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1

Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.

JONATHAN W. MOORE (;)

2006-03-01

2

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

3

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

4

Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

5

Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems  

E-print Network

Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems Heike K. Lotze1 , Marta Coll1,2 , Anna M have reported strong declines in marine animal populations and the degradation of ocean ecosystems over. A recent review on the recovery of damaged ecosystems found that many terres- trial and marine ecosystems

Myers, Ransom A.

6

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may exert strong impacts on the species composition of primary producers

Michael J. Vanni

7

Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#  

PubMed Central

Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of microbial ecosystem engineering. We argue that simply engineering individual microbes will lead to fragile homogenous populations that are difficult to sustain, especially in highly heterogeneous and unpredictable environments. Instead, engineered microbial ecosystems are likely to be more robust and able to achieve complex tasks at the spatial and temporal resolution needed for truly programmable biology. PMID:22722235

Mee, Michael T; Wang, Harris H

2012-01-01

8

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important,in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may,exert strong impacts on the species composition,of primary producers via effects on

Michael J. Vanni

2002-01-01

9

Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

1989-01-01

10

Large animal grazing and temporal patterns in ecosystem services  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The shortgrass steppe ecosystem has a long evolutionary history of large animal grazing by bison, which were replaced by domesticated livestock in the mid 1800s. In addition, this ecosystem is characterized by a semi-arid environment with low annual precipitation amounts, but high inter- and intra-a...

11

Avian ecosystem functions are influenced by small mammal ecosystem engineering  

PubMed Central

Background Birds are important mobile link species that contribute to landscape-scale patterns by means of pollination, seed dispersal, and predation. Birds are often associated with habitats modified by small mammal ecosystem engineers. We investigated whether birds prefer to forage on degu (Octodon degus) runways by comparing their foraging effort across sites with a range of runway densities, including sites without runways. We measured granivory by granivorous and omnivorous birds at Rinconada de Maipú, central Chile. As a measure of potential bird foraging on insects, we sampled invertebrate prey richness and abundance across the same sites. We then quantified an index of plot-scale functional diversity due to avian foraging at the patch scale. Results We recorded that birds found food sources sooner and ate more at sites with higher densities of degu runways, cururo mounds, trees, and fewer shrubs. These sites also had higher invertebrate prey richness but lower invertebrate prey abundance. This implies that omnivorous birds, and possibly insectivorous birds, forage for invertebrates in the same plots with high degu runway densities where granivory takes place. In an exploratory analysis we also found that plot-scale functional diversity for four avian ecosystem functions were moderately to weakly correllated to expected ecosystem function outcomes at the plot scale. Conclusions Degu ecosystem engineering affects the behavior of avian mobile link species and is thus correlated with ecosystem functioning at relatively small spatial scales. PMID:24359802

2013-01-01

12

Does competition among ecosystem engineering species result in tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services?  

EPA Science Inventory

Production of ecosystem services depends on the ecological community structure at a given location. Ecosystem engineering species (EES) can strongly determine community structure, but do they consequently determine the production of ecosystem services? We explore this question ...

13

Context dependence of marine ecosystem engineer invasion impacts on benthic ecosystem functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced ecosystem engineers can severely modify the functioning on invaded systems. Species-level effects on ecosystem\\u000a functioning (EF) are context dependent, but the effects of introduced ecosystem engineers are frequently assessed through\\u000a single-location studies. The present work aimed to identify sources of context-dependence that can regulate the impacts of\\u000a invasive ecosystem engineers on ecosystem functioning. As model systems, four locations where

Ana de Moura Queirós; Jan Geert Hiddink; Gareth Johnson; Henrique Nogueira Cabral; Michel Joseph Kaiser

2011-01-01

14

Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) as an ecosystem engineer  

E-print Network

Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) as an ecosystem engineer David Scheel 1, Peter Godfrey; social; population density; denning; aggregation. Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) como ingeniero., Godfrey-Smith P., Lawrence M. 2014. Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cepha- lopoda) as an ecosystem engineer

Scheel, David

15

Ecosystem engineers and geomorphological signatures in landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeomorphologists study the roles of biota in landscape formation and decay. Ecologists interested in ecosystem engineering study environmental change caused by biota and the consequences for the engineer, other organisms, and ecological processes. The interface is geomorphological change, an interface both are aware of but study somewhat independently and differently. Interaction and integration among the two fields is the goal of this special issue. Here I take an ecological perspective of geomorphological change caused by ecosystem engineers in patches within landscapes that I hope can help facilitate this goal. I ask the following general questions: When will an ecosystem engineering species create a geomorphological signature in a landscape? What, in qualitative terms, is such a signature? How can the signature be estimated and how long will it last? What engineer attributes and ecological factors will determine signature change? What creates complications? How do the answers inform whether or not life leaves a geomorphological signature? To attempt answers, I develop a provisional, general theory of ecosystem engineering signatures that draws on and integrates a geomorphological foundation of balance between formation and decay; landscape patch dynamics; a general framework for ecosystem engineering; and empirical studies. I treat a landscape engineering signature as the balance of rates of formation (F) and rates of decay (D) across patches whose ratio value (F/D) can be transformed (> 1), intermediate (1) or untransformed (< 1). I suggest amenable systems for study. I describe how the signature can be estimated and evaluated for potential persistence, and how to identify when decay or engineer density and per capita engineering activity control the signature. I examine the influences on shifts from transformed to untransformed signatures, and vice versa, at constant and changing rates of decay. I show how the likelihood of signature shifts depends on: 1. engineer density in the landscape and per patch; 2. per capita engineering activity as structure per patch and patches per engineer, or its contribution for engineers occurring in groups; 3. the degree of patch maintenance, abandonment, and re-engineering of abandoned patches; and in some situations, 4. the direction of the signature shift that is considered. I use this to illustrate how different ecological factors affecting engineer species (e.g., abiotic resources and conditions, natural enemies) and engineer feedbacks can drive signature transitions. I address complications and how they might be dealt with for situations where an engineer species causes formation and decay; when multiple engineering species co-occur; and when patches are materially interconnected. I end by considering whether life leaves a geomorphological signature, using this to contrast my approach with biogeomorphology, and asking what a hypothetical analysis of signature patterns across many engineer species/landscape combinations might imply for the interface of ecology and biogeomorphology.

Jones, Clive G.

2012-07-01

16

Biodiversity's Response to Ecosystem Productivity Depends on Historical Plant and Animal Relationships  

NSF Publications Database

... Ecosystem Productivity Depends on Historical Plant and Animal Relationships The experiment using ... NSF), have discovered part of the answer: how plant and animal communities originally assembled is a ...

17

Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health  

PubMed Central

The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

18

Habitat: Engineering in a Simulated Audible Ecosystem  

E-print Network

Abstract. This paper introduces a novel approach to generating audio or visual heterogeneity by simulating multi-level habitat formation by ecosystemengineer organisms. Ecosystem engineers generate habitat by modulation of environmental factors, such as erosion or radiation exposure, and provision of substrate. We describe Habitat, a simulation that runs on a two-dimensional grid occupied by an evolving population of stationary agents. The bodies of these agents provide local, differentiated habitat for new agents. Agents evolve using a conventional evolutionary algorithm that acts on their habitat preferences, habitat provision and lifespan, to populate the space and one another. This generates heterogeneous, dynamic structures that have been used in a prototype sonic artwork and simple visualisation.

Alan Dorin

19

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

20

Organisms as cooperative ecosystem engineers in intertidal flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of facilitative interactions and organismal ecosystem engineering for establishing the structure of communities is increasingly being recognised for many different ecosystems. For example, soft-bottom tidal flats host a wide range of ecosystem engineers, probably because the harsh physico-chemical environmental conditions render these species of particular importance for community structure and function. These environments are therefore interesting when focusing on how ecosystem engineers interact and the consequences of these interactions on community dynamics. In this review, we initially detail the influence on benthic systems of two kinds of ecosystem engineers that are particularly common in tidal flats. Firstly, we examine species providing biogenic structures, which are often the only source of habitat complexity in these environments. Secondly, we focus on species whose activities alter sediment stability, which is a crucial feature structuring the dynamics of communities in tidal flats. The impacts of these engineers on both environment and communities were assessed but in addition the interaction between ecosystem engineers was examined. Habitat cascades occur when one engineer favours the development of another, which in turn creates or modifies and improves habitat for other species. Non-hierarchical interactions have often been shown to display non-additive effects, so that the effects of the association cannot be predicted from the effects of individual organisms. Here we propose the term of “cooperative ecosystem engineering” when two species interact in a way which enhances habitat suitability as a result of a combined engineering effect. Finally, we conclude by describing the potential threats for ecosystem engineers in intertidal areas, potential effects on their interactions and their influence on communities and ecosystem function.

Passarelli, Claire; Olivier, Frédéric; Paterson, David M.; Meziane, Tarik; Hubas, Cédric

2014-09-01

21

Ecosystem engineering impact of Limnoperna fortunei in South America.  

PubMed

Limnoperna fortunei, or golden mussel, has invaded aquatic ecosystems in the Americas following it introduction from Southeast Asia. It is not only an aggressive invasive species, it is also a very effective ecosystem engineer, altering both ecosystem structure and function, and causes great ecological and economic impacts. This paper describes its impact as an ecosystem engineer (on benthic communities and the water column). A review of the existing scientific literature is presented, and the impact and the mechanisms by which the golden mussel modifies, maintains, and creates new environmental conditions in the invaded South American inland freshwater environments are analyzed. Understanding the ecosystem engineering roles of L. fortunei is important for its management and/or control in the invaded areas, and in cases of future invasions. PMID:21186940

Darrigran, Gustavo; Damborenea, Cristina

2011-01-01

22

Ecosystem engineering facilitates invasions by exotic plants in high-Andean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Ecosystem engineers are organisms that change abiotic conditions in ways that affect the performance and distribution of other species, including exotics. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the successful establishment of exotic plants in natural communities, but the positive effects that native engineer species may have on the distribution and performance of exotic plants remain unknown. 2 In

ERNESTO I. BADANO; ELISA VILLARROEL; RAMIRO O. BUSTAMANTE; PABLO A. MARQUET; LOHENGRIN A. CAVIERES

2007-01-01

23

Geomorphological implications of engineering bed sediments by lotic animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: < 10- 6- < 10- 15) for nine sediment variables describing baseflow and flood-induced sediment transport as well as sediment surface modifications. For example, bioturbator biomass and/or algal abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~ 70 and ~ 90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial sediments over three orders of magnitude and (ii) frequencies of mass transport events over five orders of magnitude. The fastest way to identify promising subsequent research routes in this field would be through a variety of abundance manipulations of lotic organisms (animals and plants having different mechanistic sediment-engineering abilities) in real rivers in combination with a simple approach to assess the critical shear stress in situ for varying types of sediments. This would require joint research by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists, and ecologists.

Statzner, Bernhard

2012-07-01

24

Engineering Industrial Ecosystems in a Networked World  

Microsoft Academic Search

We underline the co-evolutionary progress from collaborative automation to the extended and integrated global enterprise through which Industrial Informatics evolved mirroring the paradigm shifts in networking and communications under five years of tumultuous technological transformations. Latest trends that support the dynamic interplay of distributed intelligent technologies and services in today's complex and converging interdependent ecosystem of a networked world are

Mihaela Ulieru; Stefan Grobbelaar

2007-01-01

25

Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

26

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems  

E-print Network

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities the landscape? Location: Coastal hind-dune system, Bodega Head, northern California. Methods: In each of 4 years ­ Ericameria ericoides and the nitrogen-fixing Lupinus chamissonis ­ with those in adjacent open dunes. Results

Cushman, J. Hall

27

Habitat-Mediated Facilitation and Counteracting Ecosystem Engineering Interactively Influence Ecosystem Responses to Disturbance  

PubMed Central

Recovery of an ecosystem following disturbance can be severely hampered or even shift altogether when a point disturbance exceeds a certain spatial threshold. Such scale-dependent dynamics may be caused by preemptive competition, but may also result from diminished self-facilitation due to weakened ecosystem engineering. Moreover, disturbance can facilitate colonization by engineering species that alter abiotic conditions in ways that exacerbate stress on the original species. Consequently, establishment of such counteracting engineers might reduce the spatial threshold for the disturbance, by effectively slowing recovery and increasing the risk for ecosystem shifts to alternative states. We tested these predictions in an intertidal mudflat characterized by a two-state mosaic of hummocks (humps exposed during low tide) dominated by the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii) and hollows (low-tide waterlogged depressions dominated by the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina). In contrast to expectations, seagrass recolonized both natural and experimental clearings via lateral expansion and seemed unaffected by both clearing size and lugworm addition. Near the end of the growth season, however, an additional disturbance (most likely waterfowl grazing and/or strong hydrodynamics) selectively impacted recolonizing seagrass in the largest (1 m2) clearings (regardless of lugworm addition), and in those medium (0.25 m2) clearings where lugworms had been added nearly five months earlier. Further analyses showed that the risk for the disturbance increased with hollow size, with a threshold of 0.24 m2. Hollows of that size were caused by seagrass removal alone in the largest clearings, and by a weaker seagrass removal effect exacerbated by lugworm bioturbation in the medium clearings. Consequently, a sufficiently large disturbance increased the vulnerability of recolonizing seagrass to additional disturbance by weakening seagrass engineering effects (sediment stabilization). Meanwhile, the counteracting ecosystem engineering (lugworm bioturbation) reduced that threshold size. Therefore, scale-dependent interactions between habitat-mediated facilitation, competition and disturbance seem to maintain the spatial two-state mosaic in this ecosystem. PMID:21829719

Eklöf, Johan S.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Donadi, Serena; van der Zee, Els M.; O'Hara, Robert; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

2011-01-01

28

ORIGINAL PAPER A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests- pletely alter the structure and composition of the subcanopy within northern deciduous forests to derail the long-term successional pathway of northern deciduous forests. It is no longer prudent to set

Radeloff, Volker C.

29

Behavioural interactions between ecosystem engineers control community species richness.  

PubMed

Behavioural interactions between ecosystem engineers may strongly influence community structure. We tested whether an invasive ecosystem engineer, the alga Caulerpa taxifolia, indirectly facilitated community diversity by modifying the behaviour of a native ecosystem engineer, the clam Anadara trapezia, in southeastern Australia. In this study, clams in Caulerpa-invaded sediments partially unburied themselves, extending >30% of their shell surface above the sediment, providing rare, hard substrata for colonization. Consequently, clams in Caulerpa had significantly higher diversity and abundance of epibiota compared with clams in unvegetated sediments. To isolate the role of clam burial depth from direct habitat influences or differential predation by habitat, we manipulated clam burial depth, predator exposure and habitat (Caulerpa or unvegetated) in an orthogonal experiment. Burial depth overwhelmingly influenced epibiont species richness and abundance, resulting in a behaviourally mediated facilitation cascade. That Caulerpa controls epibiont communities by altering Anadara burial depths illustrates that even subtle behavioural responses of one ecosystem engineer to another can drive extensive community-wide facilitation. PMID:19702633

Gribben, Paul E; Byers, James E; Clements, Michael; McKenzie, Louise A; Steinberg, Peter D; Wright, Jeffrey T

2009-11-01

30

Physical Ecosystem Engineers as Agents of Biogeochemical Heterogeneity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article form BioScience is about organisms that act as agents of biogeochemical heterogeneity. Physical ecosystem engineers are organisms that physically modify the abiotic environment. They can affect biogeochemical processing by changing the availability of resources for microbes (e.g., carbon, nutrients) or by changing abiotic conditions affecting microbial process rates (e.g., soil moisture or temperature). Physical ecosystem engineers can therefore create biogeochemical heterogeneity in soils and sediments. They do so via general mechanisms influencing the flows of materials (i.e., modification of fluid dynamic properties, fluid pumping, and material transport) or the transfer of heat (i.e., modification of heat transfer properties, direct heat transfer, and convective forcing). The consequences of physical ecosystem engineering for biogeochemical processes can be predicted by considering the resources or abiotic conditions that limit or promote a reaction, and the effect of physical ecosystem engineering on these resources or abiotic conditions via the control they exert on material flows and heat transfer.

JORGE L. GUTIÃÂÃÂRREZ and CLIVE G. JONES (;)

2006-03-01

31

Burrowing owls and burrowing mammals: are ecosystem engineers interchangeable as facilitators?  

E-print Network

Burrowing owls and burrowing mammals: are ecosystem engineers interchangeable as facilitators. Burrowing owls and burrowing mammals: are ecosystem engineers interchangeable as facilitators? Á/ Oikos 106 in ways that condition the outcome of the association. We examined interactions between burrowing owls

Branch, Lyn C.

32

Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers,\\u000a however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships\\u000a between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns.\\u000a Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem

Christopher B. Anderson; Amy D. Rosemond

2007-01-01

33

THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, "failed experiments" in animal evolution, and perhaps representatives of other eukaryotic kingdoms. These soft-bodied organisms were preserved under (or rarely within) event beds of sand or volcanic ash, and four distinct preservational styles (Flinders-, Fermeuse-, Conception-, and Nama-style) profoundly affected the types of organisms and features that could be preserved. Even the earliest Ediacaran communities (575-565 Ma) show vertical and lateral niche subdivision of the sessile, benthic, filter-feeding organisms, which is strikingly like that of Phanerozoic and modern communities. Later biological and ecological innovations include mobility (>555 Ma), calcification (550 Ma), and predation (<549 Ma). The Ediacara biota abruptly disappeared 542 million years ago, probably as a consequence of mass extinction andor biological interactions with the rapidly evolving animals of the Cambrian explosio

Narbonne, Guy M.

2005-01-01

34

Introduction to the special issue—zoogeomorphology and ecosystem engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 42nd Annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium convened on October 21-23, 2011, in Mobile, Alabama, USA. The topic of the meeting was zoogeomorphology and ecosystem engineering. Speakers represented a variety of perspectives from the disciplines of geomorphology and ecology, and 21 posters were also presented covering a wide range of topics in biogeomorphology. This special issue presents the 15 invited papers presented at the symposium.

Butler, David R.; Sawyer, Carol F.

2012-07-01

35

Effects of mud sedimentation on lugworm ecosystem engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic ecosystem engineering organisms attenuate hydrodynamic or biogeochemical stress to ameliorate living conditions. Bioturbating infauna, like the lugworm Arenicola marina, determine intertidal process dynamics by maintaining the sediment oxygenated and sandy. Maintaining the permeability of the surrounding sediment enables them to pump water through the interstitial spaces, greatly increasing the oxygen availability. In a field experiment, both lugworm presence and siltation regime were manipulated to investigate to what extent lugworms are able to cope with sedimentation of increasing mud percentage and how this would affect its ecosystem engineering. Fluorescent tracers were added to experimentally deposited mud to visualise bioturbation effects on fine sediment fractions. Lugworm densities were not affected by an increasing mud percentage in experimentally deposited sediment. Negative effects are expected to occur under deposition with significantly higher mud percentages. Surface chlorophyll a content was a function of experimental mud percentage, with no effect of lugworm bioturbation. Surface roughness and sediment permeability clearly increased by lugworm presence, whereas sediment erosion threshold was not significantly affected by lugworms. The general idea that A. marina removes fine sediment fractions from the bed could not be confirmed. Rather, the main ecosystem engineering effect of A. marina is hydraulic destabilisation of the sediment matrix.

Montserrat, F.; Suykerbuyk, W.; Al-Busaidi, R.; Bouma, T. J.; van der Wal, D.; Herman, P. M. J.

2011-01-01

36

Adapting to extreme climates: raising animals in hot and arid ecosystems in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an analysis of adaptation to extreme climate changes using the Australian animal husbandry data. The paper finds that farmers have adapted to a hot and arid climate regime through animal husbandry. The number of sheep vastly increases into arid ecosystems while the number of beef cattle does not decline in high temperatures. In the future climate system in which Australia becomes hotter and more arid, we predict that farmers will increase by large percentages the numbers of beef cattle and/or sheep owned in order to adapt to a highly unfavorable climate condition, especially into the arid ecosystems. This paper shows how humanity has adapted to climate extremes taking into account changing ecosystems.

Seo, S. Niggol

2014-07-01

37

Tabizi Pythons and Clendro Hawks: Using Imaginary Animals to Achieve Real Knowledge about Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes how he used to teach a unit on food webs and ecosystems using actual food webs as models. However, the models used by the author tend to be either too simplistic or too complicated for his students. A few years ago, he solved these problems by making up his own food web, complete with invented plants and animals. The model has…

Rockow, Michael

2007-01-01

38

Summertime CO2 fluxes and ecosystem respiration from marine animal colony tundra in maritime Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (ER) were investigated at penguin, seal and skua colony tundra and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra sites in maritime Antarctica. Net CO2 fluxes showed a large difference between marine animal colonies and animal-lacking tundra sites. The mean NEE from penguin, seal and skua colony tundra sites ranged from -37.2 to 5.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, whereas animal-lacking tundra sites experienced a larger net gain of CO2 with the mean flux range from -85.6 to -23.9 mg CO2 m-2 h-1. Ecosystem respiration rates at penguin colony tundra sites (mean 201.3 ± 31.4 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those at penguin-lacking tundra sites (64.0-87.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1). The gross photosynthesis (Pg) showed a consistent trend to ER with the highest mean Pg (219.7 ± 34.5 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) at penguin colony tundra sites. When all the data were combined from different types of tundra ecosystems, summertime tundra NEE showed a weak or strong positive correlation with air temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature or precipitation. The NEE from marine animal colony and animal-lacking tundra was significantly positively correlated (P < 0.001) with soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents and C:N ratios. The ER showed a significant exponential correlation (P < 0.01) with mean 0-15 cm soil temperature, and much higher Q10 value (9.97) was obtained compared with other terrestrial ecosystems, indicating greater temperature sensitivity of tundra ecosystem respiration. Our results indicate that marine animals and the deposition of their excreta might have an important effect on tundra CO2 exchanges and ecosystem respiration, and current climate warming will further decrease tundra CO2 sink in maritime Antarctica.

Zhu, Renbin; Bao, Tao; Wang, Qing; Xu, Hua; Liu, Yashu

2014-12-01

39

Metagenomics in animal gastrointestinal ecosystem: Potential biotechnological prospects.  

PubMed

Microbial metagenomics---the applications of the genomics suit of technologies to nonculturable microorganisms, is coming of age. These approaches can be used for the screening and identification of nonculturable gastrointestinal (GI) microflora for assessing and exploiting them in nutrition and the health of the host. Advances in technologies designed to access this wealth of genetic information through environmental nucleic acids extraction and analysis have provided the means of overcoming the limitations of conventional culture-dependent microbial genetic exploitation. The molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools will result in reliable insights into the animals' GI microbial structure and activity of the livestock gut microbes in relation to functional interactions, temporal and spatial relationships among different microbial consortia and dietary ingredients. Further developments and applications of these methods promise to provide the opportunity to link distribution and identity of various GI microbes in their natural habitats, and explore their use for promoting livestock health and industrial development. PMID:18457965

Singh, Birbal; Gautam, Sanjeev K; Verma, Vinod; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Bhupinder

2008-06-01

40

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

41

Effects of an Ecosystem Engineer on Belowground Movement of Microarthropods  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem engineers affect other species by changing physical environments. Such changes may influence movement of organisms, particularly belowground where soil permeability can restrict dispersal. We investigated whether earthworms, iconic ecosystem engineers, influence microarthropod movement. Our experiment tested whether movement is affected by tunnels (i.e., burrows), earthworm excreta (mucus, castings), or earthworms themselves. Earthworm burrows form tunnel networks that may facilitate movement. This effect may be enhanced by excreta, which could provide resources for microarthropods moving along the network. Earthworms may also promote movement via phoresy. Conversely, negative effects could occur if earthworms alter predator-prey relationships or change competitive interactions between microarthropods. We used microcosms consisting of a box connecting a “source” container in which microarthropods were present and a “destination” container filled with autoclaved soil. Treatments were set up within the boxes, which also contained autoclaved soil, as follows: 1) control with no burrows; 2) artificial burrows with no excreta; 3) abandoned burrows with excreta but no earthworms; and 4) earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) present in burrows. Half of the replicates were sampled once after eight days, while the other half were sampled repeatedly to examine movement over time. Rather than performing classical pairwise comparisons to test our hypotheses, we used AICc to assess support for three competing models (presence of tunnels, excreta, and earthworms). More individuals of Collembola, Mesostigmata, and all microarthropods together dispersed when tunnels were present. Models that included excreta and earthworms were less well supported. Total numbers of dispersing Oribatida and Prostigmata+Astigmata were not well explained by any models tested. Further research is needed to examine the impact of soil structure and ecosystem engineering on movement belowground, as the substantial increase in movement of some microarthropods when corridors were present suggests these factors can strongly affect colonization and community assembly. PMID:23646146

Cameron, Erin K.; Proctor, Heather C.; Bayne, Erin M.

2013-01-01

42

Environments and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the biosphere and its associated environments and ecosystems in the context of creating a model ecosystem, learning along the way about the animals and resources. Students investigate different types of ecosystems, learn new vocabulary, and consider why a solid understanding of one's environment and the interdependence of an ecosystem can inform the choices we make and the way we engineer our communities. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

43

Abstract Ecosystem engineering the physical modifi-cation of habitats by organisms has been proposed as  

E-print Network

-building beaver (Castor canadensis) are clear examples of ecosystem engineers that are abundant throughout by increasing habitat heterogeneity. Dams built by beaver (Castor canaden- sis) dramatically alter riparian

44

Ecosystem engineers modulate exotic invasions in riparian plant communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between biodiversity and invasibility of exotic plant species within different environments and at different spatial scales is still being discussed amongst scientists. In this study, patterns of native and exotic plant species richness and cover were examined in relation with ecosystem engineer effects of pioneer vegetation within the active tract of the Mediterranean gravel bed river Tech, South France. The floristic composition was characterized according to two distinct vegetation types corresponding to two habitats with contrasted conditions: (i) open and exposed alluvial bars dominated by herbaceous communities and (ii) islands and river margins partly stabilized by ecosystem engineer plants, disconnected from annual hydrogeomorphic disturbances, and covered by woody vegetation. A significant positive correlation between exotic and native plant species richness and cover was observed for the herbaceous and the woody types, indicating that both native and exotic richness benefit from the prevailing environmental conditions. However, significant differences in native and exotic specific richness and cover were found between these two vegetation types. Higher values of total species richness and Shannon diversity of native and exotic species were attained within the herbaceous vegetation type compared to the woody type. These differences may be related to changes in local exposure to hydrogeomorphic disturbances driven by engineer plant species, and to vegetation succession. A lower exotic cover within the woody vegetation type compared to the herbaceous type suggested an increase of resistance to invasion by exotic species during the biogeomorphic succession. The engineer effects of woody vegetation resulted in a decrease of alpha (?) diversity at patch scale but, in parallel, caused an increase in gamma (?) diversity at the scale of the studied river segment. Our study corroborates recent investigations that support the theory of biotic acceptance of exotic species by native species at the local scale within heterogeneous and disturbed environments.

Corenblit, D.; Tabacchi, E.; Steiger, J.; Gonzales, E.; Planty-Tabacchi, A. M.

2012-04-01

45

Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile.  

PubMed

Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers, however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns. Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem engineer by quantifying the impacts of habitat and resource modifications caused by North American beavers (Castor canadensis) on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure and stream ecosystem function in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. We compared responses to beavers in three habitat types: (1) forested (unimpacted) stream reaches, (2) beaver ponds, and (3) sites immediately downstream of beaver dams in four streams. We found that beaver engineering in ponds created taxonomically simplified, but more productive, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Specifically, macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and number of functional feeding groups were reduced by half, while abundance, biomass and secondary production increased three- to fivefold in beaver ponds compared to forested sites. Reaches downstream of beaver ponds were very similar to natural forested sections. Beaver invasion effects on both community and ecosystem parameters occurred predominantly via increased retention of fine particulate organic matter, which was associated with reduced macroinvertebrate richness and diversity (via homogenization of benthic microhabitat) and increased macroinvertebrate biomass and production (via greater food availability). Beaver modifications to macroinvertebrate community structure were largely confined to ponds, but increased benthic production in beaver-modified habitats adds to energy retention and flow for the entire stream ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of beavers on taxa richness (negative) and measures of macroinvertebrate biomass (positive) were inversely related. Thus, while a generally positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem function has been found in a variety of systems, this work shows how they can be decoupled by responding to alterative mechanisms. PMID:17587063

Anderson, Christopher B; Rosemond, Amy D

2007-11-01

46

Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.  

PubMed

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380

Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

2011-11-01

47

The Concept of Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers Ten Years On: Progress, Limitations, and Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer- reviewed article from Bioscience is about the arguments surrounding the concept of ecosystem engineers. The modification of the physical environment by organisms is a critical interaction in most ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem engineering acknowledges this fact and allows ecologists to develop the conceptual tools for uncovering general patterns and building broadly applicable models. Although the concept has occasioned some controversy during its development, it is quickly gaining acceptance among ecologists. We outline the nature of some of these controversies and describe some of the major insights gained by viewing ecological systems through the lens of ecosystem engineering. We close by discussing areas of research where we believe the concept of organisms as ecosystem engineers will be most likely to lead to significant insights into the structure and function of ecological systems.

JUSTIN P. WRIGHT and CLIVE G. JONES (;)

2006-03-01

48

Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer.  

PubMed

Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010-mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment. PMID:23532482

Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

2013-03-01

49

Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer  

PubMed Central

Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010–mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment. PMID:23532482

Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

2013-01-01

50

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecosystems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

51

Soil animal responses to moisture availability are largely scale, not ecosystem dependent: insight from a cross-site study.  

PubMed

Climate change will result in reduced soil water availability in much of the world either due to changes in precipitation or increased temperature and evapotranspiration. How communities of mites and nematodes may respond to changes in moisture availability is not well known, yet these organisms play important roles in decomposition and nutrient cycling processes. We determined how communities of these organisms respond to changes in moisture availability and whether common patterns occur along fine-scale gradients of soil moisture within four individual ecosystem types (mesic, xeric and arid grasslands and a polar desert) located in the western United States and Antarctica, as well as across a cross-ecosystem moisture gradient (CEMG) of all four ecosystems considered together. An elevation transect of three sampling plots was monitored within each ecosystem and soil samples were collected from these plots and from existing experimental precipitation manipulations within each ecosystem once in fall of 2009 and three times each in 2010 and 2011. Mites and nematodes were sorted to trophic groups and analyzed to determine community responses to changes in soil moisture availability. We found that while both mites and nematodes increased with available soil moisture across the CEMG, within individual ecosystems, increases in soil moisture resulted in decreases to nematode communities at all but the arid grassland ecosystem; mites showed no responses at any ecosystem. In addition, we found changes in proportional abundances of mite and nematode trophic groups as soil moisture increased within individual ecosystems, which may result in shifts within soil food webs with important consequences for ecosystem functioning. We suggest that communities of soil animals at local scales may respond predictably to changes in moisture availability regardless of ecosystem type but that additional factors, such as climate variability, vegetation composition, and soil properties may influence this relationship over larger scales. PMID:24399762

Sylvain, Zachary A; Wall, Diana H; Cherwin, Karie L; Peters, Debra P C; Reichmann, Lara G; Sala, Osvaldo E

2014-08-01

52

Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest  

PubMed Central

Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the functionality of tropical forests can be maintained in moderately disturbed forest fragments. Conservation concepts for tropical forests should thus include not only remaining pristine forests but also functionally viable forest remnants. PMID:22114695

Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

2011-01-01

53

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems the main air quality concern related to agricultural animal production. However, ammonia emissions from that cover ammonia emissions in the United States were adopted in 1997. These regulations will have a signifi

Liskiewicz, Maciej

54

Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

Stewart, Timothy W.

2007-01-01

55

Interactive disturbance effects of two disparate ecosystem engineers in North American shortgrass steppe.  

PubMed

Disturbances such as fire, grazing, and soil mixing by animals interact to shape vegetation in grassland ecosystems. Animal-generated disturbances are unique in that they arise from a suite of behaviors that are themselves subject to modification by external factors. The manner in which co-occurring animal taxa interact to alter vegetation is a function of their respective behaviors, which shape the characteristics (e.g., the magnitude or extent) of their disturbances. To determine whether prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex occidentalis) interactively alter vegetation structure and heterogeneity on the Colorado shortgrass steppe, we characterized the size, dispersion, and vegetation of prairie dog burrow mounds and ant nests (located on and off prairie dog colonies) and vegetation growing beyond mound and nest perimeters. Ants located on prairie dog colonies engineered significantly larger nests and disturbed nearly twice as much total soil area as their off-colony counterparts. Ant nests were overdispersed both on and off prairie dog colonies, while prairie dog mounds were randomly dispersed. Where harvester ants and prairie dogs co-occur, the overdispersed pattern of on-colony ant nests is in effect "overlaid" onto the random pattern of prairie dog mounds, resulting in a unique, aggregated pattern of soil disturbance. Ant nests on prairie dog colonies had significantly less vegetation and lower plant species diversity than did prairie dog mounds, while off-colony nests were similar to mounds. These results suggest that ant nests are more highly disturbed when located on prairie dog colonies. Beyond nests proper, ants did not appear to alter vegetation in a manner distinct from prairie dogs. As such, the interactive effects of prairie dogs and ants on vegetation arise mainly from the disturbance characteristics of mounds and nests proper. PMID:18504620

Alba-Lynn, Christina; Detling, James K

2008-08-01

56

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers across an environmental gradient: effects on species richness and exotic plant invasion.  

PubMed

Ecosystem-engineering plants modify the physical environment and can increase species diversity and exotic species invasion. At the individual level, the effects of ecosystem engineers on other plants often become more positive in stressful environments. In this study, we investigated whether the community-level effects of ecosystem engineers also become stronger in more stressful environments. Using comparative and experimental approaches, we assessed the ability of a native shrub (Ericameria ericoides) to act as an ecosystem engineer across a stress gradient in a coastal dune in northern California, USA. We found increased coarse organic matter and lower wind speeds within shrub patches. Growth of a dominant invasive grass (Bromus diandrus) was facilitated both by aboveground shrub biomass and by growing in soil taken from shrub patches. Experimental removal of shrubs negatively affected species most associated with shrubs and positively affected species most often found outside of shrubs. Counter to the stress-gradient hypothesis, the effects of shrubs on the physical environment and individual plant growth did not increase across the established stress gradient at this site. At the community level, shrub patches increased beta diversity, and contained greater rarified richness and exotic plant cover than shrub-free patches. Shrub effects on rarified richness increased with environmental stress, but effects on exotic cover and beta diversity did not. Our study provides evidence for the community-level effects of shrubs as ecosystem engineers in this system, but shows that these effects do not necessarily become stronger in more stressful environments. PMID:24871135

Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Magnoli, Susan M; Cushman, J Hall

2014-08-01

57

Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

58

Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

59

Exotic Ecosystem Engineers Change the Emergence of Plants from the  

E-print Network

Department of Biological Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 profoundly impacts native ecosystems. Exotic earthworms were shown to alter plant community composition of the understory of deciduous forests previously devoid of earthworms. We investigated the effect of two exotic

Johnson, Edward A.

60

The role of pocket gophers as subterranean ecosystem engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pocket gophers (Geomyidae) and their ecological cognates worldwide have profound impacts on ecosystems, from consuming vegetation to altering the soil physically. The rodents excavate vast burrow systems and deposit tailings in abandoned tunnels and on the ground surface. Energetic costs of excavations are extremely high, placing a premium on optimizing the location of burrows. The resulting disturbance patterns alter physical

O. J. Reichman; Eric W. Seabloom

2002-01-01

61

The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage.  

PubMed

Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha (-1) when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha (-1)-$332.50 ha (-1) based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25-$275 ha (-1) averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision. PMID:25285202

Luck, Gary W

2013-01-01

62

The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage  

PubMed Central

Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha -1 when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha -1–$332.50 ha -1 based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25–$275 ha -1 averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision. PMID:25285202

Luck, Gary W

2014-01-01

63

Tabizi Pythons and Clendro Hawks: Using Imaginary Animals to Achieve Real Knowledge about Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the engaging unit described here, imaginary organisms are used to teach a variety of topics related to ecosystems--food chains and energy flow, food webs, limiting factors, carrying capacity, and the effects of natural and human-made events on ecosystems. By inventing organisms, the teacher is able to control the level of complexity, and the number of organisms can be modified to meet each student's level. Because the organisms are figments of the imagination, the assignment is not complicated by students' prior knowledge. Once the unit is finished, the class can discuss the ecosystem and how it is similar to and different from real ecosystems.

Rockow, Michael

2007-01-01

64

Fish, Floods, and Ecosystem Engineers: Aquatic Conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Okavango Delta, Botswana, is a major wetland surrounded by the Kalahari Desert. The delta supports a diverse fish fauna that depends on highly seasonal flooding from inflowing rivers, and on the actions of ecosystem engineers (hippopotamuses, elephants, and termites), for creation and maintenance of their habitats. Conflicts in resource use, especially water, are likely to affect fish populations and the Okavango ecosystem in the near future. We present conceptual models of this remarkable aquatic ecosystem in relation to fish and fisheries as the basis for future research and conservation efforts. Developing understanding of the environmental flow requirements of the delta is key to the management of the Okavango Delta as an ecosystem supporting diverse and abundant fish and wildlife. Once developed, this understanding can be used to allocate water within the Okavango watershed.

Peter Moyle (University of California at Davis;Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology)

2009-01-01

65

Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia  

PubMed Central

The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them fallows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use. PMID:20385814

McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

2010-01-01

66

Nonlinearity of effects of invasive ecosystem engineers on abiotic soil properties and soil biota  

E-print Network

of Biological Science, Univ. of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada. EJ also at threats to biodiversity. Particularly exotic ecosystem engineers such as earthworms potentially have by the lumbricid earthworms into an aspen forest of the Canadian Rocky Mountains on soil organic matter

Johnson, Edward A.

67

Interactions between ecosystem engineers: A native species indirectly facilitates a non-native one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The positive impact that native species have on the survival, persistence and/or range-expansion of invasive species, is receiving increasing attention from ecologists and land managers trying to better understand and predict future invasions worldwide. Ecosystem engineers are among the best-known model organisms for such studies. The austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora is an ecosystem engineer native to South America coast, where it colonizes rocky shores that were recently successfully invaded by the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula. We conducted a field experiment combining living Spartina transplants and artificial model plants in order to address the following questions: Does the native ecosystem engineer S. densiflora facilitate the invasion of rocky shores by B. glandula? If so, how much of this facilitation is caused by its physical structure alone? We found that S. densiflora had a positive effect on the invasive barnacle by trapping among its stems, the mussels, shells and gravels where B. glandula settles. Dislodged mussels, cobbles, and small shells covered and agglutinated by living barnacles were retained within the aboveground structures of S. densiflora while the control plots (without living or artificial plant structures) remained mostly bare throughout the experiment, showing how plant structures speed the colonization process. Moreover, transplanting living Spartina and artificial Spartina models led to a maximum increase in the area covered by barnacles of more than 1700% relative to the unvegetated control plots. Our study clearly shows how a native ecosystem engineers can enhance the success of invasive species and facilitate their local spread.

Sueiro, María Cruz; Schwindt, Evangelina; Mendez, María Martha (Pitu); Bortolus, Alejandro

2013-08-01

68

Is earthworms' dispersal facilitated by the ecosystem engineering activities of conspecifics?1 Gal Caro1*  

E-print Network

1 Is earthworms' dispersal facilitated by the ecosystem engineering activities of conspecifics?1 2 of earthworm's galleries on their speed of25 movements during dispersal events in the soil. We quantified, by using X-rays, the dispersal26 behaviour of earthworms in the soil. The observations were conducted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?  

EPA Science Inventory

Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management?s...

70

Ecosystem engineering varies spatially: A test of the vegetation modification paradigm for prairie dogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can substantially modify aboveground and belowground structure of grassland and shrubland ecosystems, but generalizations about their engineering effect on aboveground vegetation structure are derived largely from intensive studies at a single site in the northern mixed p...

71

Ecosystem Engineers in the Pelagic Realm: Alteration of Habitat by Species Ranging from Microbes to Jellyfish  

E-print Network

Microbes to Jellyfish Denise L. Breitburg,1, * Byron C. Crump, John O. Dabiri and Charles L. Gallegos structure to the environment, but organisms ranging from microbes to jellyfish and finfish that reside the classical category of ecosystem engineer. In addition, planktonic species, such as jellyfish, may indirectly

Dabiri, John O.

72

Comparing biodiversity effects among ecosystem engineers of contrasting strength: macrofauna diversity in Zostera noltii and Spartina anglica vegetations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas it is well known that ecosystem engineers can have a large influence on biodiversity, underlying mechanisms are still not fully clear. We try to enhance insight by comparing biodiversity effects of two neighboring intertidal, clonal, ecosystem engineering plant species that modify the physical environmental parameters in a similar way, but with a different magnitude. Macrobenthic assemblages were compared between meadows of the seagrass Zostera noltii, small patches (?0.5 m Ø) and large areas (?5 m Ø) of the emergent halophyte Spartina anglica and the surrounding bare tidal mudflat (control). Multivariate analyses revealed that the mudflat benthic assemblage and Zostera meadow assemblage showed highest similarities, whereas the Spartina marsh assemblage showed the highest dissimilarity with these two areas. Whereas the descriptive nature of our study limits interpretation of the data, some clear patterns were observed. For all vegetated areas, species diversity was lower compared to the unvegetated mudflat, and we observed a strong shift from endo- towards epibenthic species, suggesting that increased above-ground habitat complexity may be a main driving process in our system. As there were no clear patterns related to feeding types, food availability/productivity appeared to be of minor importance in structuring the benthic assemblages. Nevertheless, animals were in general smaller in vegetated areas. Patchiness had a distinct positive effect on biodiversity.

Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Ortells, Victor; Ysebaert, Tom

2009-03-01

73

Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

2012-01-01

74

The effect of termites as ecosystem engineers in the humid tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of termites as "ecosystem engineers" in humid tropical ecosystems are manyfold and range from the modification of content and composition of organic matter in soils, changes of the soil structure, over effects on the composition of vegetation, to the enhancement of biodiversity of other organisms. An overview if given over findings of recent years with a focus on termites in Amazonian rain forests. Factors that determine termite distribution and diversity are then discussed, and the pests status of termites is shortly reviewed, on the basis of which management strategies for this particular group of soil organisms are outlined.

Martius, C.

2001-12-01

75

Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer.  

PubMed

Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can involve both trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs) and density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs). Using microcosms, I examined a plant --> predator --> consumer interaction pathway involving the exotic autogenic ecosystem engineer Centaurea maculosa; native Dictyna spiders (which exhibit density and trait [web-building] responses to C. maculosa); Dictyna's insect prey, Urophora affinis; and Urophora's host plant (a secondary receiver species) to quantify DMIIs and TMIIs in an autogenic engineered pathway. Both DMIIs and TMIIs were strong enough to reduce Urophora populations, but only DMIIs, which were 4.3 times stronger than TMIIs, were strong enough to also reduce Urophora's fecundity and increase the fecundity of its host plant. Prior field studies support these results, suggesting that the differences between DMIIs and TMIIs are even stronger in nature. This study illustrates that autogenic ecosystem engineers can initiate powerful indirect interactions that generally parallel predator-initiated interactions but also differ in important functional ways. PMID:20715973

Pearson, Dean E

2010-10-01

76

Evidence for and geomorphologic consequences of a reptilian ecosystem engineer: The burrowing cascade initiated by the Gopher Tortoise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical ecosystem engineers often make major, durable physical constructs that can provide living space for other species and can structure local animal communities over evolutionary time. In Florida, a medium sized chelonian, the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) will excavate extensive subterranean chambers that can endure for long periods of time. The tortoise starts a 'burrowing cascade', by first excavating a larger burrow that may extend 10 m, which is then re-engineered by Florida Mice (Podomys floridanus) and other rodents that dig smaller side-burrows and pockets. This sequence is often followed by an invertebrate, the camel cricket (Ceuthophilus labibuli) which is reported to excavate even smaller chambers. Our first aim was to quantify the zoogeomorphic impact of this burrowing cascade by measuring the amount of soil excavated in a large sample of burrows in two communities. Secondly, we hypothesized that the high biodiversity reported for these structures might be related to the quasi-fractal nature of the geometry, following the work of Frontier (1987). To visualize this underground geometry, we used high-resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), which provided images and insights previously unobtainable using excavations or 2D GPR. Our images verified that the active tortoise burrow had a spiraling shape, but also showed splits in the larger burrow apparently dug by tortoises. For the first time, the smaller Florida Mouse burrows were imaged, showing side loops that exit and re-renter the tortoise burrow. This study also presents new information by making the discovery of numerous remnants of past tortoise burrows underground in the sampling grid surrounding the active burrow. Our third aim was to interpret our field results with previous ecological field studies to evaluate the strength of evidence that this species ranks as an ecosystem engineer.

Kinlaw, A.; Grasmueck, M.

2012-07-01

77

Ecosystem engineering at the sediment–water interface: bioturbation and consumer-substrate interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In soft-bottom sediments, consumers may influence ecosystem function more via engineering that alters abiotic resources than\\u000a through trophic influences. Understanding the influence of bioturbation on physical, chemical, and biological processes of\\u000a the water–sediment interface requires investigating top-down (consumer) and bottom-up (resource) forces. The objective of\\u000a the present study was to determine how consumer bioturbation mode and sediment properties interact to

Géraldine Nogaro; Florian Mermillod-Blondin; Maurice H. Valett; Frédérique François-Carcaillet; Jean-Paul Gaudet; Michel Lafont; Janine Gibert

2009-01-01

78

Applications of stable isotopes to study plant-animal relationships in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As natural tracers, stable isotopes have been extensively used in plant physiological, ecological and environmental research.\\u000a Recently, animal physiological ecologists have also applied stable isotope techniques to study plantanimal relationships.\\u000a The isotopic compositions of animal body generally reflect and integrate their diets over a time period ranging from hours\\u000a to years to the lifetime of an individual. When animal living

Jianzhu Wang; Guanghui Lin; Jianhui Huang; Xingguo Han

2004-01-01

79

Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands and Joost P Schanstra*  

E-print Network

1 Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands Genetically Engineered Animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end stage renal.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00486.x #12;2 Short title Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

2013-08-01

81

Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services. PMID:23716007

Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

2013-08-01

82

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

83

Non-linear density-dependent effects of an intertidal ecosystem engineer.  

PubMed

Ecosystem engineering is an important process in a variety of ecosystems. However, the relationship between engineer density and engineering impact remains poorly understood. We used experiments and a mathematical model to examine the role of engineer density in a rocky intertidal community in northern California. In this system, the whelk Nucella ostrina preys on barnacles (Balanus glandula and Chthamalus dalli), leaving empty barnacle tests as a resource (favorable microhabitat) for other species. Field experiments demonstrated that N. ostrina predation increased the availability of empty tests of both barnacle species, reduced the density of the competitively dominant B. glandula, and indirectly increased the density of the competitively inferior C. dalli. Empty barnacle tests altered microhabitat humidity, but not temperature, and presumably provided a refuge from wave action. The herbivorous snail Littorina plena was positively associated with empty test availability in both observational comparisons and experimental manipulations of empty test availability, and L. plena density was elevated in areas with foraging N. ostrina. To explore the effects of variation in N. ostrina predation, we constructed a demographic matrix model for barnacles in which we varied predation intensity. The model predicted that number of available empty tests increases with predation intensity to a point, but declines when predation pressure was strong enough to severely reduce adult barnacle densities. The modeled number of available empty tests therefore peaked at an intermediate level of N. ostrina predation. Non-linear relationships between engineer density and engineer impact may be a generally important attribute of systems in which engineers influence the population dynamics of the species that they manipulate. PMID:21170751

Harley, Christopher D G; O'Riley, Jaclyn L

2011-06-01

84

Ecosystem Engineering by Seagrasses Interacts with Grazing to Shape an Intertidal Landscape  

PubMed Central

Self-facilitation through ecosystem engineering (i.e., organism modification of the abiotic environment) and consumer-resource interactions are both major determinants of spatial patchiness in ecosystems. However, interactive effects of these two mechanisms on spatial complexity have not been extensively studied. We investigated the mechanisms underlying a spatial mosaic of low-tide exposed hummocks and waterlogged hollows on an intertidal mudflat in the Wadden Sea dominated by the seagrass Zostera noltii. A combination of field measurements, an experiment and a spatially explicit model indicated that the mosaic resulted from localized sediment accretion by seagrass followed by selective waterfowl grazing. Hollows were bare in winter, but were rapidly colonized by seagrass during the growth season. Colonized hollows were heavily grazed by brent geese and widgeon in autumn, converting these patches to a bare state again and disrupting sediment accretion by seagrass. In contrast, hummocks were covered by seagrass throughout the year and were rarely grazed, most likely because the waterfowl were not able to employ their preferred but water requiring feeding strategy (‘dabbling’) here. Our study exemplifies that interactions between ecosystem engineering by a foundation species (seagrass) and consumption (waterfowl grazing) can increase spatial complexity at the landscape level. PMID:22905115

van der Heide, Tjisse; Eklöf, Johan S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; van der Zee, Els M.; Donadi, Serena; Weerman, Ellen J.; Olff, Han; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

2012-01-01

85

Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. III. Epidemiological investigations of Trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral animals.  

PubMed

As part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. During a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (Procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 18 deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) were uninfected. Most of the former hosts probably became infected by scavenging dead infected swine or rats (Rattus norvegicus). However, infections obtained through predation of living rats, particularly with regard to the cats, cannot be excluded. Our observations do not suggest that there was transmission of T. spiralis from the wild animals to swine. Therefore, transmission of T. spiralis appeared to occur only from the farm's swine and rats to the associated wild and feral animals. PMID:3193554

Leiby, D A; Schad, G A; Duffy, C H; Murrell, K D

1988-10-01

86

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine ecosystem introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, currents, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine ecosystems or an ocean science unit.

87

Post-mortem ecosystem engineering by oysters creates habitat for a rare marsh plant.  

PubMed

Oysters are ecosystem engineers in marine ecosystems, but the functions of oyster shell deposits in intertidal salt marshes are not well understood. The annual plant Suaeda linearis is associated with oyster shell deposits in Georgia salt marshes. We hypothesized that oyster shell deposits promoted the distribution of Suaeda linearis by engineering soil conditions unfavorable to dominant salt marsh plants of the region (the shrub Borrichia frutescens, the rush Juncus roemerianus, and the grass Spartina alterniflora). We tested this hypothesis using common garden pot experiments and field transplant experiments. Suaeda linearis thrived in Borrichia frutescens stands in the absence of neighbors, but was suppressed by Borrichia frutescens in the with-neighbor treatment, suggesting that Suaeda linearis was excluded from Borrichia frutescens stands by interspecific competition. Suaeda linearis plants all died in Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora stands, regardless of neighbor treatments, indicating that Suaeda linearis is excluded from these habitats by physical stress (likely water-logging). In contrast, Borrichia frutescens, Juncus roemerianus, and Spartina alterniflora all performed poorly in Suaeda linearis stands regardless of neighbor treatments, probably due to physical stresses such as low soil water content and low organic matter content. Thus, oyster shell deposits play an important ecosystem engineering role in influencing salt marsh plant communities by providing a unique niche for Suaeda linearis, which otherwise would be rare or absent in salt marshes in the southeastern US. Since the success of Suaeda linearis is linked to the success of oysters, efforts to protect and restore oyster reefs may also benefit salt marsh plant communities. PMID:22644048

Guo, Hongyu; Pennings, Steven C

2012-11-01

88

Ecosystem engineering varies spatially: a test of the vegetation modification paradigm for prairie dogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Colonial, burrowing herbivores can be engineers of grassland and shrubland ecosystems worldwide. Spatial variation in landscapes suggests caution when extrapolating single-place studies of single species, but lack of data and the need to generalize often leads to ‘model system’ thinking and application of results beyond appropriate statistical inference. Generalizations about the engineering effects of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) developed largely from intensive study at a single complex of black-tailed prairie dogs C. ludovicianus in northern mixed prairie, but have been extrapolated to other ecoregions and prairie dog species in North America, and other colonial, burrowing herbivores. We tested the paradigm that prairie dogs decrease vegetation volume and the cover of grasses and tall shrubs, and increase bare ground and forb cover. We sampled vegetation on and off 279 colonies at 13 complexes of 3 prairie dog species widely distributed across 5 ecoregions in North America. The paradigm was generally supported at 7 black-tailed prairie dog complexes in northern mixed prairie, where vegetation volume, grass cover, and tall shrub cover were lower, and bare ground and forb cover were higher, on colonies than at paired off-colony sites. Outside the northern mixed prairie, all 3 prairie dog species consistently reduced vegetation volume, but their effects on cover of plant functional groups varied with prairie dog species and the grazing tolerance of dominant perennial grasses. White-tailed prairie dogs C. leucurus in sagebrush steppe did not reduce shrub cover, whereas black-tailed prairie dogs suppressed shrub cover at all complexes with tall shrubs in the surrounding habitat matrix. Black-tailed prairie dogs in shortgrass steppe and Gunnison's prairie dogs C. gunnisoni in Colorado Plateau grassland both had relatively minor effects on grass cover, which may reflect the dominance of grazing-tolerant shortgrasses at both complexes. Variation in modification of vegetation structure may be understood in terms of the responses of different dominant perennial grasses to intense defoliation and differences in foraging behavior among prairie dog species. Spatial variation in the engineering role of prairie dogs suggests spatial variation in their keystone role, and spatial variation in the roles of other ecosystem engineers. Thus, ecosystem engineering can have a spatial component not evident from single-place studies.

Baker, Bruce W.; Augustine, David J.; Sedgwick, James A.; Lubow, Bruce C.

2013-01-01

89

Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer.  

PubMed

Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect-a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3-5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density. PMID:23862102

Crutsinger, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Angélica L; Crawford, Kerri M; Sanders, Nathan J

2013-01-01

90

Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer  

PubMed Central

Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect—a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3–5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density. PMID:23862102

Gonzalez, Angélica L.; Crawford, Kerri M.; Sanders, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

91

Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.  

PubMed

The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleologyTeleology , which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos Telos , and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very genetic engineering which creates this dilemma to ablate consciousness in such animal models, thereby escaping a moral impasse. PMID:24496650

Rollin, Bernard E

2015-01-01

92

Intelligent Computing in Engineering -ICE08 Resolving Incorrect Occlusion in Augmented Reality Animations  

E-print Network

Intelligent Computing in Engineering - ICE08 24 Resolving Incorrect Occlusion in Augmented Reality Animations of Simulated Construction Operations A H Behzadan 1 , V R Kamat 1 1 University of Michigan, Ann convincing representations of the mod- eled processes. As a tradeoff, however, an AR animation must be able

Kamat, Vineet R.

93

The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.  

PubMed

An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23554402

de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2013-04-01

94

Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches. PMID:24132201

Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Aiken, Jim

2013-01-01

95

Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem.  

PubMed

Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches. PMID:24132201

Hardman-Mountford, Nick J; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J W; Aiken, Jim

2013-12-01

96

Vegetable oils and animal fats as alternative fuels for diesel engines with dual fuel operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils and animal fats are applicable as fuels in standard diesel engines after having adapted the fuel system for electronically controlled dual fuel regime oil\\/fat–fossil diesel. In this contribution, performance and emission characteristics of the engines running on rapeseed oil, lard, or chicken fat are given and compared to those of fossil diesel and fatty acid methyl esters. The

A. Kleinová; I. Vailing; J. Lábaj; J. Mikulec; J. Cvengroš

2011-01-01

97

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

98

In order to build up a system of international cooperative research in the field of animal biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School  

E-print Network

biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School of Bioagricultural Spin-offs in Animal Biotechnology Project of Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program in Animal Biotechnology Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa

Takahashi, Ryo

99

Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

100

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts  

PubMed Central

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley—Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus. PMID:21444312

Rowntree, Jennifer K.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

101

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts.  

PubMed

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley-Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus. PMID:21444312

Rowntree, Jennifer K; Cameron, Duncan D; Preziosi, Richard F

2011-05-12

102

Niche Inheritance: A Cooperative Pathway to Enhance Cancer Cell Fitness Through Ecosystem Engineering  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells can be described as an invasive species that is able to establish itself in a new environment. The concept of niche construction can be utilized to describe the process by which cancer cells terraform their environment, thereby engineering an ecosystem that promotes the genetic fitness of the species. Ecological dispersion theory can then be utilized to describe and model the steps and barriers involved in a successful diaspora as the cancer cells leave the original host organ and migrate to new host organs to successfully establish a new metastatic community. These ecological concepts can be further utilized to define new diagnostic and therapeutic areas for lethal cancers. 115: 1478–1485, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24700698

Yang, Kimberline R; Mooney, Steven M; Zarif, Jelani C; Coffey, Donald S; Taichman, Russell S; Pienta, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

103

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

104

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

105

Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.  

E-print Network

and ecosystem services. Manuel Blouin, Nicolas Sery, Daniel Cluzeau, Jean-Jacques Brun, Alain Bédécarrats are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually of the association of ,,earthworms and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research. PMID:24964011

Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2014-01-01

107

Animated Engineering Tutors: Middle School Students' Preferences and Rationales on Multiple  

E-print Network

. Sorge, Newsom, and Hegarty [12] examined the attitudes of Hispanic middle school students towards stereotypes. Students develop a stereotypical image of a scientist as they get older and scientists drawnAnimated Engineering Tutors: Middle School Students' Preferences and Rationales on Multiple

Reisslein, Martin

108

Seasonal zooplankton dynamics in Lake Michigan: disentangling impacts of resource limitation, ecosystem engineering, and predation during a critical ecosystem transition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined seasonal dynamics of zooplankton at an offshore station in Lake Michigan from 1994 to 2003 and 2007 to 2008. This period saw variable weather, declines in planktivorous fish abundance, the introduction and expansion of dreissenid mussels, and a slow decline in total phosphorus concentrations. After the major expansion of mussels into deep water (2007–2008), chlorophyll in spring declined sharply, Secchi depth increased markedly in all seasons, and planktivorous fish biomass declined to record-low levels. Overlaying these dramatic ecosystem-level changes, the zooplankton community exhibited complex seasonal dynamics between 1994–2003 and 2007–2008. Phenology of the zooplankton maximum was affected by onset of thermal stratification, but there was no other discernable effect due to temperature. Interannual variability in zooplankton biomass during 1994 and 2003 was strongly driven by planktivorous fish abundance, particularly age-0 and age-1 alewives. In 2007–2008, there were large decreases in Diacyclops thomasi and Daphnia mendotae possibly caused by food limitation as well as increased predation and indirect negative effects from increases in Bythotrephes longimanus abundance and in foraging efficiency associated with increased light penetration. The Bythotrephes increase was likely driven in part by decreased predation from yearling and older alewife. While there was a major decrease in epilimnetic–metalimnetic herbivorous cladocerans in 2007–2008, there was an increase in large omnivorous and predacious calanoid copepods, especially those in the hypolimnion. Thus, changes to the zooplankton community are the result of cascading, synergistic interactions, including a shift from vertebrate to invertebrate planktivory and mussel ecosystem impacts on light climate and chlorophyll.

Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Cavaletto, Joann F.; Liebig, James R.; Stow, Craig Stow; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.

2012-01-01

109

Remediation of ecosystems damaged by environmental contamination: Applications of ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the applicability of ecological engineering to pollution problems prevalent in present-day Central and Eastern Europe, a SCOPE-UNEP sponsored workshop was held in Estonia in November 1995. The workshop was undertaken specifically to obtain information from and to train planners, managers and scientists in the region. These `countries in transition' face, in many respects, unique environmental problems as a

W. J Mitsch; Ü Mander

1997-01-01

110

Ecosystem engineering by a colonial mammal: how prairie dogs structure rodent communities.  

PubMed

As ecosystem engineers, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) physically alter their environment, but the mechanism by which these alterations affect associated faunal composition is not well known. We examined how rodent and vegetation communities responded to prairie dog colonies and landcover at the Cimarron National Grassland in southwest Kansas, USA. We trapped rodents and measured vegetation structure on and off colonies in 2000 and 2003. We plotted two separate ordinations of trapping grids: one based on rodent counts and a second based on vegetation variables. We regressed three factors on each ordination: (1) colony (on-colony and off-colony), (2) cover (shortgrass and sandsage), and (3) habitat (factorial cross of colony x cover). Rodent communities differed by colony but not cover. Vegetation differed across both gradients. Rodent responses to habitat reflected those of colony and cover, but vegetation was found to differ across cover only in the sandsage prairie. This interaction suggested that rodent composition responded to prairie dog colonies, but independently of vegetation differences. We conclude that burrowing and soil disturbance are more important than vegetation cropping in structuring rodent communities. PMID:19137937

VanNimwegen, Ron E; Kretzer, Justin; Cully, Jack F

2008-12-01

111

Earthworms, as ecosystem engineers, influence multiple aspects of a salamander's ecology.  

PubMed

Ecosystem engineers create habitat that can be used by other species in multiple ways, such as refugees from predators, places to breed, or areas with increased prey resources. I conducted a series of enclosure experiments to: (1) determine if salamanders use earthworm burrows, and (2) examine the potential influence of earthworm burrow use and indirect effects on salamander intra- and interspecific competition, predator avoidance, and seasonal performance. I found that one species of woodland salamander, Plethodon cinereus, used earthworm burrows 50% of the time when burrows were present. Neither adults nor juveniles of the congeneric P. glutinosus used earthworm burrows. Intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition by P. cinereus affected salamander behavior when earthworms were absent, with P. cinereus found under cover objects >70% of the time when alone or with a P. glutinosus, but only 40% of the time when with another P. cinereus. When earthworms were present, the behavior of P. cinereus was similar across salamander treatments. Earthworms decreased the amount of leaf litter and microinvertebrates, although this did not affect salamander mass. In subsequent experiments using only P. cinereus, the refuge provided by earthworm burrows increased the survival of P. cinereus over the winter and allowed P. cinereus to avoid being consumed by the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Because earthworm burrows provide a refuge for P. cinereus during intraspecific encounters, in the presence of a predator and over the winter, they may serve as an important belowground-aboveground linkage in eastern forests where salamanders are common. PMID:20848134

Ransom, Tami S

2011-03-01

112

Practical Training in Microalgae Utilization with Key Industry Engineering Group Key Industry Engineering Group s.r.o. has developed a biotechnology for the production of an animal  

E-print Network

Engineering Group s.r.o. has developed a biotechnology for the production of an animal feed product based medium which is then applied directly to the animals during feeding. The use of this suspension has shown effective in improving the health and immune system of animals, thus reducing mortality, as well as showing

113

Measuring ecosystem functioning of soil mega-aggregates produced by soil/litter mix-feeding animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some soil animals are soil/litter mix-feeders. They are known to produce long-lasting soil structures (e.g. casts and molting chamber), and these structures will modify resource availability and environmental conditions for plants and soil organisms. Good examples are epigeic Megascolecid earthworms (Uchida et al., 2004) and Xystodesmid millipeds (Toyota et al., 2006), both found in Japan. In this study we examined chemical, physical and biological properties of soil focusing on multi-functioning of aggregates made by these animals. Since 2003, we manipulated densities of epigeic earthworms in a field encloser (35 m2) (three replications) at a cool temperate forest in Japan. At a no-worm (NW) treatment, all the worms have been collected every year by hand. At the same place, we prepared a control treatment in an encloser (Closed control; CC) and outside the encloser (Open control; OC). We examined surface soil and plant growth after 5-years field manipulation of oak dominated forest. Growth of two Liliaceae forest floor herbs; Smilacina japonica and Polygonatum odoratum, and oak (Quercus crispula) seedlings and canopy oak trees were recorded. Reduction of aggregates after elimination of earthworms was observed in a field condition. The manipulation site showed decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, and P concentration and total carbon storage was also reduced. There was a negative significant correlation between casts abundance and soil NH4-N, and a positive significance was observed between casts abundance and growth of S. japonica, and oak seedlings. Radial growth of canopy oak trees was decreased at NW treatment compared to CC and OC. Leaf N contents of oak seedling at NW were significantly lower in NW, but canopy oak trees did not show any difference in leaf-N. Although S. japonica and P. odoratum were both found in a same forest floor, S. japonica is known as nutrient limited plants in spring, whereas P. odoratum is light limited. Oak seedlings are depending early growth on their seed nutrient, and the canopy oak trees seem to be nutrient limited. Thus in this forest, the nutrient condition mediated by earthworm activity was a strong factor influencing plant species-specific growth and this correlation was clear when we used the cast abundance as an independent factor but it was not clear when we used the worm abundance or biomass for explanation variables. In laboratory incubations, fresh casts of earthworm Metaphire hilgendorfi contained higher NH4-N which was mostly nitrified within 4-weeks. The 4-weeks aged casts of the earthworm and millipede Parafontaria laminata emitted significantly more N2O whereas the modified soil had strong CH4 acidification capacity. Therefore the animal effects on greenhouse effect gas should be evaluated for CO2, N2O and CH4 at the same time. We then confirmed that megaaggregates, probably cast origin, tended to contain more carbon than fine soil. Combining our data from various study sites in Japan, the amount of carbon contained in megaaggregates (> 2 mm) in 0-5 cm layer ranged from 200 to 1000 g C per m2. Animal feeding activities maintained substantial amount of surface soil aggregates. Therefore, the activity of soil/litter mix feeders can be linked to the carbon dynamics by evaluating worm's soil engineering effect.

Kaneko, N.

2009-04-01

114

Subantarctic Macquarie Island – a model ecosystem for studying animal-derived nitrogen sources using 15 N natural abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants collected from diverse sites on subantarctic Macquarie Island varied by up to 30‰ in their leaf ?15N values. 15N natural abundance of plants, soils, animal excrement and atmospheric ammonia suggest that the majority of nitrogen utilised\\u000a by plants growing in the vicinity of animal colonies or burrows is animal-derived. Plants growing near scavengers and animal\\u000a higher in the food

Peter D. Erskine; Dana M. Bergstrom; Susanne Schmidt; George R. Stewart; Craig E. Tweedie; Justine D. Shaw

1998-01-01

115

Soil animal responses to moisture availability are largely scale, not ecosystem dependent: insight from a cross-site  

E-print Network

and a polar desert) located in the western United States and Ant- arctica, as well as across a cross result in shifts within soil food webs with impor- tant consequences for ecosystem functioning. We, desert, drought, grassland, mites, nematodes Received 27 October 2013 and accepted 6 December 2013

Wall, Diana

116

Desert Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Desert Ecosystems site describes the geology and climate, plants and animals, and cultural history of the main U.S. desert regions including: the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin, and the Colorado/Sonoran desert. There are also descriptions and photos of water in the desert, coyotes, the desert tortoise, and the creosote bush.

117

The Iron Redox Engine Drives Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron (Fe) is the most abundant redox-active metal on earth and thus is a dominant driver of redox sensitive biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In terrestrial ecosystems, coupled Fe-carbon (C) and Fe-nitrogen (N) cycling directly affect greenhouse gas production through fermentative and respiratory processes, and indirectly affect greenhouse gas dynamics through microbial competition for C and electron donors. Fe-phosphorus (P) cycling influences nutrient availability, particularly in highly weathered Fe-rich soils, and ultimately feeds back on net primary productivity and C storage. Recent research documenting rapid high magnitude fluctuations in soil oxygen and redox potential in upland soils highlights the relevance of Fe biogeochemistry. We review recent research on Fe redox biogeochemical cycling in relation to C, N, and P transformations. A significant amount of C oxidation can result from Fe reduction leading to the production and emission of CO2. In humid tropical forests with rapidly fluctuating redox potential, Fe reduction accounted for up to 44% of soil C oxidation, an amount equivalent to approximately one third of total annual litterfall C inputs to soils. Microorganisms capable of Fe reduction are extremely abundant in these soils (6% of total microbial cells), and likely drive the high rate of Fe associated C oxidation. However, abiotic Fe oxidation may indirectly oxidize C through the production of free radicals. This process has the potential to oxidize complex C molecules, previously thought to be degraded only by microbial enzymes. Iron redox reactions indirectly affect methane (CH4) emissions from soil. Competition for acetate between methanogens and Fe reducers may ultimately decrease the emissions of CH4 from soils. However, laboratory studies in slurries and intact cores suggest that Fe reducers and methanogens may be spatially segregated in soils. Iron directly interacts with N cycling in soils in a number of ways. Iron oxidation can be coupled with NO3- or NO2- reduction resulting in N2, N2O, or NH4+ production. Iron reduction can catalyze NH4+ oxidation to N2, NO2-, or NO3- through a newly described process call Feammox. Nitrite or NO3- produced via Feammox can be subsequently reduced to N2O via denitrification or to NH4+ via dissimilatory reduction. Iron interacts with P cycling through the effects of redox on Fe-P bonds. Evidence suggests that P sorbed to Fe oxides is liberated during Fe reduction, and can re-react with Fe(III) under oxidizing conditions. This results in short pulses of P availability in fluctuating redox environments such as humid, upland soils. Fe-P redox dynamics may facilitate P retention and higher P-use efficiency in high rainfall environments. Our results show that Fe is a key biogeochemical engine in soil systems, particularly under conditions of fluctuating redox. Biogeochemical cycles coupled with Fe result in greenhouse gas production and impact nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. The redox sensitivity of these reactions suggests that they are likely to be particularly responsive to changes in precipitation, temperature, and other drivers of soil water dynamics associated with climate change.

Silver, W. L.; Hall, S. J.; Liptzin, D.; Yang, W. H.

2011-12-01

118

The feasibility of ureteral tissue engineering using autologous veins: an orthotopic animal model with long term results  

PubMed Central

Background In an earlier study we demonstrated the feasibility to create tissue engineered venous scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. In this study we investigated the use of tissue engineered constructs for ureteral replacement in a long term orthotopic minipig model. In many different projects well functional ureretal tissue was established using tissue engineering in animals with short-time follow up (12 weeks). Therefore urothelial cells were harvested from the bladder, cultured, expanded in vitro, labelled with fluorescence and seeded onto the autologous veins, which were harvested from animals during a second surgery. Three days after cell seeding the right ureter was replaced with the cell-seeded matrices in six animals, while further 6 animals received an unseeded vein for ureteral replacement. The animals were sacrificed 12, 24, and 48 weeks after implantation. Gross examination, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), H&E staining, Trichrome Masson’s Staining, and immunohistochemistry with pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, smooth muscle alpha actin, and von Willebrand factor were performed in retrieved specimens. Results The IVP and gross examination demonstrated that no animals with tissue engineered ureters and all animals of the control group presented with hydronephrosis after 12 weeks. In the 24-week group, one tissue engineered and one unseeded vein revealed hydronephrosis. After 48 weeks all tissue engineered animals and none of the control group showed hydronephrosis on the treated side. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed a multilayer of urothelial cells attached to the seeded venous grafts. Conclusions Venous grafts may be a potential source for ureteral reconstruction. The results of so far published ureteral tissue engineering projects reveal data up to 12 weeks after implantation. Even if the animal numbers of this study are small, there is an increasing rate of hydronephrosis revealing failure of ureteral tissue engineering with autologous matrices in time points longer than 3 months after implantation. Further investigations have to prove adequate clinical outcome and appropriate functional long-term results. PMID:25381044

2014-01-01

119

Resource Quantity and Quality Determine the Inter-Specific Associations between Ecosystem Engineers and Resource Users in a Cavity-Nest Web  

PubMed Central

While ecosystem engineering is a widespread structural force of ecological communities, the mechanisms underlying the inter-specific associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users are poorly understood. A proper knowledge of these mechanisms is, however, essential to understand how communities are structured. Previous studies suggest that increasing the quantity of resources provided by ecosystem engineers enhances populations of resource users. In a long-term study (1995-2011), we show that the quality of the resources (i.e. tree cavities) provided by ecosystem engineers is also a key feature that explains the inter-specific associations in a tree cavity-nest web. Red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicusnuchalis) provided the most abundant cavities (52% of cavities, 0.49 cavities/ha). These cavities were less likely to be used than other cavity types by mountain bluebirds (Sialiacurrucoides), but provided numerous nest-sites (41% of nesting cavities) to tree swallows (Tachycinetabicolour). Swallows experienced low reproductive outputs in northern flicker (Colaptesauratus) cavities compared to those in sapsucker cavities (1.1 vs. 2.1 fledglings/nest), but the highly abundant flickers (33% of cavities, 0.25 cavities/ha) provided numerous suitable nest-sites for bluebirds (58%). The relative shortage of cavities supplied by hairy woodpeckers (Picoidesvillosus) and fungal/insect decay (<10% of cavities each, <0.09 cavities/ha) provided fewer breeding opportunities (<15% of nests), but represented high quality nest-sites for both bluebirds and swallows. Because both the quantity and quality of resources supplied by different ecosystem engineers may explain the amount of resources used by each resource user, conservation strategies may require different management actions to be implemented for the key ecosystem engineer of each resource user. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of both resource quantity and quality into models that assess community dynamics to improve conservation actions and our understanding of ecological communities based on ecosystem engineering. PMID:24040324

Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

2013-01-01

120

N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant, confers protection to animals exposed to DEPs from oxidative stress-induced damage to the lung. To study this, male C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with either NACA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline, were exposed to DEPs (15mg/m(3)) or filtered air (1.5-3h/day) for nine consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last exposure. NACA-treated animals exposed to DEP had significant decreases in the number of macrophages and the amount of mucus plug formation in the lungs, as compared to the DEP-only exposed animals. In addition, DEP-exposed animals, pretreated with NACA, also experienced significantly lower oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Further, DEP-induced toxicity in the lungs was reversed in NACA-treated animals, as indicated by the lactate dehydrogenase levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-antioxidant, NACA, can protect the lungs from DEP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress related damage. PMID:19429263

Banerjee, Atrayee; Trueblood, Max B; Zhang, Xinsheng; Manda, Kalyan Reddy; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip D; Hagen, Donald E; Ercal, Nuran

2009-06-22

121

Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers  

PubMed Central

The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem. PMID:25071995

Fournier, Alexa M.; Furman, Bradley T.; Carroll, John M.

2014-01-01

122

Coastal Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) report by the Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) highlights Pacific Ocean coastal ecosystems. The website outlines WERC studies that are providing insight into how coastal ecosystems function. The role of sea otters in coastal environments, white abalone (snail) reintroduction, the effects of invasive plants and animals, urban activity, industrial and agricultural pollutants, San Francisco Bay reclamation, population growth, and migratory birds are all investigated in these studies. Fact sheets about certain areas of research are provided for further information.

123

Ecological Engineering of the City: The Urban Ecosystem. Urban Ecology Series, No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cities of the world are great engineering feats. From the earliest dwellings of man constructed out of the raw materials of the environment, man has used his ingenuity to work engineering wonders that improve the circumstances of human life. By engineering technological skills, human beings have altered the environment to suit varied…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

124

Using Genetically Engineered Animal Models in the Postgenomic Era to Understand Gene Function in Alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044

Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio

2012-01-01

125

Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth. Termite diversity was low - Pseudacanthotermes sp. (33%), Microtermes sp. (24%) and Pseudacanthotermes militaris (22%) were dominant. All three species belong to the family of Macrotermitianae who are feeding on litter, grass and wood from the soil surface. Macrofauna exclusion did not have a significant effect on soil aggregate stability or soil C at any soil depth which might be attributed to the low residue retention and the high spatial variability in termite foraging activity. Maize and soybean yields strongly increased with macrofauna exclusion (P<0.001). This may be explained by the fact that all three identified termite species are major crop pests which cause lodging of maize plans as observed in this experiment. This study underlines the importance of termite functional group for the effect on soil quality and crop productivity in agro-ecosystems. Future research should contribute to develop sustainable termite management strategies that control detrimental species while conserving beneficial soil ecosystem engineers based on ecological knowledge of termite traits.

Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

2014-05-01

126

Assessing health in agriculture - towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.  

PubMed

In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24777948

Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

2015-02-01

127

Stable hydrogen isotopic compositions in plants and animals can provide ecosystem-hydrology connections: Santeelah Creek watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connecting a watershed to its ecosystem can be accomplished with stable isotope tracers of hydrogen and oxygen at the natural abundance level. We have concentrated our study on a watershed with a significant altitudinal gradient in North Carolina. The Santeelah Creek watershed extends from 700 to 1600 m and is host to a robust population of black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens; BTBW), which feed almost exclusively on caterpillars and small insects during their breeding and molting periods in June and July. The forests in this watershed are composed of a rich flora, including Betula, Rhododendron, Acer, Quercus, along with shrubs, ferns, and mosses. The ?D of plants and insects along with creek and spring water samples provided us with background information that we extrapolated to the landscape scale. In addition, we have 13 years of ?D data of feathers collected from over 500 specimens of BTBW that were collected from specific territories throughout the watershed. Variations in ?D of plants within the watershed was not correlated with altitude, however, specific plant species (e.g. Betula vs. ferns) provide a direct link to the within watershed hydrology, because the ?D values of plants are dependent not only on the ?D of source water, but also growth temperature and the amount of evaporative transpiration. The ?D values of BTBW feathers also do not vary with altitude, but vary annually and correlate with the amount of growing season and annual precipitation from the previous year when feathers were grown. While the ?D of avian feathers has become a proven technique for tracing the natal origins of birds, our dataset allows us to delve further into the connections between water-primary producers-consumers-predators that will provide insight into how these analyses are truly linked to the hydrology of their environment.

Fogel, M. L.; Newsome, S.; Graves, G.

2013-12-01

128

Designing an accompanying ecosystem for entrepreneurship students of agronomic and forestry engineering. Opinion and commitment of the faculty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current context has called attention to the need of training engineers with new skills beyond the purely technical. Among others, fostering the entrepreneurial spirit has gained special prominence. In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a 12-year-experience of an entrepreneurship program for undergraduate students concluded that, for an adequate consolidation and evolution of the program, is important to establish a robust network with active participation of all actors involved. With this antecedent, a collective project conceived as an "ecosystem of support and accompaniment for entrepreneurs" is the approach proposed. The objective is to perform an evaluation of this model in terms of viability, usefulness, actions to be taken and degree of commitment. The key actors identified (undergraduate students, faculty, alumni, local and regional entrepreneurs, enterprises, public administration) have been involved in the evaluation process. This study focuses on the academic staff. For that aim, a survey to the entire faculty (N=128, response rate = 45%) and semi-structured interviews to 20 members have been performed. Data have been treated by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. Results suggest that there exists an agreement concerning the appropriateness of a collective project; there is a critical mass of teachers willing to be engaged; guidelines need to be incorporated in order to facilitate taking on tasks; main restrictions concern the existing asymmetry between formal requirements and those necessary for establishing the ecosystem. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This research work has been developed in the framework of the ALFA III programme financed by the European Union.

Ortiz, Leovigilda; Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Lara-Vélez, Pablo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gallardo-Cobos, Rosa; Campillo, M. Carmen; Guerrero-Ginel, José E.

2014-05-01

129

Ecosystem health: I. Measuring ecosystem health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem analysis has been advanced by an improved understanding of how ecosystems are structured and how they function. Ecology has advanced from an emphasis on natural history to consideration of energetics, the relationships and connections between species, hierarchies, and systems theory. Still, we consider ecosystems as entities with a distinctive character and individual characteristics. Ecosystem maintenance and preservation form the objective of impact analysis, hazard evaluation, and other management or regulation activities. In this article we explore an approach to ecosystem analysis which identifies and quantifies factors which define the condition or state of an ecosystem in terms of health criteria. We relate ecosystem health to human/nonhuman animal health and explore the difficulties of defining ecosystem health and suggest criteria which provide a functional definition of state and condition. We suggest that, as has been found in human/nonhuman animal health studies, disease states can be recognized before disease is of clinical magnitude. Example disease states for ecosystems are functionally defined and discussed, together with test systems for their early detection.

Schaeffer, David J.; Herricks, Edwin E.; Kerster, Harold W.

1988-07-01

130

Assessing impacts of ecosystem engineers on community organization: a general approach illustrated by effects of a high-Andean cushion plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Badano, E. I., Jones, C. G., Cavieres, L. A. and Wright, J. P. 2006. Assessing impacts of ecosystem engineers on community organization: a general approach illustrated by effects of a high-Andean cushion plant. ? Oikos 115: 369 ? 385. Comparative and integrative tools are of fundamental value in ecology for understanding outcomes of biological processes, and making generalizations and predictions.

Ernesto I. Badano; Clive G. Jones; Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Justin P. Wright

2006-01-01

131

Will the balance of power shift among native eastern Pacific estuary ecosystem engineers with the introduced bopyrid isopod parasite orthione griffenis?  

EPA Science Inventory

The blue mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis, the bay ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, and eelgrass, Zostera marina are endemic ecosystem engineers that define the ecological structure and function of estuaries along the Pacific coast of the US as significantly as do marshes...

132

Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments often is enhanced even more than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies revealed that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen.

Stief, P.

2013-07-01

133

Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments is enhanced more strongly than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies reveal that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen.

Stief, P.

2013-12-01

134

Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern African elephants affect habitats and ecosystems in significant ways. They push over trees to feed on upper branches and often peel large sections of bark to eat. These destructive habits sometimes transform woody vegetation into grasslands. Systems of elephant trails may be used and re-used for centuries, and create incised features that extend for many kilometers on migration routes. Elephants, digging in search of water or mineral sediments, may remove several cubic meters of sediments in each excavation. Wallowing elephants may remove up to a cubic meter of pond sediments each time they visit water sources. Accumulations of elephant dung on frequented land surfaces may be over 2 kg per square meter. Elephant trampling, digging, and dust-bathing may reverse stratigraphy at archeological localities. This paper summarizes these types of effects on biotic, geomorphic, and paleontological features in modern-day landscapes, and also describes several fossil sites that indicate extinct proboscideans had very similar effects, such as major sediment disturbances.

Haynes, Gary

2012-07-01

135

Agrobacterium-mediated engineering for sheath blight resistance of indica rice cultivars from different ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concise T-DNA element was engineered containing the rice class-I chitinase gene expressed under the control of CaMV35S and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) as a selectable marker. The binary plasmid vector pNO1 with the T-DNA element containing these genes of interest was mobilized\\u000a to Agrobacterium\\u000a \\u000a tumefaciens strain LBA4404 to act as an efficient donor of T-DNA in the transformation

K. Datta; Z. Koukolíková-Nicola; N. Baisakh; N. Oliva; S. K. Datta

2000-01-01

136

Caterpillars benefit from thermal ecosystem engineering by wandering albatrosses on sub-Antarctic Marion Island  

PubMed Central

Wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) nest on Southern Ocean islands, building elevated nests upon which they incubate eggs and raise chicks, and which the chicks occupy through winter. The nests support high invertebrate biomass, including larvae of the flightless moth Pringleophaga marioni. Here we argue that high biomass of P. marioni in the nests is not associated with nutrient loading as previously suspected, but that higher temperatures in the nests increase growth and feeding rate, and decrease deleterious repeated cold exposure, providing fitness advantages for P. marioni. Thus, wandering albatrosses may be serving as thermal engineers, modifying temperature and therefore enabling better resource use by P. marioni. PMID:17148324

Sinclair, Brent J; Chown, Steven L

2005-01-01

137

Design and engineering aspects of a high resolution positron tomograph for small animal imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the Sherbrooke positron emission tomograph, a very high resolution device dedicated to dynamic imaging of small laboratory animals. Its distinctive features are: small discrete scintillation detectors based on avalanche photodiodes (APD) to achieve uniform, isotropic, very high spatial resolution; parallel processing for low deadtime and high count rate capability; multispectral data acquisition hardware to improve sensitivity and scatter correction; modularity to allow design flexibility and upgradability. The system implements the clam-shell'' sampling scheme and a rotating rod transmission source. All acquisition parameters can be adjusted under computer control. Temperature stability at the detector site is ensured by the use of thermoelectric modules. The initial system consists of one layer of 256 modules (two rings of detectors) defining 3 image slices in a 118 mm diameter by 10.5 mm thick field. The axial field can be extended to 50 mm using 4 layers of modules (8 rings of detectors). The design constraints and engineering aspects of an APD-based PET scanner are reviewed and preliminary results are reported.

Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Richard, P.; Rodrique, S.; Rouleau, D. (Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology)

1994-08-01

138

Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.  

PubMed

We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

2014-06-01

139

Dorin, A., "Habitat: Engineering in a Simulated Audible Ecosystem", in M. Giacobini et al. (Eds.): EvoWorkshops, LNCS 5484, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009, pp.488-497  

E-print Network

terminology that encompasses this phenomenon is ecosystem engineering [6]. All organisms are physical and possums or birds in its hollows and branches; its roots trap soil and leaf matter, altering the impact

Dorin, Alan

140

Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man.  

PubMed

There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-?3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including 'growth factor name', 'in vivo', 'model/animal', 'human', and 'bone tissue engineering'. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area. PMID:25284140

Gothard, D; Smith, E L; Kanczler, J M; Rashidi, H; Qutachi, O; Henstock, J; Rotherham, M; El Haj, A; Shakesheff, K M; Oreffo, R O C

2014-01-01

141

Exploring an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based ecosystem called a terraqua column. The column (in a large soda bottle) includes pond water, duckweed, sand or gravel, and small snails. Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an ecosystem. This activity is aligned to National Science Standards (NS.5-8.3 Life Science).

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

142

Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2009-01-01

143

Environmental Benefits and Performance Measures: Defining National Ecosystem Restoration and  

E-print Network

Environmental Benefits and Performance Measures: Defining National Ecosystem Restoration and how of Engineers #12;The Issue The Corps created an ecosystem restoration mission out of congressional authorities ecosystem services enough to reduce national welfare. Implementing projects under that mission requires

US Army Corps of Engineers

144

The Climate Space Concept: Analysis of the Steady State Heat Energy Budget of Animals. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Several modules in the thermodynamic series considered the application of the First Law to…

Stevenson, R. D.

145

ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Human societies derive many essential goods from natural ecosystems, including seafood, game animals, fodder, fuelwood, timber, and pharmaceutical products. These goods represent important and familiar parts of the economy. What has been less appreciated until recently is that natural ecosystems also perform fundamental life-support services without which human civilizations would cease to thrive. These include the purification of air

Gretchen C. Daily; Susan Alexander; Paul R. Ehrlich; Larry Goulder; Jane Lubchenco; Pamela A. Matson; Harold A. Mooney; Sandra Postel; Stephen H. Schneider; David Tilman; George M. Woodwell

1997-01-01

146

Natural Resources, the Environment, and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of teacher guides includes: Ecosystems and Climate, Wildlife - Just One Piece of the Picture, Integrated Pest Management, Soil and Ecosystems, Sustainable Agriculture, and The Web of Life - Understanding Ecosystems. Each guide includes a subject overview, objectives, and student activities. By the end, students should be able to understand the effect of climate on ecosystems; the interrelationships of animals with components of their natural ecosystem; how ecosystems benefit from using an integrated pest management program; soil compaction and its effect on water filtration, plant growth, and seed germination; sustainable agriculture and agroecology; and the concept of ecosystems and interdependence. Spanish translation available.

147

A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

148

Designing an Action Selection Engine for Behavioral Animation of Intelligent Virtual Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a new action selection scheme for behavioral animation in computer graphics. This scheme provides a powerful\\u000a mechanism for the determination of the sequence of actions to be performed by the virtual agents emulating real world’s life.\\u000a In particular, the present contribution focuses on the description of the system architecture and some implementation issues.\\u000a Then, the performance of

Francisco Luengo; Andrés Iglesias

2005-01-01

149

Evaluating Learning and Attitudes on Tissue Engineering: A Study of Children Viewing Animated Digital Dome Shows Detailing the Biomedicine of Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art–science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made them think, 75% enjoyed it, and 89% felt that they learned something. We discuss the potential impact the films might have on public knowledge, health literacy, and attitudes toward the science of tissue engineering. PMID:21943030

Wilson, Anna C.; Gonzalez, Laura L.

2012-01-01

150

Soil fauna, soil properties and geo-ecosystem functioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of soil fauna on soil processes is of utmost importance, as the activity of soil fauna directly affects soil quality. This is expressed by the direct effects of soil fauna on soil physical and soil chemical properties that not only have great importance to food production and ecosystems services, but also on weathering and hydrological and geomorphological processes. Soil animals can be perceived as ecosystem engineers that directly affect the flow of water, sediments and nutrients through terrestrial ecosystems. The biodiversity of animals living in the soil is huge and shows a huge range in size, functions and effects. Most work has been focused on only a few species such as earthworms and termites, but in general the knowledge on the effect of soil biota on soil ecosystem functioning is limited as it is for their impact on processes in the soil and on the soil surface. In this presentation we would like to review some of the impacts of soil fauna on soil properties that have implications for geo-ecosystem functioning and soil formation processes.

Cammeraat, L. H.

2012-04-01

151

Inside Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series of articles featuring the urban ecosystem. Discusses the inner workings of an ecosystem and the links that connect its elements, including the link between people and the environment. Graphics illustrate "layers" of the landscape. (LZ)

Moll, Gary; And Others

1995-01-01

152

Florida Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by FICUS (the Florida Internet Center for Understanding Sustainability) and the University of South Florida, this gem of a site covers Florida's native upland, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Streamlined in organization but solid in content, Florida Ecosystems offers introductory information and photographic images of a dozen ecosystems, ranging from Pine Flatwoods and Dry Prairies to Mangrove Swamps and Coral Reefs. For students and educators interested in subtropical ecosystems, this is a nice place to start.

153

Natural ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

2013-01-01

154

Ecosystem Journalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the organisms in a prairie ecosystem created a newspaper, what would it look like? What important news topics of the ecosystem would the organisms want to discuss? Imaginative and enthusiastic third-grade students were busy pondering these questions as they tried their hands at "ecosystem journalism." The class had recently completed a study of…

Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn

2005-01-01

155

Engineering Guidebook Bioengineering  

E-print Network

Engineering Guidebook 2014-2015 Bioengineering Electrical Environmental Mechanical #12;Harvard SEAS Engineering Guidebook 2 What is engineering? In the simplest terms, engineers provide solutions to the world technologies, to protecting vital ecosystems by controlling pollution. At its core, engineering

Chen, Yiling

156

Impact of elevated levels of CO2 on animal mediated ecosystem function: the modification of sediment nutrient fluxes by burrowing urchins.  

PubMed

A mesocosm experiment was conducted to quantify the relationships between the presence and body size of two burrowing heart urchins (Brissopsis lyrifera and Echinocardium cordatum) and rates of sediment nutrient flux. Furthermore, the impact of seawater acidification on these relationships was determined during this 40-day exposure experiment. Using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, seawater was acidified to pHNBS 7.6, 7.2 or 6.8. Control treatments were maintained in natural seawater (pH?8.0). Under normocapnic conditions, burrowing urchins were seen to reduce the sediment uptake of nitrite or nitrate whilst enhancing the release of silicate and phosphate. In acidified (hypercapnic) treatments, the biological control of biogeochemical cycles by urchins was significantly affected, probably through the combined impacts of high CO2 on nitrifying bacteria, benthic algae and urchin behaviour. This study highlights the importance of considering biological interactions when predicting the consequences of seawater acidification on ecosystem function. PMID:23218873

Widdicombe, S; Beesley, A; Berge, J A; Dashfield, S L; McNeill, C L; Needham, H R; Øxnevad, S

2013-08-30

157

Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a freshwater ecosystem in a large plastic bottle. Learners cut and prepare bottles, then fill with water, aquatic plants, snails and fish. Learners observe their mini-ecosystem over time to see what changes--such as the color of the water, the water temperature, plant growth, and behavior and/or population of the snails or fish. The activity serves as a model for larger freshwater ecosystems such as ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, reservoirs and groundwater.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

158

Sea Ice Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

Arrigo, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

159

AnimAl BehAvior AnimAl Biology Anthropology AviAn ScienceS BiochemiStry, moleculAr, cellulAr AnD DevelopmentAl Biology BiologicAl SyStemS engineering BiomeDicAl engineering BiophySicS BioStAtiSticS clinicAl reSeArch  

E-print Network

AnimAl BehAvior § AnimAl Biology § Anthropology § AviAn ScienceS § BiochemiStry, moleculAr, cellulAnAgement* § epiDemiology § FooD Science § ForenSic Science § gloBAl heAlth* § heAlth inFormAticS § immunology, anthropology, ecology, entomology, neurobiology, psychology, physiology, veterinary science, wildlife biology

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

160

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

161

Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important ecosystem engineering activities are still performed. However, bioturbation may be reduced as crab biomass and body size were smaller in the gaps. Follow-up assessments and field experiments are needed to understand the crabs' role in processing the woody debris, their long-term community dynamics and possible feed-backs between species shifts and gap regeneration.

Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

2013-11-01

162

ECOSYSTEM HEALTH: ENERGY INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

1. Ecosystem Health and Ecological Integrity 2. Historical Background on Ecosystem Health 3. Energy Systems Analysis, Health and Emergy 4. Energy and Ecosystems 5. Direct Measures of Ecosystem Health 6. Indirect Measures of Ecosystem Health...

163

Arctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite seemingly inhospitable conditions, the Arctic environment has a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the life that thrives in this region in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

2008-01-17

164

Antarctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In contrast with its largely lifeless interior, the Antarctic coastal marine environment supports a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the region's living bounty in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

2008-01-17

165

Ecosystem Valuation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as a collaborative project of the US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA-Sea Grant Office, and University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, this new Website examines how economists attempt to assign values to ecosystem services. The site is well organized and outlines general and specific topics under the following sections: The Big Picture, Essentials of Ecosystem Valuation, Dollar-based Ecosystem Valuation Methods, Ecosystem Benefit Indicators, and Links. Topics are explained in terms that laypersons will understand (a glossary is also provided) but without compromising the quality of information. Anyone interested in learning more about this controversial but increasingly important area will find this site an excellent starting point.

166

Ecosystem Journalism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third-grade students display their understanding of life science concepts by creating an imaginative newspaper. This creative writing project engages students in researching, writing, and editing a newspaper based on a prairie ecosystem.

Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn

2005-11-01

167

Digital Ecosystems: Ecosystem-Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We view Digital Ecosystems to be the digital counterparts of biological ecosystems. Here, we are concerned with the creation\\u000a of these Digital Ecosystems, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems to evolve high-level software\\u000a applications. Therefore, we created the Digital Ecosystem, a novel optimisation technique inspired by biological ecosystems,\\u000a where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration

Gerard Briscoe; Suzanne Sadedin; Philippe De Wilde

2011-01-01

168

The Ecosystem Functions Model: A Tool for Restoration Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The Ecosystem Functions Model (EFM) is a planning tool that analyzes ecosystem response to changes in flow regime. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) is developing the EFM and envisions environmental planners, biologists, and engineers using the model to help determine whether proposed alternatives (e.g., reservoir operations or levee alignments) would maintain, enhance, or diminish

John T. Hickey; Chris N. Dunn

169

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical processes at the ecosystem level influence plant productivity, soil fertility, water quality, atmospheric chemistry, and many other local and global environmental conditions that ultimately affect human welfare. These ecosystem processes are controlled by both the diversity and identity of the plant, animal, and microbial species living within a community. Human modifications to the living community in an ecosystem ñ

Shahid Naeem; F. S. Chapin III; Robert Costanza; Paul R. Ehrlich; Frank B. Golley; David U. Hooper; J. H. Lawton; Robert V. OíNeill; Harold A. Mooney; Osvaldo E. Sala; Amy J. Symstad; David Tilman

1999-01-01

170

Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

1 Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Six Projects Authorized by Section 7006(e for Peer Review, released December 16, 2004. The Report of the Chief of Engineers for ecosystem restoration for the Louisiana Coastal Area, dated January 31, 2005, (hereinafter referred to as the "restoration plan

US Army Corps of Engineers

171

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

172

Impacts of Climate Change Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents one of three animated films for schoolchildren, commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. An emotive and visual animation conveys the effects climate change will have on marine ecosystems and suggests ways to minimize our impact.

2010-01-01

173

Carcinogenicity studies of diesel engine exhausts in laboratory animals: a review of past studies and a discussion of future research needs.  

PubMed

Diesel engines play a vital role in world economy, especially in transportation. Exhaust from traditional diesel engines using high-sulfur fuel contains high concentrations of respirable carbonaceous particles with absorbed organic compounds. Recognition that some of these compounds are mutagenic has raised concern for the cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust exposure. Extensive research addressing this issue has been conducted during the last three decades. This critical review is offered to facilitate an updated assessment of the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust and to provide a rationale for future animal research of new diesel technology. Life-span bioassays in rats, mice, and Syrian hamsters demonstrated that chronic inhalation of high concentrations of diesel exhaust caused lung tumors in rats but not in mice or Syrian hamsters. In 1989, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) characterized the rat findings as "sufficient evidence of animal carcinogenicity," and, with "limited" evidence from epidemiological studies, classified diesel exhaust Category 2A, a "probable human carcinogen." Subsequent research has shown that similar chronic high concentration exposure to particulate matter generally considered innocuous (such as carbon black and titanium dioxide) also caused lung tumors in rats. Thus, in 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that the findings in the rats should not be used to characterize the cancer hazard or quantify the cancer risk of diesel exhaust. Concurrent with the conduct of the health effects studies, progressively more stringent standards have been promulgated for diesel exhaust particles and NOx. Engine manufacturers have responded with new technology diesel (improved engines, fuel injection, fuels, lubricants, and exhaust treatments) to meet the standards. This review concludes with an outline of research to evaluate the health effects of the new technology, research that is consistent with recommendations included in the U.S. EPA 2002 health assessment document. When this research has been completed, it will be appropriate for IARC to evaluate the potential cancer hazard of the new technology diesel. PMID:16097136

Hesterberg, Thomas W; Bunn, William B; McClellan, Roger O; Hart, Georgia A; Lapin, Charles A

2005-06-01

174

Animal models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

2012-01-01

175

468 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, VOL. 56, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 The Effects of Moving Animation on Recall, Hedonic  

E-print Network

, College of Business, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (e-mail: kkykuan@cityu.edu.hk). K Kong University of Science and Technol- ogy, Kowloon, Hong Kong (e-mail: klhui@ust.hk). N. Liu downloads. The development costs of animated Web sites are considerably higher too compared with static Web

Hui, Kai-Lung

176

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

177

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

178

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

2012-06-26

179

Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

Peters, E.C. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Richmond, R.H. [Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam). Marine Lab.; Power, E.A. [EVS Environment Consultants, Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1997-01-01

180

PRELIMINARY TESTING, EVALUATION, AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR THE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents an initial testing and sensitivity analysis of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Exposure Assessment Model (TEEAM). TEEAM calculates the exposure concentrations of contaminants in plants and animals in terrestrial ecosystems. he project was performed in two phases. ...

181

Pleistocene Extinctions: The Death of an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The materials at this site discuss the interconnectedness of ecosystems including animals, vegetation and climate, and the impact of extinctions on human perception. The site includes: the End of Eden, a brief description of the extinction model results; the Case of the Aboricidal Megaherbivores, a detective story with Skylark Holmes and Dr. Janet Watson; The ecosystem extinctions model which you can get and run yourself; and the model's implications, including the invention of war and the rise of information technology.

Whitney-Smith, Elin

182

Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions. PMID:22677798

Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

2012-10-01

183

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior to animators. We propose a framework for achieving the intricacy of animal motion and behavior evident, and behavior of individual animals, as well as the patterns of social behavior evident in groups of animals

Toronto, University of

184

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

Ns&feature=player_embedded#at=74 Animal cognition? Does the dog know what she is talking about? Video #12;Imitation in quail Demonstrator Observer Pecking Stepping Akins & Zentall, 1996, J Comp Psychol, 110, 316-320. #12;Imitation in quail: Results #12;http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/susan_savage_rumbaugh_on_apes_that_write

Cooper, Brenton G.

185

Animism inside Japanese animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animism and the Nature-friendly ideology are something like the air that exists naturally for the Japanese. The common values such as a sacredness of the Nature and the sweetness of the Nature for human beings also work as important themes in today\\

Hayao Miyazaki; Mikyung Bak

186

Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan taiga  

SciTech Connect

This volume in the series ''Ecological Studies'' provides an overview and synthesis of research on the structure and function of taiga forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. The first section discusses the nature of the taiga environment and covers climate, forest ecosystem distribution, natural regeneration of vegetation, and the role of fire. The second edition focuses on environmental controls over organism activity with discussions on growth and nutrient use, nitrogen fixation, physiological ecology of mosses, and microbial activity and element availability. The final section considers environmental controls over ecosystem processes with discussions of processes, plant-animal interactions, and a model of forest growth and yield.

Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F.S. III; Flanagan, P.W.; Viereck, L.A.

1986-01-01

187

Biology is the study of life. Its scope ranges from the molecular to the ecosystem. It deals with fundamental questions such as the origin and evolution of plants and animals, interactions  

E-print Network

Biology is the study of life. Its scope ranges from the molecular to the ecosystem. It deals diseases, and the operation of the brain and the nervous system. The study of Biology has major practical. The programs in Biology provide students with an introduction to the broad spectrum of Biological Sciences

Barthelat, Francois

188

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

189

Internet Geography: Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site about ecosystems and biomes contains a map of different ecosystems, and provides rainfall statistics for each biome. There are sections on tropical rainforest, taiga (or boreal forest), savanna, desert, and tundra ecosystems. Each section describes the biome and its origins, where it is found, and how humans impact it. In some cases, sustainable development of the ecosystem is explained.

190

Ecosystem element cycling Introduction  

E-print Network

Ecosystem element cycling Introduction An ecosystem consists of all the biological organisms and the physical environments they occupy together within a defined area [1]. The actual boundaries of an ecosystem are generally defined by researchers studying the ecosystem, who are usually interested in understanding

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

191

Health Effects of Exposure to Diesel Engine Emissions: A Summary of Animal Studies Conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health Effects Research Laboratories at Cincinnati, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the potentially harmful effects of diesel engine emissions, inhalation exposure studies were carried out using a variety of animal species and strains, and measuring a wide range of toxicological parameters. Exhaust was provided by a 6 cylinder Nissan diesel engine operated 20 hours\\/day, 7 days\\/week, during a 2 month preliminary trial and 8 hours\\/day, 7 days\\/week

W. E. Pepelko; W. B. Peirano

1983-01-01

192

Consideration of Ecosystem for ICME  

SciTech Connect

As the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) emerges as a hot topic, computation, experimentation, and digital database are identified as its three major components. Efforts are being actively made from various aspects to bring ICME to reality. However, many factors that would affect ICEM development still remain vague. This paper is an attempt to discuss the needs for establishing a database centered ecosystem to facilitate ICEM development.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL

2013-01-01

193

The State of Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has illustrated that human actions have significantly transformed many of Earths ecosystems. The main findings describe how: humans changed ecosystems dramatically over the past 50 years, changes to ecosystem services may get worse in the next 50 years, global action at all levels can reverse the degradation, and how ecosystem degradation increases risks of sudden changes and reduces benefits for future generations.

ChristiÃÂán Samper (National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution;)

2005-08-01

194

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

195

Ecohydrology of Water-controlled Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing the connections between the hydrologic cycle and plant ecosystems, the authors build suitable mathematical models and apply them to studying the ecosystem structure. Response to rainfall and climate forcing is analyzed from different areas of the world, including savannas, grasslands and forests. The book will appeal to advanced students and researchers in environmental science, hydrology, ecology, earth science, civil and environmental engineering, agriculture, and atmospheric science.

Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Porporato, Amilcare

2005-01-01

196

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 320. (ART 320) (FST 320) Computer Animation (3) Prerequisite: CSC 220 (ART 220) (FST 220) or permission of instructor. Basic principles of animation using 3-D computer-generated animation and basic processes for animating synthetic objects through structured exercises. Principles of designing and producing 3-D computer-generated animation through the creation of advanced motion studies. Projects focus on developing higher-level skills in model building, animation and color, and lighting.

Patterson, Eric

2003-04-21

197

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

198

Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australiamangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia  

E-print Network

in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australiamangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia²² J. Kirby, W. Maher*, A measured in the sediments, vegetation and tissues of marine animals from a temperate mangrove ecosystem with mangrove fine roots had relatively higher arsenic concentrations (12 � 3 mg g�1 ) than mangrove leaves

Canberra, University of

199

PERSISTENCE OF A SURROGATE FOR A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CELLULOLYTIC MICROORGANISM AND EFFECTS ON AQUATIC COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM PROPERTIES: MICROCOSM AND STREAM COMPARISONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research objectives were to: (1) determine the persistence of an introduced surrogate (Cellulomonas sp NRC 2406) for a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) in three streamlined habitats; sediments, growths of Cladophora (Chlorophyta), and leaf packs, (2) test ommunity a...

200

ACID PRECIPITATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Man-induced change in the chemical climate of the earth has increased. Recent research has demonstrated that atmospheric deposition contains both beneficial nutrients and injurious substances; plants, animals, and ecosystems vary greatly in susceptibility; injury is most likely w...

201

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

202

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

203

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

204

Properties of ecosystems that are vulnerable during eco-fusion  

PubMed Central

When two ecosystems with separate evolutionary histories come into contact (eco-fusion), reciprocal invasions occur during their fusion. Asymmetries in the migration direction or extinction rate then occur (e.g., during the Great American Biotic Interchange, GABI). Hypotheses have been proposed to describe this process, but the ecosystem properties have not been adequately discussed. To identify the ecosystem properties that create vulnerability to species loss during eco-fusion, we conducted computer simulations of the fusion of ecosystems with independent evolutionary histories. With asymmetrical species extinction rates, the ecosystem with a higher extinction rate had a shorter food chain, a higher ratio of animal species to plant species, and a lower ratio of carnivores to herbivores. Most ecosystems that have undergone isolated evolution are vulnerable. These results may explain the vulnerability of South America's ecosystem during the GABI and that of modern Australia. PMID:25631294

Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Tokita, Kei

2015-01-01

205

Properties of ecosystems that are vulnerable during eco-fusion.  

PubMed

When two ecosystems with separate evolutionary histories come into contact (eco-fusion), reciprocal invasions occur during their fusion. Asymmetries in the migration direction or extinction rate then occur (e.g., during the Great American Biotic Interchange, GABI). Hypotheses have been proposed to describe this process, but the ecosystem properties have not been adequately discussed. To identify the ecosystem properties that create vulnerability to species loss during eco-fusion, we conducted computer simulations of the fusion of ecosystems with independent evolutionary histories. With asymmetrical species extinction rates, the ecosystem with a higher extinction rate had a shorter food chain, a higher ratio of animal species to plant species, and a lower ratio of carnivores to herbivores. Most ecosystems that have undergone isolated evolution are vulnerable. These results may explain the vulnerability of South America's ecosystem during the GABI and that of modern Australia. PMID:25631294

Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Tokita, Kei

2015-01-01

206

Creating Animation for Presentations  

E-print Network

Creating Animation for Presentations by Douglas Zongker Chair of Supervisory Committee: Professor David H. Salesin Computer Science & Engineering In recent years the use of computer-generated slides to accompany live presentation has become increasingly common. There is a potential for using computer graphics to increase the effectiveness of this type of presentation. The hardware for generating and projecting complex scenes and animation is in place, yet few efforts have been made in creating software to fully utilize these capabilities.

Douglas Zongker; Douglas Zongker; Maneesh Agrawala; Brian Curless; David H. Salesin; David H. Salesin; Professor David; H. Salesin

2003-01-01

207

Anime perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional hand-drawn animation, the perspective view is not geometrically correct, unlike 3DCG. However, this perspective, which we may call anime perspective, is more natural for human eyes, especially for children. In this article, we present two anime perspective projection methods for seamlessly merging 3D models and traditional 2D animation. One is a view dependent deformer, Anime-Pers deformer, which offers

Yosuke Katsura; Ken Anjyo

2007-01-01

208

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What animals abandon their offspring? Find out this and more as you explore reproduction in the animal world. Did you know that all animals must reproduce to survive? In this project you will be learning some interesting facts about reproduction in animals. After you have some background information you will have a chance to select 3 animals and complete a chart on reproduction. TASK: Day 1 ...

Mrs. Joggerst

2008-03-30

209

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

210

Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services. PMID:25599106

Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

2015-02-17

211

Lightning safety of animals.  

PubMed

This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

Gomes, Chandima

2012-11-01

212

Ecosystem Services Ecosystem Function and the Ecosystem Approach   

E-print Network

This project focused on mapping the delivery of three ecosystems services each in one case study area in Scotland and then identify how the Scottish policies such as woodland expansion biodiversity, conservation and food production affect the land...

Vallianou, Koralia

2013-11-28

213

Populations and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this particular publications, students will explores topics such as different types of ecosystems, biological indicators, streams and life within them, micro ecosystems, terrestrial ecosystems, issues in ecology, and ecological footprints.

Lefever, Mary

2007-09-01

214

Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference 'HILQLQJ6XFFHVV Naples Beach a Committee of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force and Working Group #12;Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference Page ii #12;December 11-15, 2000 z Naples, Florida Page

Watson, Craig A.

215

I Spy an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We hear the word ecosystems in the news and at school but just what are ecosystems? It turns out there are lots of ecosystems. You might even learn you have some inside you! Also in: Français | Español

Biology

2009-09-22

216

Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

1997-01-01

217

Ecosystem Health: Energy Indicators.  

EPA Science Inventory

Just as for human beings health is a concept that applies to the condition of the whole organism, the health of an ecosystem refers to the condition of the ecosystem as a whole. For this reason, the study and characterization of ecosystems is fundamental to establishing accurate ...

218

Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration Program: The Role of Ecosystem Forecasting in Evaluating Restoration Planning in the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of ecosystem management plans to restore and rehabilitate natural resources requires an understanding of how specific ecological mechanisms regu- late the structure and function of ecosystems. To achieve restoration goals, comprehensive plans and engineering designs must effectively change environmental drivers at the regional level to reduce stress conditions at the local environment that are responsible for ecosystem degradation.

R obe R

219

Trying to fit in: are patterns of orientation of a keystone grazer set by behavioural responses to ecosystem engineers or wave action?  

PubMed

The distribution of animals varies at different temporal and spatial scales. At the smallest scale, distribution may be orientated in regard to particular environmental variables or habitat features. For animals on the rocky intertidal, the processes which set and maintain patterns of distribution and abundance in wave-exposed areas are well studied, with explanatory models focused on wave action and, more recently, the role of biogenic habitats. In contrast, patterns of orientation by intertidal animals have received less attention, although having ecological and fitness consequences. Here, we report tests of competing models to explain the observation that limpets on steeply sloped surfaces orientate downwards. A greater proportion of downwards-facing limpets was found in sheltered sites and areas without barnacles and this pattern was consistent across many shores and sampling occasions. Additionally, the frequency at which limpets were dislodged after a storm was independent of orientation. To test whether orientation is a behavioural response to habitat-forming barnacles, barnacles were removed and/or killed from patches of substrata and the change in proportion of downwards-facing limpets measured. The proportion increased with barnacle removal and this behaviour was a response to the structure of the barnacles, not a biotic effect associated with the living organism. Our study suggests that biogenic habitat not wave action sets patterns of limpet orientation and barnacle shells, regardless of whether the barnacle is alive or not, limit the ability of limpets to adopt a downward orientation. PMID:23996227

Fraser, Clarissa M L; Coleman, Ross A; Seebacher, Frank

2014-01-01

220

Ecosystem Investments for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: Development of a Portfolio Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides background for discussion on prioritizing ecosystem investments in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Ecosystem investments involve the allocation and expenditure of financial resources, land, and water to improve ecosystem attributes, principally to support desirable plant and animal species. A framework using ten ecological criteria is provided for organizing these investments into a portfolio (or into regional portfolios) that

Phillip Sandstrom; Jay R. Lund; Peter B. Moyle; William A. Bennett; Jeffrey F. Mount

2010-01-01

221

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

222

Farm Animals  

MedlinePLUS

... Animals Share Compartir Farm animals including cows, sheep, pigs, chickens and goats, can pass diseases to people. ... failure due to E. coli O157:H7 infection. Pigs can carry the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica (yer-SIN- ...

223

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

224

Quadruped Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation

Ljiljana Skrba; Lionel Reveret; Franck Hétroy; Marie-Paule Cani; Carol O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

225

Animal Scent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

2012-05-09

226

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Dr. Paul McGreevey

2010-01-01

227

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Beardsley, Ms.

2011-10-26

228

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

229

AGATE animation - business theme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

1998-01-01

230

Mercury in the ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological ecosystem are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.

Mitra, S.

1986-01-01

231

A Toolkit for Algorithm Animation John Morris  

E-print Network

A Toolkit for Algorithm Animation John Morris School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering for rapidly constructing algorithm animations. It differs from other approaches in that the animations controlling the animations to fully understand the process being visualized was also undertaken: this has led

Goodman, James R.

232

Comparison of Drug and Cell-Based Delivery: Engineered Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II Prevent Arthritis in Mouse and Rat Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNF? and blocks TNF?-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNF?-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNF?-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNF? generated from either implanted TNF?-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNF?, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1?, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNF? complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNF? and IL1?, but not interferon ?, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation within the arthritic joint. PMID:23592838

Liu, Linda N.; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe

2013-01-01

233

Comparison of drug and cell-based delivery: engineered adult mesenchymal stem cells expressing soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II prevent arthritis in mouse and rat animal models.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNF? and blocks TNF?-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNF?-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNF?-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNF? generated from either implanted TNF?-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNF?, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1?, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNF? complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNF? and IL1?, but not interferon ?, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation within the arthritic joint. PMID:23592838

Liu, Linda N; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe; Mosca, Joseph D

2013-05-01

234

Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

2005-01-01

235

Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet.This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating the best of the internet to supportscience learning and technology instruction. For this third-grade class, that means learning about living things and how they exist and depend on each other, from food webs to human impact on ecosystems--while also mastering skills to do online research and create multimedia presentations.

Lois Leveen

2007-09-01

236

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

Maroncelli, Mark

237

CalPhotos: Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California-Berkeley Digital Library Project (first mentioned in the April 16, 1999 Scout Report), this CalPhotos website connects visitors to 17,812 images of different animals. Site visitors can locate animal photographs using a search engine with free text fields for Scientific or Common name, Location, and Picture's ID, and drop-down menu fields for Photographer, Country, US State, Collection, and more. Visitors can also peruse extensive, hyperlinked listings of animals grouped under the following categories: Amphibians, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Mammals, and Reptiles. Animals are listed by both common and scientific name. The photographs come from a variety of sources, and are accompanied by usage guidelines. CalPhotos collections are also available for Fungi, Plants, People & Culture, and Landscapes & Habitats.

238

Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Ecosystem  

E-print Network

Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Mississippi River ­ Gulf Outlet Ecosystem Prepared for Department of the Army U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Ecosystem Restoration Planning Center Independent External Peer Review Report for the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Ecosystem Restoration Plan

US Army Corps of Engineers

239

Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Navigation and Ecosystem  

E-print Network

Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Navigation and Ecosystem Sustainability by Battelle Memorial Institute Prepared for Department of the Army U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Ecosystem Independent External Peer Review Report Navigation and Ecosystem Sustainability Program, Project P2, Lock

US Army Corps of Engineers

240

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

John Kyrk

241

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

242

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

243

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

244

Animal Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses challenges and practical approaches to animal fMRI with respect to anesthetic regimens, conscious animal\\u000a studies, activation paradigms, optimal pulse sequence selection, and the rigor required for drug discovery applications. Examples\\u000a on the use of animal fMRI to support drug discovery are presented. The examples illustrate (1) technical development and qualification\\u000a of a quantitative assay for pain, (2)

Donald Williams; Alexandre Coimbra; Fuqiang Zhao

245

Ecosystem Services - Water Purification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy ecosystems by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how ecosystems remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once ecosystems are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-30

246

Physics Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you would like a taste of classical mechanics in an animated form, this website is right up your alley. This site from the physics department at the University of Toronto offers up over 100 helpful animations that cover quantum mechanics, vectors, waves, relativity, and optics. Visitors can scroll through the topical headings to look for items of interest and should note the entire website is searchable as well. There are some great topical animations here, such as one on fluid mechanics that involves a theoretical dropping of a ball from the CN Tower in Toronto. Animations have also been translated into Catalan, Spanish, and Basque.

247

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animal’s reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

248

Animal cytomegaloviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

Staczek, J

1990-01-01

249

Animal Omnibus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with children in mind, the Animal Omnibus site is "a list of web sources indexed by the name of the animal." Users search by animal name to get returns in the form of hyperlinked resource lists. The resource lists contain sites ranging from simple color photographs of individual species to sites steeped in scientific classification to publicly targeted zoo sites. Animal Omnibus may also be browsed by generic name within each taxonomic category (amphibians, arthropods, birds, dinosaurs, fish, mammals, mollusks, and reptiles). Although depth of content varies widely, this unique and diverse collection of information types is at once unpredictable and refreshing.

250

Biodomes Engineering Design Project: Lessons 2-6  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-day activity, students explore environments, ecosystems, energy flow and organism interactions by creating a scale model biodome, following the steps of the engineering design process. The Procedure section provides activity instructions for Biodomes unit, lessons 2-6, as students work through Parts 1-6 to develop their model biodome. Subjects include energy flow and food chains, basic needs of plants and animals, and the importance of decomposers. Students consider why a solid understanding of one's environment and the interdependence of an ecosystem can inform the choices we make and the way we engineer our own communities. This activity can be conducted as either a very structured or open-ended design.

2014-09-18

251

Living Things: Habitats & Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Text and photographs regarding habitats, populations and communities, biomes, niches and ecosystems in general with numerous links to lessons, activities, and organizations on specific subtopics in ecology.

2009-01-01

252

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

253

124I-Labeled Engineered Anti-CEA Minibodies and Diabodies Allow High-Contrast, Antigen-Specific Small-Animal PET Imaging of Xenografts in Athymic Mice  

PubMed Central

Prolonged clearance kinetics have hampered the development of intact antibodies as imaging agents, despite their ability to effectively deliver radionuclides to tumor targets in vivo. Genetically engineered antibody fragments display rapid, high-level tumor uptake coupled with rapid clearance from the circulation in the athymic mouse/LS174T xenograft model. The anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) T84.66 minibody (single-chain Fv fragment [scFv]-CH3 dimer, 80 kDa) and T84.66 diabody (non-covalent dimer of scFv, 55 kDa) exhibit pharmacokinetics favorable for radioimmunoimaging. The present work evaluated the minibody or diabody labeled with 124I, for imaging tumor-bearing mice using a high-resolution small-animal PET system. Methods Labeling was conducted with 0.2–0.3 mg of protein and 65–98 MBq (1.7–2.6 mCi) of 124I using an iodination reagent. Radiolabeling efficiencies ranged from 33% to 88%, and immunoreactivity was 42% (diabody) or >90% (minibody). In vivo distribution was evaluated in athymic mice bearing paired LS174T human colon carcinoma (CEA-positive) and C6 rat glioma (CEA-negative) xenografts. Mice were injected via the tail vein with 1.9–3.1 MBq (53–85 ?Ci) of 124I-minibody or with 3.1 MBq (85 ?Ci) of 124I-diabody and imaged at 4 and 18 h by PET. Some mice were also imaged using 18F-FDG 2 d before imaging with 124I-minibody. Results PET images using 124I-labeled mini-body or diabody showed specific localization to the CEA-positive xenografts and relatively low activity elsewhere in the mice, particularly by 18 h. Target-to-background ratios for the LS174T tumors versus soft tissues using 124I-minibody were 3.05 at 4 h and 11.03 at 18 h. Similar values were obtained for the 124I-diabody (3.95 at 4 h and 10.93 at 18 h). These results were confirmed by direct counting of tissues after the final imaging. Marked reduction of normal tissue activity, especially in the abdominal region, resulted in high-contrast images at 18 h for the 124I-anti-CEA diabody. CEA-positive tumors as small as 11 mg (<3 mm in diameter) could be imaged, and 124I-anti-CEA minibodies, compared with 18F-FDG, demonstrated highly specific localization. Conclusion 124I labeling of engineered antibody fragments provides a promising new class of tumor-specific probes for PET imaging of tumors and metastases. PMID:14660722

Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Yazaki, Paul J.; Shively, John E.; Finn, Ronald D.; Larson, Steven M.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Wu, Anna M.

2014-01-01

254

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

255

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

256

Kindergarten Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

Hinshaw, Craig

2012-01-01

257

``Animal Intelligence''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review of my monograph on ``Animal Intelligence,'' in a recent number of NATURE, Mr. Lloyd Morgan credits me with upholding the theory that we have sensations caused by outgoing currents which innervate muscles, and with depending on that theory in some of my own statements about the nature of animals' consciousness. A careless and ambiguous sentence of mine

Edward L. Thorndike

1898-01-01

258

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by AntÃÂónio CidadÃÂão.

259

Water Basins Civil Engineering  

E-print Network

Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

Provancher, William

260

The Library as Ecosystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, and the academic library could be considered to be an ecosystem, i.e., a "biological organization" in which multiple species must interact, both with one another and with their environment. The metaphor of the library as ecosystem is flexible enough to be applied not…

Walter, Scott

2008-01-01

261

Ecosystems, Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Ecosystems," the sixth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems. They make use of scientific and…

California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

262

What Is Ecosystem Management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolving concept of ecosystem management is the focus of much current debate. To clarify discussion and provide a frammork for implementatiotq I trace the histor- ical development of ecosystem management, provide a working definitioq and summarize dominant themes taken from an extensive literature reuiew. The general goal of maintaining ecological integ?Yty is discussed along with five specific goals: maintaining

R. Edward Grumbine

1994-01-01

263

Graduate studies Ecosystem Science  

E-print Network

Graduate studies in Ecosystem Science and Management Ph.D. M.S. M.Agr. or Natural Resources Development MNRD Department of Ecosystem Science and Management College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. The thesisbased Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees are designed for research or academic careers

264

Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange David M. Blersch dblersch Shade of Blue and You 21 September 2010 #12;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange UB's ERIE Program www

Sachs, Frederick

265

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

266

Comparing Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you complete this WebQuest I would like you to think about the story that you are going to be writing. You may choose to write a true animal story. This would be like the news article about the cat and the dog that we read in class. Or you may chose to write a pretend story about a pretend animal. This will be like the folktale we read about the frogs finding their music. Look for ideas and stories that you may want to write your story on. It is okay to change your mind, but you must write a story about an animal. Webquest Introduction: Think about something that you may want to write your story about. Ask yourself: -Do I want to write a true story? -Do I want to write a pretend story? -What kinds of animals ...

Ms. Broadhead

2007-12-05

267

Animal Bytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browsable database is designed to help learners quickly find information about some of the creatures found in the animal kingdom. Most species' records include scientific classification, basic physical traits, fun facts, and conservation/ecological value.

2012-01-01

268

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

269

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

270

Animate Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".

271

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING frequently observed in your columns accounts of remarkable instances of reasoning power in animals, I am tempted to send you the following notes, which may perhaps be not without interest to the readers of NATURE.

R. J. Harvey Gibson

1884-01-01

272

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

273

Small Animal Bone Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal bone and investigate the effects of aging, therapeutic treatments, disease, and genetic variation. In contrast to traditional strength tests on small animal bones, fracture mechanics tests display smaller variation and therefore offer the possibility of reducing sample sizes. This article provides an analysis of what such tests measure and proposes methods to reduce errors associated with testing smaller than ideal specimens. PMID:18672104

Vashishth, Deepak

2008-01-01

274

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

275

Journal of Animal Ecology 2008, 77, 275284 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2007.01336.x 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation 2007 British Ecological Society  

E-print Network

communities, we examined how an eco- system engineer, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, influences seasonal-words: bioturbation, ecosystem engineer, marine-derived nutrients, Oncorhynchus nerka, succession. Introduction

276

Is Net Ecosystem Production Equal to Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation?  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Is Net Ecosystem Production Equal to Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation? Gary M. Lovett,* Jonathan J. Cole, and Michael L. Pace Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545, USA ABSTRACT Net ecosystem production (NEP), defined as the difference between gross primary production

Pace, Michael L.

277

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

278

"Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction  

E-print Network

"Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: Is conservation the answer?" Paul van Centre The University of Edinburgh #12;Our Millennium Challenges? #12;"An ecosystem is a dynamic complex unit." "Ecosystem services are the benefits people receive from ecosystems" (Millennium Ecosystem

279

Lakes Ecosystem Services Online  

EPA Science Inventory

Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

280

Analyzing an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the University of Alberta, identify the living and nonliving things in an ecosystem. Then look further at the living things to identify the producers, the consumers, and examples of mimicry.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

281

Light Pollution and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artificial light at night acts as a pollutant, with significant and adverse impacts to ecosystems. It can, for example, cause disorientation or act as an unnatural stimulus to wildlife, and disrupt reproduction for many species.

Travis Longcore (University of Southern California; )

2010-05-20

282

List identifies threatened ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

283

Monetising cultural ecosystem services?   

E-print Network

ABSTRACT In the context of increasing degradation of the environment, the economic valuation of ecosystem services represents an attempt to quantify the contribution of nature to human wellbeing. This approach has been ...

Vinci, Igor

2012-11-29

284

Desert USA: Desert Animals And Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is a miracle that life can survive in the extreme conditions of the desert. Users can learn about mammals (including wolves), insects and spiders, fish and birds(including hawks), and reptiles and amphibians (including rattlesnakes) that have adapted and, in fact, thrive in the harsh desert ecosystems. Links to related topics such as animal survival in the desert and animal rescues are included.

2000-01-01

285

Animal leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a global disease of animalsAnimals , which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosisDiagnosis , treatmentTreatment , controlControl and surveillanceSurveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

Ellis, William A

2015-01-01

286

Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

John Kyrk

287

Urban Ecosystem Design Bedrich Benes  

E-print Network

Urban Ecosystem Design Bedrich Benes Michel Abdul Massih Philip Jarvis Purdue University Daniel G. Aliaga Carlos A. Vanegas a) b) c) Figure 1: This example demonstrates the need for urban ecosystems. The image in a) shows a terrain occupied by a wild ecosystem and b) displays the same ecosystem grown over

Aliaga, Daniel G.

288

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

289

Structure and Function of Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem The Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research Site  

E-print Network

Research Center (CDRRC) during the twentieth century. Early studies dealt with animal species that were by it. Because this research focused on the role of animals in ecosystems, studies of animal populations Research Site Edited by: Kris Havstad, Laura F. Huenneke, William H. Schlesinger Chapter 12. Whitford, W

290

Technology requirements for nonterrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Factors associated with planning and implementing research and development for nonterrestrial closed-ecology life support systems have been analyzed in terms of systems engineering considerations. These factors are discussed in this paper to provide a planning overview. It is anticipated that systems of this type probably will be required for future manned space activities that would involve many participants in a space habitat, particularly at remote locations or for long-duration missions. Of particular interest are design scenarios that involve nonterrestrial ecosystems. Although these approaches offer the promise of being able to provide food regeneration by conventional processes, such as photosynthesis and essentially terrestrial agricultural methodology, the potential impact of nonterrestrial environmental conditions on these processes and criteria for ecological stability are not adequately defined. The role of these factors in research planning is discussed, and potentially relevant areas of research are described. PMID:12001967

Spurlock, J M; Modell, M

1979-01-01

291

South Florida Ecosystem History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecosystem History Project is designed to integrate studies of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems in South Florida. Projects cover Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and terrestrial ecosystems. Each project gives an introduction, investigation methods, evidence of past ecosystem changes, and modern distribution of flora and fauna. Recent ecosystem history is based on paleontology, palynology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology as seen in core samples. There are links to open-file reports, salinity maps, a database, poster presentations, and a Kid's Corner.

292

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Semiconductor Technology Sandia National Laboratories EE External Advisory Council CURRENT MEMBERS #12;Contents Engineering, please visit us online at www.fulton.asu.edu. THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ANNUAL REPORT This publication is written, designed, and produced by the Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering

Zhang, Junshan

293

Anime News  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: They say a picture is worth a thousand words. So, if there is no picture for a news story, just make something up! This is the premise a Hong Kong-based computer animation company has based its success on. No video footage...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-06-15

294

Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

Jaenisch, Rudolf

1988-01-01

295

Curriculum Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

Gose, Michael D.

2004-01-01

296

Shorelines Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation will help you to learn all about shorelines! You will learn how waves affect the coast, the sources of sediment, and how humans interfere in the whole scheme. There is also a model to learn more about groins, seawalls, and breakwater.

2002-01-01

297

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NATURE frequently contains notices of intelligence in animals, I have ventured to send you the inclosed note from the Reading local paper, as containing a remarkable fact regarding intelligence in a blind horse. The writer, Mr. Gostage, is quite trustworthy, and I have taken pains to verify the truth of his statements.

Joseph Stevens; S. Gostage

1883-01-01

298

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE columns of NATURE have sometimes been open to statements illustrating the practical sagacity of animals of the lower classes. Allow me to place before you the history of an occurrence which appears to prove the power of organisation in the common house-mouse.

G. A. B

1883-01-01

299

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL remarkable instances of intelligence in animals have been given in recent numbers of NATURE. Possibly the following instance of reasoning power in an elephant may not be without interest:-Some years ago I was ascending the lower part of the Darjeeling Hill Road, in the Himalaya Mountains, from Terai. At a certain part of the road, where we met a

F. R. Mallet

1883-01-01

300

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the terms ``ass'' and, at any rate in Germany, ``ox'' (Ochs) are very generally applied to stupid persons, those who have observed the bovine and asinine genera know that this is an injustice to those animals; and the following instances of particular intelligence displayed by two of the thus maligned beasts seem worth recording.

L. C. Hurt

1902-01-01

301

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE following notes of facts observed in New Zealand may be thought of interest; in some way they may serve to illustrate Mr. Romanes' work on ``Animal Intelligence'' : they are submitted without making an attempt to distinguish where they may overlap the fine line between instinct and intelligence. Cases which may show apparent intelligence or the reverse are recorded

T. H. Potts

1884-01-01

302

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an excellent paper on ``Animal Intelligence'' (NATURE, vol. xxvi. p. 523), Mr. C. Lloyd Morgan says that ``The brute has to be contented with the experience he inherits or individually acquires. Man, through language spoken or written, profits by the experience of his fellows. Even the most savage tribe has traditions extending back to the father's father. May there

Fritz Mueller; S. GOSTAGE

1883-01-01

303

Soil community composition and ecosystem processes Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems  

E-print Network

Soil community composition and ecosystem processes Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems D. A. NEHER Department of Biology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA; E-mail: dneher, nitrogen, pesticides Abstract. Soil organisms play principal roles in several ecosystem functions, i

Neher, Deborah A.

304

Animals Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

305

Extreme temperatures, foundation species, and abrupt ecosystem change: an example from an iconic seagrass ecosystem.  

PubMed

Extreme climatic events can trigger abrupt and often lasting change in ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation (i.e., habitat-forming) species. However, while the frequency/intensity of extreme events is predicted to increase under climate change, the impact of these events on many foundation species and the ecosystems they support remains poorly understood. Here, we use the iconic seagrass meadows of Shark Bay, Western Australia - a relatively pristine subtropical embayment whose dominant, canopy-forming seagrass, Amphibolis antarctica, is a temperate species growing near its low-latitude range limit - as a model system to investigate the impacts of extreme temperatures on ecosystems supported by thermally sensitive foundation species in a changing climate. Following an unprecedented marine heat wave in late summer 2010/11, A. antarctica experienced catastrophic (>90%) dieback in several regions of Shark Bay. Animal-borne video footage taken from the perspective of resident, seagrass-associated megafauna (sea turtles) revealed severe habitat degradation after the event compared with a decade earlier. This reduction in habitat quality corresponded with a decline in the health status of largely herbivorous green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the 2 years following the heat wave, providing evidence of long-term, community-level impacts of the event. Based on these findings, and similar examples from diverse ecosystems, we argue that a generalized framework for assessing the vulnerability of ecosystems to abrupt change associated with the loss of foundation species is needed to accurately predict ecosystem trajectories in a changing climate. This includes seagrass meadows, which have received relatively little attention in this context. Novel research and monitoring methods, such as the analysis of habitat and environmental data from animal-borne video and data-logging systems, can make an important contribution to this framework. PMID:25145694

Thomson, Jordan A; Burkholder, Derek A; Heithaus, Michael R; Fourqurean, James W; Fraser, Matthew W; Statton, John; Kendrick, Gary A

2014-08-22

306

Contrasting Ecosystem-Effects of Morphologically Similar Copepods  

PubMed Central

Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering) and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction). Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis) have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning. PMID:22140432

Matthews, Blake; Hausch, Stephen; Winter, Christian; Suttle, Curtis A.; Shurin, Jonathan B.

2011-01-01

307

Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

Bandettini, Peter A.

308

Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.

2008-10-06

309

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

310

Geoscience Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation that shows Earth's orbit around the sun and the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the sun in each month of the orbit. Students can move the cursor to a given month to see the position of Earth in its orbit at that time of year or can run a full animation of the yearly orbit. If one clicks on "Show Earth Profile" at the bottom, right corner of the resource, a small box pops up in the lower, right corner that shows the position of the Earth's axis in relation to the sun's rays at various points in the orbit. As such, it shows how the sun's rays directly strike different places on Earth during the orbit because of Earth's tilt. Accompanying text also points out number of daylight hours at the equator and at each pole during each solstice and equinox.

311

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

312

Fog, Clouds and the Maintenance of Ecosystems: Mist Opportunities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the significance of occult precipitation-- otherwise known as fog or cloud water (terms used interchangeably here)--in the maintenance of ecosystems? More than a century of natural history observations and decades of research have demonstrated that occult precipitation does deliver water, nutrients, and pollutants to coastal and montane ecosystems, but that its ecological importance is likely to vary by ecosystem. Still, many key ecological questions about the role of fog in the maintenance of ecosystems remain unanswered: For example, what is the effect of fog water and nutrient inputs on annual productivity or rates of nutrient cycling? Are soil processes affected by fog water input to ecosystems? To what extent do plants or animals actually use cloud or fog-delivered nutrients, and if they do, what are the mechanisms? Does fog input control the distribution and abundance of plant and/or animal species? If so, are the mechanisms hydrologic, physical (i.e., influence on temperature or light) and/or nutrient based? Although many of the early observations and research suggested that the delivery of water was one of the more important roles of fog in ecosystem maintenance, we and others have demonstrated that nutrient, as well as pollutants in fog are often 3-10x more concentrated than rain water, and can range up to 100x more concentrated. In some ecosystems, such as old growth forests on Chiloe Island, Chile, we have shown that comparatively large nutrient (e.g., nitrogen) loads can be delivered to ecosystems via a small amount (10s of cms/year) of fog water deposition. Thus, a little fog water has the potential to influence ecosystem processes. In addition, we have hypothesized that "the ocean may be feeding the forest," i.e., the source of the nutrients in fog water may be the ocean. In contrast to this fog subsidy, the ecological function of some high-elevation forests in the northeastern United States has been shown to be negatively impacted, in part, by immersion in acidic clouds. In fog-enshrouded ecosystems such as these, it is of enormous ecological relevance to quantify how occult precipitation contributes to their maintenance or decline. Here I offer a brief review of the state-of-knowledge and summarize some of our recent results on occult precipitation and ecosystem function demonstrating that fog water inputs are spatially heterogeneous, controlled by canopy architecture and exposure, and, in many ecosystems, an order of magnitude lower than rain water inputs. Finally, I point to some of the mist opportunities-- the research needs in regard to where and how occult precipitation may be important in ecosystem processes.

Weathers, K. C.

2006-12-01

313

Animal Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The focus of this Science NetLinks lesson is threefold. First, to expose students to the fact that all species have a capacity for communication. Second, to enlighten students to the fact that communication abilities range from very simple to extremely complex, depending upon the species. Third, to realize that communication is influenced by a species' genetic makeup, its environment, and the numerous ways by which animals and humans respond to and adapt to their surroundings.

Science Netlinks

2003-09-09

314

Animal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous dogma has maintained that cellulose, ingested by xylophagous or herbivorous animals, is digested by cellulolytic\\u000a symbiotes. The first evidence in conflict with this contention involved the demonstration of cellulolytic activities in symbiote-free\\u000a secreting organs (e.g., the salivary glands of termites) or defaunated guts. Following these demonstrations, possible endogenous\\u000a cellulase components were purified from several cellulose-digesting invertebrates, but this

H. Watanabe; G. Tokuda

2001-01-01

315

Mapping cryptic invaders and invisability of tropical forest ecosystems: Chromolaena odorata in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries, people continuously increased the rate of biological invasions and there is no sign of slowing down. From the depth of the Ocean to the crest of Himalayas, they are occupying pristine and semi-natural ecosystems at an alarming rate, threatening human, animal, plant as well as ecosystem health. Efforts to avoid or eradicate them are not achievable except for

Chudamani Joshi

2006-01-01

316

Small Mammals: Pests or Vital Components of the Ecosystem1 Carolyn Hull Sieg2  

E-print Network

Small Mammals: Pests or Vital Components of the Ecosystem1 Carolyn Hull Sieg2 ABSTRACT.--Small mammals regarded as "pests" should not be viewed separately'from other components in the ecosystem. Small mammals have significant influences on vegetation and soils, exert predatory pressure on other animals

317

Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.

Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

2012-01-01

318

Grays Lake Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.

319

Bioenergetics in ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bioenergetics model for a fish can be defined as a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be applied to a fish population in a lake, river, or ocean to estimate the annual consumption of food by the fish population; such applications have proved to be useful in managing fisheries. In addition, bioenergetics models have been used to better understand fish growth and consumption in ecosystems, to determine the importance of the role of fish in cycling nutrients within ecosystems, and to identify the important factors regulating contaminant accumulation in fish from lakes, rivers, and oceans.

Madenjian, Charles P.

2011-01-01

320

Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these ecosystems. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.

Walton, D.W.H.

1987-01-01

321

Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

2007-01-01

322

Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of  

E-print Network

Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral (herbivory and plant defensive substances) are introduced using various examples (ant-plant interactions

Pfeifer, Holger

323

Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?  

PubMed Central

Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnès

2014-01-01

324

Metagenomics in animal gastrointestinal ecosystem: a microbiological and biotechnological perspective.  

PubMed

Metagenomics- the application of the genomics technologies to nonculturable microbial communities, is coming of age. These approaches can be used for the screening and selection of nonculturable rumen microbiota for assessing their role in gastrointestinal (GI) nutrition, plant material fermentation and the health of the host. The technologies designed to access this wealth of genetic information through environmental nucleic acid extraction have provided a means of overcoming the limitations of culture-dependent microbial genetic exploitation. The molecular procedures and techniques will result in reliable insights into the GI microbial structure and activity of the livestock gut microbes in relation to functional interactions, temporal and spatial relationships among different microbial consortia and dietary ingredients. Future developments and applications of these methods promise to provide the first opportunity to link distribution and identity of rumen microbes in their natural habitats with their genetic potential and in situ activities. PMID:23100715

Singh, B; Bhat, T K; Kurade, N P; Sharma, O P

2008-06-01

325

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ON EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Climate change and environmental change are a subset of the larger set of ecosystem changes that are promoting the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. The complexity of the interconnectedness between a wide range of factors influencing the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases means that uncertainty will continue to be a feature of the future. Central Veterinary Authorities

Peter Black; Mike Nunn

326

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

327

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

328

Cross-Scale Morphology, Geometry, and Dynamics of Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the proposition that a small set of plant, animal, and abiotic processes structure ecosystems across scales in time and space. Earlier studies have suggested that these key structuring processes establish a small number of dominant temporal frequencies that entrain other processes. These frequencies often differ from each other by at least an order of magnitude. If true,

C. S. Holling

1992-01-01

329

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: SUMMARY OF A SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Summarizing presentations at a symposium on air pollutant effects on aquatic ecosystems, this document includes an overview of U.S. research programs, atmospheric emissions and deposition, cycling processes, and effects on plants and animals. Current U.S. research addresses ecosy...

330

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Director, MESA Fabrication Sandia National Laboratories EE External Advisory Council CURRENT MEMBERS #12. Section Manager National Systems Division General Dynamics C4 Systems Bernadette Buddington Manager Radar Engineering, please visit us online at www.fulton.asu.edu. THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ANNUAL

Zhang, Junshan

331

Energetics of an Aquatic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is meant to give students an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and the processes and concepts that they are composed of and to give students a feel for how ecosystems affect the larger community.

William H. Leonard (University of Nebraska;)

1982-06-21

332

Ecosystem Restoration Research at GWERD  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...

333

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

334

Monitoring forg Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

,...assessing project performance, determining whether ecological success has been achieved, or whether adaptive authorized projects, andpp , p y p j , other programmatic authorities Development of a monitoring plan management. BUILDING STRONG® #12;Section 2039-Monitoring Ecosystem R t tiRestoration The plan must specify

US Army Corps of Engineers

335

The Global Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 11 questions on the topic of ecosystems, which covers food chains and organism characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.

Timothy Heaton

336

Experiment with Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to give students the opportunity to Âthink like a scientist, making hypotheses, doing experiments, making observations, and analyzing data. Students are encouraged to construct and conduct their own experiments with ecosystems comprising grass, rabbits, and up to two predator species: hawks and foxes. (Evolution Readiness Activity 10 of 10.)

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

337

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM AND OVERVIEW OF NFC TECHNOLOGY 1. Introduction Handsets confirm topic in the mobile payment field and promises a revolution in the world of payments. This article traces the state-of-the-art in mobile proximity payment field and traces the most probable evolution

Shamos, Michael I.

338

Living Landscape Australian Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to the 10 episodes of "The Living Landscape â an Australian Ecosystems Series" produced by Gulliver Media and Education Queensland. This series previously aired on ABC TV in the "For Schools" slot. The episodes run between 15 minutes and 22 minutes each. Still images from the series are also available for download.

339

Boston Harbor Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates ecosystem zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.

340

Biocomplexity in mangrove ecosystems.  

PubMed

Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems. PMID:21141670

Feller, I C; Lovelock, C E; Berger, U; McKee, K L; Joye, S B; Ball, M C

2010-01-01

341

Ecosystem Services: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused reprint explains how natural ecosystems produce services upon which we are dependent. For example, they: provide us with clean water and air, pollinate our crops and disperse seeds, protect us from extreme weather and ultraviolet light, and control pests and disease-carrying organisms.

Ecological Society of America (;)

2000-06-01

342

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

343

Character Animation Animation is a big topic  

E-print Network

Character Animation 1 #12;Overview · Animation is a big topic · We will concentrate on character animation as is used in many games today ­ humans, animals, monsters, robots, etc. #12;Character is called a pose ­ the state of a skeleton at a particular time of animation #12;Regular layout 2 (no arcade

Stephenson, Ben

344

COUNTERACTING ECOSYSTEM LOSSES DUE TO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Interventions into ecosystems to develop the built/socio-physical environment involve normative decisions regarding human well-being that inevitably compromise ecosystem capacities, but ecosystem sustainability is conditioned by properties established by ecosystems and unrelated ...

345

Modelling Marine Ecosystems Mick Follows  

E-print Network

Modelling Marine Ecosystems Mick Follows Dept of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology http://ocean.mit.edu/~mick/Downloads.html #12;What is the marine ecosystem?What is the marine ecosystem? · Food webFood web · Focus onFocus on phytoplanktonphytoplankton Bacteria, archaea #12

Follows, Mick

346

The Galactic Ecosystem Michael Burton  

E-print Network

The Galactic Ecosystem Michael Burton School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Australia. THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES DEPARTMENT OF ASTROPHYSICS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS Abstract Ecosystems are systems. Ecosystems operate autonomously, by a process of self-regulation. Their flows of energy mean they cannot

Burton, Michael

347

Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 February 2009 #12;2 #12;3 Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), is a rich and varied ecosystem stretching from the Pacific Ocean

Tsien, Roger Y.

348

Antarctica: A Cold Desert Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Antarctica lesson has students locate the continent on a globe and on a map, describe and illustrate major Antarctic ecosystems, and explain relationships between those ecosystems. They will also construct a rough map of Antarctic ecosystems and explore relationships among the creatures that populate them. This lesson can be adapted to focus on other regions, including the one in which students live.

349

College of engineering1 Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

Economics6 Environmental Design Journalism6 Landscape Architecture Legal Studies Political Science Pre Electrical Engineering Industrial Engineering Mechanical Engineering College of humAnitieS & fine ArtS Afro-American Arts4 Theater Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies College of nAturAl SCienCeS Animal Science Astronomy

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

350

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

351

Green River Lake and Dam interim plan benefits ecosystem By John Hickey  

E-print Network

11 Green River Lake and Dam interim plan benefits ecosystem By John Hickey Hydrologic Engineering that water is released from Green River Dam in Kentucky. In May 2006, the interim plan was approved shown that operation of Green River Dam can be changed in ways that improve ecosystems while continuing

US Army Corps of Engineers

352

Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed <5% to total zooplankton in the Lazarev Sea, but 15% (max = 93%) to macrozooplankton in the East Antarctic. In addition to regional density distributions we have synthesized data on vertical distributions, seasonal cycles, and inter-annual density variation. Trophically, gymnosome are specialist predators on thecosomes, while thecosomes are considered predominantly herbivorous, capturing food with a mucous web. The ingestion rates of L. retroversa australis are in the upper range for sub-Antarctic mesozooplankton (31.2-4196.9 ng pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also contribute significantly to organic carbon flux through the production of fast sinking faecal pellets and mucous flocs, and rapid sinking of dead animals ballasted by their aragonite shells. Quantification of these contributions requires data on mucous web production rates, egestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, metabolic rates, and faecal pellet morphology for application to sediment trap studies. Based on the available data, pteropods are regionally significant components of the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem. However, there is an urgent need for focused research on this group in order to quantify how a decline in pteropod densities may impact on Southern Ocean ecosystems.

Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

2008-09-01

353

Templates of food–habitat resources for the organization of soil animals in temperate and tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems are shaped and maintained by plant–decomposer interactions. The food and habitat of animal populations are biogenic and are mainly of plant origin (plant litter) in terrestrial ecosystems. Primary resources of the food-habitat template for the organization of soil animals are provided by the primary production of plants, and are then modified through decomposition

Hiroshi Takeda; Takuya Abe

2001-01-01

354

[Research advances in ecosystem flux].  

PubMed

To develop the long-term localized observation and investigation on ecosystem flux is of great importance. On the basis of generalizing the concepts and connotations of ecosystem flux, this paper introduced the construction and development histories of Global Flux Networks, Regional Flux Networks (Ameri-Flux, Euro-Flux and Asia-Flux) and China-Flux, as well as the main methodologies, including micrometeorological methods (such as eddy correlation method, mass balance method, energy balance method and air dynamic method)and chamber methods (static and dynamic chamber methods), and their basic operation principles. The research achievements, approaches and advances of CO2, N2O, CH4, and heat fluxes in forest ecosystem, farmland ecosystem, grassland ecosystem and water ecosystem were also summarized. In accordance with the realities and necessities of ecosystem flux research in China, some suggestions and prospects were put forward. PMID:16422526

Zhang, Xudong; Peng, Zhenhua; Qi, Lianghua; Zhou, Jinxing

2005-10-01

355

Mojave Desert Ecosystem Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Department of Defense (DOD) program, the Mojave Ecosystem Database Program (MEDP) represents the DOD's "first attempt to meld together a shared scientific database that can be used to affect dynamic sustainable land management decisions." Although the mission statement of MEDP reflects a somewhat oxymoronic goal, e.g., maintaining "critical DOD installations within the Mojave Desert Ecosystem ... while protecting the environment," the site nevertheless represents an opportunity for researchers to access environmental models and potentially influence land management within the Mojave Ecoregion. The searchable site offers information about and/or access to Geospatial Data, Metadata, Geomorphic Landform Data, and a Spatial Bibliography, among other regional resources. An excellent selection of links points users to a wealth of additional and variously detailed (governmental) information.

356

Building an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to follow our students from grade 7 - 12. Each year adds to or builds upon previous years. The project is centered around a 400 gallon, 4 tank system which is placed in sunlight in the lobby of our science building. It was seeded with water from nearby rivers, lakes, ponds, and creeks. The only mechanical part is a pump which returns water from tank 4 back to tank 1. This aquatic ecosystem is a constant, woven through the curriculum as students progress through science. At the end of 3-5 science courses students have greater awareness of the role of detritivores and decomposers in the cycling of matter and understand how human activities may upset the balance in an ecosystem. One goal is for students to see the relationship between what is studied in a classroom and the real world; another is for them to understand the role of wetlands in making water suitable to sustain life.

Charlotte C. Freeman (Girls Preparatory School REV)

1995-06-30

357

Managing the Everglades Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this Science NetLinks lesson is to explore the Everglades ecosystem using the Internet; to develop an understanding about conservation of resources in the context of the Everglades; explore relationships between species and habitats; and develop an understanding of how human beings have altered the equilibrium in the Everglades. This lesson uses the Internet to explore the Everglades ecosystem using the resources on the Everglades National Park website. It uses the Internet to provide students with experiences that they may not be able to acquire firsthand. The activities are based on the website of the Everglades National Park. This investigation is most appropriate for a 9th or 10th grade biology class.

Science Netlinks;

2002-05-04

358

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

359

Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept.  

PubMed

Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also enables the social and political changes required to ensure valuation of ecosystem functions and related biodiversity in ways beyond their measurement on an economic scale. PMID:19659684

Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai

2010-02-01

360

Carbon dioxide dynamics in an artificial ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental artificial ecosystem was established as a tool to understand the behavior of closed ecosystem and to develop the technology for a future bioregenerative life support system for lunar or planetary exploration. Total effective volume of the system is 0.7 m3 . It consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a photo-bioreactor which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella), respectively. For uniform and sustained observations, lettuce and silkworms was cultivated using sequential cultivation method, and microalgae using continuous culture. Four researchers took turns breathing the system air through a tube for brief periods every few hours. A mathematic model, simulating the carbon dioxide dynamics was developed. The main biological parameters concerning photosynthesis of lettuce and microalgae, respiration of silkworms and human were validated by the experimental data. The model described the respiratory relationship between autotrophic and heterotrophic compartments. A control strategy was proposed as a tool for the atmosphere management of the artificial ecosystem.

Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

361

Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration (Abstracts)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its high standards, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC, discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has released more wetland resources. Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration contains abstracts from a 1993 symposium in Jamestown, North Dakota. All files may be downloaded (.zip format).

362

Translation of an engineered nanofibrous disc-like angle-ply structure for intervertebral disc replacement in a small animal model.  

PubMed

Intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated in the etiology of low back pain; however, the current surgical strategies for treating symptomatic disc disease are limited. A variety of materials have been developed to replace disc components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosus (AF) and their combination into disc-like engineered constructs. We have previously shown that layers of electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) scaffold, mimicking the hierarchical organization of the native AF, can achieve functional parity with native tissue. Likewise, we have combined these structures with cell-seeded hydrogels (as an NP replacement) to form disc-like angle-ply structures (DAPS). The objective of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of DAPS in vivo. Through a series of studies, we developed a surgical approach to replace the rat caudal disc with an acellular DAPS and then stabilized the motion segment via external fixation. We then optimized cell infiltration into DAPS by including sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) layers interspersed throughout the angle-ply structure. Our findings illustrate that DAPS are stable in the caudal spine, are infiltrated by cells from the peri-implant space and that infiltration is expedited by providing additional routes for cell migration. These findings establish a new in vivo platform in which to evaluate and optimize the design of functional disc replacements. PMID:24560621

Martin, John T; Milby, Andrew H; Chiaro, Joseph A; Kim, Dong Hwa; Hebela, Nader M; Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

2014-06-01

363

[Management of large marine ecosystem based on ecosystem approach].  

PubMed

Large marine ecosystem (LME) is a large area of ocean characterized by distinct oceanology and ecology. Its natural characteristics require management based on ecosystem approach. A series of international treaties and regulations definitely or indirectly support that it should adopt ecosystem approach to manage LME to achieve the sustainable utilization of marine resources. In practices, some countries such as Canada, Australia, and U.S.A. have adopted ecosystem-based approach to manage their oceans, and some international organizations such as global environment fund committee have carried out a number of LME programs based on ecosystem approach. Aiming at the sustainable development of their fisheries, the regional organizations such as Caribbean Community have established regional fisheries mechanism. However, the adoption of ecosystem approach to manage LME is not only a scientific and legal issue, but also a political matter largely depending on the political will and the mutual cooperation degree of related countries. PMID:22126063

Chu, Jian-song

2011-09-01

364

Investigating Local Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this Science NetLinks lesson is to guide students through investigations of the habitats of local plants and animals; to explore some of the ways animals depend on plants and each other. In order to learn about living environments, young children should begin with direct observation of their immediate surroundings, such as a backyard, schoolyard or local pond. As students observe their environment, they should have many opportunities to record and communicate their findings using words and pictures.

Science Netlinks;

2000-12-06

365

Character Animation Tool \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character animation toolkits are very essential tools for animators in computer graphics world. These tools can make the work of animators extremely easy. Each tool can be applied to different body parts of character or the whole character. The tool that is described in this paper helps animators for creating character hand's animation. Hands of character in animation play one

Hikmat Abdoollayev; Eunmi Choi; Dugki Min

2008-01-01

366

BMW Hydrogen Technology 3D Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tank and engine animation of the BMW Hydrogen 7 car. There are currently several hundred hydrogen vehicles in operation throughout the world. Soon it will number several thousand. There are also many hydrogen filling stations in operation throughout the world. This particular vehicle is an internal combustion engine that can change between hydrogen or petrol at the flick of a switch.

367

"Pleistocene Park" - A Glacial Ecosystem in a Warming World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most people if asked what association they have to the phrase - ice age, will answer - "Mammoth". But mammoths are not only big wooly elephants which went extinct in the beginning of Holocene. They were also part of a great ecosystem, the Northern Steppe or Mammoth Ecosystem, which was the world's largest ecosystem for hundreds thousand of years. This ecosystem, with extremely high rates of biocycling, could maintain animal densities which can be hardly found anywhere in the modern world. Northern steppe played an important role in shaping the glacial climate of the planet. High albedo grasslands reflected a much bigger portion of sun heat back to the atmosphere. Cold soils and permafrost served as sinks of carbon, helping to keep greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at low levels. In the beginning of Holocene, simultaneously with wave of human expansion, an extinction wave took place. Tens of megafauna species became extinct at that time worldwide, while ones that resisted the extinction substantially dropped in numbers. The Northern Steppe ecosystem became imbalanced. Without large numbers of herbivores grazing and trampling the pasture, trees, shrubs and moss invaded grasslands. Within just a few hundreds years the mammoth ecosystem was gone, replaced by much lower productivity ecosystems. Already 14 thousand year ago, by simply increasing hunting pressure, humans managed to dramatically change Earth's appearance. We propose that by artificially maintaining a high animal density and diversity on a limited territory for extended period of time, it will be possible to reverse the shift, reestablishing the productive Northern Steppe ecosystem. Moss, shrubs and tree sprouts are not able to resist grazing pressure so they will be quickly replaced by grasses and herbs. Animals digesting all aboveground biomass would accelerate nutrition cycling and consequently increase bioproductivity. Higher bioproductivity would increase evapotranspiration, keeping soils dry and runoff low. This would further increase nutrient availability in the soil. Water limitation would force roots grow deeper to cold soil horizons where these roots (carbon) will be sequestered for a long period of time. After high productivity and high diversity of animals in the ecosystem is reached, this ecosystem will once again be able to compete and to expand. To test this hypothesis, we have started the experiment named "Pleistocene Park". For over 15 years we have brought different herbivore species to the fenced area in the Kolyma river lowland, keep them at high density and see the ecosystem transformation. Now Pleistocene Park is size of 20 km2 and home for 7 big herbivores species. It is a small version of how the Mammoth Steppe ecosystem looked in the past and may look in the future. Pleistocene Park is a place where scientists can conduct in situ research and see how restoration of the ice age ecosystem may help mitigate future climatic changes. Arctic is a weakly populated region with no possibilities for agriculture. Modern civilization treats bigger part of the Arctic as wastelands. So why don't turn this "wasteland" into something that can strongly benefit our civilization in the future?

Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

2011-12-01

368

Engineering role models: do non-human species have the answers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shift from traditional engineering approaches to ecologically-based techniques will require changing societal values regarding ‘how and what’ is defined as engineering and design. Non-human species offer many ecological engineering examples that are often beneficial to ecosystem function and other biota. For example, organisms known as ‘ecosystem engineers’ build, modify, and destroy habitat in their quest for food and survival.

A. D. Rosemond; C. B. Anderson

2003-01-01

369

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

-sponsored competition to have an autonomous vehicle race through the desert in Oct. 2005. Vision and AI are crucial and constructs autonomous robot soccer teams and competes in national and inter- national competitions under pride in us- ing a systems engineering approach. Contributions from students in CS, ECE, and MAE

Keinan, Alon

370

Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.  

PubMed

The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. PMID:21840795

Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

2010-03-01

371

Declining Birds in Grassland Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the grassland ecosystem with respect to declining bird species. This report is the effort of a number of agencies to develop a strategy for addressing grassland bird information needs. Grasslands are the most imperiled ecosystem worldwide, and birds associated with this ecosystem are on a decline. This report addresses monitoring issues, species in concern, and the effects of habitat and landscape on grassland birds.

372

Ecosystem in a Bottle Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will introduce the key concepts of what an ecosystem is, how different components interact in an ecosystem, and how various inputs can impact a system. Students will build a TerrAqua investigation column in a plastic bottle and observe and record the changes that take place in the mini ecosystem over time. Step by step directions are included, with illustrations, for completing the experiment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Orzali, Joe

2009-01-01

373

The Tragedy of Ecosystem Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Derived from funds of natural capital, ecosystem services contribute greatly to human welfare, yet are rarely traded in markets. Most supporting (e.g., soil formation) and regulating (e.g., water purification, pest regulation) ecosystem services, and some cultural (e.g., aesthetic enrichment) and provisioning (e.g., capture fisheries, fuel wood) ecosystem services are declining because of a complex social trap, the tragedy of ecosystem services, which results in part from the overconsumption of common-pool resources. Additionally, current economic incentives encourage the development of funds of natural capital on private lands for marketable commodities at the expense of ecosystem services that benefit the public. Such ecosystem services are therefore underprovided. Most critically, property law reinforces these market failures by creating incentives to convert funds of natural capital into marketable goods and by assigning no property rights to ecosystem service benefits. Although there is no one pathway out of this tragedy of ecosystem services, potentially effective remedies lie in the evolution of the common law of property, in the reform of economic incentives, and in the development of ecosystem service districts.

Christopher L. Lant (Southern Illinois University;)

2008-11-03

374

Mechanistic scaling of ecosystem function and dynamics in space and time: Ecosystem Demography model version 2  

E-print Network

Mechanistic scaling of ecosystem function and dynamics in space and time: Ecosystem Demography] Insights into how terrestrial ecosystems affect the Earth's response to changes in climate and rising contain detailed mechanistic representations of biological processes affecting terrestrial ecosystems

Moorcroft, Paul R.

375

Baltimore Ecosystem Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many ecologists work to understand how various parts of a given ecological system work or function with other systems in their vicinity, but relatively few attempt to bring together all of this work with major urban areas. One such impressive project is the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, which aims to understand metropolitan Baltimore as an ecological system; and in doing so, bring together researchers from the biological, physical and social sciences to work on this formidable task that is truly interdisciplinary. At the site, visitors can learn about the staff of the project and read about its various thematic areas of inquiry, including biodiversity, education, soil, stream and watershed studies, and vegetation. A good place to start before diving into the numerous research projects would be the research area, which explains the basic goals of the project, the theories that the research team is drawing on, and the central questions of its work. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study has also been approved for use in classrooms by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and educators will find materials that they can draw on to teach various concepts and ideas here as well.

376

Mapping invasive plant species in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems helps to understand the causes of their progres-  

E-print Network

Abstract Mapping invasive plant species in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems helps to understand. Introduction The invasion of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems by non- indigenous plant and animal species of Optimal Dates for the Discrimination of Invasive Wetland Plant Species Using Derivative Spectral Analysis

Tsai, Fuan "Alfonso"

377

Spatial Data Analysis of Animal Feeding Operations and Water Quality in Iowa  

EPA Science Inventory

Wastes from animal feeding operations (AFOs) contain nutrients, pathogens, and pharmaceuticals posing potential risks to ecosystems and community health. Runoff from AFOs may enter nearby surface waters, contributing to local and downstream impairments. Facility-scale analyses re...

378

Video animation system operators manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the components necessary to put together a video animation system. It is primarily intended for use at Sandia National Laboratories as it describes the components used in systems at Sandia. The main document covers the operation of the equipment in some detail and is intended for either the system maintainer or an advanced user. There is an appendix for each of the three systems in use by the Engineering Sciences Directorate which contain instructions for the general user.

Mareda, J.F.

1992-09-01

379

Biodiversity and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-16

380

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

381

Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available

Esther C. Peters; Nancy J. Gassman; Julie C. Firman; Robert H. Richmond; Elizabeth A. Power

1997-01-01

382

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue

383

77 FR 56749 - Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...13626 of September 10, 2012 Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration By the authority vested in...Order 13554 established a Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force (Task Force...order to better implement Gulf Coast ecosystem restoration and facilitate...

2012-09-13

384

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ESTABLISHING AN IDENTITY ECOSYSTEM GOVERNANCE  

E-print Network

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ESTABLISHING AN IDENTITY ECOSYSTEM GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE THE DEPARTMENT an Identity Ecosystem Governance Structure This page is intentionally left blank. #12;Recommendations for Establishing an Identity Ecosystem Governance Structure Foreword The Internet is one of the most

Perkins, Richard A.

385

How Much Is an Ecosystem Worth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson engages students in critical thinking about the value of ecosystems. Students assess ecosystem services, consider the benefits of biomonitors, explore ecosystem databases, brainstorm What if? scenariosand more!

John Ausema (Gonzaga College High School;)

2005-07-01

386

Land classification and ecosystem classification.  

PubMed

Earth, the ecosphere, is a unified functional ecosystem. Ecological land classification (ELC) and regionalization divides and categorizes this unity into similar and dissimilar pieces-sectoral ecosystems - at various scales, in the interests of admiration and understanding. The recognition of land/water ecosystems in a hierarchy of sizes provides a rational base for the many-scaled problems of protection and careful exploitation in the fields of agriculture, forestry, wildlife and recreation. In forested terrain the protection of biodiversity, old growth forests, watersheds and wildlife habitat depends on spatial-temporal planning of forestry operations to maintain a preferred mosaic structure of local ecosystems within each ecological region. Without ecological understanding and a good ELC, this is impossible. Conceiving the world as comprising nested land/water ecosystems that are the source of life, elevates the role of Earth-as-context, an antidote to destructive anthropocentrism. PMID:24197992

Rowe, J S

1996-01-01

387

Seabird-driven shifts in Arctic pond ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Migratory animals such as seabirds, salmon and whales can transport large quantities of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, greatly enriching recipient food webs. As many of these animals biomagnify contaminants, they can also focus pollutants at toxic levels. Seabirds arguably represent the most significant biovectors of nutrients and contaminants from the ocean to the land, given their sheer numbers and global distribution. However, long-term census data on seabirds are rare. Using palaeolimnological proxies, we show that a colony of Arctic seabirds has experienced climate-induced population increases in recent decades. We then document increasing concentrations of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls and cadmium, in pond sediments that are linked to biotransport by seabirds. Our findings suggest that climate-related shifts in global seabird populations will have the unexpected consequence of restructuring coastal ecosystems. PMID:18945662

Michelutti, Neal; Keatley, Bronwyn E.; Brimble, Samantha; Blais, Jules M.; Liu, Huijun; Douglas, Marianne S.V.; Mallory, Mark L.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Smol, John P.

2008-01-01

388

The Galaxy / Cluster Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most baryons in galaxy clusters are in the hot ICM. Together with cluster galaxies, they form the cluster ecosystem and their mutual interaction has significant impact on their evolution. In this talk, we summarize the observational results of thermal X-ray components for both early-type galaxies and late-type galaxies in galaxy clusters, as well as the related results in other bands and the implications. For cluster early-type galaxies, the survival of small X-ray coronae for most massive galaxies provide constraints on gas stripping, microscopic transport, and radio-mode feedback processes. For cluster late-type galaxies, ram pressure stripped tails have been detected in multiple wavelengths and star formation in the stripped gas is a common process.

Sun, Ming

2014-08-01

389

Ecosystems, Organisms, and Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience is about is the concept, and the term, "self-organization." The history of this term, originally introduced by Immanuel Kant to characterize the unique properties of living organisms, is inseparable from the history of biology. Only in the second half of the 20th century does it begin to acquire the promise of a physicalistic understanding. This it does with two critical transformations in the meaning of the term: first, with the advent of cybernetics and its dissolution of the boundary between organisms and machines, and second, with the mathematical triumphs of nonlinear dynamical systems theory and accompanying claims to having dissolved the boundary between organisms and such physical phenomena as thunderstorms. How do these transformations affect the applicability of self-organization to the ecosystem--that provocatively hybrid entity that is part organism, part machine, and perhaps even part thunderstorm?

EVELYN FOX KELLER (;)

2005-12-01

390

Game Animals of Colorado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

391

Digital character performance animation  

E-print Network

This research is an analysis of past and present acting methods and techniques applicable to animation. Literature research and interviews with animators influence the development of guidelines explaining the process that prepares an animator...

Gonzalez, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

392

[Hunting and animal protection].  

PubMed

In the Federal Republic of Germany the handling of animals during hunting is governed more by the animal protection law than by the corresponding hunting law. Points of the animal protection law which directly affect hunting are (1) the release of wild animals, (2) the training and examination of animals concerning attacking other animals, (3) the setting of animals on other animals, and (4) the killing of vertebrates. Guiding principles for killing wild animals during hunting according to the animal protection law are formulated and discussed in relation to the traditional German understanding of hunting ethics. It can be expected that hunting will increasingly become a topic of public discussion on animal protection, in which the ethics of hunting in relation to the wild animal will be dominant. PMID:8486093

Herling, A W

1993-04-01

393

Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

394

Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy  

PubMed Central

Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

2015-01-01

395

Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.  

PubMed

Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

2015-01-01

396

Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

2005-01-01

397

Impacts of Climate Change on Terrestrial Ecosystems and Adaptation Measures for Natural Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emissions from motor vehicles, power plants, deforestation, and other human sources are warming the Earth and damaging ecosystems\\u000a and human well-being. Field observations from around the world have detected significant changes in terrestrial ecosystems\\u000a and attributed them to climate change rather than other factors. Climate change has shifted the ranges of plants, animals,\\u000a and biomes, altered the timing of life

Patrick Gonzalez

398

Ecosystem Overfishing in the Ocean  

PubMed Central

Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the ecosystem) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production due to the export of biomass and energy through catches was recently formulated as a proxy for evaluating the ecosystem impacts of fishing–i.e., the level of ecosystem overfishing. Here we evaluate the historical and current risk of ecosystem overfishing at a global scale by quantifying the depletion of secondary production using the best available fisheries and ecological data (i.e., catch and primary production). Our results highlight an increasing trend in the number of unsustainable fisheries (i.e., an increase in the risk of ecosystem overfishing) from the 1950s to the 2000s, and illustrate the worldwide geographic expansion of overfishing. These results enable to assess when and where fishing became unsustainable at the ecosystem level. At present, total catch per capita from Large Marine Ecosystems is at least twice the value estimated to ensure fishing at moderate sustainable levels. PMID:19066624

Tudela, Sergi; Palomera, Isabel; Pranovi, Fabio

2008-01-01

399

The ecosystem study on Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect

During the 1950`s and 1960`s, the Laboratory of Radiation Biology at the University of Washington carried out an intensive study of this Atoll, which was contaminated with radioactive fallout from the {open_quotes}Bravo shot{close_quotes} in 1954. This study involved many aspects of the environment and the plant and animal life: soils, land plants, marine life, birds, geology and hydrology, and human diets as well. In much of the research, the fortuitiously present radioactive isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, were tracers. Although the term {open_quotes}ecosystem study{close_quotes} was not in vogue at that time, it is clear that this was an early use of the ecosystem approach. Soil types and their development, the distribution of mineral elements in plants and soils, including predominant radionuclides, distribution and growth of native terrestrial plants in relation to topography and salinity, some aspects of the human diets, micronutrient nutrition of the coconut palm, island and islet development and stability, were given attention in the studies. Some of the findings in the various areas of study will be presented and discussed. 32 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Walker, R.B.; Gessel, S.P.; Held, E.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-07-01

400

Avian wildlife as sentinels of ecosystem health.  

PubMed

Birds have been widely used as sentinels of ecosystem health reflecting changes in habitat quality, increased incidence of disease, and exposure to and effects of chemical contaminants. Numerous studies addressing these issues focus on the breeding period, since hormonal, behavioural, reproductive, and developmental aspects of the health can be observed over a relatively short time-span. Many body systems within individuals are tightly integrated and interdependent, and can be affected by contaminant chemicals, disease, and habitat changes in complex ways. Animals higher in the food web will reflect cumulative effects of multiple stressors. Such features make birds ideal indicators for assessing environmental health in areas of environmental concern. Five case studies are presented, highlighting the use of different species which have provided insight into ecosystem sustainability, including (i) the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances of sagebrush habitat on the greater northern sage grouse Centrocercus urophasianus; (ii) the high prevalence of disease in very specific passerine species in the Canary Islands closely paralleling deterioration of formerly productive desert habitat and ensuing interspecific stressors; (iii) fractures, abnormal bone structure, and associated biochemical aberrations in nestling storks exposed to acidic tailings mud from a dyke rupture at an iron pyrite mine near Sevilla, Spain; (iv) newly presented data demonstrating biochemical changes in nestling peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and associations with exposure to major chemical classes in the Great Lakes Basin of Canada; and (v) the variability in responses of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor to contaminants, biological and meteorological challenges when breeding in the Athabasca oil sands. PMID:23260372

Smits, Judit E G; Fernie, Kimberly J

2013-05-01

401

Windows to the Universe: Biomes and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Windows to the Universe website is maintained by the National Earth Science Teachers Association, and it has been around since the mid-1990s. One particularly interesting area of the site focuses in on the world of biomes and ecosystems. For those who might be unacquainted with such matters, biomes are large regions of the world with similar plants, animals, and other living things that are adapted to the region's climate and conditions. Visitors can use the interactive map to explore these various biomes, and learn about the natural history and current conditions in the dry steppes, Alpine tundra, and a dozen other biomes. Each section contains photographs and a narrative essay that describes in summary detail the key features of each biome.

2011-01-01

402

SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS is the virtual representative of Busch Entertainment Corporation's zoological and educational resources. The site provides access to online educational materials as well as program information for the SeaWorld/Busch Gardens theme parks. Materials include detailed information on marine animals, ecosystems, and zoological research programs of the parks. There are also news articles, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and information about the parks' on-site educational programs, tours, and student camps. The teachers' page features guides, classroom activities, information on television programming, and a catalog of publications. For children, there are games and coloring pages, downloadables (screensavers, desktops), and interactive features about marine animals and environments.

403

The Decline of Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the risks that freshwater ecosystems face and how species nearby are affected by dams, dredging, and channelization of streams. It points out that even though freshwater ecosystems are limited in extent, covering about 1 percent of the Earth's surface, they are highly diverse and contain a disproportionally large number of the world's species. Statistics are given to illustrate the increase in waterways that have been altered for navigation. Some actions that are being taken to reduce threats to freshwater ecosystems are also mentioned.

1999-01-01

404

Thermal Acclimation and Adaptation of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem responses to temperature change are collectively determined by its constituents, which are plants, animals, microbes, and their interactions. It has been long documented that all plant, animals, and microbial carbon metabolism (photosynthesis, respiration) can acclimate and respond to changing temperatures, influencing the response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to climate change. Climate change also can induce competition between species with different thermal responses leading to changes in community composition. While a great deal of research has been done on species-level responses to temperature, it is yet to examine thermal acclimation of adaptation of ecosystem carbon processes to temperature change. With the advent of eddy flux measurements, it is possible to directly characterize the ecosystem-scale temperature response of carbon storage. In this study, we quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), from which the responses of apparent optimal temperatures across broad spatial and temporal scales were examined. While temperature responses are normally parameterized in terms of the physiological variables describing photosynthesis and respiration, we focus on the apparent optimal behavior of NEE. Because the measurement integrated over multiple individuals and species within the footprint of the measurement (100s to 1000s of ha), it is challenging to interpret this measurement in terms of classical physiological variables such as the Q10. Rather we focus on the realized behavior of the ecosystem and its sensitivity to temperature. These empirical response functions can then be used as a benchmark for model evaluation and testing. Our synthesis of 656 site-years of eddy covariance data over the world shows that temperature response curves of NEE are parabolic, with their optima temperature strongly correlated with site growing season temperature across the globe and with annual mean temperature over years at individual sites. The differential response of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature may act to produce apparent optima, and an internannual adjustment of this optimum to within-year weather conditions. This phenomenon may influence the long-term response of ecosystem carbon storage and community composition to global temperature changes, and may contribute to the apparent higher sensitivity of global ecosystem carbon storage to rainfall anomalies than to temperature. Thermal responses on interannual time scales may dampen temperature-driven variability of NEE directly caused by temperature anomalies.

Luo, Y.; Niu, S.; Fei, S.; Yuan, W.; Zhang, Z.; Schimel, D.; Fluxnet Pis, .

2010-12-01

405

225 Animal Industries Building College Station, Texas 77843  

E-print Network

225 Animal Industries Building 2138 TAMU College Station, Texas 77843 Tel. 979.845.5579 Fax. 979 DEPARTMENT OF ECOSYSTEM SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Approved by majority vote of the Tenure Professor, Professor, or Distinguished Professor; (b) Texas AgriLife Research and Texas AgriLife Extension

Boas, Harold P.

406

The Connection to Other Animals and Caring for Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an era in which natural resources are under unprece- dented pressure, it is vital to ask how the human relationships with the natural world might be improved. One avenue of inquiry is to explore whether there is a relationship between caring for a non-human animal, for a species, and for an ecosystem and whether this relationship may be a

Joanne Vining

2003-01-01

407

Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

2009-01-01

408

Animal Thinking An Introduction  

E-print Network

into the proximate causes of animal behavior, awareness grew of the importance of taking a species1 Animal Thinking An Introduction Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer The topic of this Strüngmann Forum--animal thinking--was not formulated as a question--"Do animals think?--but rather as a statement

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

409

Physics for Animation Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

2011-01-01

410

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

Yap, Helen T.

411

Carotenoids in Marine Animals  

PubMed Central

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

412

Carotenoids in marine animals.  

PubMed

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

413

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

414

Welfare Issues of Genetically Modified Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Genetically engineered animals have opened,new frontiers in the study of physiology and disease processes. Mutant animals offer more,accurate disease models,and increased precision for pathogenesis and treatment studies. Their use offers hope for improved,therapy to patients with conditions that currently have poor or ineffective treatments. These advantages have fostered an increase in studies using mice in recent years, a development

Melvin B. Dennis

1989-01-01

415

Engineering Electrical &  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

416

Engineering Electrical &  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

417

SOUTH FLORIDA ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The South Florida Ecosystem Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure current and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. Using the United States Environmenta...

418

Geospatial tools for Ecosystem Services  

EPA Science Inventory

Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient loads. ...

419

ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION: DYNAMIC WATERSHED SIMULATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This research focuses on developing methods and models to determine how terrestrial ecosystem/habitats will respond to anthropogenic stress. The primary objective is to develop a comprehensive modeling framework for predicting the effects of multiple stressors on key hydrologic,...

420

Animal Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Information Database is an educational Web site from SeaWorld/Busch Gardens. The site contains a wide variety of information about many animals including fun facts, biological classification, habitat, and news about specific animals at the Sea World/Busch Gardens parks. A fun part of the site is the Animal Sounds Library where visitors can listen to the interesting sounds made by a number of animals.

2002-01-01

421

Animals in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

White, Angela

1988-01-01

422

Ecosystem Health Disorders - changing perspectives in clinical medicine and nutrition.  

PubMed

The inseparability of people from their ecosystem without biological change is increasingly clear. The discrete species concept is becoming more an approximation as the interconnectedness of all things, animate and inanimate, becomes more apparent. Yet this was evident even to our earliest Homo Sapiens sapiens ancestors as they hunted and gathered from one locality to another and migrated across the globe. During a rather short 150-200,000 years of ancestral history, we have changed the aeons-old planet and our ecology with dubious sustainability. As we have changed the ecosystems of which we are a part, with their opportunities for shelter, rest, ambulation, discourse, food, recreation and their sensory inputs, we have changed our shared biology and our health prospects. The rate of ecosystem change has increased quantitatively and qualitatively and so will that of our health patterns, depending on our resilience and how linear, non-linear or fractal-like the linkage. Our health-associated ecosystem trajectories are uncertain. The interfaces between us and our environment are blurred, but comprise time, biorhythms, prokaryotic organisms, sensory (auditory, visual, tactile, taste and smell), conjoint movement, endocrine with various external hormonal through food and contaminants, the reflection of soil and rock composition in the microbes, plants, insects and animals that we eat (our biogeology) and much more. We have sought ways to optimise our health through highly anthropocentric means, which have proven inadequate. Accumulated ecosystem change may now overwhelm our health. On these accounts, more integrative approaches and partnerships for health care practice are required. PMID:24561967

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2014-01-01

423

Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586

Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

2006-01-01

424

Conservation planning for ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services-crop pollination and forage production-eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586

Chan, Kai M A; Shaw, M Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

2006-10-01

425

Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

2004-01-01

426

Digital Ecosystems: Evolving Service-Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We view Digital Ecosystems to be the digital counterparts of biological ecosystems, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems, which are considered to be robust, self-organising and scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. Digital Ecosystems are a novel optimisation technique where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration of agents (representing services) which are

Gerard Briscoe; P. De Wilde

2007-01-01

427

Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest,

Dali Wang; Wilfred M Post; Daniel M Ricciuto; Michael Berry

2011-01-01

428

Ecosystem services and human culture Judith Hanna  

E-print Network

Ecosystem services and human culture Judith Hanna (Social science principal specialist) Judith.hanna@naturalengland.org.uk #12;Ecosystem services Constituents of well-beingSupporting­ecologicalprocesses:nutrient cycling:opportunityto achievewhatanindividualvaluesdoingandbeing Simplified from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2003 #12;Source: MEA (2003) #12;Ecosystems

429

PERSPECTIVE Restoration of Ecosystem Services for  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE Restoration of Ecosystem Services for Environmental Markets Margaret A. Palmer1,2 * and Solange Filoso1 Ecological restoration is an activity that ideally results in the return of an ecosystem to an undisturbed state. Ecosystem services are the benefits humans derive from ecosystems. The two have been joined

Palmer, Margaret A.

430

Process-Based Thinking in Ecosystem Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding complex systems such as ecosystems is difficult for young K-12 students, and students' representations of ecosystems are often limited to nebulously defined relationships between macro-level structural components inherent to the ecosystem in focus (rainforest, desert, pond, etc.) instead of generalizing processes across ecosystems…

Jordan, Rebecca C.; Gray, Steven A.; Brooks, Wesley R.; Honwad, Sameer; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

2013-01-01

431

Belowground Dynamics in Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS Mangrove ecosystems are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal communities are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services (fig. 1). Mangrove wetlands are important filters of materials moving between the land and sea, trapping sediment, nutrients, and pollutants in runoff from uplands and preventing their direct introduction into sensitive marine ecosystems such as seagrass beds and coral reefs. Mangroves serve as nursery grounds and refuge for a variety of organisms and are consequently vital to the biological productivity of coastal waters. Furthermore, because mangroves are highly resilient to disturbances such as hurricanes, they represent a self-sustaining, protective barrier for human populations living in the coastal zone. Mangrove ecosystems also contribute to shoreline stabilization through consolidation of unstable mineral sediments and peat formation. In order to help conserve mangrove ecoystems, scientists with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand the dynamics that impact these vital ecosystems.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

432

Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) disturb sediments and fertilize streams with marine-derived nutrients during their annual spawning runs, leading researchers\\u000a to classify these fish as ecosystem engineers and providers of resource subsidies. While these processes strongly influence\\u000a the structure and function of salmon streams, the magnitude of salmon influence varies widely across studies. Here, we use\\u000a meta-analysis to evaluate potential sources

David J. Janetski; Dominic T. Chaloner; Scott D. Tiegs; Gary A. Lamberti

2009-01-01

433

Engineering Engineering Education  

E-print Network

E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

Simaan, Nabil

434

Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response of the Columbia River Response of the Columbia River  

E-print Network

Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response of the Columbia River Response of the Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem to Past and Estuary Ecosystem to Past and Current metrics and ecosystem state resulting from cumulative restoration impacts. 2 #12;Managers Want Answers

435

What is the Ecosystem Commons? Why do we need the Ecosystem Commons?  

E-print Network

What is the Ecosystem Commons? Why do we need the Ecosystem Commons? The overarching goal of Ecosystem Commons is to enhance the use of ecosystem services and related science in conservation at regional and national ecosystem services events and conferences Provide news and information

Escher, Christine

436

Software Ecosystems vs. Natural Ecosystems: Learning from the Ingenious Mind of Nature  

E-print Network

Software Ecosystems vs. Natural Ecosystems: Learning from the Ingenious Mind of Nature Deepak between software eco- systems and natural ecosystems. We therefore compare software ecosystems and natural of ecosystems. We discuss the regulatory factors and mechanisms existing in nature, and then deduce key

437

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

438

Functional traits, the phylogeny of function, and ecosystem service vulnerability  

PubMed Central

People depend on benefits provided by ecological systems. Understanding how these ecosystem services – and the ecosystem properties underpinning them – respond to drivers of change is therefore an urgent priority. We address this challenge through developing a novel risk-assessment framework that integrates ecological and evolutionary perspectives on functional traits to determine species’ effects on ecosystems and their tolerance of environmental changes. We define Specific Effect Function (SEF) as the per-gram or per capita capacity of a species to affect an ecosystem property, and Specific Response Function (SRF) as the ability of a species to maintain or enhance its population as the environment changes. Our risk assessment is based on the idea that the security of ecosystem services depends on how effects (SEFs) and tolerances (SRFs) of organisms – which both depend on combinations of functional traits – correlate across species and how they are arranged on the species’ phylogeny. Four extreme situations are theoretically possible, from minimum concern when SEF and SRF are neither correlated nor show a phylogenetic signal, to maximum concern when they are negatively correlated (i.e., the most important species are the least tolerant) and phylogenetically patterned (lacking independent backup). We illustrate the assessment with five case studies, involving both plant and animal examples. However, the extent to which the frequency of the four plausible outcomes, or their intermediates, apply more widely in real-world ecological systems is an open question that needs empirical evidence, and suggests a research agenda at the interface of evolutionary biology and ecosystem ecology. PMID:24101986

Díaz, Sandra; Purvis, Andy; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Mace, Georgina M; Donoghue, Michael J; Ewers, Robert M; Jordano, Pedro; Pearse, William D

2013-01-01

439

Animal models of subjective tinnitus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus is one of the major audiological diseases, affecting a significant portion of the ageing society. Despite its huge personal and presumed economic impact there are only limited therapeutic options available. The reason for this deficiency lies in the very nature of the disease as it is deeply connected to elementary plasticity of auditory processing in the central nervous system. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for developing a therapy that reverses the plastic changes underlying the pathogenesis of tinnitus. This requires experiments that address individual neurons and small networks, something usually not feasible in human patients. However, in animals such invasive experiments on the level of single neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution are possible. Therefore, animal models are a very critical element in the combined efforts for engineering new therapies. This review provides an overview over the most important features of animal models of tinnitus: which laboratory species are suitable, how to induce tinnitus, and how to characterize the perceived tinnitus by behavioral means. In particular, these aspects of tinnitus animal models are discussed in the light of transferability to the human patients. PMID:24829805

von der Behrens, Wolfger

2014-01-01

440

Ecosystem-level effects of bioturbation by the tadpole shrimp Lepidurus packardi in temporary pond mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An example of ecosystem engineering gaining attention in aquatic systems is bioturbation, the disruption of sediment at the\\u000a water–sediment interface due to burrowing and foraging. One consequence of bioturbation can be increased turbidity from suspended\\u000a sediment, which generally inhibits macrophyte growth and reduces ecosystem functioning. Conversely, bioturbation may promote\\u000a invertebrate species richness by unearthing dormant cysts. Temporary-pond crustaceans are not

Russell C. CroelJamie; Jamie M. Kneitel

2011-01-01

441

Remote sensing and ecosystem modeling for monitoring urban ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an increasingly larger fraction of people is living in cities, there is a growing interest in understanding how the mosaic of buildings, roads, concretes, grassy lawns, gardens and other exotic vegetation functions as an ecosystem and how urban ecosystems services can be enhanced to ensure adequate quality of life to the bulk of the global population. High resolution remote sensing allows separating the mosaic components and their functions with high degree of precision over small surfaces. On the other hand, moderate to coarse resolution remote sensing integrated with ground observations and modeling provides a feasible approach for studying the functioning of these ecosystems and their impacts on the carbon and water cycles across a wide range of geographical settings. Here we present a summary of continental scale analyses based on satellite data from the DMSP/OLS, MODIS, and ecosystem modeling to quantify the impact of urban development on the terrestrial carbon and water cycle in the United States. The results show that urban ecosystems can maintain significantly high levels of photosynthetic capacity, but with fluxes varying largely as a function of vegetation management. Periodical monitoring of these impacts at the regional scale is critical for the appropriate management of urban growth and the sustainable use of natural resources. We will discuss the limitations of the current tools and required sensor improvements for the continued monitoring of these impacts.

Milesi, C.; Elvidge, C.; Potter, C.; Nemani, R.

2007-05-01

442

Microconchids from microbialite ecosystem immediately after end-Permian mass extinction: ecologic selectivity and implications for microbialite ecosystem structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) carbonate successions are often characterized by the presence of microbialite buildups worldwide. The widespread microbialites are believed as indication of microbial proliferation immediately after the P-Tr mass extinction. The death of animals representing the primary consumer trophic structure of marine ecosystem in the P-Tr crisis allows the bloom of microbes as an important primary producer in marine trophic food web structure. Thus, the PTB microbialite builders have been regarded as disaster taxa of the P-Tr ecologic crisis. Microbialite ecosystems were suitable for most organisms to inhabit. However, increasing evidence show that microbialite dwellers are also considerably abundant and diverse, including mainly foraminifers Earlandia sp. and Rectocornuspira sp., lingulid brachiopods, ostrocods, gastropods, and microconchids. In particular, ostracods are extremely abundant in this special ecosystem. Microconchid-like calcareous tubes are also considerably abundant. Here, we have sampled systematically a PTB microbialite deposit from the Dajiang section, southern Guizhou Province, southwest China and have extracted abundant isolated specimens of calcareous worm tubes. Quantitative analysis enables to investigate stratigraphic and facies preferences of microconchids in the PTB microbialites. Our preliminary result indicates that three microconchid species Microconchus sp., Helicoconchus elongates and Microconchus aberrans inhabited in microbialite ecosystem. Most microconchilds occurred in the upper part of the microbialite buildup and the grainstone-packstone microfacies. Very few microconchilds were found in the rocks bearing well-developed microbialite structures. Their stratigraphic and environmental preferences indicate proliferation of those metazoan organisms is coupled with ebb of the microbialite development. They also proliferated in some local niches in which microbial activities were not very active even if those microconchids occur in the PTB microbialite buildups. In addition, the combination of previously published data and present studies indicates that the PTB microbialite ecosystem contained much higher biodiversity than previously expected. The PTB microbialite ecosystems provided habitable niches for some particular fossil groups to survive the P-Tr mass extinction.

Yang, H.; Chen, Z.; Wang, Y. B.; Ou, W.; Liao, W.; Mei, X.

2013-12-01

443

Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of natural variation in flow, and many of the 12 springs types do not develop hydric soils or wetland vegetation. These factors and their normally small size preclude springs as jurisdictional wetlands by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Army Corps of Engineers criteria. Helocrenes (springfed wet meadows, cienegas, and some fens) are considered as wetlands, but the other 11 types of terrestrial springs often are not. The use of the phrase 'GDE' applies to any aquatic ecosystem supported by groundwater, and the utility of this phrase as a descriptor of springs is diluted by its application to all subterranean and surface aquatic habitats. The failure to recognize the importance of springs ecosystems has become a quiet but global crisis, in part due to inappropriate conceptual understanding and poor jurisdictional terminology. We clarify relationships between these concepts and terms to establish effective, consistent monitoring, assessment, restoration, management, and monitoring goals and protocols for improving springs stewardship.

Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

2013-12-01

444

The WSRC Engineering Analyzer  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a multi-platform, multi-program engineering analysis tool that runs in either real-time or post-process modes, providing the analyst with a consistent, adaptable interface for 2-d color animation of time-oriented engineering data on any X-terminal.

Beckmeyer, R.R.; Buckner, M.R.

1992-01-01

445

Data analysis using a data base driven graphics animation system  

SciTech Connect

A graphics animation system has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to assist engineers in the analysis of large amounts of time series data. Most prior attempts at computer animation of data involve the development of large and expensive problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a generalized interactive computer animation system designed to be used in a wide variety of data analysis applications. By using relational data base storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in design and development of animated displays is achieved.

Schwieder, D.H.; Stewart, H.D.; Curtis, J.N.

1985-01-01

446

Ecosystem Services Research Program: LTG 2: Monitor, map, and model ecosystem services at multiple scales  

EPA Science Inventory

Mapping ecosystem services is a high priority and an area of significant ORD expertise. Monitoring will be confined to designing a monitoring system for accounting for ecosystem service changes. This will move EMAP condition monitoring to ecosystem services monitoring, building...

447

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2012-01-01

448

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2011-01-01

449

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2013-01-01

450

Ethology and animal welfare.  

PubMed

Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

Osterhoff, D R

1981-12-01

451

Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this interactive rock cycle animation to help you with your schoolwork! This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle.

2010-01-01

452

Fuel Cell Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

US Department of Energy - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Energy Education and Workforce Development

453

DNA Replication Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an animation to explain DNA replication. It is an interactive simulation activity for students. See also "Transcription and Translation Animation" to get all of the steps from DNA to protein.

Littell, Mcdougal

2012-07-19

454

Peak Ring Crater Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An annotated animation taking the viewer through the sequence of events during an impact, in cross section view. The animation speed cannot be controlled, unfortunately, but the images are large and clear.

Arizona, University O.

455

Animals Making a Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For most animals, finding food is a full-time job. This video segment explores the food-finding strategies of a variety of creatures, illustrating the idea that different animals have very different ways of getting enough to eat.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

456

Animal Reflection Response  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners observe how an animal responds to its own reflection. First, learners will observe the behavior of a small animal in a cage or aquarium (e.g., goldfish, gerbil, bird) for five minutes, grading the animal’s activity level on a scale. Then, learners repeat the observation period after placing a mirror up to the cage or aquarium, comparing the results. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

2012-06-26

457

Live like an Animal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students design an innovative human shelter that is inspired and informed by an animal structure. Each group is assigned an animal class, and they gather information about shelters used by the animals in that class. After researching the topic and brainstorming ideas, students build small prototypes (models) of the structures. Finally, they present their products, explaining what attribute of the animal structure influenced their design.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

458

ABC of animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the ABC of Animation is to create an entertaining infomercial without the angst and confusion surrounding high-end 3D animation. The ABC demonstrates that animation is not exclusive nor nerdy, but fun and beautiful. This infomercial showcases Cirkus as a talented company with a sense of humor.

Felicia Brunsting

2011-01-01

459

Purdue extension Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

, testing, quarantine, eradication, and recovery efforts prior to, during, and after the animal diseasePurdue extension AS-572-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West. of Animal Sciences, Purdue University; P. Brennan, Indiana State Poultry Association; M. Kopp, DVM, and M

460

Invent an Animal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity and game, learners explore how animals adapt for survival through coloration, markings and camouflage. By inventing, designing and hiding their own animal models, and hunting for other learners' hidden animals, learners investigate how predators and prey also use shape and behavior to blend into their habitats, so they can succeessfully hunt for food or escape from being eaten.

2012-06-26

461

Animal Behavior Biology 350  

E-print Network

Animal Behavior Biology 350 Spring 2012 Course Description: This course is an introduction to the world of animal behavior, especially from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. Course content will focus around the discussion of the following questions: 1. How do animals use behavior to solve basic

Arévalo, Elisabeth

462

Ethics and animal experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions related to the ethics of research with animals have received little attention, and this is a serious omission. The specialized vocabulary of experimental psychology is an important factor in creating and maintaining current attitudes toward laboratory animals. In most experiments in which pain is inflicted on animals, no significant human need is being met. Also, much of the literature

Alan D. Bowd

1980-01-01

463

Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret  

E-print Network

Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret INRIA, Syntim Project B.P. 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France of animating complex repetitive geometries, like the effects produced by the wind in a wheat field, or fur], hypertextures [7], volumetric textures [4, 5]. Animating these objects is also a very important point

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

Hinshaw, Craig

2003-01-01

465

Animals in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners use a Flash animation running in a browser to study how animals and humans move. Students examine images captured by Eadweard Muybridge in the late nineteenth century; by starting, slowing, and stopping the animation, learners gain valuable insights into biomechanics of bipeds and quadrupeds.

466

FORMULARY FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS  

E-print Network

, and safety. In many clinical situations, laboratory animal veterinarians do not have available approved drugs in the Department of Laboratory Animal Science, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals Research and DevelopmentFORMULARY FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS SECOND EDITION Compiled by C. TERRANCE HAWK PhD, DVM, Dipl. ACLAM

Arnold, Jonathan

467

Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia;)

2003-01-01

468

Ecosystem structure and function modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An important component of ecological assessments is the ability to predict and display changes in ecosystem structure and function over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. These changes can occur over short (less than 1 year) or long time frames (over 100 years). Models may emphasize structural responses (changes in species composition, growth forms, canopy height, amount of old growth, etc.) or functional responses (cycling of carbon, nutrients, and water). Both are needed to display changes in ecosystem components for use in robust ecological assessments. Structure and function models vary in the ecosystem components included, algorithms employed, level of detail, and spatial and temporal scales incorporated. They range from models that track individual organisms to models of broad-scale landscape changes. This chapter describes models appropriate for ecological assessments. The models selected for inclusion can be implemented in a spatial framework and for the most part have been run in more than one system.

Humphries, H.C.; Baron, J.S.

2001-01-01

469

Required Signage for Animal Facilities and Animal Procedure Areas  

E-print Network

Required Signage for Animal Facilities and Animal Procedure Areas The intent of this standard operating procedure (SOP) is to identify the required signs that must be posted in animal facilities and animal procedure areas. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Animal Facility Entrances 2. Animal Holding Rooms 3. Animal

Manning, Sturt

470

National Science Foundation: The Secret Lives of Wild Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are wild animals up to all the time? Curious minds want to know, and this interactive and visually stimulating site from the National Science Foundation is just the place to find out. First-time visitors should click over to the Introduction to learn about how the NSF's interdisciplinary team of scientists is designing innovative tracking and information-management systems to learn exactly how animals spend their minutes, days, and years negotiating within an ecosystem for food and mates. Moving on, visitors can click on one of five animals (such as Deer, Dragonfly, or Zebra) to learn about the tracking technology being used to study their movements and activities. Also, visitors can learn some quick facts about each animal, view a short movie of the animal in the wild, and find out who is currently conducting research. It's a great site, and one that could be effectively used in a biology or zoology course.

471

[Animals and environmentalist ethics].  

PubMed

While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

Guichet, Jean-Luc

2013-01-01

472

Developmental strategies for sustainable ecosystem on mine spoil dumps: a case of study.  

PubMed

An important goal of ecological rehabilitation is to accelerate natural successional processes to increase biological productivity, soil fertility and biotic control over biogeochemical fluxes within the recovering ecosystems. A new approach called Microbe Assisted Green Technology (MAGT) is an integrated biotechnological approach developed at National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) through exhaustive laboratory as well as field studies and serve as a model for land reclamation and development of lush green vegetation on mine overburdens. One year old seedlings of native tree species were planted on 6.3 ha area of manganese mine overburden at Gumgaon under Manganese Ore India Ltd., Maharashtra, India. Continuous efforts resulted in nutrient rich soil with high N, P, K and organic carbon; well developed biodiversity, including bacteria, fungi, higher plants (more than 350 species) and different classes of animals. Planted trees accumulated 698 t ha( - 1) above ground biomass and 143 t ha( - 1) below ground mass. This was achieved in 18 years by MAGT, which otherwise takes hundreds of years. PMID:18850289

Juwarkar, Asha A; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Thawale, P R; Kumar, P; Singh, S K; Chakrabarti, T

2009-10-01

473

Effects of ozone on ecosystems -- ecosystem indicators of concern  

SciTech Connect

Ozone has been recognized as an important cause of damage to crops since the 1950s. Damage to trees was first identified in the 1960s and is now known to be widespread in both North America and Europe. Most impact studies have emphasized the importance of determining growth losses attributable to ozone and as a result have concentrated on species of commercial importance. This is illustrated by the critical loads approach to ozone risk assessment in Europe, which is currently based on the AOT40 -- 10 ppmh threshold. At higher levels, it has been argued that a 10% growth reduction occurs in European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Such an approach suffers from a number of serious limitations, not least the widespread impacts on ecosystems that may occur at lower ozone exposures and the very poor quantitative basis for setting this threshold. In Europe, there has been increasing emphasis on the conservation and management of species without any direct economic importance. This has arisen from a growing environmental awareness of the general public. The trend has been accelerated by the perceived environmental benefits of the large amounts of land that has been taken out of agricultural production (as a result of the ``set-aside`` policy of the European Union) and the public concern about the ecological and environmental impacts of industrial forestry. In agricultural landscapes, hedgerow species and weed species are being looked at as important parts of the agricultural ecosystem. In particular, weed species are an important part of the food chain for the wildlife present in such ecosystems. In forests, much greater emphasis is being given to the authenticity of the forest ecosystems. Particular emphasis is being given to ecosystem management techniques such as continuous cover forestry and the furthering of natural regeneration.

Innes, J.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

1998-12-31

474

36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No...

2011-07-01

475

36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No...

2010-07-01

476

Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

2011-01-01

477

PLEISTOCENE PARK: REESTABLISHMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL STEPPE ECOSYSTEM IN NORTHEAST SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We propose to create a grassland ecosystem maintained by large northern herbivores similar to that which existed in Siberia 10,000-100,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Bison, horses, muskoxen, caribou, and moose will be introduced to 'Pleistocene Park', a scientific reserve in northeast Siberia. This region supported large herds of these animals and of mammoths during the Pleistocene. These

Sergei A. Zimov; F. Stuart Chapin; Melissa Chapin

478

THE YEAR IN ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, 2009 Effects of Air Pollution on Ecosystems  

E-print Network

THE YEAR IN ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, 2009 Effects of Air Pollution on Ecosystems change, and invasive species as prime threats to biodiversity conservation. Although air pollution. In this synthesis, the state of scientific knowledge on the effects of air pollution on plants and animals

Weathers, Kathleen C.

479

Population dynamics of species-rich ecosystems: the mixture of matrix population models approach  

E-print Network

-rich ecosystems, population dynamics Introduction The conservation of animal and plant species and their biologi popula- tion demography in the context of species invasion (Hooten et al. 2007; Sebert-Cuvillier et al, tropical marine fish or coral reefs, high diversity implies that the sample size for most species

Rossi, Vivien

480

Ecosystem management to achieve ecological sustainability: The case of South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecosystems of South Florida are unique in the world. The defining features of the natural Everglades (large spatial scale, temporal patterns of water storage and sheetflow, and low nutrient levels) historically allowed a mosaic of habitats with characteristic animals. Massive hydrological alterations have halved the Everglades, and ecological sustainability requires fundamental changes in management. The US Man and the

Mark A. Harwell; John F. Long; Ann M. Bartuska; John H. Gentile; Christine C. Harwell; Victoria Myers; John C. Ogden

1996-01-01

481

Influence of metal process micronic and submicronic particles on vegetables quality and ecosystems.  

E-print Network

measured and simulated lead plant uptake values. Ageing effect in polluted soils was highlighted from the air as fine particles, metals could become toxic for terrestrial ecosystem including plants foliar surfaces and short life-cycle; and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.) main plant eaten by animals, were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

482

Using Grizzly Bears to Assess Harvest-Ecosystem Tradeoffs in Salmon Fisheries  

E-print Network

Using Grizzly Bears to Assess Harvest-Ecosystem Tradeoffs in Salmon Fisheries Taal Levi1 bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities

Wilmers, Chris

483

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. D...

484