. The surface conductance was clearly depressed during long-term drought period. In general, NEE was relatively low compared to other forest ecosystems. A good relationship was found between GPP and LE. Our data show that the inter-annual differences in NEE of the maquis ecosystem depend mainly on seasonal climate rather than on mean annual air temperature or precipitation. In addition, extreme weather events can also contribute to NEE inter-annual variability.

Spano, D.; Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Carta, M.; Zara, P.; Arca, A.; Duce, P.

2011-12-01

308

Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystem research, 1986-1987  

PubMed

The apparent lifelessness of the Ross Desert is in marked contrast to the diversity of cryptoendolithic microorganisms inhabiting the interstices of sandstone rocks. The endolithic habitat provides a protective niche for lichens, bacteria, algae, and fungi, enabling them to exist in an extremely dry and cold climate. Composed solely of microorganisms living under the surface of rocks and totally lacking animals and protozoa, this ecosystem is controlled by measurable physical variables and well suited for ecosystem study and modeling. The work of the antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystem research group has involved physical measurements of nanoclimate (microbial environment inside rocks) (Friedmann, McKay, and Nienow 1987), taxonomy (Darling, Friedmann, and Broady 1987; Hale 1987), microdistribution, organism-substrate interactions including the ongoing process of fossilization (Friedmann and Weed 1987), physiological ecology, and quantification of the nitrogen economy. PMID:11538330

Friedmann, E I; Meyer, M A

1987-01-01

309

Stoichiometry of nutrient recycling by vertebrates in a tropical stream: linking species identity and ecosystem processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological stoichiometry offers a framework for predicting how animal species vary in recycling nutrients, thus providing a mechanism for how animal species identity mediates ecosystem processes. Here we show that variation in the rates and ratios at which 28 vertebrate species (fish, amphibians) recycled nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a tropical stream supports stoichiometry theory. Mass-specific P excretion rate

Michael J. Vanni; Alexander S. Flecker; James M. Hood; Jenifer L. Headworth

2002-01-01

310

Engineering rodents create key habitat for lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition among ecologists that ecosystem engineers play important roles in creating habitat for other species, but the comparative and combined effects of co-existing engineers are not well known. Here, we evaluated the separate and interactive effects of two burrowing rodents, Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis), on lizards in the Chihuahuan Desert

A. D. Davidson; D. C. Lightfoot; J. L. McIntyre

2008-01-01

311

Biodiversity and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-16

312

Ecosystem Overfishing in the Ocean  

PubMed Central

Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the ecosystem) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production due to the export of biomass and energy through catches was recently formulated as a proxy for evaluating the ecosystem impacts of fishing–i.e., the level of ecosystem overfishing. Here we evaluate the historical and current risk of ecosystem overfishing at a global scale by quantifying the depletion of secondary production using the best available fisheries and ecological data (i.e., catch and primary production). Our results highlight an increasing trend in the number of unsustainable fisheries (i.e., an increase in the risk of ecosystem overfishing) from the 1950s to the 2000s, and illustrate the worldwide geographic expansion of overfishing. These results enable to assess when and where fishing became unsustainable at the ecosystem level. At present, total catch per capita from Large Marine Ecosystems is at least twice the value estimated to ensure fishing at moderate sustainable levels.

Tudela, Sergi; Palomera, Isabel; Pranovi, Fabio

2008-01-01

313

Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens , and Plesiomonas shigelloides in Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates from Coastal California Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal ecosystems of California are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land–sea interface is not well understood. This study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems in central California. A variety of filter-feeding clams, mussels, worms, and crab tissues were selectively cultured

W. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; I. A. Gardner; E. R. Atwill; B. A. Byrne; S. Jang; M. Harris; J. Ames; D. Jessup; D. Paradies; K. Worcester; A. Melli; P. A. Conrad

2006-01-01

314

Meta-ecosystems and biological energy transport from ocean to coast: the ecological importance of herring migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems are not closed, but receive resource subsidies from other ecosystems. Energy, material and organisms are moved between systems by physical vectors, but migrating animals also transport resources between systems. We report on large scale energy transport from ocean to coast by a migrating fish population, the Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring Clupea harengus. We observe a rapid body mass increase

Øystein Varpe; Øyvind Fiksen; Aril Slotte

2005-01-01

315

Variations in ecosystem service values in response to changes in environmental flows: A case study of Baiyangdian Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental flows represent the quality, quantity and timing of water flows required to sustain the benefits provided to human, plant and animal communities by a healthy freshwater ecosystem. The precise characteristics of environmental flows can be difficult to define, however, and the precise impact of changes in these flows on the ecosystem service value (ESV) is likewise difficult to quantify.

Wei Yang

2011-01-01

316

Monitoring system for animal husbandry  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A monitoring system (800) is operative for receiving sensor signals and analyzing the sensor signals to identify events or conditions of interest, such as colic, with respect to a monitored animal. The sensors may be animal-borne sensors such as motion related sensors. The system (800) includes a processor (802) operative to identify the conditions of interest based on a stored pattern database (806), threshold tables (808) and heuristic engines (812). Upon identification of a condition of interest, a human expert may be consulted and alerts may be generated as required.

Rugg; Geoffrey B. (Boulder, CO)

2008-02-26

317

Hydrologic dynamics and ecosystem structure.  

PubMed

Ecohydrology is the science that studies the mutual interaction between the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. Such an interaction is especially intense in water-controlled ecosystems, where water may be a limiting factor, not only because of its scarcity, but also because of its intermittent and unpredictable appearance. Hydrologic dynamics is shown to be a crucial factor for ecological patterns and processes. The probabilistic structure of soil moisture in time and space is presented as the key linkage between soil, climate and vegetation dynamics. Nutrient cycles, vegetation coexistence and plant response to environmental conditions are all intimately linked to the stochastic fluctuation of the hydrologic inputs driving an ecosystem. PMID:12731767

Rodríguez-Iturbe, I

2003-01-01

318

Assessing the effects of large mobile predators on ecosystem connectivity.  

PubMed

Large predators are often highly mobile and can traverse and use multiple habitats. We know surprisingly little about how predator mobility determines important processes of ecosystem connectivity. Here we used a variety of data sources drawn from Palmyra Atoll, a remote tropical marine ecosystem where large predators remain in high abundance, to investigate how these animals foster connectivity. Our results indicate that three of Palmyra's most abundant large predators (e.g., two reef sharks and one snapper) use resources from different habitats creating important linkages across ecosystems. Observations of cross-system foraging such as this have important implications for the understanding of ecosystem functioning, the management of large-predator populations, and the design of conservation measures intended to protect whole ecosystems. In the face of widespread declines of large, mobile predators, it is important that resource managers, policy makers, and ecologists work to understand how these predators create connectivity and to determine the impact that their depletions may be having on the integrity of these linkages. PMID:23092009

McCauley, Douglas J; Young, Hillary S; Dunbar, Robert B; Estes, James A; Semmens, Brice X; Micheli, Fiorenza

2012-09-01

319

Animal Models of Narcolepsy  

PubMed Central

Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in canine narcolepsy. In 1999, two independent studies revealed that orexin neurotransmission deficiency was pivotal to the development of narcolepsy with cataplexy. This scientific leap fueled the generation of several genetically engineered mouse and rat models of narcolepsy. To facilitate further research, it is imperative that researchers reach a consensus concerning the evaluation of narcoleptic behavioral and EEG phenomenology in these models.

Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCarley, Robert W.

2013-01-01

320

DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR  

EPA Science Inventory

1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

321

Seabird-driven shifts in Arctic pond ecosystems.  

PubMed

Migratory animals such as seabirds, salmon and whales can transport large quantities of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, greatly enriching recipient food webs. As many of these animals biomagnify contaminants, they can also focus pollutants at toxic levels. Seabirds arguably represent the most significant biovectors of nutrients and contaminants from the ocean to the land, given their sheer numbers and global distribution. However, long-term census data on seabirds are rare. Using palaeolimnological proxies, we show that a colony of Arctic seabirds has experienced climate-induced population increases in recent decades. We then document increasing concentrations of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls and cadmium, in pond sediments that are linked to biotransport by seabirds. Our findings suggest that climate-related shifts in global seabird populations will have the unexpected consequence of restructuring coastal ecosystems. PMID:18945662

Michelutti, Neal; Keatley, Bronwyn E; Brimble, Samantha; Blais, Jules M; Liu, Huijun; Douglas, Marianne S V; Mallory, Mark L; Macdonald, Robie W; Smol, John P

2009-02-01

322

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

Yap, Helen T.

323

Bethesda Animal Technical Services  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Bethesda Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support This service is designed to provide the highest quality of care and support services for animal research activities conducted at the NCI-Bethesda campus Animal

324

Wastewater Applications in Forest Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under proper design and management, a forest ecosystem in the central United States should renovate municipal wastewater as long or longer than conventional agricultural systems, especially when design limitations are hydraulic loading rate, heavy metals,...

H. L. McKim W. E. Sopper D. Cole W. Nutter D. Urie

1982-01-01

325

Geospatial tools for Ecosystem Services  

EPA Science Inventory

Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient loads. ...

326

Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs

Kai M. A Chan; M. Rebecca Shaw; David R Cameron; Emma C Underwood; Gretchen C Daily

2006-01-01

327

Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

CSiTE, the Department of Energy's research consortium performs fundamental research in support of new methods to enhance carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems in an environmentally acceptable manner. The goal of CSiTE is to discover and characterize links between critical pathways and mechanisms across scales from the molecular to the landscape for creating larger, longer-lasting carbon pools in terrestrial ecosystems. This

G. K. Jacobs; W. M. Post; J. D. Jastrow; R. C. Izaurralde

2002-01-01

328

Digital Ecosystems: Evolving Service-Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We view Digital Ecosystems to be the digital counterparts of biological ecosystems, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems, which are considered to be robust, self-organising and scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. Digital Ecosystems are a novel optimisation technique where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration of agents (representing services) which are

Gerard Briscoe; P. De Wilde

2007-01-01

329

Process-Based Thinking in Ecosystem Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding complex systems such as ecosystems is difficult for young K-12 students, and students' representations of ecosystems are often limited to nebulously defined relationships between macro-level structural components inherent to the ecosystem in focus (rainforest, desert, pond, etc.) instead of generalizing processes across ecosystems

Jordan, Rebecca C.; Gray, Steven A.; Brooks, Wesley R.; Honwad, Sameer; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

2013-01-01

330

The ecosystem study on Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect

During the 1950`s and 1960`s, the Laboratory of Radiation Biology at the University of Washington carried out an intensive study of this Atoll, which was contaminated with radioactive fallout from the {open_quotes}Bravo shot{close_quotes} in 1954. This study involved many aspects of the environment and the plant and animal life: soils, land plants, marine life, birds, geology and hydrology, and human diets as well. In much of the research, the fortuitiously present radioactive isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, were tracers. Although the term {open_quotes}ecosystem study{close_quotes} was not in vogue at that time, it is clear that this was an early use of the ecosystem approach. Soil types and their development, the distribution of mineral elements in plants and soils, including predominant radionuclides, distribution and growth of native terrestrial plants in relation to topography and salinity, some aspects of the human diets, micronutrient nutrition of the coconut palm, island and islet development and stability, were given attention in the studies. Some of the findings in the various areas of study will be presented and discussed. 32 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Walker, R.B.; Gessel, S.P.; Held, E.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-07-01

331

Programs in Animal Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)|

Herring, Don R.; And Others

1980-01-01

332

Thermal Acclimation and Adaptation of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem responses to temperature change are collectively determined by its constituents, which are plants, animals, microbes, and their interactions. It has been long documented that all plant, animals, and microbial carbon metabolism (photosynthesis, respiration) can acclimate and respond to changing temperatures, influencing the response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to climate change. Climate change also can induce competition between species with different thermal responses leading to changes in community composition. While a great deal of research has been done on species-level responses to temperature, it is yet to examine thermal acclimation of adaptation of ecosystem carbon processes to temperature change. With the advent of eddy flux measurements, it is possible to directly characterize the ecosystem-scale temperature response of carbon storage. In this study, we quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), from which the responses of apparent optimal temperatures across broad spatial and temporal scales were examined. While temperature responses are normally parameterized in terms of the physiological variables describing photosynthesis and respiration, we focus on the apparent optimal behavior of NEE. Because the measurement integrated over multiple individuals and species within the footprint of the measurement (100s to 1000s of ha), it is challenging to interpret this measurement in terms of classical physiological variables such as the Q10. Rather we focus on the realized behavior of the ecosystem and its sensitivity to temperature. These empirical response functions can then be used as a benchmark for model evaluation and testing. Our synthesis of 656 site-years of eddy covariance data over the world shows that temperature response curves of NEE are parabolic, with their optima temperature strongly correlated with site growing season temperature across the globe and with annual mean temperature over years at individual sites. The differential response of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature may act to produce apparent optima, and an internannual adjustment of this optimum to within-year weather conditions. This phenomenon may influence the long-term response of ecosystem carbon storage and community composition to global temperature changes, and may contribute to the apparent higher sensitivity of global ecosystem carbon storage to rainfall anomalies than to temperature. Thermal responses on interannual time scales may dampen temperature-driven variability of NEE directly caused by temperature anomalies.

Luo, Y.; Niu, S.; Fei, S.; Yuan, W.; Zhang, Z.; Schimel, D.; Fluxnet Pis, .

2010-12-01

333

Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and

Anderson L. Ward; Gregory T. Berlin; Jerry W. Cammann; Kevin D. Leary; Steven O. Link

2008-01-01

334

Soil community composition and ecosystem processes: Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organisms play principal roles in several ecosystem functions, i.e. promoting plant productivity, enhancing water relations,\\u000a regulating nutrient mineralisation, permitting decomposition, and acting as an environmental buffer. Agricultural soils would\\u000a more closely resemble soils of natural ecosystems if management practices would reduce or eliminate cultivation, heavy machinery,\\u000a and general biocides; incorporate perennial crops and organic material; and synchronise nutrient release

D. A. Neher

1999-01-01

335

Optimising the management of complex dynamic ecosystems. An ecological-economic modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.<\\/span><\\/o:p><\\/span>

Ecosystems supply a wide range of goods and services to mankind. This includes, for example, timber supplied by forests, and animal feed supplied by rangeland systems. In addition, ecosystems supply a range of essential life support services, such as the regulation of climatic

L. G. Hein

2005-01-01

336

Remote sensing and ecosystem modeling for monitoring urban ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an increasingly larger fraction of people is living in cities, there is a growing interest in understanding how the mosaic of buildings, roads, concretes, grassy lawns, gardens and other exotic vegetation functions as an ecosystem and how urban ecosystems services can be enhanced to ensure adequate quality of life to the bulk of the global population. High resolution remote sensing allows separating the mosaic components and their functions with high degree of precision over small surfaces. On the other hand, moderate to coarse resolution remote sensing integrated with ground observations and modeling provides a feasible approach for studying the functioning of these ecosystems and their impacts on the carbon and water cycles across a wide range of geographical settings. Here we present a summary of continental scale analyses based on satellite data from the DMSP/OLS, MODIS, and ecosystem modeling to quantify the impact of urban development on the terrestrial carbon and water cycle in the United States. The results show that urban ecosystems can maintain significantly high levels of photosynthetic capacity, but with fluxes varying largely as a function of vegetation management. Periodical monitoring of these impacts at the regional scale is critical for the appropriate management of urban growth and the sustainable use of natural resources. We will discuss the limitations of the current tools and required sensor improvements for the continued monitoring of these impacts.

Milesi, C.; Elvidge, C.; Potter, C.; Nemani, R.

2007-05-01

337

Process-based Principles for Restoring Dynamic River Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process-based restoration focuses on re-establishing natural rates and magnitudes of geomorphological, hydrological, and biological processes that sustain biodiversity and biological productivity in dynamic river ecosystems. It contrasts with traditional restoration practices, which focus on creating specific habitat characteristics that meet perceived "good" or "minimum" habitat conditions or standards. Process-based restoration relies on the understanding that habitat-forming processes are dynamic and comprise a shifting mosaic of diverse habitats. Local animal populations or communities are adapted to this dynamic habitat mosaic. Fundamental principles underlying process-based restoration are: (1) restoration must address biophysical processes that drive ecosystem change, and (2) the scale of restoration must be relevant to the appropriate landscape and biological process scales. Restoration efforts that re-establish natural rates and magnitudes of system processes promote ecosystem recovery, and help avoid common pitfalls of traditional restoration practices such as creating habitats that are outside the range of a site's natural potential, fixing habitats in space and time, and building habitats that are ultimately overwhelmed by untreated or uncontrollable system drivers. Restoring such processes also allows dynamic riverine ecosystems to express their natural potential, which generates the natural range of habitat conditions to which biological communities are adapted. Non-point processes such as erosion often require restoration at the scale of watersheds to effectively restore river ecosystems, whereas reach-level processes such as the maintenance of connected floodplain habitats can be effective at smaller spatial scales. Flow restoration in regulated rivers should consider the full range of environmentally important flows (e.g., low flow to floods). Biological processes such as the life-history scales of migratory animals (e.g., anadromous salmon) may be larger than the scale of watershed processes, requiring a strategic approach to restoring suites of habitats and processes beyond the river network-scale. We illustrate application of these principles in rivers of western North America.

Pess, G. R.; Beechie, T. J.; Pollock, M. M.

2006-12-01

338

Engineering TV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing Engineering TV, an innovative online video program by engineers for engineers. Twice a week, each 5-8 minute episode shows cutting-edge technology in action and looks behind the scenes as today's engineers shape tomorrow's breakthroughs.

2010-04-14

339

Ecosystem Services Research Program: LTG 2: Monitor, map, and model ecosystem services at multiple scales  

EPA Science Inventory

Mapping ecosystem services is a high priority and an area of significant ORD expertise. Monitoring will be confined to designing a monitoring system for accounting for ecosystem service changes. This will move EMAP condition monitoring to ecosystem services monitoring, building...

340

Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition.  

PubMed

Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here we ask how altering litter species diversity affects species-specific decomposition rates and whether large litter-feeding soil animals control the litter diversity-function relationship in a temperate forest ecosystem. We found that decomposition of a given litter species changed greatly in the presence of litters from other cooccurring species despite unaltered climatic conditions and litter chemistry. Most importantly, soil fauna determined the magnitude and direction of litter diversity effects. Our data show that litter species richness and soil fauna interactively determine rates of decomposition in a temperate forest, suggesting a combination of bottom-up and top-down controls of litter diversity effects on ecosystem C and nutrient cycling. These results provide evidence that, in ecosystems supporting a well developed soil macrofauna community, animal activity plays a fundamental role for altered decomposition in response to changing litter diversity, which in turn has important implications for biogeochemical cycles and the long-term functioning of ecosystems with ongoing biodiversity loss. PMID:15671172

Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Gasser, Patrick

2005-01-25

341

Functional traits, the phylogeny of function, and ecosystem service vulnerability.  

PubMed

People depend on benefits provided by ecological systems. Understanding how these ecosystem services - and the ecosystem properties underpinning them - respond to drivers of change is therefore an urgent priority. We address this challenge through developing a novel risk-assessment framework that integrates ecological and evolutionary perspectives on functional traits to determine species' effects on ecosystems and their tolerance of environmental changes. We define Specific Effect Function (SEF) as the per-gram or per capita capacity of a species to affect an ecosystem property, and Specific Response Function (SRF) as the ability of a species to maintain or enhance its population as the environment changes. Our risk assessment is based on the idea that the security of ecosystem services depends on how effects (SEFs) and tolerances (SRFs) of organisms - which both depend on combinations of functional traits - correlate across species and how they are arranged on the species' phylogeny. Four extreme situations are theoretically possible, from minimum concern when SEF and SRF are neither correlated nor show a phylogenetic signal, to maximum concern when they are negatively correlated (i.e., the most important species are the least tolerant) and phylogenetically patterned (lacking independent backup). We illustrate the assessment with five case studies, involving both plant and animal examples. However, the extent to which the frequency of the four plausible outcomes, or their intermediates, apply more widely in real-world ecological systems is an open question that needs empirical evidence, and suggests a research agenda at the interface of evolutionary biology and ecosystem ecology. PMID:24101986

Díaz, Sandra; Purvis, Andy; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Mace, Georgina M; Donoghue, Michael J; Ewers, Robert M; Jordano, Pedro; Pearse, William D

2013-07-30

342

36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11 Section 327.11 Parks...OF ENGINEERS § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or...physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise...

2012-07-01

343

36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11 Section 327.11 Parks...OF ENGINEERS § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or...physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise...

2011-07-01

344

Air Quality in Production Animal Facilities: Updates and Research Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specialists in engineering, human health, veterinary and animal science fields have expressed increasing concern that aerosols, combined with micro-organ isms, fungi and toxic gases in farm animal buildings have the potential to cause human health problems. Air quality in production animal facilities presents a challenge to the scientific communities, governmental agencies and the industry. This paper provides updates and discusses

Yuanhui Zhang

1995-01-01

345

Value Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines value engineering, shows why it is necessary, and emphasizes the engineer's responsibility for using engineering disciplines in the design of a product. Recognizing that value engineering is a duty of the professional engineer, the paper stresses application of value engineering to attain Armed Services goals, and reduce costs while speeding up delivery of the weapon system. Many

A. Zappacosta

1962-01-01

346

Learning with animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I trained as an animator and I now work at the Animation Workshop, which is part of a Danish university where we run graduate courses to train animators. At the Animation Workshop we offer a BA degree, open workshops, a drawing school, and support for schools. This article explains the ways in which we use animation to support literacy among

Hanne Pedersen

2011-01-01

347

Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

1990-01-01

348

Animals in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obt...

A. White

1988-01-01

349

Animal Research Ethics  

MedlinePLUS

... How can the number of animals used for experimentation – estimated to be 100 million animals internationally each ... for Plain Language in the Debates on Animal Experimentation Joel Marks 1 1-7 of 7 Results. ...

350

Ecosystem Dynamics and Pollution Effects in an Ozark Cave Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subterranean ecosystems harbor globally rare fauna and important water resources, but ecological processes are poorly understood and are threatened by anthropogenic stresses. Ecosystem analyses were conducted from 1997 to 2000 in Cave Springs Cave, Arkansas, situated in a region of intensive land use, to determine the degree of habitat degradation and viability of endangered fauna. Organic matter budgeting quantified energy flux and documented the dominant input as dissolved organic matter and not gray bat guano (Myotis grisescens). Carbon/nitrogen stable isotope analyses described a trophic web of Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae) that primarily consumed cave isopods (Caecidotea stiladactyla), which in turn appeared to consume benthic matter originating from a complex mixture of soil, leaf litter, and anthropogenic wastes. Septic leachate, sewage sludge, and cow manure were suspected to augment the food web and were implicated in environmental degradation. Water, sediment, and animal tissue analyses detected excess nutrients, fecal bacteria, and toxic concentrations of metals. Community assemblage may have been altered: sensitive species -- grotto salamanders (Typhlotriton spelaeus) and stygobromid amphipods -- were not detected, while more resilient isopods flourished. Reduction of septic and agricultural waste inputs may be necessary to restore ecosystem dynamics in this cave ecosystem to its former undisturbed condition.

Graening, Gary O.; Brown, Arthur V.

2003-12-01

351

Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate engineering (CE), the intentional modification of the climate in order to reduce the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, is sometimes touted as a potential response to climate change. Increasing interest in the topic has led to proposals for empirical tests of hypothesized CE techniques, which raise serious ethical concerns. We propose three ethical guidelines for CE researchers, derived from the ethics literature on research with human and animal subjects, applicable in the event that CE research progresses beyond computer modeling. The Principle of Respect requires that the scientific community secure the global public's consent, voiced through their governmental representatives, before beginning any empirical research. The Principle of Beneficence and Justice requires that researchers strive for a favorable risk-benefit ratio and a fair distribution of risks and anticipated benefits, all while protecting the basic rights of affected individuals. Finally, the Minimization Principle requires that researchers minimize the extent and intensity of each experiment by ensuring that no experiments last longer, cover a greater geographical extent, or have a greater impact on the climate, ecosystem, or human welfare than is necessary to test the specific hypotheses in question. Field experiments that might affect humans or ecosystems in significant ways should not proceed until a full discussion of the ethics of CE research occurs and appropriate institutions for regulating such experiments are established.

Morrow, David R.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael

2009-10-01

352

Animals in research.  

PubMed

Britain's Home Office has issued a white paper, Scientific Procedures on Living Animals, which will--when enacted into law--revise the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act. The proposed legislation addresses issues of licensing of research teams and projects, control of animal suffering, and registration and inspection of animal supply facilities. Also provided for are an advisory Animal Procedures Committee, government funding for research into alternatives to animal experimentation, and the authority to issue guidelines and codes of practice. The white paper, while welcomed by moderate animal welfare groups whose recommendations provided its framework, has been attacked by some animal rights advocates. PMID:11644485

1985-05-25

353

Ecology of Disease: The Intersection of Human and Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...

354

SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS is the virtual representative of Busch Entertainment Corporation's zoological and educational resources. The site provides access to online educational materials as well as program information for the SeaWorld/Busch Gardens theme parks. Materials include detailed information on marine animals, ecosystems, and zoological research programs of the parks. There are also news articles, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and information about the parks' on-site educational programs, tours, and student camps. The teachers' page features guides, classroom activities, information on television programming, and a catalog of publications. For children, there are games and coloring pages, downloadables (screensavers, desktops), and interactive features about marine animals and environments.

355

A synthetic Escherichia coli predator-prey ecosystem  

PubMed Central

We have constructed a synthetic ecosystem consisting of two Escherichia coli populations, which communicate bi-directionally through quorum sensing and regulate each other's gene expression and survival via engineered gene circuits. Our synthetic ecosystem resembles canonical predator–prey systems in terms of logic and dynamics. The predator cells kill the prey by inducing expression of a killer protein in the prey, while the prey rescue the predators by eliciting expression of an antidote protein in the predator. Extinction, coexistence and oscillatory dynamics of the predator and prey populations are possible depending on the operating conditions as experimentally validated by long-term culturing of the system in microchemostats. A simple mathematical model is developed to capture these system dynamics. Coherent interplay between experiments and mathematical analysis enables exploration of the dynamics of interacting populations in a predictable manner.

Balagadde, Frederick K; Song, Hao; Ozaki, Jun; Collins, Cynthia H; Barnet, Matthew; Arnold, Frances H; Quake, Stephen R; You, Lingchong

2008-01-01

356

Stability Indicators for Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of models for nutrient cycling in ecosystems are examined, both numerically and analytically, to determine ecosystem responses to perturbations. The structure of the decomposer-detritus dynamics is found to play a governing role in the stability...

M. Dudzik J. Harte D. Levy J. Sandusky

1975-01-01

357

a unique threat to forest ecosystem health?  

Treesearch

Title: Anthropogenic calcium depletion: a unique threat to forest ecosystem health ? ... raises important questions concerning organism and ecosystem health. ... U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

358

Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE...

M. Schoeberl

2008-01-01

359

Science in the hardwood ecosystem experiment: accomplishments ...  

Treesearch

Forest Products Lab · International ... Title: Science in the hardwood ecosystem experiment: accomplishments and the road ahead ... The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: a framework for studying responses to forest management. Gen. Tech ...

360

Ecosystem consequences of fish parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most aquatic ecosystems, fishes are hosts to parasites and, sometimes, these parasites can affect fish biology. Some of the most dramatic cases occur when fishes are intermediate hosts for larval parasites. For example, fishes in southern California estuaries are host to many parasites. The most common of these parasites, Euhaplorchis californiensis, infects the brain of the killifish Fundulus parvipinnis

K. D. Lafferty

2008-01-01

361

EMAP WESTERN PILOT - COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort led by EPA's Office of Research and Development to advance the science of ecosystem condition monitoring and to demonstrate the application of EMAP monitoring and assessment m...

362

Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that

B. P. V. Hunt; E. A. Pakhomov; G. W. Hosie; V. Siegel; P. Ward; K. Bernard

2008-01-01

363

Modelling fire affected ecosystem restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems is usually ascribed to the seasonal climate, that is characterized by the alternation between mild temperatures and abundant rainfall in Spring and Autumn, and the high temperatures and scarce rainfall producing severe water deficit in Summer. Many factors influence watershed response altered by forest fire forcing: rainfall intensity, fire intensity, vegetation cover, soil properties and moisture content, the time interval between the fire and a rainfall episode and its associated rain rate. The fire changed soil propreties and the burned vegetation cover and the consequent soil surface exposition to high raindrops impacts are found to trigger increasing overland flow, so accelerating soil erosion. Post fire water erosion usually strongly increases in the time interval ranging from the fire extinction to the first year after it. Its persistence is strictly connected to the soil and vegetation restoration, the last occurring at different time scales. In this context, a new model aimed to analyse fire affected ecosystem restoration is presented. It is a spatially distributed model accounting of the hydrological fluxes generation and propagation, the water erosion and of the vegetation dynamic connected both to hydrological cycle and erosion. The model is able to take into account the diverse fire effects persistance of its various components (soil and vegetation) at different time scales. The application to the case study of Rio Mannu basin, a typical Mediterranean ecosystem site located in Sardinia, Italy, highlights modelling capability in studying ecosystem restoration.

Rulli, M.; Santini, M.; Rosso, R.

2011-12-01

364

Influence of arthropods on ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthropod interactions with plants and microbes influence the amounts of living and dead organic matter and transfers of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Arthropods in the canopy have their greatest effect on mobile elements such as potassium, whereas soil detritivores influence mineralization rates of less mobile elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium. Nominal (baseline) herbivory and detritivory combine to speed

T. R. Seastedt; D. A. Jr. Crossley

1984-01-01

365

Marine mammals as ecosystem sentinels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's climate is changing, possibly at an unprecedented rate. Overall, the planet is warming, sea ice and glaciers are in retreat, sea level is rising, and pollutants are accumulating in the environment and within organisms. These clear physical changes undoubtedly affect marine ecosystems. Species dependent on sea ice, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the ringed seal

Sue E. Moore

2008-01-01

366

Microbiotic Crusts and Ecosystem Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiotic crusts are biological soil crusts composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, and fungi. The biodiversity of these crusts is poorly understood; several cosmopolitan species dominate in most areas, but many species are confined to one or a few sites. Nitrogen fixation by organisms within the crust can be the dominant source of nitrogen input into many ecosystems, although rates

R. D. Evans; J. R. Johansen

1999-01-01

367

ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES AND WATERSHED STRESSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the proposed study is to assess the responsiveness of indicators of ecosystem function to three intensities of watershed disturbance in four regions. An integrated assessment of abiotic and biotic condition of streams will be conducted to assess streams affected...

368

Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formations of tropical/subtropical sheltered coastlines. Presented is a detailed report which discusses uses made of mangrove ecosystems and attempts to resolve conflicts arising from these uses. Areas considered include cause/consequence of mangrove destruction, legislative/administrative aspects,…

Saenger, P., Ed.; And Others

1983-01-01

369

Population diversity and ecosystem services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current rate of biodiversity loss threatens to disrupt greatly the functioning of ecosystems, with potentially significant consequences for humanity. The magnitude of the loss is generally measured with the use of species extinction rates, an approach that understates the severity of the problem and masks some of its most important consequences. Here, we propose a major expansion of this

Gary W. Luck; Gretchen C. Daily; Paul R. Ehrlich

2003-01-01

370

Planning for Ecosystem Service Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Market mechanisms are emerging as means of offsetting the environmental effects of growth. Unfortunately, formal regulation of ecosystem markets is often separated from broader planning for urban development, resulting in offsets that are unsustainable in the face of future urban growth.Purpose: We aimed to assess how 2008 federal regulations that actively promote aquatic resource markets and encourage watershed planning

Todd K. BenDor; Martin W. Doyle

2009-01-01

371

RESILIENCE OF ECOSYSTEMS TO DISTURBANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Resilience, in an ecological context, is one of several terms that characterize the response of an ecosystem to disturbance. Other such terms include persistence, resistance and stability. Two definitions of resilience have become prominent in the literature, both of which derive...

372

Ecosystem Overfishing in the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the ecosystem) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production

Marta Coll; Simone Libralato; Sergi Tudela; Isabel Palomera; Fabio Pranovi

2008-01-01

373

Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading  

PubMed Central

Do non?human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non?human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non?human animals should be accorded.

Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

2006-01-01

374

Animal welfare: protestors as laboratory animals.  

PubMed

In a test lawsuit brought by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, the Royal College of Surgeons has been fined for causing unnecessary suffering to a macaque monkey at the College's Buckston Browne Research Establishment. Meanwhile, members of the Middlesex animal rights group are challenging the Colindale Public Health Laboratory by offering themselves for antiviral antibody testing, usually done with rabbits. Animal rights groups remain unconvinced that pending government regulations go far enough in setting guidelines for animal experimentation. PMID:11653619

Clarke, Maxine

1985-02-28

375

[On forest ecosystem health and its evaluation].  

PubMed

Definition and connotation of forest ecosystem health were introduced, and existing ideas and methods of health evaluation were analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, forest ecosystem health was discussed from the aspects of the management objective approach, ecosystem approach, and integration approach. Widespread application of ecological indicators is the main means of evaluation on forest ecosystem health at present, and some material forest health evaluation methods, especially EMAP and FHM, were introduced and summarized to impel the relative researches in China. PMID:12181907

Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Fan, Zhuhua; Wang, Qingli

2002-05-01

376

Hudson Bay Ecosystem: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to gain insight into the dynamics of the Hudson Bay ecosystem as well as past and future states, an ecosystem model\\u000a was created using a static Ecopath model to represent the present day ecosystem in Hudson Bay. Simulations of past and future\\u000a ecosystem states were used to gain insight to key trophic linkages within the system, with focus

C. Hoover

377

Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

Martin-Lopez, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Garcia-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David Garcia Del; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Barbara; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Santos-Martin, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; Lopez-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

2012-01-01

378

Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services have attracted worldwide attention. Despite the overwhelming evidence\\u000a of these impacts and a growing appreciation for ecosystem services, however, researchers and policymakers rarely directly\\u000a address the connection between invasions and ecosystem services.Various attempts have been made to address the ecosystem processes\\u000a that are affected by invasive species (e.g., Levine et al. 2003;

Heather Charles; Jeffrey S. Dukes

379

Engineering Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing Education (TIME Center), examines the various careers available to engineers. Engineers work in many fields including design and development, testing, production, and maintenance. This page contains links to many engineering related websites such as A SightseerâÂÂs Guide to Engineering, Cyberchase Online, NASAâÂÂs Education Website, and Discover Engineering.

2011-10-11

380

Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco) of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m-2 d-1), when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m-2 d-1). Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m-2 d-1) of 0.70(±0.33), 0.60(±0.38), 0.62(±0.43), 0.49(±0.22) and 0.27(±0.08), respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair) and soil (Tsoil) temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands). Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI), inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (QS) was higher than the one over time (interannual, QT). This can be expected because QS not only accounts for climate gradients across sites but also for (positively correlated) the spatial variability of substrate quantity. Thus, if the models estimate future warming impacts on Reco based on QS rather than QT, this could overestimate the impact of temperature changes.

Wang, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Maignan, F.; Arain, A.; Cescatti, A.; Gianelle, D.; Gough, C.; Gu, L.; Lafleur, P.; Laurila, T.; Marcolla, B.; Margolis, H.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Saigusa, N.; Vesala, T.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Koven, C.; Black, A.; Dellwik, E.; Don, A.; Hollinger, D.; Knohl, A.; Monson, R.; Munger, J.; Suyker, A.; Varlagin, A.; Verma, S.

2011-07-01

381

Ecosystem science: toward a new paradigm for managing Australia's inland aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater ecosystems are a foundation of our social, cultural, spiritual and economic well being. The degraded condition of many of Australia's river ecosystems is testament to our failure to manage these resources wisely. Ecosystem science involves the holistic study of complex biophysical systems to understand the drivers that influence ecological pattern and process. Ecosystem science should underpin both water management

Gene E. Likens; Keith F. Walker; Peter E. Davies; Justin Brookes; Jon OlleyD; William J. YoungE; Martin C. ThomsF; P. Sam LakeG; Ben GawneH; Jenny Davis; Angela H. Arthington; Ross Thompson; Rod L. Oliver

2009-01-01

382

Research Review of Collaborative Ecosystem-Based Management in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of the marine environment is threatened worldwide. In order to maintain ecosystem services management must shift from single sector to ecosystem approaches. To support this transition in marine management, this article reviews collaborative ecosystem-based management in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), through an overview and comparison of three collaborations on the United States West Coast of

Kary Coleman

2008-01-01

383

Economic Value Judgments on Ecosystems: Challenges to the Realization of the Ecosystem Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecosystem approach has now been widely endorsed as a strategy to conserve our ecosystems and to ensure the provision of ecosystem services[1]. Even though its concrete understanding is subject to debate, it seems to entail at least two requirements: holism and coordination. A holistic approach means that all elements of an ecosystem are considered\\/valued when decisions are made by

Froukje Maria Platjouw

2012-01-01

384

Caring for our natural assets: an ecosystem services perspective.  

Treesearch

Title: Caring for our natural assets: an ecosystem services perspective. ... describes ecosystems as natural assets that support human health and well- being. ... Keywords: Ecosystem services, ecosystem management, natural capital , climate ...

385

Connecting forest ecosystem and microwave backscatter models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is outlined to connect data obtained from active microwave remote sensing systems with forest ecosystem models. The hierarchy of forest ecosystem models is discussed, and the levels at which microwave remote sensing data can be used as inputs are identified. In addition, techniques to utilize forest ecosystem models to assist in the validation of theoretical microwave backscatter models

ERIC S. KASISCHKE; NORMAN L. CHRISTENSEN Jr

1990-01-01

386

Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

387

Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of ecosystem-based management (EBM) is to sustain the long-term capacity of the natural world to provide ecosystem services. A technical workshop was held with the object of moving toward identifying, mapping, quantifying, and valuing ecosystem services in the G...

388

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

389

Merging Genomes with Geochemistry in Hydrothermal Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic microbial inhabitants of active seafloor and continental hot springs populate the deepest branches of the universal phylogenetic tree, making hydrothermal ecosystems the most ancient continuously inhabited ecosystems on Earth. Geochemical consequences of hot water-rock interactions render these environments habitable and supply a diverse array of energy sources. Clues to the strategies for how life thrives in these dynamic ecosystems

Anna-Louise Reysenbach; Everett Shock

2002-01-01

390

Valuing ecosystem services as productive inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYValuing ecosystem servicesThis paper explores two methods for valuing ecosystems by valuing the services that they yield to various categories of user and that are not directly valued in the market, and illustrates the usefulness of these methods with an application to the valuation of mangrove ecosystems in Thailand. The first method is known as the production function approach and

Edward B. Barbier

2007-01-01

391

MODES OF GOVERNANCE OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics and suggest a framework for analysis of mechanisms of governance of agro-ecosystem services. Firstly, we present a new approach for analysis and improvement of governance of agro-ecosystem services. It takes into account the role of specific institutional environment; behavioural characteristics of individual agents; transactions costs associated with ecosystem

Hrabrin Bachev

2009-01-01

392

Digital Ecosystems: Optimisation by a Distributed Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can intelligence optimise Digital Ecosystems? How could a distributed intelligence interact with the ecosystem dynamics? Can the software components that are part of genetic selection be intelligent in themselves, as in an adaptive technology? We consider the effect of a distributed intelligence mechanism on the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of our Digital Ecosystem, which is the digital counterpart of a

Gerard Briscoe; Philippe De Wilde

2007-01-01

393

Balancing feedstock economics and ecosystem services  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this analysis is to examine the economic balance between production of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks and ecosystem services at the farm level. A literature review of the economics of ecosystem services, ecosystem service impacts of biofuel production, and economic factors influencing ...

394

Ecosystem Management and the Arrogance of Humanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecosystem managementparadigm hasgained wide acceptance among land resource managers. The definition of ecosystem management remains fuzzy, however, and two fundamentally different views of ecosystem management prevail. The first view is biocentric and considers human use of resources to be constrained by the primary goal of maintaining ecological integrity. The second view is anthropocentric and retains the importance of human

Thomas R. Stanley

1995-01-01

395

Crab regulation of cross-ecosystem resource transfer by marine foraging fire ants.  

PubMed

Permeability of boundaries in biological systems is regulated by biotic and/or abiotic factors. Despite this knowledge, the role of biotic factors in regulating resource transfer across ecosystem boundaries has received little study. Additionally, little is known about how cross-ecosystem resource transfer affects source populations. We used experiments, observations and stable isotopes, to evaluate: (1) the proportion of intertidal-foraging black fire ant (Solenopsis richteri) diet derived from marine sources, (2) how black fire ant cross-ecosystem resource transfer is altered by the dominant bioengineer in the intertidal, a burrowing crab (Neohelice granulata), (3) the top-down impact of these terrestrial ants on a marine resource, and (4) the effect of marine resources on recipient black fire ants. We found that more than 85% of the black fire ant diet is derived from marine sources, the number of intertidal foraging ants doubles in the absence of crab burrows, and that ants cause a 50% reduction in intertidal polychaetes. Also, ant mound density is three times greater adjacent to marine systems. This study reveals that cross-ecosystem foraging terrestrial ants can clearly have strong impacts on marine resources. Furthermore, ecosystem engineers that modify and occupy habitat in these ecosystem boundaries can strongly regulate the degree of cross-ecosystem resource transfer and resultant top down impacts. PMID:21394518

Garcia, Erica A; Bertness, Mark D; Alberti, Juan; Silliman, Brian R

2011-03-11

396

Animation on Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first considers Kota Ezawa’s video installation, The Simpson Verdict within the broader context of the rising interest in animation on the contemporary art landscape. After exploring three trends within this proliferation of artists’ animation – works that animate moments from film history, works that animate ‘reality’, and works that use popular media such as cartoons, television and video

Karen Beckman

2011-01-01

397

Physics for Animation Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

2011-01-01

398

Antibiotic resistance in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal

Mary D Barton; Rachael Pratt; Wendy S Hart

399

Spatiotemporal modulation of biodiversity in a synthetic chemical-mediated ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity, or the relative abundance of species, measures the persistence of an ecosystem. To better understand its modulation, we analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of a synthetic, chemical-mediated ecosystem that consisted of two engineered Escherichia coli populations. Depending on the specific experimental conditions implemented, the dominant interaction between the two populations could be competition for nutrients or predation due to engineered communication. While the two types of interactions resulted in different spatial patterns, they demonstrated a common trend in terms of the modulation of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity decreased with increasing cellular motility if the segregation distance between the two populations was comparable to the length scale of the chemical-mediated interaction. Otherwise, biodiversity was insensitive to cellular motility. Our results suggested a simple criterion for predicting the modulation of biodiversity by habitat partitioning and cellular motility in chemical-mediated ecosystems.

Song, Hao; Payne, Stephen; Gray, Meagan; You, Lingchong

2009-01-01

400

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as (agro)ecosystem engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic interactions have been shown to facilitate shifts in the structure and function of host plant communities. For example,\\u000a parasitic plants can induce changes in plant diversity through the suppression of competitive community dominants. Arbuscular\\u000a mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have also be shown to induce shifts in host communities by increasing host plant nutrient uptake and\\u000a growth while suppressing non-mycorrhizal species.

Duncan D. Cameron

2010-01-01

401

Overexploiting marine ecosystem engineers: potential consequences for biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overfishing is a major environmental problem in the oceans. In addition to the direct loss of the exploited species, the very act of fishing, particularly with mobile bottom gear, destroys habitat and ultimately results in the loss of biodiversity. Furthermore, overfishing can create trophic cascades in marine communities that cause similar declines in species richness. These effects are compounded by

Felicia C. Coleman; Susan L. Williams

2002-01-01

402

The relationship between ecosystem services and purchased input in Swedish wastewater treatment systems — a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing awareness of ecosystem services and use of ecological engineering in today's search for more sustainable wastewater treatment systems, but there is still great uncertainty about how to compare and evaluate the ecological sustainability of different systems. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of resources in three different wastewater treatment systems: (i) conventional

Ulrika Geber; Johanna Björklund

2002-01-01

403

The relationship between ecosystem services and purchased input in Swedish wastewater treatment systems — a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing awareness of ecosystem services and use of ecological engineering in today's search for more sustainable wastewater treatment systems, but there is still great uncertainty about how to compare and evaluate the ecological sustainability of different systems. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of resources in three different wastewater treatment systems: (i) conventional

Ulrika Geber; Johanna Björklund

2001-01-01

404

Ecosystem Consequences of Contrasting Flow Regimes in an Urban Effects Stream Mesocosm Study  

EPA Science Inventory

A stream mesocosm experiment was conducted to study the ecosystem-wide effects of two replicated flow hydrograph treatments programmed in an attempt to compare a simulated predevelopment condition to the theoretical changes that new development brings, while accounting for engine...

405

Which insulin to use? Human or animal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of insulin was a breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes and it produced a remarkable increase in the life expectancy of diabetic patients. Animal-derived insulins have been used to treat pe o- ple with diabetes since insulin was first discovered and continuously subjected to various purification technologies. Genetically engineered human insulin was introduced in 1982 and now the

V. Mohan

406

Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks\\/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms\\/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The latter effect is related to the phenomenon that a chemical accumulates in species through different trophic

Vries de W; P. F. A. M. Romkens; G. Schutze

2007-01-01

407

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

408

Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2005-04-01

409

Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the build- ing blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species

N. Leader-Williams

2002-01-01

410

Engine Icing Test Simulation  

NASA Video Gallery

This new engine icing ground test simulation, now with sound, uses cutaways to show what a future engine icing test would look like at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The ground tests will be done to safely observe and find design solutions to a type of ice that can build up on engine blades. The test starts with air flow at subsonic speeds; then a mist is sprayed from bars at the end of the tunnel. In the animation, one set of blades remains stationary to show how it's believed ice builds up on a blade. The ice could then break off, causing engine power loss or damage. › Read More About Fire and Ice Mission

Christopher O

2012-05-01

411

Trends in animal use and animal alternatives.  

PubMed

The Third World Congress (1999, Bologna) celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Russell & Burch's The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. There was the general notion that the Three Rs offer a unifying concept that contributes to a progressive reduction and refinement in animal use without compromising the quality of research, human health or the protection of the environment. The Bologna Three Rs Declaration was accepted unanimously, calling upon all parties involved to incorporate the Three Rs into animal-based research. The question is raised, what progress has been made and, in particular, what are the developments in animal use and in the implementation of validated alternative methods. For the present contribution, we requested colleagues from European countries, Canada and the United States to provide information on the numbers of animals currently used for scientific purposes, on the development and implementation of alternative methods and on future perspectives about the issues. Based on the results of this survey, the conclusion is reached that legislative regulations are widely implemented and have become rather strict during the last decade. An exception here is the legislative regulation for rats, mice and birds in the USA. These species are not (yet) protected by the US Animal Welfare Act. The number of animals used has decreased considerably, and the review of protocols by animal ethics committees has become a significant trend. In all countries, there is growing support for the Three Rs concept. PMID:23577430

De Greeve, Paul; De Leeuw, Wim; van Zutphen, Bert F M

2004-06-01

412

Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an\\u000a intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg\\u000a of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected\\u000a microsere. Here

David O. Carter; David Yellowlees; Mark Tibbett

2007-01-01

413

Biodiversity and industry ecosystem management  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity describes the array of interacting, genetically distinct populations and species in a region, the communities they are functioning parts. Ecosystem health is a process identifying biological indicators, end points, and values. The decline of populations or species, an accelerating trend worldwide, can lead to simplification of ecosystem processes, thus threatening the stability an sustainability of ecosystem services directly relevant to human welfare in the chain of economic and ecological relationships. The challenge of addressing issues of such enormous scope and complexity has highlighted the limitations of ecology-as-science. Additionally, biosphere-scale conflicts seem to lie beyond the scope of conventional economics, leading to differences of opinion about the commodity value of biodiversity and of the services that intact ecosystems provide. In the fact of these uncertainties, many scientists and economists have adopted principles that clearly assign burdens of proof to those who would promote the loss of biodiversity and that also establish {open_quotes}near-trump{close_quotes} (preeminent) status for ecological integrity. Electric utility facilities and operations impact biodiversity whenever construction, operation, or maintenance of generation, delivery, and support facilities alters landscapes and habitats and thereby impacts species. Although industry is accustomed to dealing with broad environmental concerns (such as global warming or acid rain), the biodiversity issue invokes hemisphere-side, regional, local, and site-specific concerns all at the same time. Industry can proactively address these issues of scope and scale in two main ways: first, by aligning strategically with the broad research agenda put forth by informed scientists and institutions; and second, by supporting focused management processes whose results will contribute incrementally to the broader agenda of rebuilding or maintaining biodiversity. 40 refs., 8 figs.

Coleman, W.G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

414

Optimizing Earthworm Sampling in Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To quantify the role of earthworms in ecosystems, a precise and accurate estimation of their diversity, abundance and biomass\\u000a is needed. In this chapter, we contribute to the optimization of earthworm sampling in terms of (1) how to sample, (2) where\\u000a to sample and (3) how many samples to take. First, we assess optimal concentrations of chemical expellants (allyl isothiocyanate

Jan Valckx; Gerard Govers; Martin Hermy; Bart Muys

415

Empirical Evidence that Declining Species Diversity May Alter the Performance of Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined experimentally the association between species diversity and ecosystem processes in a series of terrestrial mesocosms. We developed and maintained 14 mesocosms whose biota were assembled from a single pool of plant and animal species and whose environmental conditions were identically controlled. Each community contained four trophic levels: primary producers (annual herbs), consumers (herbivorous molluscs and phloem sucking insects),

Shahid Naeem; Lindsey J. Thompson; Sharon P. Lawler; John H. Lawton; Richard M. Woodfin

1995-01-01

416

Sources of inorganic and monomethyl mercury to high and sub Arctic marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomethyl mercury (MMHg), a toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg, is present in some Canadian high and sub Arctic marine mammals at concentrations high enough to pose health risks to Northern peoples using these animals as food. To quantify potentially large sources of Hg to Arctic marine ecosystems, we examined several aspects of Hg cycling in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

Jane Liza Kirk

2009-01-01

417

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disrupters. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals an...

418

The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on earthworm invasion of North American soils report dramatic changes in soil structure, nutrient dynamics and plant communities in ecosystems historically free of earthworms. However, the direct and indirect impacts of earthworm invasions on animals have been largely ignored. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the impact of earthworm invasion on other soil fauna, vertebrates as well

Sonja Migge-Kleian; Mary Ann McLean; John C. Maerz; Liam Heneghan

2006-01-01

419

Introduction to special section – Supporting ecosystem services with conservation agricultural approaches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecosystem services are the properties and processes of the natural world that contribute to the well-being of plants, animals, and humans in a holistic and global context. For too long, members of the agricultural community have been solely focused on the provision of food, feed, and fiber. Of cou...

420

Engineering sustainable engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is one of the global grand challenges of the 21st century. In order for future generations to enjoy a satisfactory quality of life, the current generation must find ways to meet humanity's needs for energy, shelter, food and water in ways that are environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. Engineers must be trained to design systems and technologies that have

M. L. Sattler; K. Alavi; V. C. P. Chen; S. P. Mattingly; K. J. Rogers; Y. P. Weatherton; B. Afotey; M. Rani

2010-01-01

421

Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.  

PubMed

Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

2012-06-18

422

Plant & Animal Interdependency. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In every ecosystem, organisms rely on each other in unique relationships that ensure each other's survival. In Plant & Animal Interdependency, find out how plants and animals interact, cooperate and compete. All living things have basic needs and depend on other living things to meet those needs. Discover why the constant exchange of nutrients…

2000

423

CHEMICALLY MEDIATED COMPETITION BETWEEN MICROBES AND ANIMALS: MICROBES AS CONSUMERS IN FOOD WEBS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes are known to affect ecosystems and communities as decomposers, pathogens, and mutualists. However, they also may function as classic consumers and competitors with animals if they chemically deter larger consumers from using rich food-falls such as carrion, fruits, and seeds that can represent critical windfalls to both microbes and animals. Microbes often use chemicals (i.e., antibiotics) to compete against

Deron E. Burkepile; John D. Parker; C. Brock Woodson; Heath J. Mills; Julia Kubanek; Patricia A. Sobecky; Mark E. Hay

2006-01-01

424

Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems.

Carter, David O.; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

2007-01-01

425

Animals in a Grassland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, warm weather activity, learners use sweepnets to search a grassy area such as a large lawn or field, collecting small animals to find as many different kinds of animals as possible. Learners observe and try to identify the animals they catch and observe how different animals interact with each other. Because some animals can't be caught easily with sweepnets, the Branching Out part of the activity involves making very small "pitfall traps" in the ground. At the end of the activity, learners release all the animals back into the grassy area.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

426

Community-Cyberinfrastructure-Enabled Discovery in Science and Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber infrastructure for discovery in science and engineering has not only enhanced the process of discovery but has also enabled new venues for discovery including systems biology, ecosystem modeling, and individualized medicine. The transition from enhancing to enabling discovery in science and engineering has led to what we term the Silicon Shift. In this paper, we conceptualize the vision of

Ahmed K. Elmagarmid; Arjmand Samuel; Mourad Ouzzani

2008-01-01

427

Emergent Engineering: A Radical Paradigm Shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

We shed light on the disruptive advances brought by the ubiquity of computing and communication environments, which link devices and people in unprecedented ways into a new kind of techno-social systems and infrastructures recently named Cyber-Physical Ecosystems (CPE). While pointing to fundamental biases that prevent the traditional engineering school of thought from coping with the magnitude in scale and complexity

Mihaela Ulieru; René Doursat

428

Laboratory Animals. Part II. Animals for Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The directory is divided into the following sections: Section I comprises the listings for the common domestic animals (chickens, turkeys, non-inbred mice, inbred mice, hybrid mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, dogs, cats, cattle, goats, sheep, and swine)...

1966-01-01

429

Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters.  

PubMed

Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework for identifying the mechanisms that govern the importance of subsidies for recipient food webs and ecosystems. Using a literature review of > 90 studies of open-water metabolism in lakes and streams, we show that high-flux, low-quality subsidies can drive freshwater ecosystem dynamics. Because most of these ecosystems are net heterotrophic, allochthonous inputs must subsidize respiration. Second, using a literature review of subsidy quality and use, we demonstrate that animals select for high-quality food resources in proportions greater than would be predicted based on food quantity, and regardless of allochthonous or autochthonous origin. This finding suggests that low-flux, high-quality subsidies may be selected for by animals, and in turn may disproportionately affect food web and ecosystem processes (e.g., animal production, trophic energy or organic matter flow, trophic cascades). We then synthesize and review approaches that evaluate the role of subsidies and explicitly merge ecosystem and food web perspectives by placing food web measurements in the context of ecosystem budgets, by comparing trophic and ecosystem production and fluxes, and by constructing flow food webs. These tools can and should be used to address future questions about subsidies, such as the relative importance of subsidies to different trophic levels and how subsidies may maintain or disrupt ecosystem stability and food web interactions. PMID:21797150

Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Mineau, Madeleine M; Hall, Robert O

2011-06-01

430

Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

None

2010-01-14

431

Animations in spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Ole Haglund mentioned in this journal that it was possible to incorporate animations into spreadsheets. We would like to describe what might be an easier way to incorporate animations into spreadsheets using Excel™ software.

Aubrecht, Gordon J.; Bolland, T. Kenneth; Ziegler, Michael G.

1999-12-01

432

Animal Technical Services- Bethesda  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Courier Services Weekly courier service is available for local shipments on Tuesdays and Thursdays; animals are transported in a temperature-controlled vehicle. Contact Holly Wastler, hwastler@ncifcrf.gov

433

"Name" that Animal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.|

Laird, Shirley

2010-01-01

434

Methods for Cloning Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention pertains to methods for cloning animals. In particular, the invention includes methods of cloning an animal by combining a genome from an activated donor cell with an activated enucleated oocyte to thereby obtain a nuclear transfer e...

A. Baguisi E. W. Overstrom

2004-01-01

435

Fuel Cell Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

Development, Us D.

436

Anthropogenic pollutants: a threat to ecosystem sustainability?  

PubMed Central

Pollutants, including synthetic organic materials and heavy metals, are known to adversely affect physiological systems in all animal species studied to date. While many individual chemicals can perturb normal functions, the combined actions of multiple pollutants are of particular concern because they can exert effects even when each individual chemical is present at concentrations too low to be individually effective. The biological effects of pollutants differ greatly between species reflecting differences in the pattern of exposure, routes of uptake, metabolism following uptake, rates of accumulation and sensitivity of the target organs. Thus, understanding of the effects of pollutants on wildlife and ecosystems will require detailed study of many different species, representing a wide range of taxa. However, such studies can be informed by knowledge obtained in more controlled conditions which may indicate likely mechanisms of action and suitable endpoint measurements. Responses may be exacerbated by interactions between the effects of pollutants and environmental stressors, such as under-nutrition or osmotic stresses and so changes in such variables associated with climatic changes may exacerbate physiological responses to pollutant burdens.

Rhind, S. M.

2009-01-01

437

Live like an Animal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students design an innovative human shelter that is inspired and informed by an animal structure. Each group is assigned an animal class, and they gather information about shelters used by the animals in that class. After researching the topic and brainstorming ideas, students build small prototypes (models) of the structures. Finally, they present their products, explaining what attribute of the animal structure influenced their design.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

438

Impacts of Bioturbation by Spawning Salmon on the Community Dynamics and Ecosystem Processes of Alaskan Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem processes and community dynamics are often controlled by a few dominant species. Species can have large impacts via trophic impacts, such as keystone predators, or via non-trophic impacts, such as ecosystem engineers. For example, it is widely recognized that migrations of Pacific salmon transport marine-derived nutrients and energy to coastal ecosystems. However, while Pacific salmon often spawn at high densities and dig large nests, the impacts of this ecosystem engineering are poorly understood. We collected data every two weeks for four summers on a suite of abiotic and biotic variables in six streams in southwestern Alaska that span a gradient of salmon densities. In streams and years with high densities of salmon, disturbance from spawning salmon impacted virtually all aspects of stream ecology. For example, disturbance by salmon leads to the export of silt and nutrients from streams. This bioturbation often exported more nutrients and matter than were imported by migrating salmon. In addition, there was a severe seasonal decline in periphyton and benthic invertebrate abundance associated with disturbance from salmon nest-digging. Thus, salmon nest-digging is an important component of stream disturbance regimes that controls benthic community dynamics and ecosystem processes of streams.

Moore, J. W.; Schindler, D. E.

2005-05-01

439

Stirling engines  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

Reader, G.T.; Hooper

1983-01-01

440

Morris Animal Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Resources AnimalNews Share Your Story Veterinary Clinics Order Cards Our Research VetNEWS Researchers Small Animal Studies Large Animal Studies Wildlife Studies Vet Students Grant Report Forms Blog Mobile Site Privacy Policy Sitemap Contact Us 10200 East Girard Ave Suite B430 Denver, ...

441

Science, Medicine and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history, status, and potential of animal research is described in the hopes of providing the information which will allow people to judge the merit and necessity for continuing animal research. The use of animals in research; advances as a result of a...

J. E. Burris S. Olson

1991-01-01

442

Early Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prehistoric man-animal relationships can be studied from both a zoological and an archaeological viewpoint. Despite the considerable degree of overlap between the approaches the interests of the two disciplines are substantially different. It is important that archaeology should develop hypotheses concerned primarily with human behaviour. Animal husbandry can be viewed as a group of close relationships between man and animals,

M. R. Jarman

1976-01-01

443

Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)|

Hinshaw, Craig

2003-01-01

444

Abstraction in Algorithm Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstraction of information into visual form plays a key role in the development of algorithm animations. We present a classification for abstraction as applied to algorithm animation. The classification emphasizes the expressive power of the abstraction, ranging from simple direct presentation of the program's state to complex animations intended to explain the behavior of the program. We illustrate our classification

Kenneth C. Cox; Gruia-catalin Roman

1992-01-01

445

Animal personality and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal models are used to study the physiological mechanisms underlying disease progres- sion. In this paper, I examine the benefits of using animal models to study how personality or stable individual differences (in behavior and physiology) influence disease susceptibil- ity and resilience. Such an expansion of animal model use, to study the relationships among personality, physiology, and health, provides

Sonia A. Cavigelli

2005-01-01

446

Animal Mouth Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this teaching idea, students gather evidence to understand features that enable animals to meet their needs. In particular, students examine images and videos of the mouth structures of different animals to help them understand how animals are adapted to obtain food in their environment.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-26

447

Positive, accurate animal identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive, accurate identification of animals and their products would be very helpful in livestock commerce, prevention of theft and fraud and in tracing animals and products to origin. Food safety, animal health, and prevention of epidemics, would be enhanced by combining identification with location. Identification may be by electronic chips, iris or retinal scans, antibody or DNA analysis. A cross

Philip Dziuk

2003-01-01

448

Training for Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1985 mandates training for a wide spectrum of individuals. A profile of each group of individuals requiring training is presented. These groups include students, animal caretakers, research and animal technicians, investigators, and principal investigators. An educational profile is provided for each group. Their educational needs are described, with examples of available training materials. This

Jean Larson

1988-01-01

449

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plan. Testing may include live-animal testing using a live-animal official...animals. Testing may include live-animal testing using a live-animal official...animals. Testing may include live-animal testing using a live-animal...

2009-01-01

450

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plan. Testing may include live-animal testing using a live-animal official...animals. Testing may include live-animal testing using a live-animal official...animals. Testing may include live-animal testing using a live-animal...

2010-01-01

451

Engineering Media Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering Media Lab at the University of Oklahoma (OU) is an outstanding resource for engineering students taking introductory courses in statics or dynamics. Although the database of homework and exam problems is only available to OU students, the most valuable materials are open to the general public. Online books and lectures guide users through concepts such as three-dimensional motion, friction, and vibration. The eBooks include multimedia animations to illustrate the effects of different forces on objects and rigid bodies.

452

Thresholds of ecosystem response to nutrient enrichment from fish aggregations.  

PubMed

Biogeochemical hotspots can be driven by aggregations of animals, via excretion, that provide a concentrated source of limiting nutrients for primary producers. In a subtropical seagrass ecosystem, we characterized thresholds of ecological change associated with such hotspots surrounding artificial reef habitats. We deployed reefs of three sizes to aggregate fishes at different densities (and thus different levels of nutrient supply via excretion) and examined seagrass characteristics that reflect ecosystem processes. Responses varied as a function of reef size, with higher fish densities (on larger reefs) associated with more distinct ecological thresholds. For example, adjacent to larger reefs, the percentage of P content (%P) of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) blades was significantly higher than background concentrations; fish densities on smaller reefs were insufficient to support sharp transitions in %P. Blade height was the only variable characterized by thresholds adjacent to smaller reefs, but lower fish densities (and hence, nutrient input) on smaller reefs were not sufficient for luxury nutrient storage by seagrass. Identifying such complexities in ecological thresholds is crucial for characterizing the extent to which biogeochemical hotspots may influence ecosystem function at a landscape scale. PMID:23691671

Layman, Craig A; Allgeier, Jacob E; Yeager, Lauren A; Stoner, Elizabeth W

2013-02-01

453

General 3-D animation techniques for tether dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents general as well as specific information about an approach to engineering tether dynamics animation as applied to the Generalized Tethered Object Simulation System (GTOSS). The discussion relates to cost effective hardware and software solutions only recently available to the engineering community. First, the elements of the new field of desk top video production are described. Then a

David D. Lang

1989-01-01

454

Climate Change Experiments in Arctic Ecosystems: Scientific Strategy and Design Criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic and subarctic ecosystems are sensitive to changes in climate. These are among the largest and coldest of all ecosystems and are perceived by many as especially vulnerable to environmental change. Warming, in particular, is expected to be greatest in northern latitudes with potentially significant consequences for tundra, taiga, and peat lands. Observational evidence suggests that warming is already affecting physical and ecological processes in high-latitude ecosystems. Models predict that permafrost degradation and the northward expansion of shrubs into tundra represent important feedbacks on climate. Manipulative experiments can help understand the vulnerability of ecosystems to climate warming. Previous attempts to manipulate the environment of ecosystems in arctic and subarctic regions have focused on warming plant and soils, but treatments have been limited to small scales and modest increases in temperature. Manipulating the environment at larger scales and exposing ecosystems to higher temperatures for longer periods of time will be required to fully describe the physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that govern land-atmosphere interactions. A variety of logistical and engineering challenges must be overcome and new approaches developed before we can address the questions being asked of the scientific community especially as we continue to move toward large-scale and long-term experiments. In light of the many uncertainties that surround the response of high-latitude ecosystems to global climate change, it is important that the scientific community consider how manipulative experiments can address and resolve ecosystem impacts and feedbacks to climate. A workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Science was recently held at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The goal of the workshop was to highlight conclusions from observational and modeling studies about the response of arctic and subarctic ecosystems to a changing climate. Participants were asked how experiments could best be designed to address issues related to plant and ecosystem dynamics, permafrost degradation, carbon and methane emissions, landscape processes, and the many land-atmosphere feedbacks that are likely to arise as a result of global warming. Recommendations that address the scientific strategy and design criteria of future large-scale, long-term climate change experiments in Arctic ecosystems were contributed. This information will be summarized and evaluated in the context of existing and emerging efforts to better understand high-latitude ecosystems to climate warming.

Wullschleger, S. D.; Hinzman, L. D.; McGuire, A. D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Oechel, W. C.; Norby, R. J.; Thornton, P. E.; Schuur, E. A.; Shugart, H. H.; Walsh, J. E.; Wilson, C. J.

2010-12-01

455

[Animal experimentation in Israel].  

PubMed

In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

2002-04-01

456

Applying Ecosystem Management to Urban Forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecosystem is defined as a spatially and temporally explicit place that includes all the organisms, all abiotic factors\\u000a in that environment, and their interactions (Likens, 1992). For an urban ecosystem, this includes the entire set of social,\\u000a ecological, and physical components that define an urban area. One might ask, What is an urban ecosystem and how might it\\u000a differ

Wayne C. Zipperer

457

Ecosystem Carbon Stocks of Micronesian Mangrove Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the least studied ecosystem services of mangroves is their value as global carbon (C) stocks. This is significant as\\u000a mangroves are subject to rapid rates of deforestation and therefore could be significant sources of atmospheric emissions.\\u000a Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate change though reduced deforestation.\\u000a We quantified ecosystem C stocks at the

J. Boone Kauffman; Chris Heider; Thomas G. Cole; Kathleen A. Dwire; Daniel C. Donato

2011-01-01

458

National Science Foundation: The Secret Lives of Wild Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are wild animals up to all the time? Curious minds want to know, and this interactive and visually stimulating site from the National Science Foundation is just the place to find out. First-time visitors should click over to the Introduction to learn about how the NSF's interdisciplinary team of scientists is designing innovative tracking and information-management systems to learn exactly how animals spend their minutes, days, and years negotiating within an ecosystem for food and mates. Moving on, visitors can click on one of five animals (such as Deer, Dragonfly, or Zebra) to learn about the tracking technology being used to study their movements and activities. Also, visitors can learn some quick facts about each animal, view a short movie of the animal in the wild, and find out who is currently conducting research. It's a great site, and one that could be effectively used in a biology or zoology course.

459

Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management. A Report to Congress by the Ecosystems Principles Advisory Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Acknowledgement; Preface; Executive Summary; Section One: Introduction; Section Two: Ecosystem Principles, Goals, and Policies; Section Three: Current Application of the Ecosystem Principles, Goals, and Policies; Section Four: Recommend...

1999-01-01

460

Lipid catabolism of invertebrate predator indicates widespread wetland ecosystem degradation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Animals frequently undergo periods when they accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent energetically expensive activities, such as migration or breeding. During such periods, daily lipid-reserve dynamics (DLD) of sentinel species can quantify how landscape modifications affect function, health, and resilience of ecosystems. Aythya affinis (Eyton 1838; lesser scaup; diving duck) are macroinvertebrate predators; they migrate through an agriculturally dominated landscape in spring where they select wetlands with the greatest food density to refuel and accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent reproduction. We index DLD by measuring plasma-lipid metabolites of female scaup (n = 459) that were refueling at 75 spring migration stopover areas distributed across the upper Midwest, USA. We also indexed DLD for females (n = 44) refueling on a riverine site (Pool 19) south of our upper Midwest study area. We found that mean DLD estimates were significantly (P<0.05) less than zero in all ecophysiographic regions of the upper Midwest, and the greatest negative value was in the Iowa Prairie Pothole region (-31.6). Mean DLD was 16.8 at Pool 19 and was markedly greater than in any region of the upper Midwest. Our results indicate that females catabolized rather than stored lipid reserves throughout the upper Midwest. Moreover, levels of lipid catabolism are alarming, because scaup use the best quality wetlands available within a given stopover area. Accordingly, these results provide evidence of wetland ecosystem degradation across this large agricultural landscape and document affects that are carried-up through several trophic levels. Interestingly, storing of lipids by scaup at Pool 19 likely reflects similar ecosystem perturbations as observed in the upper Midwest because wetland drainage and agricultural runoff nutrifies the riverine habitat that scaup use at Pool 19. Finally, our results underscore how using this novel technique to monitor DLD, of a carefully selected sentinel species, can index ecosystem health at a landscape scale.

Anteau, M. J.; Afton, A. D.

2011-01-01

461

Lipid Catabolism of Invertebrate Predator Indicates Widespread Wetland Ecosystem Degradation  

PubMed Central

Animals frequently undergo periods when they accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent energetically expensive activities, such as migration or breeding. During such periods, daily lipid-reserve dynamics (DLD) of sentinel species can quantify how landscape modifications affect function, health, and resilience of ecosystems. Aythya affinis (Eyton 1838; lesser scaup; diving duck) are macroinvertebrate predators; they migrate through an agriculturally dominated landscape in spring where they select wetlands with the greatest food density to refuel and accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent reproduction. We index DLD by measuring plasma-lipid metabolites of female scaup (n?=?459) that were refueling at 75 spring migration stopover areas distributed across the upper Midwest, USA. We also indexed DLD for females (n?=?44) refueling on a riverine site (Pool 19) south of our upper Midwest study area. We found that mean DLD estimates were significantly (P<0.05) less than zero in all ecophysiographic regions of the upper Midwest, and the greatest negative value was in the Iowa Prairie Pothole region (-31.6). Mean DLD was 16.8 at Pool 19 and was markedly greater than in any region of the upper Midwest. Our results indicate that females catabolized rather than stored lipid reserves throughout the upper Midwest. Moreover, levels of lipid catabolism are alarming, because scaup use the best quality wetlands available within a given stopover area. Accordingly, these results provide evidence of wetland ecosystem degradation across this large agricultural landscape and document affects that are carried-up through several trophic levels. Interestingly, storing of lipids by scaup at Pool 19 likely reflects similar ecosystem perturbations as observed in the upper Midwest because wetland drainage and agricultural runoff nutrifies the riverine habitat that scaup use at Pool 19. Finally, our results underscore how using this novel technique to monitor DLD, of a carefully selected sentinel species, can index ecosystem health at a landscape scale.

Anteau, Michael J.; Afton, Alan D.

2011-01-01

462

Lipid catabolism of invertebrate predator indicates widespread wetland ecosystem degradation.  

PubMed

Animals frequently undergo periods when they accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent energetically expensive activities, such as migration or breeding. During such periods, daily lipid-reserve dynamics (DLD) of sentinel species can quantify how landscape modifications affect function, health, and resilience of ecosystems. Aythya affinis (Eyton 1838; lesser scaup; diving duck) are macroinvertebrate predators; they migrate through an agriculturally dominated landscape in spring where they select wetlands with the greatest food density to refuel and accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent reproduction. We index DLD by measuring plasma-lipid metabolites of female scaup (n = 459) that were refueling at 75 spring migration stopover areas distributed across the upper Midwest, USA. We also indexed DLD for females (n = 44) refueling on a riverine site (Pool 19) south of our upper Midwest study area. We found that mean DLD estimates were significantly (P<0.05) less than zero in all ecophysiographic regions of the upper Midwest, and the greatest negative value was in the Iowa Prairie Pothole region (-31.6). Mean DLD was 16.8 at Pool 19 and was markedly greater than in any region of the upper Midwest. Our results indicate that females catabolized rather than stored lipid reserves throughout the upper Midwest. Moreover, levels of lipid catabolism are alarming, because scaup use the best quality wetlands available within a given stopover area. Accordingly, these results provide evidence of wetland ecosystem degradation across this large agricultural landscape and document affects that are carried-up through several trophic levels. Interestingly, storing of lipids by scaup at Pool 19 likely reflects similar ecosystem perturbations as observed in the upper Midwest because wetland drainage and agricultural runoff nutrifies the riverine habitat that scaup use at Pool 19. Finally, our results underscore how using this novel technique to monitor DLD, of a carefully selected sentinel species, can index ecosystem health at a landscape scale. PMID:21283806

Anteau, Michael J; Afton, Alan D

2011-01-19

463

Climate change, parasitism and the structure of intertidal ecosystems.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating rapidly showing that temperature and other climatic variables are driving many ecological processes. At the same time, recent research has highlighted the role of parasitism in the dynamics of animal populations and the structure of animal communities. Here, the likely interactions between climate change and parasitism are discussed in the context of intertidal ecosystems. Firstly, using the soft-sediment intertidal communities of Otago Harbour, New Zealand, as a case study, parasites are shown to be ubiquitous components of intertidal communities, found in practically all major animal species in the system. With the help of specific examples from Otago Harbour, it is demonstrated that parasites can regulate host population density, influence the diversity of the entire benthic community, and affect the structure of the intertidal food web. Secondly, we document the extreme sensitivity of cercarial production in parasitic trematodes to increases in temperature, and discuss how global warming could lead to enhanced trematode infections. Thirdly, the results of a simulation model are used to argue that parasite-mediated local extinctions of intertidal animals are a likely outcome of global warming. Specifically, the model predicts that following a temperature increase of less than 4 degrees C, populations of the amphipod Corophium volutator, a hugely abundant tube-building amphipod on the mudflats of the Danish Wadden Sea, are likely to crash repeatedly due to mortality induced by microphallid trematodes. The available evidence indicates that climate-mediated changes in local parasite abundance will have significant repercussions for intertidal ecosystems. On the bright side, the marked effects of even slight increases in temperature on cercarial production in trematodes could form the basis for monitoring programmes, with these sensitive parasites providing early warning signals of the environmental impacts of global warming. PMID:16768861

Poulin, R; Mouritsen, K N

2006-06-01

464

[Small rodents in the forest ecosystem as infectious disease reservoirs].  

PubMed

Due to numerousness of populations and width of ecologic valence, small rodents are important parts of almost any forest ecosystem. The represent an important animal group, which connects primary makers with higher trophic levels. They transmit various infectious diseases dangerous for the health of people and domestic and wild animals (trichinosis, leptospirosis, tick encephalitis, Lyme disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, etc.). The following species of small rodents live in forest ecosystems of Croatia: Chletrionomys glareolus Schreib., Arvicola terrestris L, M. subterraneus de Sel., M. arvalis Pall., M. agrestis L, M. multiplex Fat., Apodemus agrarius Pall., A. sylvaticus L. and A. flavicollis Melch. Small rodents transmit causative agents of diseases in active (excretion products) of passive (ectoparasites and endoparasites) ways. Their multiplication potential is quite high. Transmission of certain disease sometimes takes place extremely fast due to the high number of rodents, their high movability and distribution, and the fact that they easily get in touch with men and domestic and wild animals. The number of population of each species is directly influenced by abiotic and biotic factors and changes during one year and in a several year period. In a year when the influence of ecologic factors is favorable, it is presumed that the number of these rodents will significantly increase, by which the danger of their damaging effect also increases. The following factors influence the increase of a small rodent population: number and physiologic condition of the population, meteorologic conditions, habitat, food sources, natural enemies, and diseases. The occurrence of an epidemic is closely connected to the number and infectivity of causative agents. Regular control of the number of rodent population and their infectivity can help in planning preventive epidemiologic and sanitary measures to preclude the occurrence of epidemics and individual cases of disease among animals and humans who come in contact with forest (forest workers, holiday makers, hikers, soldiers, tourists, etc.). PMID:15011471

Margaleti?, Josip

2003-01-01

465

Artificial selection of microbial ecosystems for 3-chloroaniline biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We present a method for selecting entire microbial ecosystems for bioremediation and other practical purposes. A population of ecosystems is established in the laboratory, each ecosystem is measured for a desired property (in our case, degradation of the environmental pollutant 3-chloroaniline), and the best ecosystems are used as 'parents' to inoculate a new generation of 'offspring' ecosystems. Over many

William Swenson; Jeff Arendt; David Sloan Wilson

2000-01-01

466

Southwest Ecosystem Services Project (SwESP): Identifying Ecosystems Services Based on Tribal Values  

EPA Science Inventory

USEPA Office of Research Development (ORD) new strategic focus is the measurement of benefits and services of ecosystem. The primary objective of the Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is to identify, measure, monitor, model and map ecosystem services and to enable their ...

467

Context dependency of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is different for multiple ecosystem functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concern over the loss of biodiversity has led to attempts to quantify relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. While manipulative investigations have accumulated substantial evidence to support the notion that decreasing biodiversity can be detrimental to the functioning of ecosystems, recent investigations have identified the potential importance of physical processes in moderating biodiversity ecosystem function relationships at larger geographical

Jan Geert Hiddink; Thomas Wynter Davies; Matthew Perkins; Margarita Machairopoulou; Simon P. Neill

2009-01-01

468

General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene.

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

469

Zoo animal welfare.  

PubMed

The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to 1876, and is often tied to general animal welfare regulations. As knowledge and societal values have changed, so have the focus of zoos and the regulations governing them. Today, the issues involved in zoo animal welfare are complex and broad-based. Building on the basic welfare tenets of adequate feed, water, shelter, sanitation and veterinary care, current issues include the following: handling and training of captive animals, psychological well-being and environmental enrichment, enclosure design, species preservation, environmental and conservation issues, captive-breeding programmes. Complicating the matter further, government regulations try to assimilate all aspects of zoo animal welfare into the laws to provide humane care and handling for all species concerned. Zoo animal welfare will remain a challenging area, as increasing demands are placed on zoos and regulatory agencies to manage this diminishing resource. PMID:8173098

Kohn, B

1994-03-01

470

Cellular engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular engineering applies the principles and methods of engineering to the problems of cell and molecular biology of both\\u000a a basic and applied nature. As biomedical engineering has shifted from the organ and tissue level to the cellular and sub-cellular\\u000a level, cellular engineering has emerged as a new area. A cornerstone of much of this activity is cell culture technology,

Robert M. Nerem

1991-01-01

471

Fun with Animals!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Habitats Counting with Fish Count the swimming fish then match them by choosing the right number. Meerkat Grab-a-Snack Use your mouse to catch the meerkat's dinner, but look out for snakes! Save the sea creatures! Move the wonder pet's car by clicking the arrows. Collect all of the celery and salads to rescue the animals. Say What? Listen to the clue to match the animal ...

Crowell, Ms.

2012-10-06

472

Battle of Animal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a brief summary of the animal models session held during the 12th Annual Meeting of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology,\\u000a Santa Fe, NM, USA. This session provided important information for participants on availability and utility of animal models\\u000a for the studies of HIV-1 central nervous system infection and drug abuse. It highlighted animal model relevance to human disease\\/condition,

Yuri Persidsky; Howard Fox

2007-01-01

473

Dermatophytoses in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities,\\u000a high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their\\u000a great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible\\u000a for the majority of the cases,

René Chermette; Laerte Ferreiro; Jacques Guillot

2008-01-01

474

Statistical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A good resource for problems in statistics in engineering. Contains some applets, and good textual examples related to engineering. Some topics include Monte Carlo method, Central Limit Theorem, Risk, Logistic Regression, Generalized Linear Models, and Confidence. Overall, this is a well presented and good site for anyone interested in engineering or mathematics.

Annis, Charles

2008-12-30

475

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

476

[New advances in animal transgenic technology].  

PubMed

Animal transgenic technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology in the 21st century. It is used to integrate foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. With the in-depth research, the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactor, animal disease models, organ transplantation and so on. This article reviews the recently developed animal gene transfer techniques, including germline stem cell mediated method to improve the efficiency, gene targeting to improve the accuracy, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing technology, and the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) transgenic technology. The new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform for the study of trans-genic animals and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields. PMID:20566456

Sun, Zhen-Hong; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Rui-Liang

2010-06-01

477

Responsible fisheries in the marine ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem was held in Reykjavik from 1 to 4 October 2001. The challenge provided to the conference was to define the practical next steps to move from the present fisheries management framework to ecosystem-based management. A series of invited review papers were prepared by leading experts in their respective scientific fields. These

M Sinclair; R Arnason; J Csirke; Z Karnicki; J Sigurjonsson; H Rune Skjoldal; G Valdimarsson

2002-01-01

478

Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem management means different things to different people, but the underlying concept is similar to that of the long-standing ethic of conservation. Current interest in marine ecosystem management stems from concerns about overexploitation of world fisheries and the perceived need for broader perspectives in fisheries management. A central scientific question is whether the effects of harvesting (top down) or changes

P. A. Larkin; Hut B

1996-01-01

479

RESTORING COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS: ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Consensus exists that U.S. coastal ecosystems are severely degr