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1

Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.

JONATHAN W. MOORE (;)

2006-03-01

2

Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in \\

R. S. Wotton

2005-01-01

3

Animal Ecosystem Engineers Modulate the Diversity-Invasibility Relationship  

PubMed Central

Background Invasions of natural communities by non-indigenous species are currently rated as one of the most important global-scale threats to biodiversity. Biodiversity itself is known to reduce invasions and increase stability. Disturbances by ecosystem engineers affect the distribution, establishment, and abundance of species but this has been ignored in studies on diversity-invasibility relationships. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined natural plant invasion into 46 plots varying in the number of plant species (1, 4, and 16) and plant functional groups (1, 2, 3, and 4) for three years beginning two years after the establishment of the Jena Experiment. We sampled subplots where earthworms were artificially added and others where earthworm abundance was reduced. We also performed a seed-dummy experiment to investigate the role of earthworms as secondary seed dispersers along a plant diversity gradient. Horizontal dispersal and burial of seed dummies were significantly reduced in subplots where earthworms were reduced in abundance. Seed dispersal by earthworms decreased with increasing plant species richness and presence of grasses but increased in presence of small herbs. These results suggest that dense vegetation inhibits the surface activity of earthworms. Further, there was a positive relationship between the number of earthworms and the number and diversity of invasive plants. Hence, earthworms decreased the stability of grassland communities against plant invasion. Conclusions/Significance Invasibility decreased and stability increased with increasing plant diversity and, most remarkably, earthworms modulated the diversity-invasibility relationship. While the impacts of earthworms were unimportant in low diverse (low earthworm densities) and high diverse (high floral structural complexity) plant communities, earthworms decreased the stability of intermediate diverse plant communities against plant invasion. Overall, the results document that fundamental processes in plant communities like plant seed burial and invader establishment are modulated by soil fauna calling for closer cooperation between soil animal and plant ecologists.

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scheu, Stefan

2008-01-01

4

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

2000-01-01

5

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

2011-09-22

6

Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

7

Patch dynamics in a landscape modified by ecosystem engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem engineers, organisms that modify the environment, have the potential to dramatically alter ecosystem structure and function at large spatial scales. The degree to which ecosystem engineering produces large-scale effects is, in part, dependent on the dynamics of the patches that engineers create. Here we develop a set of models that links the population dynamics of ecosystem engineers to the

Justin P. Wright; William S. C. Gurney; Clive G. Jones

2004-01-01

8

Ecosystem engineers and geomorphological signatures in landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeomorphologists study the roles of biota in landscape formation and decay. Ecologists interested in ecosystem engineering study environmental change caused by biota and the consequences for the engineer, other organisms, and ecological processes. The interface is geomorphological change, an interface both are aware of but study somewhat independently and differently. Interaction and integration among the two fields is the goal

Clive G. Jones

9

Context dependence of marine ecosystem engineer invasion impacts on benthic ecosystem functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced ecosystem engineers can severely modify the functioning on invaded systems. Species-level effects on ecosystem\\u000a functioning (EF) are context dependent, but the effects of introduced ecosystem engineers are frequently assessed through\\u000a single-location studies. The present work aimed to identify sources of context-dependence that can regulate the impacts of\\u000a invasive ecosystem engineers on ecosystem functioning. As model systems, four locations where

Ana de Moura Queirós; Jan Geert Hiddink; Gareth Johnson; Henrique Nogueira Cabral; Michel Joseph Kaiser

2011-01-01

10

Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in coastal sediments: posing hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal sediments in sheltered temperate locations are strongly modified by ecosystem engineering species such as marsh plants, seagrass, and algae as well as by epibenthic and endobenthic invertebrates. These ecosystem engineers are shaping the coastal sea and landscape, control particulate and dissolved material fluxes between the land and sea, and between the benthos and the passing water or air. Above all, habitat engineering exerts facilitating and inhibiting effects on biodiversity. Despite a strongly growing interest in the functional role of ecosystem engineering over the recent years, compared to food web analyses, the conceptual understanding of engineering-mediated species interactions is still in its infancy. In the present paper, we provide a concise overview on current insights and propose two hypotheses on the general mechanisms by which ecosystem engineering may affect biodiversity in coastal sediments. We hypothesise that autogenic and allogenic ecosystem engineers have inverse effects on epibenthic and endobenthic biodiversity in coastal sediments. The primarily autogenic structures of the epibenthos achieve high diversity at the expense of endobenthos, whilst allogenic sediment reworking by infauna may facilitate other infauna and inhibits epibenthos. On a larger scale, these antagonistic processes generate patchiness and habitat diversity. Due to such interaction, anthropogenic influences can strongly modify the engineering community by removing autogenic ecosystem engineers through coastal engineering or bottom trawling. Another source of anthropogenic influences comes from introducing invasive engineers, from which the impact is often hard to predict. We hypothesise that the local biodiversity effects of invasive ecosystem engineers will depend on the engineering strength of the invasive species, with engineering strength defined as the number of habitats it can invade and the extent of modification. At a larger scale of an entire shore, biodiversity need not be decreased by invasive engineers and may even increase. On a global scale, invasive engineers may cause shore biota to converge, especially visually due to the presence of epibenthic structures.

Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Olenin, Sergej; Reise, Karsten; Ysebaert, Tom

2009-03-01

11

Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the adjacent areas of open channel with minimal macrophyte growth. Uprooting resistances were considerable and differences were found both between species and over the annual growth cycle. T. latifolia showed the greatest uprooting resistance and P. arundinacea the lowest uprooting resistance. Maximum uprooting resistance for all species was in June. The sampled sediments were found to be a store of metals. For all macrophyte species, the below-ground tissues (roots and rhizomes) generally had greater metal concentrations than above-ground tissues (stem and leafs). The results from this research will help inform the use of macrophytes in the management of sediment-contaminated urban rivers.

Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

2012-04-01

12

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

13

Ecosystem engineering impact of Limnoperna fortunei in South America.  

PubMed

Limnoperna fortunei, or golden mussel, has invaded aquatic ecosystems in the Americas following it introduction from Southeast Asia. It is not only an aggressive invasive species, it is also a very effective ecosystem engineer, altering both ecosystem structure and function, and causes great ecological and economic impacts. This paper describes its impact as an ecosystem engineer (on benthic communities and the water column). A review of the existing scientific literature is presented, and the impact and the mechanisms by which the golden mussel modifies, maintains, and creates new environmental conditions in the invaded South American inland freshwater environments are analyzed. Understanding the ecosystem engineering roles of L. fortunei is important for its management and/or control in the invaded areas, and in cases of future invasions. PMID:21186940

Darrigran, Gustavo; Damborenea, Cristina

2011-01-01

14

Microbial assemblages as ecosystem engineers of sediment stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Sediment erosion and transport is a governing factor in the ecological and commercial health of aquatic ecosystems from the\\u000a watershed to the sea. There is now a general consensus that biogenic mediation of submersed sediments contributes significantly\\u000a to the resistance of the bed to physical forcing. This important ecosystem function has mainly been linked to microalgae (“ecosystem\\u000a engineers”) and their

Sabine Ulrike Gerbersdorf; Robert Bittner; Helen Lubarsky; Werner Manz; David M. Paterson

2009-01-01

15

Spontaneous and genetically engineered animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preclinical development of anticancer drugs has been based primarily on the transplantation of murine or human cancers into mice. Alternatives to these transplantation models are animals that naturally develop cancers with features relevant to the human disease. The first group of these models arises in mice that are genetically engineered to develop cancer. The second group includes pet dogs

K Hansen; C Khanna

2004-01-01

16

Effects of two antagonistic ecosystem engineers on infaunal diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of ecosystem engineers has been highlighted in recent decades because of their importance for ecosystem functioning, although the interaction between different antagonistic engineer species and their effects on ecosystems have been so far poorly investigated. Coastal areas are good natural laboratories to explore such interactions, since they are often inhabited by macrophyte beds (autogenic engineers) and bioturbator species (allogenic engineers) with antagonistic effects on ecosystem properties and processes (e.g. species diversity, nutrient fluxes, etc.). The main goal of this study was to determine how coexisting antagonistic ecosystem engineers could influence benthic diversity and available resources in soft-bottom areas. To achieve this goal, a two-month experiment was carried out in situ by introducing artificial seagrass patches in a soft-bottom area inhabited by the fiddler crab Uca tangeri. Both the experimental exclusion of burrows as well as the presence of artificial seagrass-like structures (mimics) resulted in higher macrobenthic density and species richness in the benthic community. Resource availability for organisms (sediment chlorophyll a and epiphytes) was also favoured by the presence of mimics. Therefore, the higher structural complexity (above- and below-ground) associated with seagrass mimics promoted positive effects for infauna such as creation of a new habitat ready to colonize, reduction of the crab burrowing activity and the enhancement of resource availability, which resulted in increased diversity in the benthic community.

González-Ortiz, V.; Alcazar, P.; Vergara, J. J.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. L.; Brun, F. G.

2014-02-01

17

Geomorphological implications of engineering bed sediments by lotic animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: < 10- 6- < 10- 15) for nine sediment variables describing baseflow and flood-induced sediment transport as well as sediment surface modifications. For example, bioturbator biomass and/or algal abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~ 70 and ~ 90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial sediments over three orders of magnitude and (ii) frequencies of mass transport events over five orders of magnitude. The fastest way to identify promising subsequent research routes in this field would be through a variety of abundance manipulations of lotic organisms (animals and plants having different mechanistic sediment-engineering abilities) in real rivers in combination with a simple approach to assess the critical shear stress in situ for varying types of sediments. This would require joint research by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists, and ecologists.

Statzner, Bernhard

2012-07-01

18

Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

19

Physical Ecosystem Engineers as Agents of Biogeochemical Heterogeneity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article form BioScience is about organisms that act as agents of biogeochemical heterogeneity. Physical ecosystem engineers are organisms that physically modify the abiotic environment. They can affect biogeochemical processing by changing the availability of resources for microbes (e.g., carbon, nutrients) or by changing abiotic conditions affecting microbial process rates (e.g., soil moisture or temperature). Physical ecosystem engineers can therefore create biogeochemical heterogeneity in soils and sediments. They do so via general mechanisms influencing the flows of materials (i.e., modification of fluid dynamic properties, fluid pumping, and material transport) or the transfer of heat (i.e., modification of heat transfer properties, direct heat transfer, and convective forcing). The consequences of physical ecosystem engineering for biogeochemical processes can be predicted by considering the resources or abiotic conditions that limit or promote a reaction, and the effect of physical ecosystem engineering on these resources or abiotic conditions via the control they exert on material flows and heat transfer.

JORGE L. GUTIÃÂÃÂRREZ and CLIVE G. JONES (;)

2006-03-01

20

The influence of animals on phosphorus cycling in lake ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic animals directly influence the cycling of phosphorus in lakes through feeding and excretion. Traditionally, animals (zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) have been assigned only minor roles in the process of freshwater phosphorus cycling. They were regarded as consumers without much regulating influence. Today there is growing evidence that animals, predators and herbivores, directly or indirectly can control biomass of

Gunnar Andersson; Wilhelm Granéli; Jan Stenson

1988-01-01

21

Evidence for and geomorphologic consequences of a reptilian ecosystem engineer: The burrowing cascade initiated by the Gopher Tortoise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical ecosystem engineers often make major, durable physical constructs that can provide living space for other species and can structure local animal communities over evolutionary time. In Florida, a medium sized chelonian, the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) will excavate extensive subterranean chambers that can endure for long periods of time. The tortoise starts a ‘burrowing cascade’, by first excavating a

A. Kinlaw; M. Grasmueck

22

Engineered ecosystem for sustainable on-site wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale engineered ecosystem (PSEE) operated for over 2 years in sub-tropical conditions, produced an effluent with COD (median 38mg\\/L) and TSS (median 3mg\\/L) levels comparable to that required by the AS\\/NZS 1547:2000 Onsite Domestic Wastewater Management standard. Only partial nitrification was achieved as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia occurred; however the level of NH4-N was reduced by 75% and

Lydia J. Kavanagh; Jurg Keller

2007-01-01

23

Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands). Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight) were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW). The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the role of this ecosystem engineer may be variable and sometimes have no or even negative effects on stability, conversely to what it should be expected based on current research knowledge.

Rossi, Francesca; Gribsholt, Britta; Gazeau, Frederic; Di Santo, Valentina; Middelburg, Jack J.

2013-01-01

24

THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, \\

Guy M. Narbonne

2005-01-01

25

Advanced Animation Engine for User-Interface Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an improved animation system for user-interface robots. The animation system is based on the animation engine presented by van Breemen, A.J.N. (2004), and uses animation channels for playing and blending multiple animations concurrently. The presented improvement is twofold. First, this paper describes an extension to the computational structure of an animation channel. A fading mechanism is added

Albert J. N. Van Breemen; Yan Xue

2006-01-01

26

Reef-forming polychaetes outcompetes ecosystem engineering mussels.  

PubMed

In order to understand changes in the functioning and the community structure of intertidal ecosystem in sewage-impacted sites, a long-term monitoring coverage study (2004-2011) was carried out on abrasion platforms of the SW Atlantic. The intertidal zone is characterized by the mytilid Brachidontes rodriguezii, an ecosystem engineer. Since the austral spring of 2008, a demographic explosion of an invader polychaetes, Boccardia proboscidea, has produced massive biogenic structures around the sewage discharge outfall. Cover percentage of this polychaete reached almost 100% in sewage-impacted sites but low or no coverage at all in Reference Sites. The density of B. rodriguezii declined due to the biogenic reefs stifles these mytilids. The massive settlement of B. proboscidea among mussels, the rapid growth and the tube construction smothers the mussels in sewage-impacted sites. PMID:23601692

Jaubet, María L; Garaffo, Griselda V; Sánchez, María A; Elías, Rodolfo

2013-06-15

27

THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, "failed experiments" in animal evolution, and perhaps representatives of other eukaryotic kingdoms. These soft-bodied organisms were preserved under (or rarely within) event beds of sand or volcanic ash, and four distinct preservational styles (Flinders-, Fermeuse-, Conception-, and Nama-style) profoundly affected the types of organisms and features that could be preserved. Even the earliest Ediacaran communities (575-565 Ma) show vertical and lateral niche subdivision of the sessile, benthic, filter-feeding organisms, which is strikingly like that of Phanerozoic and modern communities. Later biological and ecological innovations include mobility (>555 Ma), calcification (550 Ma), and predation (<549 Ma). The Ediacara biota abruptly disappeared 542 million years ago, probably as a consequence of mass extinction andor biological interactions with the rapidly evolving animals of the Cambrian explosio

Narbonne, Guy M.

2005-01-01

28

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

29

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many emerging infectious diseases in human populations are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on\\u000a wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic pathogens of recent concern to human health either originate in, or are transferred\\u000a to, human populations from domesticated animals raised for human consumption. Thus, the ecological context of emerging infectious\\u000a disease comprises two overlapping ecosystems: the natural

Jessica H. Leibler; Joachim Otte; David Roland-Holst; Dirk U. Pfeiffer; Ricardo Soares Magalhaes; Jonathan Rushton; Jay P. Graham; Ellen K. Silbergeld

2009-01-01

30

Biodiversity of Plants and Animals in Mountain Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Synopsis  Biodiversity in NW China is discussed. Four specific issues are dealt with in this chapter: (i) plant responses to grazing;\\u000a (ii) plant invasions; (iii) the responses to management of valued rangeland biota (plants and animals); and (iv) vulnerability\\u000a to climate change. Case studies in Gansu and in Xinjiang are presented.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Biodiversity is a multifaceted phenomenon involving the

Zhao Cheng-Zhang; Victor Squires

31

Tabizi Pythons and Clendro Hawks: Using Imaginary Animals to Achieve Real Knowledge about Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes how he used to teach a unit on food webs and ecosystems using actual food webs as models. However, the models used by the author tend to be either too simplistic or too complicated for his students. A few years ago, he solved these problems by making up his own food web, complete with invented plants and animals. The model has…

Rockow, Michael

2007-01-01

32

Role of genetically engineered animals in future food production.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) animals are likely to have an important role in the future in meeting the food demand of a burgeoning global population. There have already been many notable achievements using this technology in livestock, poultry and aquatic species. In particular, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to produce virus-resistant animals is a rapidly-developing area of research. However, despite the promise of this technology, very few GE animals have been commercialised. This review aims to provide information so that veterinarians and animal health scientists are better able to participate in the debate on GE animals. PMID:23438464

McColl, K A; Clarke, B; Doran, T J

2013-03-01

33

Riparian and Aquatic Plants as River Ecosystem Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluvial riparian and aquatic patch mosaic varies along rivers according to geomorphological setting, hydrological regime, sediment supply and surface-groundwater connectivity. This relation between physical processes and plants is not unidirectional but reflects a complex set of interactions. In particular, riparian and aquatic plants frequently act as physical ecosystem engineers, modifying their environment through the creation of landforms that contribute to rapid river channel adjustment. The plants trap and stabilize sediments, organic matter and propagules of other plant species. This process modifies the local sedimentary and morphological environment, driving the development of pioneer landforms and associated habitats, and facilitating the rapid establishment of other plants on these landforms, in turn reinforcing landform and habitat development. This process underpins the development of landforms such as river banks, islands and floodplains. This paper reviews knowledge on the hydrogeomorphological significance of riparian and aquatic vegetation. It presents a conceptual model that links the development of pioneer landforms by engineering plants with river morphology and morphodynamics, with particular reference to humid temperate, mixed load, floodplain rivers. It demonstrates how different plants and pioneer landforms act at the interface between the plant-dominated and fluvial-disturbance dominated zones of the river corridor as river energy and vegetation colonisation and growth vary.

Gurnell, A. M.

2012-04-01

34

Animal Models for the Evaluation of Tissue Engineering Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the last decade, tissue engineering has attracted a considerable amount of attention in medical research. Obviously, tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs need to be tested for their safety and efficacy before they can be used in the daily clinic. At present, animal\\u000a models offer the best possibility to do so. Each medical specialty favors its own specific model to test tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs.

Daniel A. W. Oortgiesen; Gert J. Meijer; Rob B. M. Vries; X. Frank Walboomers; John A. Jansen

35

Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

Traci Warkentin

2006-01-01

36

Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

Traci Warkentin

37

Meta-ecosystem engineering: nutrient fluxes reveal intraspecific and interspecific feedbacks in fragmented mussel beds.  

PubMed

Ecologists still have to elucidate the complex feedback interactions operating among biodiversity and ecosystem processes in engineered systems. To address this, a field experiment was conducted to mimic natural mussel bed meta-ecosystems (Mytilus spp.) of the lower St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) and partition the effects of their biotic and abiotic properties and spatial structure on ecosystem processes and community dynamics of associated macro-invertebrates. We found positive intraspecific feedbacks between mussels and their recruits, and negative interspecific feedbacks between mussels and their associated ecosystem. These feedbacks were associated with mussel bed ecosystem processes (fluxes of ammonium and oxygen). In addition, we showed that proximity between mussel patches increased within-patch nutrient fluxes. Our study revealed the potential for meta-ecosystem engineering to drive feedback interactions between community and ecosystem functioning in marine fragmented systems. It also shows the relevance of meta-ecosystem theories as a conceptual framework to elucidate biotic and abiotic processes controlling ecosystem and community structure. Such framework could contribute to ecosystem-based management of spatially structured systems such as reserve networks and fragmented ecosystems. PMID:22624314

Largaespada, César; Guichard, Frédéric; Archambault, Philippe

2012-02-01

38

Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer  

PubMed Central

Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010–mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment.

Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

2013-01-01

39

Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer.  

PubMed

Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010-mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment. PMID:23532482

Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

2013-03-01

40

Engineered ecosystem for sustainable on-site wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale engineered ecosystem (PSEE) operated for over 2 years in sub-tropical conditions, produced an effluent with COD (median 38 mg/L) and TSS (median 3mg/L) levels comparable to that required by the AS/NZS 1547:2000 Onsite Domestic Wastewater Management standard. Only partial nitrification was achieved as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia occurred; however the level of NH(4)-N was reduced by 75% and total inorganic nitrogen by 53%. Phosphorus was not removed by the system due to the lack of regular sludge removal. Mass balances around the system showed that bacteria removed 36% of the influent nitrogen and 76% of the influent COD. Algae and plants were shown to remove 5% of the influent nitrogen, and 6% of the influent phosphorus. Challenges in developing a sustainable on-site wastewater treatment system were largely met by minimising chemical, energy and labour inputs, eliminating the need for frequent sludge handling, and creating an effluent quality suitable for re-use in non-potable applications. However, the sludge removal from the system needs to be adequately managed to avoid excessive accumulation as this can cause a range of negative impacts. PMID:17320145

Kavanagh, Lydia J; Keller, Jurg

2007-04-01

41

The Role of Plants as Ecosystem Engineers in Resilience to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In drylands landscape structure is controlled by two ecosystem engineers, soil microphytes and shrubs. Soil microphytes adhere the soil particles by secreting polysaccharides, thus forming biogenic soil crusts. Shrubs engineer the environment above and below ground. Above ground they can form soil mounds and below ground modulate the soil properties by their roots. The two engineering modes create shrub patches

Moshe Shachak; Shmuel Arbel; Bertrand Boeken; Moran Segoli; Eugene Ungar; Eli Zaady

2010-01-01

42

Phosphorus-mobilization ecosystem engineering: the roles of cluster roots and carboxylate exudation in young P-limited ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxylate-releasing cluster roots of Proteaceae play a key role in acquiring phosphorus (P) from ancient nutrient-impoverished soils in Australia. However, cluster roots are also found in Proteaceae on young, P-rich soils in Chile where they allow P acquisition from soils that strongly sorb P. Scope Unlike Proteaceae in Australia that tend to proficiently remobilize P from senescent leaves, Chilean Proteaceae produce leaf litter rich in P. Consequently, they may act as ecosystem engineers, providing P for plants without specialized roots to access sorbed P. We propose a similar ecosystem-engineering role for species that release large amounts of carboxylates in other relatively young, strongly P-sorbing substrates, e.g. young acidic volcanic deposits and calcareous dunes. Many of these species also fix atmospheric nitrogen and release nutrient-rich litter, but their role as ecosystem engineers is commonly ascribed only to their diazotrophic nature. Conclusions We propose that the P-mobilizing capacity of Proteaceae on young soils, which contain an abundance of P, but where P is poorly available, in combination with inefficient nutrient remobilization from senescing leaves allows these species to function as ecosystem engineers. We suggest that diazotrophic species that colonize young soils with strong P-sorption potential should be considered for their positive effect on P availability, as well as their widely accepted role in nitrogen fixation. Their P-mobilizing activity possibly also enhances their nitrogen-fixing capacity. These diazotrophic species may therefore facilitate the establishment and growth of species with less-efficient P-uptake strategies on more-developed soils with low P availability through similar mechanisms. We argue that the significance of cluster roots and high carboxylate exudation in the development of young ecosystems is probably far more important than has been envisaged thus far.

Lambers, Hans; Bishop, John G.; Hopper, Stephen D.; Laliberte, Etienne; Zuniga-Feest, Alejandra

2012-01-01

43

Genetically Engineered Animal Models of Human Neurodegenerative Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a single gene, engineered to be normally or abnormally expressed, can be evaluated in vivo through the development of transgenic animals. Application of this approach in the study of human neurological problems is contributing to an increased understanding of the pathogenic components operative in a variety of disorders. These include Alzheimer's disease, prion encephalopathies, motor neuron disease

Linda S. Higgins; Barbara Cordell

1995-01-01

44

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

45

Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.  

PubMed

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380

Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

2011-11-01

46

Genetically engineered mice as animal models for NIDDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered animals carrying defined alterations in their genome can represent invaluable tools for better understanding complex polygenic diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) at the molecular level. The structure or expression of a number of genes potentially involved in insulin action or pancreatic ?-cell function have recently been altered in the mouse using transgenic or gene-targeting approaches. The

Rajiv L Joshi; Betty Lamothe; Danielle Bucchini; Jacques Jami

1997-01-01

47

Biodiversity's Response to Ecosystem Productivity Depends on Historical Plant and Animal Relationships  

NSF Publications Database

... stwombly@nsf.gov Biodiversity's Response to Ecosystem Productivity Depends on Historical Plant and ... is a predictor of future biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. "Despite its importance, species ...

48

Assuring consumer safety without animals: Applications for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals in their everyday lives through interactions with the environment and through the use of consumer products. It is a basic requirement that these products are tested to assure they are safe under normal and reasonably foreseeable conditions of use. Within the European Union, the majority of tests used for generating toxicological data rely on animals. However recent changes in legislation (e.g., 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive and REACH) are driving researchers to develop and adopt non-animal alternative methods with which to assure human safety. Great strides have been made to this effect, but what other opportunities/technologies exist that could expedite this? Tissue engineering has increasing scope to contribute to replacing animals with scientifically robust alternatives in basic research and safety testing, but is this application of the technology being fully exploited? This review highlights how the consumer products industry is applying tissue engineering to ensure chemicals are safe for human use without using animals, and identifies areas for future development and application of the technology. PMID:19794902

Westmoreland, Carl; Holmes, Anthony M

2009-04-01

49

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecosystems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

50

Soil animal responses to moisture availability are largely scale, not ecosystem dependent: insight from a cross-site study.  

PubMed

Climate change will result in reduced soil water availability in much of the world either due to changes in precipitation or increased temperature and evapotranspiration. How communities of mites and nematodes may respond to changes in moisture availability is not well known, yet these organisms play important roles in decomposition and nutrient cycling processes. We determined how communities of these organisms respond to changes in moisture availability and whether common patterns occur along fine-scale gradients of soil moisture within four individual ecosystem types (mesic, xeric and arid grasslands and a polar desert) located in the western United States and Antarctica, as well as across a cross-ecosystem moisture gradient (CEMG) of all four ecosystems considered together. An elevation transect of three sampling plots was monitored within each ecosystem and soil samples were collected from these plots and from existing experimental precipitation manipulations within each ecosystem once in fall of 2009 and three times each in 2010 and 2011. Mites and nematodes were sorted to trophic groups and analyzed to determine community responses to changes in soil moisture availability. We found that while both mites and nematodes increased with available soil moisture across the CEMG, within individual ecosystems, increases in soil moisture resulted in decreases to nematode communities at all but the arid grassland ecosystem; mites showed no responses at any ecosystem. In addition, we found changes in proportional abundances of mite and nematode trophic groups as soil moisture increased within individual ecosystems, which may result in shifts within soil food webs with important consequences for ecosystem functioning. We suggest that communities of soil animals at local scales may respond predictably to changes in moisture availability regardless of ecosystem type but that additional factors, such as climate variability, vegetation composition, and soil properties may influence this relationship over larger scales. PMID:24399762

Sylvain, Zachary A; Wall, Diana H; Cherwin, Karie L; Peters, Debra P C; Reichmann, Lara G; Sala, Osvaldo E

2014-08-01

51

Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

52

Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

53

Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.  

PubMed

Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the functionality of tropical forests can be maintained in moderately disturbed forest fragments. Conservation concepts for tropical forests should thus include not only remaining pristine forests but also functionally viable forest remnants. PMID:22114695

Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Naumann, Clas M; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

2011-01-01

54

Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest  

PubMed Central

Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the functionality of tropical forests can be maintained in moderately disturbed forest fragments. Conservation concepts for tropical forests should thus include not only remaining pristine forests but also functionally viable forest remnants.

Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Barbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wagele, J. Wolfgang; Bohning-Gaese, Katrin

2011-01-01

55

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Ecosystems" module has four units of instruction. The units include: natural selection, population balance, exchange cycles, and environmental protection. Each module has a "Hazards" link that leads to a menu of study units on various environmental hazards (such as oil spills, farm runoff, insecticides, and so on).

Klemm, W. R.

2002-01-01

56

Patterns of Reasoning Exhibited by Children and Adolescents in Response to Moral Dilemmas Involving Plants, Animals and Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional moral philosophy, developmental psychology and moral education have generally been concerned with relationships between human beings. However, moral philosophy has gradually expanded to include plants, animals and ecosystems as legitimate moral objects, and aesthetics has rediscovered nature as an object of consideration. Thus it seems appropriate to begin to include this sphere in moral education and corresponding research as

Patricia Nevers; Ulrich Gebhard

1997-01-01

57

European rabbits as ecosystem engineers: warrens increase lizard density and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammals that build extensive open burrow systems are often classified as ecosystem engineers, since they have the potential\\u000a to modulate the availability of resources for themselves and other organisms. Lizards may benefit from the heterogeneity created\\u000a by these structures, especially if coupled with an increased offer of sites for refuge and thermoregulation. However, information\\u000a about these engineering effects by burrowing

Lucía Gálvez Bravo; Josabel Belliure; Salvador Rebollo

2009-01-01

58

Knowledge translation in rehabilitation engineering research and development: a knowledge ecosystem framework.  

PubMed

Rehabilitation engineering is concerned with technology innovations and technology-mediated treatments for the improvement of quality of care and quality of life of individuals with disability. Unlike many other fields of health research, the knowledge translation (KT) cycle of rehabilitation engineering research and development (R&D) is often considered incomplete until a technology product or technology-facilitated therapy is available to target clientele. As such, the KT journey of rehabilitation engineering R&D is extremely challenging, necessarily involving knowledge exchange among numerous players across multiple sectors. In this article, we draw on recent literature about the knowledge trichotomy in technology-based rehabilitation R&D and propose a knowledge ecosystem to frame the rehabilitation engineering KT process from need to product. Identifying the principal process of the ecosystem as one of knowledge flow, we elucidate the roles of repository and networked knowledge, identify key consumers and producers in a trinity of communities of practice, and draw on knowledge management literature to describe different knowledge flows. The article concludes with instantiations of this knowledge ecosystem for 2 local rehabilitation engineering research-development-commercialization endeavors. PMID:23260777

Chau, Tom; Moghimi, Saba; Popovic, Milos R

2013-01-01

59

Softwares Product Lines, Global Development and Ecosystems: Collaboration in Software Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective collaboration in software engineering is very important and yet increasingly complicated by trends that increase complexity of dependencies between software development teams and organizations. These trends include the increasing adoption of software product lines, the globalization of software engineering and the increasing use of and reliance on 3rd party developers in the context of software ecosystems. Based on action research, the paper discusses problems of in effective collaboration and success-factors of five approaches to collaboration in large-scale software engineering.

Bosch, Jan; Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra M.

60

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on biodiversity within ecosystems and within species. Students visit a local area and collect leaves to demonstrate how diverse life can exist within a small area. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Herzog, R.

61

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on biodiversity within ecosystems and within species. Students visit a local area and collect leaves to demonstrate how diverse life can exist within a small area. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

2007-12-12

62

Improving human and animal health using genetically engineered goats expressing lysozyme in their milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of genetic engineering should not be undertaken lightly as it requires extensive infrastructure and inputs before the genetically engineered animal enters a breeding and selection scheme; it does not provide a mechanism for bypassing good animal breeding and selection practices. However, there are instances where GE can provide an opportunity to address a problem in animal agriculture for

J. D. Murray; E. A. Maga

63

Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.  

PubMed

The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value. PMID:22571623

de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

2012-12-01

64

FIELD CALIBRATION OF SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS FOR EVALUATING FATE AND EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram nega...

65

Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

2013-08-01

66

Diorama Engine - A 3D Directing Tool for 3D Computer Animation Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in 3D computer graphics technologies have enabled 3D computer animation to become a popular method of storytelling. However, the tools which provide access to the technology are targeted mainly at trained professionals, and are seldom easy enough for a director to use. We present Diorama engine, a 3D directing tool for 3D computer animation. Diorama engine is a

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara

2003-01-01

67

Biological modifiers of marine benthic seascapes: Their role as ecosystem engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic organisms in marine ecosystems modify the environment on different spatial and temporal scales. These modifications, many of which are initially at a microscale, are likely to have large scale effects on benthic seascapes. This is especially so if the species are ecosystem engineers. Most species of infaunal and epifaunal invertebrates and macrophytes contribute at a geophysical or geochemical level. Microorganisms also play a key but currently neglected role. In the intertidal and immediately sublittoral zone, algae and seagrasses, and mussels in mussel beds have received considerable attention. A substantial fossil record also exists. Mathematical modelling of these systems is still in its infancy, although several sophisticated mathematical tools have been applied. The effects of bioturbation and of microorganisms have been less studied, and little is known about the activities of benthic organisms in the deep sea. This paper addresses all these effects, and places them in the context of large scale benthic seascapes and of the extensive literature on species defined as ecosystem engineers in the sea.

Meadows, Peter S.; Meadows, Azra; Murray, John M. H.

2012-07-01

68

Ecosystem engineering by seagrasses interacts with grazing to shape an intertidal landscape.  

PubMed

Self-facilitation through ecosystem engineering (i.e., organism modification of the abiotic environment) and consumer-resource interactions are both major determinants of spatial patchiness in ecosystems. However, interactive effects of these two mechanisms on spatial complexity have not been extensively studied. We investigated the mechanisms underlying a spatial mosaic of low-tide exposed hummocks and waterlogged hollows on an intertidal mudflat in the Wadden Sea dominated by the seagrass Zostera noltii. A combination of field measurements, an experiment and a spatially explicit model indicated that the mosaic resulted from localized sediment accretion by seagrass followed by selective waterfowl grazing. Hollows were bare in winter, but were rapidly colonized by seagrass during the growth season. Colonized hollows were heavily grazed by brent geese and widgeon in autumn, converting these patches to a bare state again and disrupting sediment accretion by seagrass. In contrast, hummocks were covered by seagrass throughout the year and were rarely grazed, most likely because the waterfowl were not able to employ their preferred but water requiring feeding strategy ('dabbling') here. Our study exemplifies that interactions between ecosystem engineering by a foundation species (seagrass) and consumption (waterfowl grazing) can increase spatial complexity at the landscape level. PMID:22905115

van der Heide, Tjisse; Eklöf, Johan S; van Nes, Egbert H; van der Zee, Els M; Donadi, Serena; Weerman, Ellen J; Olff, Han; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

2012-01-01

69

Advances in animal cell technology: Cell engineering, evaluation and exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this volume, basic and applied researchers and industrial microbiologists present advances being made and new strategies in animal cell technology. Based on the Seventh General Meeting of the European Society for Animal Cell Technology, the 62 reports consolidate extensive new data on the application of animal cell cultures as an increasingly important source of useful biological products. Papers are

R. Spier; W. Guildford; B. Hennessen

1987-01-01

70

Habitat complexity and community composition: relationships between different ecosystem engineers and the associated macroinvertebrate assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several species of ecosystem engineers inhabiting coastal environments have been reported structuring different kinds of communities. The magnitude of this influence often depends on the habitat complexity introduced by the engineers. It is commonly accepted that an increase in habitat complexity will result in an increase in diversity and/or abundance in the associated fauna. The rocky salt marshes along the coast of Patagonia are dominated by cordgrasses, mussels, and barnacles forming a mosaic of engineered habitats with different complexity. This system allows us to address the following questions: how different is a macroinvertebrate assemblage when dominated by different ecosystem engineers? And, is there a positive relationship between increasing habitat complexity and the species richness, diversity and total density of the assemblages? To address these questions, we compared the three ecological scenarios with decreasing habitat complexity: cordgrass-mussel, mussel, and barnacle-engineered habitats. We found a total of 22 taxa mostly crustaceans and polychaetes common to all scenarios. The three engineered habitats showed different macroinvertebrate assemblages, mainly due to differences in individual abundances of some taxa. The cryptogenic amphipod Orchestia gammarella was found strictly associated with the cordgrass-mussel habitat. Species richness and diversity were positively related with habitat complexity while total density showed the opposite trend. Our study suggests that species vary their relative distribution and abundances in response to different habitat complexity. Nevertheless, the direction (i.e., neutral, positive or negative) and intensity of the community's response seem to depend on the physiological requirements of the different species and their efficiency to readjust their local spatial distribution in the short term.

Sueiro, María Cruz; Bortolus, Alejandro; Schwindt, Evangelina

2011-12-01

71

An overview of the implementation of macrophytes as ecosystem engineers in hydrological modelling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waterplants or macrophytes are for a long time overlooked in hydrologic and geomorphologic studies of lowland rivers. Nevertheless, they have an important influence on the water flow, sedimentation processes and nutrient dynamics in such systems (Clarke, 2002; Franklin et al., 2008). As such, according to the terminology of Jones et al. (1994), namely "Organisms act as engineers when they modulate the supply of resource or resources other than themselves", macrophytes are ecosystem engineers. Macrophytes form an obstruction for the water flow which results in an increased flow resistance and thus increased water levels (Green, 2006). Because the presence of macrophytes in a river shows a large variation throughout the year, also the resistance due to vegetation varies (De Doncker et al., 2007, 2008). Besides the temporal variation, also the spatial configuration of the macrophytes in the river plays an important role. Due to patch formation, areas of higher (between the patches) and smaller (in the patches) flow velocities occur (Green, 2006), resulting in flow heterogeneity (with important transverse flow components). This variation of stream velocities in and between patches results in definite sedimentation and erosion zones, and as such shapes the morphology of rivers. The magnitude of the effects described above, is largely influenced by the characteristics of the macrophytes itself (emergent or submerged, density, flexibility,...) To in-depth investigate the importance and influence of macrophytes as ecosystem engineers, hydrological or (coupled) ecosystem models can be used. To account for waterplants in such models, a framework which can handle the threefold variation of macrophytes (composition, time variation and spatial variation) is necessary. An overview of current frameworks which are formulated, based on experimental research, and their implementation in models is given.

Meire, D.; Troch, P.

2012-04-01

72

"Nested" cryptic diversity in a widespread marine ecosystem engineer: a challenge for detecting biological invasions  

PubMed Central

Background Ecosystem engineers facilitate habitat formation and enhance biodiversity, but when they become invasive, they present a critical threat to native communities because they can drastically alter the receiving habitat. Management of such species thus needs to be a priority, but the poorly resolved taxonomy of many ecosystem engineers represents a major obstacle to correctly identifying them as being either native or introduced. We address this dilemma by studying the sea squirt Pyura stolonifera, an important ecosystem engineer that dominates coastal communities particularly in the southern hemisphere. Using DNA sequence data from four independently evolving loci, we aimed to determine levels of cryptic diversity, the invasive or native status of each regional population, and the most appropriate sampling design for identifying the geographic ranges of each evolutionary unit. Results Extensive sampling in Africa, Australasia and South America revealed the existence of "nested" levels of cryptic diversity, in which at least five distinct species can be further subdivided into smaller-scale genetic lineages. The ranges of several evolutionary units are limited by well-documented biogeographic disjunctions. Evidence for both cryptic native diversity and the existence of invasive populations allows us to considerably refine our view of the native versus introduced status of the evolutionary units within Pyura stolonifera in the different coastal communities they dominate. Conclusions This study illustrates the degree of taxonomic complexity that can exist within widespread species for which there is little taxonomic expertise, and it highlights the challenges involved in distinguishing between indigenous and introduced populations. The fact that multiple genetic lineages can be native to a single geographic region indicates that it is imperative to obtain samples from as many different habitat types and biotic zones as possible when attempting to identify the source region of a putative invader. "Nested" cryptic diversity, and the difficulties in correctly identifying invasive species that arise from it, represent a major challenge for managing biodiversity.

2011-01-01

73

Advances in animal cell technology: Cell engineering, evaluation and exploitation  

SciTech Connect

In this volume, basic and applied researchers and industrial microbiologists present advances being made and new strategies in animal cell technology. Based on the Seventh General Meeting of the European Society for Animal Cell Technology, the 62 reports consolidate extensive new data on the application of animal cell cultures as an increasingly important source of useful biological products. Papers are grouped into five sections, the first of which addresses safety issues related to the use of continuous cell lines, recombinant DNA technology, and cell culture media. Papers in the second section cover the present status of strategies of foreign gene expression in cultured animal cells. The third group of papers focuses on cell biological and physiological aspects in the mass production of animal cells. New advances in the technology of large-scale animal cell production are described in the fourth section. The final section is devoted to the large-scale production of animal cell products. Monoclonal antibodies and protein for qtherapeutic use such as growth factors, immunomodulators and hormones are covered.

Spier, R.; Guildford, W.; Hennessen, B.

1987-01-01

74

Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.  

PubMed

An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested. PMID:23621086

Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

2013-05-21

75

Tuberculosis infection in wildlife from the Ruaha ecosystem Tanzania: implications for wildlife, domestic animals, and human health.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen of conservation, livestock, and public health concern, was detected in eight species of wildlife inhabiting protected areas bordering endemic livestock grazing lands. We tested tissues from 179 opportunistically sampled hunter-killed, depredation, road-killed, and live-captured wild animals, representing 30 species, in and adjacent to Ruaha National Park in south-central Tanzania. Tissue culture and PCR were used to detect 12 (8.1%) M. bovis-infected animals and 15 (10.1%) animals infected with non-tuberculosis complex mycobacteria. Kirk's dik-dik, vervet monkey, and yellow baboon were confirmed infected for the first time. The M. bovis spoligotype isolated from infected wildlife was identical to local livestock, providing evidence for livestock-wildlife pathogen transmission. Thus we advocate an ecosystem-based approach for bovine tuberculosis management that improves critical ecological functions in protected areas and grazing lands, reduces focal population density build-up along the edges of protected areas, and minimizes ecological stressors that increase animals' susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis. PMID:23601163

Clifford, D L; Kazwala, R R; Sadiki, H; Roug, A; Muse, E A; Coppolillo, P C; Mazet, J A K

2013-07-01

76

Ecosystem engineers on plants: indirect facilitation of arthropod communities by leaf-rollers at different scales.  

PubMed

Ecosystem engineering is a process by which organisms change the distribution of resources and create new habitats for other species via non-trophic interactions. Leaf-rolling caterpillars can act as ecosystem engineers because they provide shelter to secondary users. In this study, we report the influence of leaf-rolling caterpillars on speciose tropical arthropod communities along both spatial scales (leaf-level and plant-level effects) and temporal scales (dry and rainy seasons). We predict that rolled leaves can amplify arthropod diversity at both the leaf and plant levels and that this effect is stronger in dry seasons, when arthropods are prone to desiccation. Our results show that the abundance, richness, and biomass of arthropods within several guilds increased up to 22-fold in naturally and artificially created leaf shelters relative to unaltered leaves. These effects were observed at similar magnitudes at both the leaf and plant scales. Variation in the shelter architecture (funnel, cylinders) did not influence arthropod parameters, as diversity, abundance, orbiomass, but rolled leaves had distinct species composition if compared with unaltered leaves. As expected, these arthropod parameters on the plants with rolled leaves were on average approximately twofold higher in the dry season. Empty leaf rolls and whole plants were rapidly recolonized by arthropods over time, implying a fast replacement of individuals; within 15-day intervals the rolls and plants reached a species saturation. This study is the first to examine the extended effects of engineering caterpillars as diversity amplifiers at different temporal and spatial scales. Because shelter-building caterpillars are ubiquitous organisms in tropical and temperate forests, they can be considered key structuring elements for arthropod communities on plants. PMID:23951711

Vieira, Camila; Romero, Gustavo Q

2013-07-01

77

Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.  

PubMed

Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments. PMID:19326030

Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

2009-01-01

78

Agent-Based Simulation of Animal Behaviour. Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper it is shown how animal behavior can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behavior, varying from purely reactive behavior to pro-active, social and adaptive behavior. The compositional devel...

C. M. Jonker J. Treur

1998-01-01

79

The SEA Language for System Engineering and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the hierarchical, graphical SEA Language. The SEA Language relies on extended Predicate Transition Nets that unambiguously define the semantics of graphical system specifications. These nets are also used as a basis for simulating\\/animating system specifications. The SEA Language allows to easily incorporate several user defined or standardized graphical symbols and their behaviour. Via this approach a unified

Bernd Kleinjohann; E. Kleinjohann; Jürgen Tacken

1996-01-01

80

Vegetable oils and animal fats as alternative fuels for diesel engines with dual fuel operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils and animal fats are applicable as fuels in standard diesel engines after having adapted the fuel system for electronically controlled dual fuel regime oil\\/fat–fossil diesel. In this contribution, performance and emission characteristics of the engines running on rapeseed oil, lard, or chicken fat are given and compared to those of fossil diesel and fatty acid methyl esters. The

A. Kleinová; I. Vailing; J. Lábaj; J. Mikulec; J. Cvengroš

2011-01-01

81

How-To-Do-It: A Chess Analogy: Teaching the Role of Animals in Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teaching exercise used to demonstrate the importance of context in studying the ecology of animals. Uses the game of chess to examine the relationship between information and context and as an analogy with ecology. Discusses procedures, examples of results, and insights gained from this activity. (CW)

Kangas, Patrick

1988-01-01

82

Brucellosis at the animal\\/ecosystem\\/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely

J. Godfroid; H. C. Scholz; T. Barbier; C. Nicolas; P. Wattiau; D. Fretin; A. M. Whatmore; A. Cloeckaert; J. M. Blasco; I. Moriyon; C. Saegerman; J. B. Muma; S. Al Dahouk; H. Neubauer; J.-J. Letesson

2011-01-01

83

Modeling human listeriosis in natural and genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a human foodborne infection leading to gastroenteritis, meningoencephalitis and maternofetal infections. InlA and InlB, two L. monocytogenes surface proteins, interact with their respective receptors E-cadherin and Met and mediate bacterial entry into human cultured cells. Here, we present protocols for studying listeriosis in three complementary animal models: (i) the human E-cadherin (hEcad) transgenic mouse line; (ii)

Olivier Disson; Georgios Nikitas; Solène Grayo; Olivier Dussurget; Pascale Cossart; Marc Lecuit

2009-01-01

84

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts  

PubMed Central

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley—Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus.

Rowntree, Jennifer K.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

85

Niche inheritance: a cooperative pathway to enhance cancer cell fitness though ecosystem engineering.  

PubMed

Cancer cells can be described as an invasive species that is able to establish itself in a new environment. The concept of niche construction can be utilized to describe the process by which cancer cells terraform their environment, thereby engineering an ecosystem that promotes the genetic fitness of the species. Ecological dispersion theory can then be utilized to describe and model the steps and barriers involved in a successful diaspora as the cancer cells leave the original host organ and migrate to new host organs to successfully establish a new metastatic community. These ecological concepts can be further utilized to define new diagnostic and therapeutic areas for lethal cancers. 115: 1478-1485, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24700698

Yang, Kimberline R; Mooney, Steven M; Zarif, Jelani C; Coffey, Donald S; Taichman, Russell S; Pienta, Kenneth J

2014-09-01

86

Linking ecosystem engineers to soil processes: a framework using the Jenny State Factor Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding biotic influences on soil processes is a major research frontier made challenging by organismal diversity, variation in distribution, and variety of interactions. Nevertheless, two fundamental influences can be recognized: assimilation\\/dissimilation (uptake, metabolism, wastes, death) and physical ecosystem engineering (non-assimilatory\\/dissimilatory, organismally-induced, structurally-mediated changes in energy and materials in the abiotic environment). Because many organisms can engineer soils, predicting their effects

C. G. Jones; J. L. Gutiérrez; P. M. Groffman; M. Shachak

2006-01-01

87

Ecosystem engineering at the sediment-water interface: bioturbation and consumer-substrate interaction.  

PubMed

In soft-bottom sediments, consumers may influence ecosystem function more via engineering that alters abiotic resources than through trophic influences. Understanding the influence of bioturbation on physical, chemical, and biological processes of the water-sediment interface requires investigating top-down (consumer) and bottom-up (resource) forces. The objective of the present study was to determine how consumer bioturbation mode and sediment properties interact to dictate the hydrologic function of experimental filtration systems clogged by the deposition of fine sediments. Three fine-grained sediments characterized by different organic matter (OM) and pollutant content were used to assess the influence of resource type: sediment of urban origin highly loaded with OM and pollutants, river sediments rich in OM, and river sediments poor in OM content. The effects of consumer bioturbation (chironomid larvae vs. tubificid worms) on sediment reworking, changes in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity, and water fluxes through the water-sediment interface were measured. Invertebrate influences in reducing the clogging process depended not only on the mode of bioturbation (construction of biogenic structures, burrowing and feeding activities, etc.) but also on the interaction between the bioturbation process and the sediments of the clogging layer. We present a conceptual model that highlights the importance of sediment influences on bioturbation and argues for the integration of bottom-up influence on consumer engineering activities. PMID:19462183

Nogaro, Géraldine; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Valett, Maurice H; François-Carcaillet, Frédérique; Gaudet, Jean-Paul; Lafont, Michel; Gibert, Janine

2009-08-01

88

Ecosystem engineering and predation: the multi-trophic impact of two ant species.  

PubMed

1. Ants are ubiquitous ecosystem engineers and generalist predators and are able to affect ecological communities via both pathways. They are likely to influence any other terrestrial arthropod group either directly or indirectly caused by their high abundance and territoriality. 2. We studied the impact of two ant species common in Central Europe, Myrmica rubra and Lasius niger, on an arthropod community. Colony presence and density of these two ant species were manipulated in a field experiment from the start of ant activity in spring to late summer. 3. The experiment revealed a positive influence of the presence of one ant colony on densities of decomposers, herbivores and parasitoids. However, in the case of herbivores and parasitoids, this effect was reversed in the presence of two colonies. 4. Generally, effects of the two ant species were similar with the exception of their effect on Braconidae parasitoid densities that responded positively to one colony of M. rubra but not of L. niger. 5. Spider density was not affected by ant colony manipulation, but species richness of spiders responded positively to ant presence. This effect was independent of ant colony density, but where two colonies were present, spider richness was significantly greater in plots with two M. rubra colonies than in plots with one colony of each ant species. 6. To test whether the positive ecosystem engineering effects were purely caused by modified properties of the soil, we added in an additional experiment (i) the soil from ant nests (without ants) or (ii) unmodified soil or (iii) ant nests (including ants) to experimental plots. Ant nest soil on its own did not have a significant impact on densities of decomposers, herbivores or predators, which were significantly, and positively, affected by the addition of an intact nest. 7. The results suggest an important role of both ant species in the grassland food web, strongly affecting the densities of decomposers, herbivores and higher trophic levels. We discuss how the relative impact via bottom-up and top-down effects of ants depends on nest density, with a relatively greater top-down predatory impact at higher densities. PMID:21244419

Sanders, Dirk; van Veen, F J Frank

2011-05-01

89

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

90

Sponge epibionts on ecosystem-engineering ascidians: The case of Microcosmus sabatieri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of epibionts on habitat engineering ascidians is of increasing interest because changes in the population structure of the latter may affect associated communities, especially in the case of commercially exploited species. The solitary ascidian Microcosmus sabatieri lives on rocky cliffs in the Eastern Mediterranean and is harvested in certain Aegean areas. Its hard, wrinkled tunic is usually fouled by various epibionts both sessile and motile. Sponges are an important component of this complex and their biomass may be higher than that of the ascidian itself, strongly affecting diversity and abundance of the motile epifauna. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the structure of the epibiotic sponge assemblage on ascidians collected from their main fishing grounds in the South Aegean Sea. A rich (41 species) and taxonomically diverse sponge assemblage was found, while only eight species contributed 80% of the total sponge cover. Most of the epibiotic sponges commonly grow on the surrounding sublittoral cliffs. The encrusting sponge growth form prevailed in cover of the ascidian tunic, while two massive species dominated in terms of frequency of appearance and abundance. Ascidian dimensions, weight and volume were significantly correlated with sponge diversity, abundance and cover area, thus structuring the epibiotic sponge assemblage. Spatial patterns in sponge cover were not clear, but a general declining NW to SE trend in sponge richness, abundance and cover appeared in accordance with previous records. Sponge distribution on the ascidian tunic presented a clear pattern related with characteristic features of the ascidian: the posterior zone supported the richest and most expansive sponge fauna. The ecosystem-engineering process performed by the ascidian is enhanced by the diverse epibiotic sponge assemblage, thus further increasing habitat complexity in this space-limited, temperate, sublittoral, rocky environment.

Voultsiadou, Eleni; Kyrodimou, Marianthi; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Vafidis, Dimitris

2010-03-01

91

Seasonal zooplankton dynamics in Lake Michigan: disentangling impacts of resource limitation, ecosystem engineering, and predation during a critical ecosystem transition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined seasonal dynamics of zooplankton at an offshore station in Lake Michigan from 1994 to 2003 and 2007 to 2008. This period saw variable weather, declines in planktivorous fish abundance, the introduction and expansion of dreissenid mussels, and a slow decline in total phosphorus concentrations. After the major expansion of mussels into deep water (2007–2008), chlorophyll in spring declined sharply, Secchi depth increased markedly in all seasons, and planktivorous fish biomass declined to record-low levels. Overlaying these dramatic ecosystem-level changes, the zooplankton community exhibited complex seasonal dynamics between 1994–2003 and 2007–2008. Phenology of the zooplankton maximum was affected by onset of thermal stratification, but there was no other discernable effect due to temperature. Interannual variability in zooplankton biomass during 1994 and 2003 was strongly driven by planktivorous fish abundance, particularly age-0 and age-1 alewives. In 2007–2008, there were large decreases in Diacyclops thomasi and Daphnia mendotae possibly caused by food limitation as well as increased predation and indirect negative effects from increases in Bythotrephes longimanus abundance and in foraging efficiency associated with increased light penetration. The Bythotrephes increase was likely driven in part by decreased predation from yearling and older alewife. While there was a major decrease in epilimnetic–metalimnetic herbivorous cladocerans in 2007–2008, there was an increase in large omnivorous and predacious calanoid copepods, especially those in the hypolimnion. Thus, changes to the zooplankton community are the result of cascading, synergistic interactions, including a shift from vertebrate to invertebrate planktivory and mussel ecosystem impacts on light climate and chlorophyll.

Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Cavaletto, Joann F.; Liebig, James R.; Stow, Craig Stow; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.

2012-01-01

92

Tissue engineering in animal models for urinary diversion: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research. PMID:24964011

Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; In't Hout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Feitz, Wout

2014-01-01

93

Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research.

Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; in't Hout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2014-01-01

94

Engineered ecosystem for on-site wastewater treatment in tropical areas.  

PubMed

There is a worldwide demand for decentralized wastewater treatment options. An on-site engineered ecosystem (EE) treatment plant was designed with a multistage approach for small wastewater generators in tropical areas. The array of treatment units included a septic tank, a submersed aerated filter, and a secondary decanter followed by three vegetated tanks containing aquatic macrophytes intercalated with one tank of algae. During 11 months of operation with a flow rate of 52 L h(-1), the system removed on average 93.2% and 92.9% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reaching final concentrations of 36.3 ± 12.7 and 13.7 ± 4.2 mg L(-1), respectively. Regarding ammonia-N (NH(4)-N) and total phosphorus (TP), the system removed on average 69.8% and 54.5% with final concentrations of 18.8 ± 9.3 and 14.0 ± 2.5 mg L(-1), respectively. The tanks with algae and macrophytes together contributed to the overall nutrient removal with 33.6% for NH(4)-N and 26.4% for TP. The final concentrations for all parameters except TP met the discharge threshold limits established by Brazilian and EU legislation. The EE was considered appropriate for the purpose for which it was created. PMID:22949243

de Sá Salomão, André Luis; Marques, Marcia; Severo, Raul Gonçalves; da Cruz Roque, Odir Clécio

2012-01-01

95

Are fiddler crabs potentially useful ecosystem engineers in mangrove wastewater wetlands?  

PubMed

The effect of different organic-rich sewage concentration (0%, 20% and 60% diluted in seawater) and absence or presence of mangrove trees on the survival, bioturbation activities and burrow morphology of fiddler crabs species was assessed. After 6 months, males of both species always showed higher survival ( approximately 80%) when compared to females ( approximately 20%). Crabs inhabiting pristine conditions achieved higher survival (67-87%) than those living in sewage-exposed mesocosms (40-71%). At 60% sewage loading, fiddler crabs processed less sediment (34-46%) during feeding and excavated slightly more sediment (45-80%) than at pristine conditions. While percent volume of the burrow chambers increased (13-66%) at contaminated mesocosms for both vegetation conditions, burrows were shallower (approximately 33%) in bare cells loaded with sewage. The results show that fiddler crabs presented moderate mortality levels in these artificial mangrove wetlands, but mainly in sewage impacted cells. However, they still function as ecosystem engineers through bioturbation activities and burrow construction. PMID:19643448

Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Limbu, Samwel; Cannicci, Stefano; Kristensen, Erik; Paula, José

2009-11-01

96

DO GENETICALLY ENGINEERED (GE) CROPS IMPACT ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD PRODUCTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically engineered (GE) varieties of alfalfa, a major livestock feedstuff, raises questions about the effects of feeding this product to food-producing animals. There is a wealth of peer-reviewed studies examining the effects of feeding GE crops to livestock. Hundreds of scientific studies have found no difference in the productive performance or health of livestock that have been

Alison Van Eenennaam

97

Teaching Habitat and Animal Classification to Fourth Graders Using an Engineering-Design Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGO[TM] engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented.…

Marulcu, Ismail

2014-01-01

98

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

99

Animator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

Tech Directions, 2008

2008-01-01

100

The effect of sewage discharge on the ecosystem engineering activities of two East African fiddler crab species: consequences for mangrove ecosystem functioning.  

PubMed

A number of studies have suggested that mangrove forests and their faunal components may be pre-adapted to the impact of organic waste discharge, making them possible natural wastewater treatment wetlands. However, the results from recent research are contradictory. Some studies have shown that negative effects, sometimes subtle and difficult to observe, can be detected on specific biotic components of forests subjected to organic pollution. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the ecosystem engineering activities of a fiddler crab community dominating the landward belts of Kenyan mangrove forests. The total processed sediment produced by burrowing and foraging activities in a population from a peri-urban mangrove area receiving untreated domestic sewage was compared with that from a forest not affected by urban wastewater. The results showed how the peri-urban site hosted a higher biomass of crabs, which produced a significantly lower amount of processed sediment compared with the pristine site, resulting in a lower total top sediment mixing activity of the crabs. Thus, the present study showed a link between sewage exposure and top sediment reworking by crabs, which is potentially beneficial for mangrove growth and ecosystem functioning. This represents a possible example of cryptic ecological degradation in mangal systems. PMID:21047678

Bartolini, Fabrizio; Cimò, Filippo; Fusi, Marco; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Lopes, Gil Penha; Cannicci, Stefano

2011-02-01

101

Before the Endless Forms: Embodied Model of Transition from Single Cells to Aggregates to Ecosystem Engineering  

PubMed Central

The emergence of complex multicellular systems and their associated developmental programs is one of the major problems of evolutionary biology. The advantages of cooperation over individuality seem well known but it is not clear yet how such increase of complexity emerged from unicellular life forms. Current multicellular systems display a complex cell-cell communication machinery, often tied to large-scale controls of body size or tissue homeostasis. Some unicellular life forms are simpler and involve groups of cells cooperating in a tissue-like fashion, as it occurs with biofilms. However, before true gene regulatory interactions were widespread and allowed for controlled changes in cell phenotypes, simple cellular colonies displaying adhesion and interacting with their environments were in place. In this context, models often ignore the physical embedding of evolving cells, thus leaving aside a key component. The potential for evolving pre-developmental patterns is a relevant issue: how far a colony of evolving cells can go? Here we study these pre-conditions for morphogenesis by using CHIMERA, a physically embodied computational model of evolving virtual organisms in a pre-Mendelian world. Starting from a population of identical, independent cells moving in a fluid, the system undergoes a series of changes, from spatial segregation, increased adhesion and the development of generalism. Eventually, a major transition occurs where a change in the flow of nutrients is triggered by a sub-population. This ecosystem engineering phenomenon leads to a subsequent separation of the ecological network into two well defined compartments. The relevance of these results for evodevo and its potential ecological triggers is discussed.

Sole, Ricard V.; Valverde, Sergi

2013-01-01

102

Facilitation of an international approach for data sharing and acquisition in relation to genetically-engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) published CCAC guidelines on: transgenic animals. Because this was recognized to be a rapidly evolving field, a commitment was made to revise the guidelines within a few years. CCAC is now working on draft guidelines on: genetically-engineered animals. This paper outlines some of the changes that are being proposed in the

Gilly Griffin; Clément Gauthier

103

A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).

Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo

2005-03-01

104

Resource Quantity and Quality Determine the Inter-Specific Associations between Ecosystem Engineers and Resource Users in a Cavity-Nest Web  

PubMed Central

While ecosystem engineering is a widespread structural force of ecological communities, the mechanisms underlying the inter-specific associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users are poorly understood. A proper knowledge of these mechanisms is, however, essential to understand how communities are structured. Previous studies suggest that increasing the quantity of resources provided by ecosystem engineers enhances populations of resource users. In a long-term study (1995-2011), we show that the quality of the resources (i.e. tree cavities) provided by ecosystem engineers is also a key feature that explains the inter-specific associations in a tree cavity-nest web. Red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicusnuchalis) provided the most abundant cavities (52% of cavities, 0.49 cavities/ha). These cavities were less likely to be used than other cavity types by mountain bluebirds (Sialiacurrucoides), but provided numerous nest-sites (41% of nesting cavities) to tree swallows (Tachycinetabicolour). Swallows experienced low reproductive outputs in northern flicker (Colaptesauratus) cavities compared to those in sapsucker cavities (1.1 vs. 2.1 fledglings/nest), but the highly abundant flickers (33% of cavities, 0.25 cavities/ha) provided numerous suitable nest-sites for bluebirds (58%). The relative shortage of cavities supplied by hairy woodpeckers (Picoidesvillosus) and fungal/insect decay (<10% of cavities each, <0.09 cavities/ha) provided fewer breeding opportunities (<15% of nests), but represented high quality nest-sites for both bluebirds and swallows. Because both the quantity and quality of resources supplied by different ecosystem engineers may explain the amount of resources used by each resource user, conservation strategies may require different management actions to be implemented for the key ecosystem engineer of each resource user. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of both resource quantity and quality into models that assess community dynamics to improve conservation actions and our understanding of ecological communities based on ecosystem engineering.

Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

2013-01-01

105

Measuring ecosystem functioning of soil mega-aggregates produced by soil/litter mix-feeding animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some soil animals are soil/litter mix-feeders. They are known to produce long-lasting soil structures (e.g. casts and molting chamber), and these structures will modify resource availability and environmental conditions for plants and soil organisms. Good examples are epigeic Megascolecid earthworms (Uchida et al., 2004) and Xystodesmid millipeds (Toyota et al., 2006), both found in Japan. In this study we examined chemical, physical and biological properties of soil focusing on multi-functioning of aggregates made by these animals. Since 2003, we manipulated densities of epigeic earthworms in a field encloser (35 m2) (three replications) at a cool temperate forest in Japan. At a no-worm (NW) treatment, all the worms have been collected every year by hand. At the same place, we prepared a control treatment in an encloser (Closed control; CC) and outside the encloser (Open control; OC). We examined surface soil and plant growth after 5-years field manipulation of oak dominated forest. Growth of two Liliaceae forest floor herbs; Smilacina japonica and Polygonatum odoratum, and oak (Quercus crispula) seedlings and canopy oak trees were recorded. Reduction of aggregates after elimination of earthworms was observed in a field condition. The manipulation site showed decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, and P concentration and total carbon storage was also reduced. There was a negative significant correlation between casts abundance and soil NH4-N, and a positive significance was observed between casts abundance and growth of S. japonica, and oak seedlings. Radial growth of canopy oak trees was decreased at NW treatment compared to CC and OC. Leaf N contents of oak seedling at NW were significantly lower in NW, but canopy oak trees did not show any difference in leaf-N. Although S. japonica and P. odoratum were both found in a same forest floor, S. japonica is known as nutrient limited plants in spring, whereas P. odoratum is light limited. Oak seedlings are depending early growth on their seed nutrient, and the canopy oak trees seem to be nutrient limited. Thus in this forest, the nutrient condition mediated by earthworm activity was a strong factor influencing plant species-specific growth and this correlation was clear when we used the cast abundance as an independent factor but it was not clear when we used the worm abundance or biomass for explanation variables. In laboratory incubations, fresh casts of earthworm Metaphire hilgendorfi contained higher NH4-N which was mostly nitrified within 4-weeks. The 4-weeks aged casts of the earthworm and millipede Parafontaria laminata emitted significantly more N2O whereas the modified soil had strong CH4 acidification capacity. Therefore the animal effects on greenhouse effect gas should be evaluated for CO2, N2O and CH4 at the same time. We then confirmed that megaaggregates, probably cast origin, tended to contain more carbon than fine soil. Combining our data from various study sites in Japan, the amount of carbon contained in megaaggregates (> 2 mm) in 0-5 cm layer ranged from 200 to 1000 g C per m2. Animal feeding activities maintained substantial amount of surface soil aggregates. Therefore, the activity of soil/litter mix feeders can be linked to the carbon dynamics by evaluating worm's soil engineering effect.

Kaneko, N.

2009-04-01

106

Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers  

PubMed Central

The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem.

Fournier, Alexa M.; Furman, Bradley T.; Carroll, John M.

2014-01-01

107

Ecological Engineering of the City: The Urban Ecosystem. Urban Ecology Series, No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cities of the world are great engineering feats. From the earliest dwellings of man constructed out of the raw materials of the environment, man has used his ingenuity to work engineering wonders that improve the circumstances of human life. By engineering technological skills, human beings have altered the environment to suit varied…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

108

N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant, confers protection to animals exposed to DEPs from oxidative stress-induced damage to the lung. To study this, male C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with either NACA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline, were exposed to DEPs (15mg/m(3)) or filtered air (1.5-3h/day) for nine consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last exposure. NACA-treated animals exposed to DEP had significant decreases in the number of macrophages and the amount of mucus plug formation in the lungs, as compared to the DEP-only exposed animals. In addition, DEP-exposed animals, pretreated with NACA, also experienced significantly lower oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Further, DEP-induced toxicity in the lungs was reversed in NACA-treated animals, as indicated by the lactate dehydrogenase levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-antioxidant, NACA, can protect the lungs from DEP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress related damage. PMID:19429263

Banerjee, Atrayee; Trueblood, Max B; Zhang, Xinsheng; Manda, Kalyan Reddy; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip D; Hagen, Donald E; Ercal, Nuran

2009-06-22

109

Comparison of the Engine Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Vegetable Oil-Based and Animal FatBased Biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

These comments are intended as a response to the Environmental Protection Agency's request for public comment on the proposed rule change to permit animal- and vegetable- derived biodiesel fuels to be grouped together. The discussion provided in this document supports the grouping of these fuels based on their similar engine performance and emissions characteristics. - Emissions comparison of animal- and

Jon Van Gerpen

1996-01-01

110

ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERING BY CATERPILLARS INCREASES INSECT HERBIVORE DIVERSITY ON WHITE OAK  

Microsoft Academic Search

By creating or modifying habitats used by other organisms, physical eco- system engineers can influence local patterns of biological diversity. However, there have been very few empirical studies quantifying engineering effects in different biological systems. In this study, we examined the effect of shelter-building caterpillars on the species richness and guild structure of leaf-chewing herbivores occupying individual white oak (Quercus

John T. Lill; Robert J. Marquis

2003-01-01

111

Role of stem cells in large animal genetic engineering in the TALENs-CRISPR era.  

PubMed

The establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and gene targeting technologies in mice has revolutionised the field of genetics. The relative ease with which genes can be knocked out, and exogenous sequences introduced, has allowed the mouse to become the prime model for deciphering the genetic code. Not surprisingly, the lack of authentic ESCs has hampered the livestock genetics field and has forced animal scientists into adapting alternative technologies for genetic engineering. The recent discovery of the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by upregulation of a handful of reprogramming genes has offered renewed enthusiasm to animal geneticists. However, much like ESCs, establishing authentic iPSCs from the domestic animals is still beset with problems, including (but not limited to) the persistent expression of reprogramming genes and the lack of proven potential for differentiation into target cell types both in vitro and in vivo. Site-specific nucleases comprised of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulated interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) emerged as powerful genetic tools for precisely editing the genome, usurping the need for ESC-based genetic modifications even in the mouse. In this article, in the aftermath of these powerful genome editing technologies, the role of pluripotent stem cells in livestock genetics is discussed. PMID:24305178

Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L

2013-01-01

112

Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth. Termite diversity was low - Pseudacanthotermes sp. (33%), Microtermes sp. (24%) and Pseudacanthotermes militaris (22%) were dominant. All three species belong to the family of Macrotermitianae who are feeding on litter, grass and wood from the soil surface. Macrofauna exclusion did not have a significant effect on soil aggregate stability or soil C at any soil depth which might be attributed to the low residue retention and the high spatial variability in termite foraging activity. Maize and soybean yields strongly increased with macrofauna exclusion (P<0.001). This may be explained by the fact that all three identified termite species are major crop pests which cause lodging of maize plans as observed in this experiment. This study underlines the importance of termite functional group for the effect on soil quality and crop productivity in agro-ecosystems. Future research should contribute to develop sustainable termite management strategies that control detrimental species while conserving beneficial soil ecosystem engineers based on ecological knowledge of termite traits.

Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

2014-05-01

113

Modeling the Effects of Ecosystem Fragmentation and Restoration: Management Models for Mobile Animals. Volume 1. Appendices I-II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation on animal populations are widely documented (Whitcomb et al. 1981 Robinson et al. 1995) however the development of practical tools to predict the effects of fragmentation and design appropriate mitigation e...

T. D. Sisk J. Battin A. Brand L. Ries H. Hampton

2003-01-01

114

Designing an accompanying ecosystem for entrepreneurship students of agronomic and forestry engineering. Opinion and commitment of the faculty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current context has called attention to the need of training engineers with new skills beyond the purely technical. Among others, fostering the entrepreneurial spirit has gained special prominence. In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a 12-year-experience of an entrepreneurship program for undergraduate students concluded that, for an adequate consolidation and evolution of the program, is important to establish a robust network with active participation of all actors involved. With this antecedent, a collective project conceived as an "ecosystem of support and accompaniment for entrepreneurs" is the approach proposed. The objective is to perform an evaluation of this model in terms of viability, usefulness, actions to be taken and degree of commitment. The key actors identified (undergraduate students, faculty, alumni, local and regional entrepreneurs, enterprises, public administration) have been involved in the evaluation process. This study focuses on the academic staff. For that aim, a survey to the entire faculty (N=128, response rate = 45%) and semi-structured interviews to 20 members have been performed. Data have been treated by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. Results suggest that there exists an agreement concerning the appropriateness of a collective project; there is a critical mass of teachers willing to be engaged; guidelines need to be incorporated in order to facilitate taking on tasks; main restrictions concern the existing asymmetry between formal requirements and those necessary for establishing the ecosystem. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This research work has been developed in the framework of the ALFA III programme financed by the European Union.

Ortiz, Leovigilda; Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Lara-Vélez, Pablo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gallardo-Cobos, Rosa; Campillo, M. Carmen; Guerrero-Ginel, José E.

2014-05-01

115

Sponge epibionts on ecosystem-engineering ascidians: The case of Microcosmus sabatieri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of epibionts on habitat engineering ascidians is of increasing interest because changes in the population structure of the latter may affect associated communities, especially in the case of commercially exploited species. The solitary ascidian Microcosmus sabatieri lives on rocky cliffs in the Eastern Mediterranean and is harvested in certain Aegean areas. Its hard, wrinkled tunic is usually fouled

Eleni Voultsiadou; Marianthi Kyrodimou; Chryssanthi Antoniadou; Dimitris Vafidis

2010-01-01

116

Revisiting the concept of components in software engineering from a software ecosystem perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of economic and social issues in Software Engineering (SE) was pointed out as a challenge for the next years, since SE needs to treat issues beyond the technical side, which requires observing it in another perspective. In this sense, this paper revisits the concept of components in SE through a sociotechnical construction. Based on a ranking of its

Rodrigo Pereira dos Santos; Cláudia Maria Lima Werner

2010-01-01

117

Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern African elephants affect habitats and ecosystems in significant ways. They push over trees to feed on upper branches and often peel large sections of bark to eat. These destructive habits sometimes transform woody vegetation into grasslands. Systems of elephant trails may be used and re-used for centuries, and create incised features that extend for many kilometers on migration routes. Elephants, digging in search of water or mineral sediments, may remove several cubic meters of sediments in each excavation. Wallowing elephants may remove up to a cubic meter of pond sediments each time they visit water sources. Accumulations of elephant dung on frequented land surfaces may be over 2 kg per square meter. Elephant trampling, digging, and dust-bathing may reverse stratigraphy at archeological localities. This paper summarizes these types of effects on biotic, geomorphic, and paleontological features in modern-day landscapes, and also describes several fossil sites that indicate extinct proboscideans had very similar effects, such as major sediment disturbances.

Haynes, Gary

2012-07-01

118

Stable hydrogen isotopic compositions in plants and animals can provide ecosystem-hydrology connections: Santeelah Creek watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connecting a watershed to its ecosystem can be accomplished with stable isotope tracers of hydrogen and oxygen at the natural abundance level. We have concentrated our study on a watershed with a significant altitudinal gradient in North Carolina. The Santeelah Creek watershed extends from 700 to 1600 m and is host to a robust population of black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens; BTBW), which feed almost exclusively on caterpillars and small insects during their breeding and molting periods in June and July. The forests in this watershed are composed of a rich flora, including Betula, Rhododendron, Acer, Quercus, along with shrubs, ferns, and mosses. The ?D of plants and insects along with creek and spring water samples provided us with background information that we extrapolated to the landscape scale. In addition, we have 13 years of ?D data of feathers collected from over 500 specimens of BTBW that were collected from specific territories throughout the watershed. Variations in ?D of plants within the watershed was not correlated with altitude, however, specific plant species (e.g. Betula vs. ferns) provide a direct link to the within watershed hydrology, because the ?D values of plants are dependent not only on the ?D of source water, but also growth temperature and the amount of evaporative transpiration. The ?D values of BTBW feathers also do not vary with altitude, but vary annually and correlate with the amount of growing season and annual precipitation from the previous year when feathers were grown. While the ?D of avian feathers has become a proven technique for tracing the natal origins of birds, our dataset allows us to delve further into the connections between water-primary producers-consumers-predators that will provide insight into how these analyses are truly linked to the hydrology of their environment.

Fogel, M. L.; Newsome, S.; Graves, G.

2013-12-01

119

Is precision livestock farming an engineer's daydream or nightmare, an animal's friend or foe, and a farmer's panacea or pitfall?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of precision livestock farming (PLF), from the view point of the engineer, the farm animal and the farmer; PLF is the principal means by which ‘smart’ sensors will be used in livestock farming. It considers the technological principles upon which PLF is based, gives several examples of PLF, considers which livestock processes are suitable for

C. M. Wathes; H. H. Kristensen; J.-M. Aerts; D. Berckmans

2008-01-01

120

Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.  

PubMed

In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 ?M for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ?M for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

2012-12-01

121

Genetic Engineering and Other Factors That Might Affect Human-Animal Interactions in the Research Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence exists, particularly in the welfare literature of nonhuman animals on the farm, that the interaction between nonhuman animals and the personnel who care for them can have a strong effect on the animals' behavior, productivity, and welfare. Among species commonly used for biomedical research, mice appear to be the least-preferred species in animal care facilities. A review of the

Julie Comber; Gilly Griffin

2007-01-01

122

Design and engineering aspects of a high resolution positron tomograph for small animal imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the Sherbrooke positron emission tomograph, a very high resolution device dedicated to dynamic imaging of small laboratory animals. Its distinctive features are: small discrete scintillation detectors based on avalanche photodiodes (APD) to achieve uniform, isotropic, very high spatial resolution; parallel processing for low deadtime and high count rate capability; multispectral data acquisition hardware to improve sensitivity and scatter correction; modularity to allow design flexibility and upgradability. The system implements the clam-shell'' sampling scheme and a rotating rod transmission source. All acquisition parameters can be adjusted under computer control. Temperature stability at the detector site is ensured by the use of thermoelectric modules. The initial system consists of one layer of 256 modules (two rings of detectors) defining 3 image slices in a 118 mm diameter by 10.5 mm thick field. The axial field can be extended to 50 mm using 4 layers of modules (8 rings of detectors). The design constraints and engineering aspects of an APD-based PET scanner are reviewed and preliminary results are reported.

Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Richard, P.; Rodrique, S.; Rouleau, D. (Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology)

1994-08-01

123

Investigating Ecosystems in a Biobottle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biobottles are miniature ecosystems made from 2-liter plastic soda bottles. They allow students to explore how organisms in an ecosystem are connected to each other, examine how biotic and abiotic factors influence plant and animal growth and development, and discover how important biodiversity is to an ecosystem. This activity was inspired by an…

Breene, Arnica; Gilewski, Donna

2008-01-01

124

Guidance for Industry: Regulation of Genetically Engineered Animals Containing Heritable Recombinant DNA Constructs. Final Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its first demonstration as proof of principle by Cohen and Boyer in 1973, recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has been applied to microorganisms, plants, and animals. Various agencies across the US government (USG) have provided guidance and regulatio...

2009-01-01

125

Zinc-finger nucleases: a powerful tool for genetic engineering of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of genetically modified animals or plants with gene-targeted deletions or modifications is a powerful tool\\u000a to analyze gene function, study disease and produce organisms of economical interest. Until recently, the generation of animals\\u000a with gene targeted manipulations has been accomplished by homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells or cloning\\u000a through nuclear transfer and has been limited

Séverine Rémy; Laurent Tesson; Séverine Ménoret; Claire Usal; Andrew M. Scharenberg; Ignacio Anegon

2010-01-01

126

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Aeropropulsion Engines and Solid Modeling/Animation via the Integrated Forced Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The grant closure report is organized in the following four chapters: Chapter describes the two research areas Design optimization and Solid mechanics. Ten journal publications are listed in the second chapter. Five highlights is the subject matter of chapter three. CHAPTER 1. The Design Optimization Test Bed CometBoards. CHAPTER 2. Solid Mechanics: Integrated Force Method of Analysis. CHAPTER 3. Five Highlights: Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PX-300 Aircraft Engine. Engine with Regression and Neural Network Approximators Designed. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design. Neural Network and Regression Approximations Used in Aircraft Design.

2004-01-01

127

A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

128

Diorama engine: a 3D video storyboard editor for 3D computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this sketch, we will demonstrate a video storyboard tool targeted for 3D computer animation. Our tool provides limited but specialized functions of standard 3D computer graphics software, focusing on ease of scene construction, camera control and the ability to preview in realtime. This allows for quicker and easier creation of video storyboards over existing approaches.

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara; Mitsuru Kaneko

2002-01-01

129

Articular cartilage repair using a tissue-engineered cartilage-like implant: an animal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Because articular cartilage has limited ability to repair itself, treatment of (osteo)chondral lesions remains a clinical challenge. We aimed to evaluate how well a tissue-engineered cartilage-like implant, derived from chondrocytes cultured in a novel patented, scaffold-free bioreactor system, would perform in minipig knees with chondral, superficial osteochondral, and full-thickness articular defects.Design For in vitro implant preparation, we used full-thickness

P. Mainil-Varlet; F. Rieser; S. Grogan; W. Mueller; C. Saager; R. P. Jakob

2001-01-01

130

Exploring an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based ecosystem called a terraqua column. The column (in a large soda bottle) includes pond water, duckweed, sand or gravel, and small snails. Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an ecosystem. This activity is aligned to National Science Standards (NS.5-8.3 Life Science).

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

131

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to populations and ecosystems using coral reefs and their immediate environment as an example. Because the Standards and Benchmarks present the concepts of populations and ecosystems generically, without reference to a specific ecosystem or the organisms in the system, coral reefs are used to provide the context through which concepts in a marine ecosystem are explored.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:� Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. � Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".� Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef� Identify coral polyp structures and describe their functions.� Describe photosynthesis in the coral environment.� Describe the evolution of a typical reef system.� Use the shape of an individual coral to identify its common name, and classify entire coral reef ecosystems based on shape and location. � Describe the process of coral polyp reproduction and growth.� Identify how the features and/or behavioral strategies of coral reef inhabitants enable them to survive in coral reef environments.Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Abiotic Setting� Identify the characteristics of an ecosystem, and describe the interdependence between biotic and abiotic features in an ecosystem.� Describe how the following abiotic factors provide coral with the energy needed to survive and grow within their ecosystem: sunlight, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.� Describe the optimal environmental conditions for coral reef growth, and explain the process of coral reef development (including the role of available sunlight and calcium).� Explain how the following environmental factors might affect coral ecosystems: increase in dissolved CO2, changes in global temperatures, increase in ocean water turbidity through water pollution.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence� Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.� Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).� Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.� Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.� Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis� Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).� Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).� Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. � Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.� Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.� Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

132

Governing the moral economy: animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science.  

PubMed

The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a 'moral economy' is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met. PMID:22507952

Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

2012-07-01

133

Governing the moral economy: Animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science  

PubMed Central

The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a ‘moral economy’ is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met.

Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

2012-01-01

134

I Will Survive! - An Engineering Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help fifth grade students apply the concept of how changes in an ecosystem can affect the survival of an animal species. Some suggested background building lessons are included, but it is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Faulkner, Elizabeth

2012-07-31

135

Engineered tendon with decellularized xenotendon slices and bone marrow stromal cells: an in vivo animal study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate an engineered composite of multilayer acellular tendon slices seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as a possible solution for tendon reconstruction. BMSCs were harvested from 15 rabbits and infraspinatus tendons were harvested from 17 dogs. The decellularized tendons were sectioned in longitudinal slices with a thickness of 50 ?m. The BMSCs were seeded on the slices and then the slices were bundled into one composite. The composite was implanted into a rabbit patellar tendon defect. Tendon slices without BMSCs were implanted into the contralateral patellar tendon as a control. The composites were evaluated by histology and qRT–PCR. The viability of BMSCs was assessed using a fluorescent marker. Histology showed viable cells between the collagen fibres on the cell-seeded side. Analysis by qRT–PCR showed higher tenomodulin, collagen type III, MMP3 and MMP13 expressions and lower collagen type I expression in the cell-seeded composite than in the tendon slices without BMSCs. We conclude that BMSCs can survive in a multilayer composite, express a tendon phenotype and enhance the metabolism of tendon in vivo. This in vivo study suggests a potential utility of this composite in tendon reconstruction.

Omae, Hiromichi; Sun, Yu Long; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng

2013-01-01

136

Natural Resources, the Environment, and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of teacher guides includes: Ecosystems and Climate, Wildlife - Just One Piece of the Picture, Integrated Pest Management, Soil and Ecosystems, Sustainable Agriculture, and The Web of Life - Understanding Ecosystems. Each guide includes a subject overview, objectives, and student activities. By the end, students should be able to understand the effect of climate on ecosystems; the interrelationships of animals with components of their natural ecosystem; how ecosystems benefit from using an integrated pest management program; soil compaction and its effect on water filtration, plant growth, and seed germination; sustainable agriculture and agroecology; and the concept of ecosystems and interdependence.

2007-12-12

137

Natural Resources, the Environment, and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of teacher guides includes: Ecosystems and Climate, Wildlife - Just One Piece of the Picture, Integrated Pest Management, Soil and Ecosystems, Sustainable Agriculture, and The Web of Life - Understanding Ecosystems. Each guide includes a subject overview, objectives, and student activities. By the end, students should be able to understand the effect of climate on ecosystems; the interrelationships of animals with components of their natural ecosystem; how ecosystems benefit from using an integrated pest management program; soil compaction and its effect on water filtration, plant growth, and seed germination; sustainable agriculture and agroecology; and the concept of ecosystems and interdependence. Spanish translation available.

138

Inside Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series of articles featuring the urban ecosystem. Discusses the inner workings of an ecosystem and the links that connect its elements, including the link between people and the environment. Graphics illustrate "layers" of the landscape. (LZ)

Moll, Gary; And Others

1995-01-01

139

Florida Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by FICUS (the Florida Internet Center for Understanding Sustainability) and the University of South Florida, this gem of a site covers Florida's native upland, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Streamlined in organization but solid in content, Florida Ecosystems offers introductory information and photographic images of a dozen ecosystems, ranging from Pine Flatwoods and Dry Prairies to Mangrove Swamps and Coral Reefs. For students and educators interested in subtropical ecosystems, this is a nice place to start.

140

Natural ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

2013-01-01

141

Ecosystem Journalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the organisms in a prairie ecosystem created a newspaper, what would it look like? What important news topics of the ecosystem would the organisms want to discuss? Imaginative and enthusiastic third-grade students were busy pondering these questions as they tried their hands at "ecosystem journalism." The class had recently completed a study of…

Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn

2005-01-01

142

Ecosystem Jenga!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

2009-01-01

143

The Coral Reef Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine a coral reef ecosystem to learn about its living and non-living parts and how they interact. They apply what they have learned to explore the world's biomes, including how the animals in each are adapted to their environment.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

144

Impact of elevated levels of CO2 on animal mediated ecosystem function: the modification of sediment nutrient fluxes by burrowing urchins.  

PubMed

A mesocosm experiment was conducted to quantify the relationships between the presence and body size of two burrowing heart urchins (Brissopsis lyrifera and Echinocardium cordatum) and rates of sediment nutrient flux. Furthermore, the impact of seawater acidification on these relationships was determined during this 40-day exposure experiment. Using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, seawater was acidified to pHNBS 7.6, 7.2 or 6.8. Control treatments were maintained in natural seawater (pH?8.0). Under normocapnic conditions, burrowing urchins were seen to reduce the sediment uptake of nitrite or nitrate whilst enhancing the release of silicate and phosphate. In acidified (hypercapnic) treatments, the biological control of biogeochemical cycles by urchins was significantly affected, probably through the combined impacts of high CO2 on nitrifying bacteria, benthic algae and urchin behaviour. This study highlights the importance of considering biological interactions when predicting the consequences of seawater acidification on ecosystem function. PMID:23218873

Widdicombe, S; Beesley, A; Berge, J A; Dashfield, S L; McNeill, C L; Needham, H R; Øxnevad, S

2013-08-30

145

Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important ecosystem engineering activities are still performed. However, bioturbation may be reduced as crab biomass and body size were smaller in the gaps. Follow-up assessments and field experiments are needed to understand the crabs' role in processing the woody debris, their long-term community dynamics and possible feed-backs between species shifts and gap regeneration.

Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

2013-11-01

146

Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a freshwater ecosystem in a large plastic bottle. Learners cut and prepare bottles, then fill with water, aquatic plants, snails and fish. Learners observe their mini-ecosystem over time to see what changes--such as the color of the water, the water temperature, plant growth, and behavior and/or population of the snails or fish. The activity serves as a model for larger freshwater ecosystems such as ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, reservoirs and groundwater.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

147

Coral Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why study coral ecosystems? Having survived millions of years, coral reefs are among the oldest and most diverse ecosystems on earth. Learning about coral ecosystems encompasses many of the 9-12 grade science curriculum standards. Life cycles of organisms, biological structure and function of organisms, and the behaviors and adaptations of organisms to their environment are all topics easily studied through a focus on coral reefs. All populations in this ecosystem are interdependent and part of a global food web. Healthy coral ecosystems are important to the humans, plants, fish, and other organisms that depend on them. However, the increasing impact of climate changes and human activities is endangering the very survival of these ecosystems. Pollution, habitat loss, invasive species, and diseases are all threats to the survival of coral ecosystems around the globe. Learning about them- "their fragility and value"- will help students understand what is needed to protect them. This SciGuide highlights outstanding NOAA resources, such as online tutorials and complete, hands-on, inquiry based lesson plans from the National Ocean Services. These resources address three areas. First, students can study the biology of the coral organism, learning about types of coral and where they are found. Next, resources focus on the populations, habitat, and dynamics of coral ecosystems. Finally, teachers and students, through online data sources and activities, learn about conservation of our coral ecosystems. Natural threats, human disturbances, and the benefits of coral protection focus students on the real world importance of science learning.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-06-01

148

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

149

Soil Food Web Changes during Spontaneous Succession at Post Mining Sites: A Possible Ecosystem Engineering Effect on Food Web Organization?  

PubMed Central

Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1– 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel.

Frouz, Jan; Thebault, Elisa; Pizl, Vaclav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomas; Baldrian, Petr; Hanel, Ladislav; Stary, Josef; Tajovsky, Karel; Materna, Jan; Novakova, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C.

2013-01-01

150

Sea Ice Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

Arrigo, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

151

Sea ice ecosystems.  

PubMed

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900

Arrigo, Kevin R

2014-01-01

152

Soil food web changes during spontaneous succession at post mining sites: a possible ecosystem engineering effect on food web organization?  

PubMed

Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1- 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel. PMID:24260281

Frouz, Jan; Thébault, Elisa; Pižl, Václav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrián, Petr; Hán?l, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, Jan; Nováková, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C

2013-01-01

153

Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (?34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report ?34S, ?13C and ?15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in ?34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = ?2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2?). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only ?13C and ?15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen ?34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy ?15N values coupled with light ?34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow a clearer identification of the marine and/or freshwater 14C reservoir effects that are known to exist in human bone collagen.

Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

2013-11-01

154

Antarctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In contrast with its largely lifeless interior, the Antarctic coastal marine environment supports a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the region's living bounty in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-01-17

155

Agricultural Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural ecosystem concept promotes a distinctive set of ecological principles that give diversity and stability to the food production process. This system allows people to work more closely with nature and to feel a spiritual connection with the...

K. Kindscher

1984-01-01

156

Ecosystem Valuation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as a collaborative project of the US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA-Sea Grant Office, and University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, this new Website examines how economists attempt to assign values to ecosystem services. The site is well organized and outlines general and specific topics under the following sections: The Big Picture, Essentials of Ecosystem Valuation, Dollar-based Ecosystem Valuation Methods, Ecosystem Benefit Indicators, and Links. Topics are explained in terms that laypersons will understand (a glossary is also provided) but without compromising the quality of information. Anyone interested in learning more about this controversial but increasingly important area will find this site an excellent starting point.

157

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

158

Changing Ecosystem Service Values Following Technological Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on ecosystem services has focused mostly on natural areas or remote places, with less attention given to urban ecosystem services and their relationship with technological change. However, recent work by urban ecologists and urban designers has more closely examined and appreciated the opportunities associated with integrating natural and built infrastructures. Nevertheless, a perception remains in the literature on ecosystem services that technology may easily and irreversibly substitute for services previously obtained from ecosystems, especially when the superiority of the engineered system motivated replacement in the first place. We emphasize that the expected tradeoff between natural and manufactured capital is false. Rather, as argued in other contexts, the adoption of new technologies is complementary to ecosystem management. The complementarity of ecosystem services and technology is illustrated with a case study in Barcelona, Spain where the installation of sophisticated water treatment technology increased the value of the ecosystem services found there. Interestingly, the complementarity between natural and built infrastructures may remain even for the very ecosystems that are affected by the technological change. This finding suggests that we can expect the value of ecosystem services to co-evolve with new technologies. Technological innovation can generate new opportunities to harness value from ecosystems, and the engineered structures found in cities may generate more reliance on ecosystem processes, not less.

Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Schneider, Daniel W.; Brozovi?, Nicholas

2014-06-01

159

Changing ecosystem service values following technological change.  

PubMed

Research on ecosystem services has focused mostly on natural areas or remote places, with less attention given to urban ecosystem services and their relationship with technological change. However, recent work by urban ecologists and urban designers has more closely examined and appreciated the opportunities associated with integrating natural and built infrastructures. Nevertheless, a perception remains in the literature on ecosystem services that technology may easily and irreversibly substitute for services previously obtained from ecosystems, especially when the superiority of the engineered system motivated replacement in the first place. We emphasize that the expected tradeoff between natural and manufactured capital is false. Rather, as argued in other contexts, the adoption of new technologies is complementary to ecosystem management. The complementarity of ecosystem services and technology is illustrated with a case study in Barcelona, Spain where the installation of sophisticated water treatment technology increased the value of the ecosystem services found there. Interestingly, the complementarity between natural and built infrastructures may remain even for the very ecosystems that are affected by the technological change. This finding suggests that we can expect the value of ecosystem services to co-evolve with new technologies. Technological innovation can generate new opportunities to harness value from ecosystems, and the engineered structures found in cities may generate more reliance on ecosystem processes, not less. PMID:24752336

Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Schneider, Daniel W; Brozovi?, Nicholas

2014-06-01

160

The Ecosystem Functions Model: A Tool for Restoration Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The Ecosystem Functions Model (EFM) is a planning tool that analyzes ecosystem response to changes in flow regime. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) is developing the EFM and envisions environmental planners, biologists, and engineers using the model to help determine whether proposed alternatives (e.g., reservoir operations or levee alignments) would maintain, enhance, or diminish

John T. Hickey; Chris N. Dunn

161

A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

Clarke, Katie C.

2010-01-01

162

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido RöÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

163

Animal Cloning: Consumer FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... from clones to be used in making pet food. Is cloning the same as genetic engineering? No, cloning is not the same as genetic engineering. Genetic engineering involves adding, taking away, or modifying genes, ... means of breeding food animals. The point of cloning is to increase ...

164

Skingineering I: engineering porcine dermo-epidermal skin analogues for autologous transplantation in a large animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Extended full thickness skin defects still represent a considerable therapeutic challenge as ideal strategies for definitive\\u000a autologous coverage are still not available. Tissue engineering of whole skin represents an equally attractive and ambitious\\u000a novel approach. We have recently shown that laboratory-grown human skin analogues with near normal skin anatomy can be successfully\\u000a transplanted on immuno-incompetent rats. The goal of the

Erik Braziulis; Thomas Biedermann; Fabienne Hartmann-Fritsch; Clemens Schiestl; Luca Pontiggia; Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth; Ernst Reichmann; Martin Meuli

2011-01-01

165

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

166

Louisiana Coastal Ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Louisiana's coast and its degradation and restoration are major environmental issues being studied at the National Wetlands Research Center. Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable because of the tremendous amount of human activity that takes place along the coast. Information on ecological processes is essential to guide the development along the coast as well as to protect and restore wildlife habitat. Louisiana has about 40% of coastal wetlands in the lower 48 states; they support fish, waterfowl, and fur-bearing animals as well as unique cultures like that of the Acadians. The fish and wildlife resources of Louisiana's coast produce over $1 billion each year in revenues. But Louisiana has the highest coastal loss rate because of natural and human causes. Over the past three decades, Louisiana has lost as much as 35-40 mi2 (90-104 km2) of coastal wetlands a year. The National Wetlands Research Center is qualified to assess and monitor this ecosystem because of its proximity to the study area, a staff chosen for their expertise in the system, and a number of established partnerships with others who study the areas. The Center is often the lead group in partnerships with universities, other federal agencies, and private entities who study this ecosystem. Most of the Center's research and technology development performed for coastal wetlands are done at the Lafayette headquarters; some work is performed at the National Wetlands Research Center's project office in Baton Rouge, LA.

U.S. Geological Survey

2000-01-01

167

Indirect interactions mediated by leaf shelters in animal–plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf shelters indirectly mediate interactions in animal–plant communities by providing the occupants with several kinds of\\u000a benefits, as physical ecosystem engineering. The occupants benefit from favorable microhabitat, reduction in antiherbivore\\u000a defense, and protection from natural enemies. The primary shelter maker has to spend energy and time and producing silk, but\\u000a shelter users have great advantages without incurring costs. Shelter users

Akiko Fukui

2001-01-01

168

Ecosystem Subsidies to Swedish Food Consumption from 1962 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of food consumption and agricultural production trends in Sweden has focused on domestic food production levels and yields, overlooking human dependence on ecosystem support. We estimate the ecosystem areas appropriated (ArEAs) for agricultural production (crop and animal feed production and grazing in arable land and marine production for fishmeal used in animal feed) to satisfy Swedish food consumption needs

Lisa Deutsch; Carl Folke

2005-01-01

169

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

170

Health Effects of Exposure to Diesel Engine Emissions: A Summary of Animal Studies Conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health Effects Research Laboratories at Cincinnati, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the potentially harmful effects of diesel engine emissions, inhalation exposure studies were carried out using a variety of animal species and strains, and measuring a wide range of toxicological parameters. Exhaust was provided by a 6 cylinder Nissan diesel engine operated 20 hours\\/day, 7 days\\/week, during a 2 month preliminary trial and 8 hours\\/day, 7 days\\/week

W. E. Pepelko; W. B. Peirano

1983-01-01

171

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

172

Boost Converter Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, created by faculty at Dartmouth University, is a boost converter. The resource features other animations such as buck and discontinuous converters. They also add simple diode, bridge and half-wave rectifiers. Although simple in design, this can still be a useful resource for those interested in electrical engineering.

2009-11-06

173

Astronomical Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

2004-05-01

174

Pleistocene Extinctions: The Death of an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The materials at this site discuss the interconnectedness of ecosystems including animals, vegetation and climate, and the impact of extinctions on human perception. The site includes: the End of Eden, a brief description of the extinction model results; the Case of the Aboricidal Megaherbivores, a detective story with Skylark Holmes and Dr. Janet Watson; The ecosystem extinctions model which you can get and run yourself; and the model's implications, including the invention of war and the rise of information technology.

Whitney-Smith, Elin

175

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

176

Internet Geography: Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site about ecosystems and biomes contains a map of different ecosystems, and provides rainfall statistics for each biome. There are sections on tropical rainforest, taiga (or boreal forest), savanna, desert, and tundra ecosystems. Each section describes the biome and its origins, where it is found, and how humans impact it. In some cases, sustainable development of the ecosystem is explained.

177

Formalizing software ecosystem modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is no formal modeling standard for software ecosystems that models both the ecosystem and the environment in which software products and services operate. Major implications are (1) software vendors have trouble distinguishing the specific software ecosystems in which they are active and (2) they have trouble using these ecosystems to their strategic advantage. In this paper we present

Vasilis Boucharas; Slinger Jansen; Sjaak Brinkkemper

2009-01-01

178

Why Mars?—Even under the condition of critical factor constraint engineering technology may permit the establishment and maintenance of an inhabitable ecosystem on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant evidence that the total volatiles inventory of Mars is now severely depleted, particularly so in the case of nitrogen. The likely low availability of nitrogen may constitute a ‘critical limiting factor’ preventing the establishment of a gravity-bound terraformed atmosphere of terrestrial composition and surface pressure. Even under the condition of critical factor constraint engineering technology could permit

Richard L. S. Taylor

1998-01-01

179

Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan taiga  

SciTech Connect

This volume in the series ''Ecological Studies'' provides an overview and synthesis of research on the structure and function of taiga forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. The first section discusses the nature of the taiga environment and covers climate, forest ecosystem distribution, natural regeneration of vegetation, and the role of fire. The second edition focuses on environmental controls over organism activity with discussions on growth and nutrient use, nitrogen fixation, physiological ecology of mosses, and microbial activity and element availability. The final section considers environmental controls over ecosystem processes with discussions of processes, plant-animal interactions, and a model of forest growth and yield.

Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F.S. III; Flanagan, P.W.; Viereck, L.A.

1986-01-01

180

The State of Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has illustrated that human actions have significantly transformed many of Earths ecosystems. The main findings describe how: humans changed ecosystems dramatically over the past 50 years, changes to ecosystem services may get worse in the next 50 years, global action at all levels can reverse the degradation, and how ecosystem degradation increases risks of sudden changes and reduces benefits for future generations.

ChristiÃÂán Samper (National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution;)

2005-08-01

181

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

182

Fort Collins Science Center: Ecosystem Dynamics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many challenging natural resource management issues require consideration of a web of interactions among ecosystem components. The spatial and temporal complexity of these ecosystem problems demands an interdisciplinary approach integrating biotic and abiotic processes. The goals of the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch are to provide sound science to aid federal resource managers and use long-term, place-focused research and monitoring on federal lands to advance ecosystem science. Current studies fall into five general areas. Herbivore-Ecosystem Interactions examines the efficacy of multiple controls on selected herbivore populations and cascading effects through predator-herbivore-plant-soil linkages. Riparian Ecology is concerned with interactions among streamflow, fluvial geomorphology, and riparian vegetation. Integrated Fire Science focuses on the effects of fire on plant and animal communities at multiple scales, and on the interactions between post-fire plant, runoff, and erosion processes. Reference Ecosystems comprises long-term, place-based studies of ecosystem biogeochemistry. Finally, Integrated Assessments is investigating how to synthesize multiple ecosystem stressors and responses over complex landscapes in ways that are useful for management and planning.

Bowen, Zack

2004-01-01

183

Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the natural and human causes of ecosystem stress. Human beings live near coral ecosystems and use them in a variety of ways. Increasing amounts of stress is brought on these ecosystems as humans continue to modify the surrounding environment as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening the stability and overall health of many coral reefs. Human activities may also exacerbate the impact of natural disturbances on coral reefs or compromise the ability of the reef to recover from events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, or disease. Learning Outcomes:� Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).� Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).� Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. � Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.� Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.� Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

184

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

185

Comparison of Drug and Cell-Based Delivery: Engineered Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II Prevent Arthritis in Mouse and Rat Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNF? and blocks TNF?-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNF?-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNF?-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNF? generated from either implanted TNF?-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNF?, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1?, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNF? complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNF? and IL1?, but not interferon ?, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation within the arthritic joint.

Liu, Linda N.; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe

2013-01-01

186

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

187

Glacier Ecosystems of Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce glacier ecosystems in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of glacier animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the glacier. Since the microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.

Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.

2012-12-01

188

Arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination.  

PubMed

Limited data have been collected on the presence of contaminants in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem, with the exception of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. Although southern and temperate biological systems have largely cleansed themselves of radioactive fallout deposited during the 1950s and 1960s, Arctic environments have not. Lichens accumulate radioactivity more than many other plants because of their large surface area and long life span; the presence and persistence of radioisotopes in the Arctic is of concern because of the lichen----reindeer----human ecosystem. Effective biological half-life of cesium 137 is reckoned to be substantially less than its physical half-life. The database on organochlorines in Canadian Arctic terrestrial mammals and birds is very limited, but indications are that the air/plant/animal contaminant pathway is the major route of these compounds into the terrestrial food chain. For terrestrial herbivores, the most abundant organochlorine is usually hexachlorobenzene followed by hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. PCB accumulation favours the hexachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyl and heptachlorobiphenyl homologous series. The concentrations of the various classes of organochlorine compounds are substantially lower in terrestrial herbivore tissues than in marine mammal tissues. PCBs and DDT are the most abundant residues in peregrine falcons (a terrestrial carnivore) reaching average levels of 9.2 and 10.4 micrograms.g-1, respectively, more than 10 times higher than other organochlorines and higher than in marine mammals, including the polar bear. Contaminants from local sources include metals from mining activities, hydrocarbons and waste drilling fluids from oil and gas exploration and production, wastes from DEW line sites, naturally occurring radionuclides associated with uranium mineralization, and smoke containing SO2 and H2SO4 aerosol from the Smoking Hills at Cape Bathurst, N.W.T. PMID:1355310

Thomas, D J; Tracey, B; Marshall, H; Norstrom, R J

1992-07-15

189

Integrated Ecosystem Assessments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reports of the U.S. Oceans Commission, the Pew Oceans Commission, the Ocean Priorities Plan, and other nationwide reviews highlight the importance of incorporating ecosystem principles in ocean and coastal resource management. An ecosystem approach to...

G. C. Matlock M. Ernst M. J. Fogarty P. S. Levin

2008-01-01

190

ECOSYSTEM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermodynamically, ecosystem growth and development is the process by which energy throughflow and stored biomass increase. Several proposed hypotheses describe the natural tendencies that occur as an ecosystem matures, and here, we consider five: minimum entropy production, maxi...

191

Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

1997-01-01

192

I Spy an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We hear the word ecosystems in the news and at school but just what are ecosystems? It turns out there are lots of ecosystems. You might even learn you have some inside you! Also in: Français | Español

Biology

2009-09-22

193

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

194

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

195

Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

Wilson, J.; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

2009-01-01

196

ACID PRECIPITATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Man-induced change in the chemical climate of the earth has increased. Recent research has demonstrated that atmospheric deposition contains both beneficial nutrients and injurious substances; plants, animals, and ecosystems vary greatly in susceptibility; injury is most likely w...

197

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum Of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

198

Ecosystem services in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humanity is increasingly urban, but continues to depend on Nature for its survival. Cities are dependent on the ecosystems beyond the city limits, but also benefit from internal urban ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to analyze the ecosystem services generated by ecosystems within the urban area. ‘Ecosystem services’ refers to the benefits human populations derive from ecosystems. Seven

Per Bolund; Sven Hunhammar

1999-01-01

199

Lightning safety of animals.  

PubMed

This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

Gomes, Chandima

2012-11-01

200

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

201

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

202

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

203

SCME Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This page contains all the animations created for the various learning modules. These include a cantilever array animation, backside pressure sensor etch animation, and pressure sensor process animation. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-10-11

204

Mascot animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.

Shinji Ameda; Kumiko Arai; Tomonori Isogaya; Taiki Ito; Chihiro Iwamoto; Mari Kameyama; Haruki Kato; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Satoko Matsumaru; Hiroki Matsuoka; Takato Nakai; Moemi Nakano; Kumiko Obora; Naomi Ogura; Koichi Okamura; Yuko Sato; Tetsuro Satomi; Mio Sawaguchi; Nobuhiko Suzuki; Yugo Takahashi; Mai Takayanagi; Keigo Takeshige; Naomi Tanaka; Takeshi Tsuzaki; Yoshihumi Uehiro; Shuhei Yamada; Koji Yamamoto; Melanie Beisswenger; Toru Ogura; Takeshi Saito; Takayuki Sato; Atsushi Sugito; Seiichi Tsuji

2009-01-01

205

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

206

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

207

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Beardsley, Ms.

2011-10-26

208

Ecosystem Services - Water Purification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy ecosystems by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how ecosystems remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once ecosystems are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-30

209

Living Things: Habitats & Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Text and photographs regarding habitats, populations and communities, biomes, niches and ecosystems in general with numerous links to lessons, activities, and organizations on specific subtopics in ecology.

2009-01-01

210

Artificial ecosystem selection  

PubMed Central

Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy.

Swenson, William; Wilson, David Sloan; Elias, Roberta

2000-01-01

211

Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet.This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating the best of the internet to supportscience learning and technology instruction. For this third-grade class, that means learning about living things and how they exist and depend on each other, from food webs to human impact on ecosystems--while also mastering skills to do online research and create multimedia presentations.

Leveen, Lois

2007-09-01

212

CalPhotos: Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California-Berkeley Digital Library Project (first mentioned in the April 16, 1999 Scout Report), this CalPhotos website connects visitors to 17,812 images of different animals. Site visitors can locate animal photographs using a search engine with free text fields for Scientific or Common name, Location, and Picture's ID, and drop-down menu fields for Photographer, Country, US State, Collection, and more. Visitors can also peruse extensive, hyperlinked listings of animals grouped under the following categories: Amphibians, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Mammals, and Reptiles. Animals are listed by both common and scientific name. The photographs come from a variety of sources, and are accompanied by usage guidelines. CalPhotos collections are also available for Fungi, Plants, People & Culture, and Landscapes & Habitats.

213

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

214

Short tandem target mimic: a long journey to the engineered molecular landmine for selective destruction/blockage of microRNAs in plants and animals.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a population of highly conserved specific small ribo-regulators that negatively regulate gene expressions in both plants and animals. They play a key role in post-transcriptional gene regulation by destabilizing the target gene transcripts or blocking protein translation from them. Interestingly, these negative regulators are largely compromised by an upstream layer of negative regulators "target mimics" found in plants or "endogenous competing RNAs" revealed recently in animals. These endogenous regulatory mechanisms of "double negatives making a positive" have now been developed into a key strategy in the study of small RNA functions. This review presents some reflections on the long journey to the short tandem target mimic (STTM) for selective destruction/blockage of specific miRNAs in plants and animals, and the potential applications of STTM are discussed. PMID:23790628

Tang, Guiliang; Tang, Xiaoqing

2013-06-20

215

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

216

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

217

NMR Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

2011-07-26

218

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

219

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

220

Animal cytomegaloviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions.

Staczek, J

1990-01-01

221

MEDLI Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

222

The Library as Ecosystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, and the academic library could be considered to be an ecosystem, i.e., a "biological organization" in which multiple species must interact, both with one another and with their environment. The metaphor of the library as ecosystem is flexible enough to be applied not…

Walter, Scott

2008-01-01

223

What Is Ecosystem Management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolving concept of ecosystem management is the focus of much current debate. To clarify discussion and provide a frammork for implementatiotq I trace the histor- ical development of ecosystem management, provide a working definitioq and summarize dominant themes taken from an extensive literature reuiew. The general goal of maintaining ecological integ?Yty is discussed along with five specific goals: maintaining

R. Edward Grumbine

1994-01-01

224

Earth on Edge : Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the six ecosystems on which life on Earth most heavily depends: agricultural, forest, freshwater, grassland, coastal, and urban. It is part of a Public Broadcasting System (PBS) project, which includes a discussion guide. Ecosystems are described as communities of interacting organisms and the physical environment in which they live. The goods and services that ecosystems provide are said to form the foundation of human economies. Ecosystems purify air and water, help to control climate, and produce valuable soil-services. Site users may access a discussion guide to accompany the broadcast of the video/television program, which can be used in colleges, secondary schools, and in community groups. Case studies are taken from the companion book, World Resources 2000-2001: Ecosystems and People: The Fraying Web of Life, and from Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Agroecosystems (World Resources Institute). This online text includes profiles, case studies, and ecosystem assessments with references to ecosystems around the world. A list of additional resources includes links to environmental organizations, books, and periodicals.

Mock, Gregory; Vanasselt, Wendy

2000-01-01

225

Where Will Ecosystems Go?  

SciTech Connect

Climate-induced changes in ecosystems have been both modeled and documented extensively over the past 15-20 years. Those changes occur in the context of many other stresses and interacting factors, but it is clear that many, if not most, ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate.

Janetos, Anthony C.

2008-09-29

226

Environmental Biology - Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains how energy and pollutants move through an ecosystem, how ecosystems are balanced and how they may be affected by human activities. Concepts described include the roles of organisms, food chains and food webs, pyramids of biomass, biological magnification, and biogeochemical cycles such as water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous cycles.

Mcshaffrey, Dave

227

Ecosystems, Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Ecosystems," the sixth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems. They make use of scientific and…

California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

228

for Ecosystem Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines an approach, based on ecosystem services, for assessing the trade-offs inherent in managing humans embedded in ecological systems. Evaluating these trade-offs requires an understanding of the biophysical magnitudes of the changes in ecosystem services that result from human actions, and of the impact of these changes on human welfare. We summarize the state of the art of

STEPHEN FARBER; ROBERT COSTANZA; DANIEL L. CHILDERS; JON ERICKSON; KATHERINE GROSS; MORGAN GROVE; CHARLES S. HOPKINSON; JAMES KAHN; STEPHANIE PINCETL; AUSTIN TROY; PAIGE WARREN; MATTHEW WILSON

229

SEVEN PILLARS OF ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem management is widely proposed in the popular and professional literature as the modern and preferred way of managing natural resources and ecosystems. Advocates glowingly describe ecosystem management as an approach that will protect the environment, maintain healthy ec...

230

Nutrient Controls on Biocomplexity of Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forests are important coastal ecosystems that provide a variety of ecological and societal services. These intertidal, tree-dominated communities along tropical coastlines are often described as 'simple systems,' compared to other tropical forests with larger numbers of plant species and multiple understory strata; however, mangrove ecosystems have complex trophic structures, and organisms exhibit unique physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations to environmental conditions characteristic of the land-sea interface. Biogeochemical functioning of mangrove forests is also controlled by interactions among the microbial, plant, and animal communities and feedback linkages mediated by hydrology and other forcing functions. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to understand more fully the impact of nutrient variability on these delicate and important ecosystems.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

231

Collision Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of interactive Flash animation explores all aspects of the India-Eurasian continental collision. Animations show the motion of the two continents, the growth of the Himalayas, earthquakes resulting from their collision, and the incredible rate of erosion of the newly formed mountains.

Environment, University O.

232

Animal Halter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is one of many objects used by field scientists in the care of their animals. This type of halter was used to provide an easy way to hold on to animals that might otherwise become unruly or wander away. Object ID: USGS-000076...

2009-07-22

233

Computer Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated images are almost magical in their ability to capture our imagination. By telling a compelling story, astounding with special eects, or mesmeriz- ing with abstract motion, animation can infuse a se- quence of inert images with the illusion of motion and life. Creating this illusion, either by hand or with the assistance of computer software, is not easy. Each

Jessica K. Hodgins; James F. O'Brien; Robert E. Bodenheimer

234

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

235

Animal Restrainer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The animal restrainer is designed to restrain and move a dog from one place to another. The animal is suspended in a flexible structure made up of crossed straps. The legs protrude through openings in the straps. The device is suspended from a trolley rod...

W. S. Koon N. P. Musselman

1965-01-01

236

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

237

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Boneíspecific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

Chung, Kyn W.

2011-05-24

238

Paper Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains ideas and brief instructions on how to build animals out of construction paper and other simple materials. Included are tips on how to roll, fold, and cut paper to make various animals parts. Learners may enjoy making a "frankenfish" that expands.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-06

239

Motor Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

2013-06-14

240

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

241

Animal experimentation.  

PubMed

Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

Kolar, Roman

2006-01-01

242

National Geographic Education: Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Education website has a number of sections dedicated to different areas within the natural sciences. This particular section brings together all manner of educational resources related to ecosystems. On the site, visitors can dive in via the Latest Updates for Ecosystems. Here they can learn how to explore the profiled ecosystems via a range of GIS tools. Visitors can use the filters on the site to look over the resources by Type, Grades & Ages, Intended Audience, and Subjects. Visitors shouldn't miss looking over features like the Amazon Gold Mine, Back to the Bottom, and African Savanna.

243

Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.

2008-10-06

244

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

245

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

2011-01-30

246

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

247

Wild Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

248

Animal Bytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browsable database is designed to help learners quickly find information about some of the creatures found in the animal kingdom. Most species' records include scientific classification, basic physical traits, fun facts, and conservation/ecological value.

2012-01-01

249

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

250

Mathematics Animated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Talman of the Metropolitan State College of Denver offers this site as a reference for both students and teachers of mathematics. It is an assortment of animations that demonstrate many mathematical concepts, which are often difficult to visualize. The only downside of the animations is the lack of explanation associated with them. Some have short descriptions, others are somewhat self explanatory, but the rest can initially be quite confusing.

Talman, Louis.

251

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

252

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

253

THE COMPUTERIZED ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A generalized discussion of mathematical simulation used on the Great Lakes is presented for the layman. Illustrations of model utilization are presented and the complexities of ecosystem simulation are noted....

254

The Computerized Ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A generalized discussion of mathematical simulation used on the Great Lakes is presented for the layman. Illustrations of model utilization are presented and the complexities of ecosystem simulation are noted.

W. R. Swain

1978-01-01

255

List identifies threatened ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

256

Monitoring Wilderness Stream Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A protocol and methods for monitoring the major physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems are presented. The monitoring protocol is organized into four stages. At stage 1 information is obtained on a basic set of parameters that d...

J. C. Davis G. W. Minshall C. T. Robinson P. Landres

2001-01-01

257

Ecosystems in the Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

Madders, M.

1975-01-01

258

Analyzing an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the University of Alberta, identify the living and nonliving things in an ecosystem. Then look further at the living things to identify the producers, the consumers, and examples of mimicry.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

259

Lakes Ecosystem Services Online  

EPA Science Inventory

Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

260

Endolithic microbial ecosystems.  

PubMed

The endolithic environment, the pore space in rocks, is a ubiquitous microbial habitat and an interface between biology and geology. Photosynthesis-based endolithic communities inhabit the outer centimeters of rocks exposed to the surface, and offer model systems for microbial ecology, geobiology, and astrobiology. Endolithic ecosystems are among the simplest microbial ecosystems known and as such provide tractable models for testing ecological hypotheses. Such hypotheses have been difficult to test because microbial ecosystems are extraordinarily diverse. We review here recent culture-independent, ribosomal RNA-based studies that evaluate hypotheses about endolithic ecosystems, and provide insight for understanding general principles in microbial ecology. Comparison of endolithic communities supports the principle that patterns of microbial diversity are governed by similar principles observed in macroecological systems. Recent results also explore geobiological processes that shape the current biosphere and potentially provide clues to life's history on Earth and where to seek life elsewhere in the Solar System. PMID:17506683

Walker, Jeffrey J; Pace, Norman R

2007-01-01

261

Limiting Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit, designed to span two class periods, helps students understand that physical factors, particularly temperature and precipitation, limit the growth of plant ecosystems. The activity begins with a discussion in which students develop their own ideas about the role of temperature, precipitation, and environment on plant growth. They will then examine X-Y graphs of vegetation growth, temperature, and precipitation versus month for four diverse ecosystems to determine which climatic factor is limiting growth. A worksheet and scoring rubric are provided.

262

Delineation of ecosystem regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of developing reliable estimates of ecosystem productivity, ecosystem classification needs to be placed within a geographical framework of regions or zones. This paper explains the basis for the regions delineated on the 1976 mapEcoregions of the United States. Four ecological levels are discussed—domain, division, province, and section—based on climatic and vegetational criteria. Statistical tests are needed to

Robert G. Bailey; Fort Collins

1983-01-01

263

Ecosystem thresholds with hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hypoxia is one of the common effects of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems and is becoming an increasingly prevalent\\u000a problem worldwide. The causes of hypoxia are associated with excess nutrient inputs from both point and non-point sources,\\u000a although the response of coastal marine ecosystems is strongly modulated by physical processes such as stratification and\\u000a mixing. Changes in climate, particularly temperature,

Daniel J. Conley; Jacob Carstensen; Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer; Carlos M. Duarte

264

Ecosystem thresholds with hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is one of the common effects of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems and is becoming an increasingly prevalent\\u000a problem worldwide. The causes of hypoxia are associated with excess nutrient inputs from both point and non-point sources,\\u000a although the response of coastal marine ecosystems is strongly modulated by physical processes such as stratification and\\u000a mixing. Changes in climate, particularly temperature,

Daniel J. Conley; Jacob Carstensen; Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer; Carlos M. Duarte

2009-01-01

265

Organic Chemistry Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.

266

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

267

Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.  

PubMed

Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed. PMID:24563311

Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

2014-06-01

268

Brazilian minipig as a large-animal model for basic research and stem cell-based tissue engineering. Characterization and in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is one of the most intensively researched medical issues. Pre-clinical studies in a large-animal model, especially in swine or miniature pigs, are highly relevant to human applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and expanded from different sources. Objective This study aimed at isolating and characterizing, for the first time, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from a Brazilian minipig (BR1). Also, this aimed to validate a new large-animal model for stem cell-based tissue engineering. Material and Methods Bone marrow (BM) was aspirated from the posterior iliac crest of twelve adult male BR1 under general anesthesia. MSCs were selected by plastic-adherence as originally described by Friedenstein. Cell morphology, surface marker expression, and cellular differentiation were examined. The immunophenotypic profile was determined by flow cytometry. The differentiation potential was assessed by cytological staining and by RT-PCR. Results MSCs were present in all minipig BM samples. These cells showed fibroblastic morphology and were positive for the surface markers CD90 (88.6%), CD29 (89.8%), CD44 (86.9%) and negative for CD34 (1.61%), CD45 (1.83%), CD14 (1.77%) and MHC-II (2.69%). MSCs were differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts as demonstrated by the presence of lipidic-rich vacuoles, the mineralized extracellular matrix, and the great presence of glycosaminoglycans, respectively. The higher gene expression of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (AP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type 2 (COLII) also confirmed the trilineage differentiation (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.031; respectively). Conclusions The isolation, cultivation, and differentiation of BM-MSCs from BR1 makes this animal eligible as a useful large-animal model for stem cell-based studies in Brazil.

STRAMANDINOLI-ZANICOTTI, Roberta Targa; CARVALHO, Andre Lopes; REBELATTO, Carmen Lucia Kuniyoshi; SASSI, Laurindo Moacir; TORRES, Maria Fernanda; SENEGAGLIA, Alexandra Cristina; BOLDRINILEITE, Lidiane Maria; CORREA-DOMINGUEZ, Alejandro; KULIGOVSKY, Crisciele; BROFMAN, Paulo Roberto Slud

2014-01-01

269

South Florida Ecosystem History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecosystem History Project is designed to integrate studies of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems in South Florida. Projects cover Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and terrestrial ecosystems. Each project gives an introduction, investigation methods, evidence of past ecosystem changes, and modern distribution of flora and fauna. Recent ecosystem history is based on paleontology, palynology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology as seen in core samples. There are links to open-file reports, salinity maps, a database, poster presentations, and a Kid's Corner.

270

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

271

Contrasting Ecosystem-Effects of Morphologically Similar Copepods  

PubMed Central

Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering) and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction). Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis) have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning.

Matthews, Blake; Hausch, Stephen; Winter, Christian; Suttle, Curtis A.; Shurin, Jonathan B.

2011-01-01

272

Ecosystem growth and development.  

PubMed

One of the most important features of biosystems is how they are able to maintain local order (low entropy) within their system boundaries. At the ecosystem scale, this organization can be observed in the thermodynamic parameters that describe it, such that these parameters can be used to track ecosystem growth and development during succession. Thermodynamically, ecosystem growth is the increase of energy throughflow and stored biomass, and ecosystem development is the internal reorganization of these energy mass stores, which affect transfers, transformations, and time lags within the system. Several proposed hypotheses describe thermodynamically the orientation or natural tendency that ecosystems follow during succession, and here, we consider five: minimize specific entropy production, maximize dissipation, maximize exergy storage (includes biomass and information), maximize energy throughflow, and maximize retention time. These thermodynamic orientors were previously all shown to occur to some degree during succession, and here we present a refinement by observing them during different stages of succession. We view ecosystem succession as a series of four growth and development stages: boundary, structural, network, and informational. We demonstrate how each of these ecological thermodynamic orientors behaves during the different growth and development stages, and show that while all apply during some stages only maximizing energy throughflow and maximizing exergy storage are applicable during all four stages. Therefore, we conclude that the movement away from thermodynamic equilibrium, and the subsequent increase in organization during ecosystem growth and development, is a result of system components and configurations that maximize the flux of useful energy and the amount of stored exergy. Empirical data and theoretical models support these conclusions. PMID:15527958

Fath, Brian D; Jørgensen, Sven E; Patten, Bernard C; Straskraba, Milan

2004-11-01

273

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2011-02-28

274

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

275

An Escherichia coli O157-specific engineered pyocin prevents and ameliorates infection by E. coli O157:H7 in an animal model of diarrheal disease.  

PubMed

AvR2-V10.3 is an engineered R-type pyocin that specifically kills Escherichia coli O157, an enteric pathogen that is a major cause of food-borne diarrheal disease. New therapeutics to counteract E. coli O157 are needed, as currently available antibiotics can exacerbate the consequences of infection. We show here that orogastric administration of AvR2-V10.3 can prevent or ameliorate E. coli O157:H7-induced diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in an infant rabbit model of infection when the compound is administered either in a postexposure prophylactic regimen or after the onset of symptoms. Notably, administration of AvR2-V10.3 also reduces bacterial carriage and fecal shedding of this pathogen. Our findings support the further development of pathogen-specific R-type pyocins as a way to treat enteric infections. PMID:21947394

Ritchie, Jennifer M; Greenwich, Jennifer L; Davis, Brigid M; Bronson, Roderick T; Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R; Martin, David; Scholl, Dean; Waldor, Matthew K

2011-12-01

276

Animal Info  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This impressive source for information about endangered mammals is the result of more than a decade of research by Dr. Paul Massicot, who spent 30 years working at the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Site visitors can locate specific endangered species by browsing the Individual Species Index (either by common or scientific name). The species pages contain references, images, and concise information about population estimates, birth season, density and range, habitat, diet, and more. Visitors can conduct keyword searches, or browse the Species Group Index as well. The site also includes an Index of Countries which provides a list of threatened mammal species in each country as well as some basic statistics regarding Environmental and Social Data such as land use, ecosystems, economy, education, and human population. In addition, the website contains information about the World's Rarest Mammals, and a solid collection of related links.

277

Animating explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce techniques for animating explosions and their effects. The primary effect of an explosion is a disturbance that causes a shock wave to propagate through the surrounding medium. The disturbance determines the behavior of nearly all other secondary effects seen in explosion. We simulate the propagation of an explosion through the surrounding air using a computational

Gary D. Yngve; James F. O'Brien; Jessica K. Hodgins

2000-01-01

278

Computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive 3-D real-time computer animation system is based upon a broad range of research activities in the field of computer graphics. In many ways the requirements for such a system are more challenging and complex than for other graphics systems. This is particularly true if one builds a language and a system which is truly user oriented and which

Charles Csuri

1975-01-01

279

Animal Bioacoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

Fletcher, Neville

280

Transgenic Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to introduce foreign genes into the germ line and the successful expression of the inserted gene in the organism have allowed the genetic manipulation of animals on an unprecedented scale. The information gained from the use of the transgenic technology is relevant to almost any aspect of modern biology including developmental gene regulation, the action of oncogenes, the

Rudolf Jaenisch

1988-01-01

281

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, this site is a concise overview of animal reproduction. The site addresses important aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, and the importance of hormones. Visitors to the site will find diagrams outlining biological processes especially helpful.

Gregory, Michael

2007-12-14

282

Animal Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

VanCleave, Janice

2001-01-01

283

Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these ecosystems. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.

Walton, D.W.H.

1987-01-01

284

Grays Lake Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.

285

Translation of an engineered nanofibrous disc-like angle-ply structure for intervertebral disc replacement in a small animal model.  

PubMed

Intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated in the etiology of low back pain; however, the current surgical strategies for treating symptomatic disc disease are limited. A variety of materials have been developed to replace disc components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosus (AF) and their combination into disc-like engineered constructs. We have previously shown that layers of electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) scaffold, mimicking the hierarchical organization of the native AF, can achieve functional parity with native tissue. Likewise, we have combined these structures with cell-seeded hydrogels (as an NP replacement) to form disc-like angle-ply structures (DAPS). The objective of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of DAPS in vivo. Through a series of studies, we developed a surgical approach to replace the rat caudal disc with an acellular DAPS and then stabilized the motion segment via external fixation. We then optimized cell infiltration into DAPS by including sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) layers interspersed throughout the angle-ply structure. Our findings illustrate that DAPS are stable in the caudal spine, are infiltrated by cells from the peri-implant space and that infiltration is expedited by providing additional routes for cell migration. These findings establish a new in vivo platform in which to evaluate and optimize the design of functional disc replacements. PMID:24560621

Martin, John T; Milby, Andrew H; Chiaro, Joseph A; Kim, Dong Hwa; Hebela, Nader M; Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

2014-06-01

286

Fog, Clouds and the Maintenance of Ecosystems: Mist Opportunities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the significance of occult precipitation-- otherwise known as fog or cloud water (terms used interchangeably here)--in the maintenance of ecosystems? More than a century of natural history observations and decades of research have demonstrated that occult precipitation does deliver water, nutrients, and pollutants to coastal and montane ecosystems, but that its ecological importance is likely to vary by ecosystem. Still, many key ecological questions about the role of fog in the maintenance of ecosystems remain unanswered: For example, what is the effect of fog water and nutrient inputs on annual productivity or rates of nutrient cycling? Are soil processes affected by fog water input to ecosystems? To what extent do plants or animals actually use cloud or fog-delivered nutrients, and if they do, what are the mechanisms? Does fog input control the distribution and abundance of plant and/or animal species? If so, are the mechanisms hydrologic, physical (i.e., influence on temperature or light) and/or nutrient based? Although many of the early observations and research suggested that the delivery of water was one of the more important roles of fog in ecosystem maintenance, we and others have demonstrated that nutrient, as well as pollutants in fog are often 3-10x more concentrated than rain water, and can range up to 100x more concentrated. In some ecosystems, such as old growth forests on Chiloe Island, Chile, we have shown that comparatively large nutrient (e.g., nitrogen) loads can be delivered to ecosystems via a small amount (10s of cms/year) of fog water deposition. Thus, a little fog water has the potential to influence ecosystem processes. In addition, we have hypothesized that "the ocean may be feeding the forest," i.e., the source of the nutrients in fog water may be the ocean. In contrast to this fog subsidy, the ecological function of some high-elevation forests in the northeastern United States has been shown to be negatively impacted, in part, by immersion in acidic clouds. In fog-enshrouded ecosystems such as these, it is of enormous ecological relevance to quantify how occult precipitation contributes to their maintenance or decline. Here I offer a brief review of the state-of-knowledge and summarize some of our recent results on occult precipitation and ecosystem function demonstrating that fog water inputs are spatially heterogeneous, controlled by canopy architecture and exposure, and, in many ecosystems, an order of magnitude lower than rain water inputs. Finally, I point to some of the mist opportunities-- the research needs in regard to where and how occult precipitation may be important in ecosystem processes.

Weathers, K. C.

2006-12-01

287

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

288

[Dangerous animals].  

PubMed

As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

Hasle, Gunnar

2002-06-30

289

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

290

Animal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous dogma has maintained that cellulose, ingested by xylophagous or herbivorous animals, is digested by cellulolytic\\u000a symbiotes. The first evidence in conflict with this contention involved the demonstration of cellulolytic activities in symbiote-free\\u000a secreting organs (e.g., the salivary glands of termites) or defaunated guts. Following these demonstrations, possible endogenous\\u000a cellulase components were purified from several cellulose-digesting invertebrates, but this

H. Watanabe; G. Tokuda

2001-01-01

291

Animal Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Many animals – traditionally considered “mindless” organisms – make up a series of signs and are engaged in making,\\u000a manifesting or reacting to a series of signs: through this semiotic activity – which is fundamentally model-based – they are at the same time engaged in “being cognitive agents” and therefore in thinking intelligently. An important effect\\u000a of this semiotic

Lorenzo Magnani

2007-01-01

292

Metagenomics in animal gastrointestinal ecosystem: a microbiological and biotechnological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metagenomics- the application of the genomics technologies to nonculturable microbial communities, is coming of age. These\\u000a approaches can be used for the screening and selection of nonculturable rumen microbiota for assessing their role in gastrointestinal\\u000a (GI) nutrition, plant material fermentation and the health of the host. The technologies designed to access this wealth of\\u000a genetic information through environmental nucleic acid

B. Singh; T. K. Bhat; N. P. Kurade; O. P. Sharma

2008-01-01

293

Bladder tissue engineering: tissue regeneration and neovascularization of HA-VEGF-incorporated bladder acellular constructs in mouse and porcine animal models.  

PubMed

Successful tissue engineering requires appropriate recellularization and vascularization. Herein, we assessed the regenerative and angiogenic effects of porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) incorporated with hyaluronic acid (HA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse and porcine models. Prepared HA-ACMs were rehydrated in different concentrations of VEGF (1, 2, 3, 10, and 50 ng/g ACM). Grafts were implanted in mice peritoneum in situ for 1 week. Angiogenesis was quantified with CD31 and Factor VIII immunostaining using Simple PCI. Selected optimal VEGF concentration that induced maximum vascularization was then used in porcine bladder augmentation model. Implants were left in for 4 and 10 weeks. Three groups of six pigs each were implanted with ACM alone, HA-ACM, and HA-VEGF-ACM. Histological, immunohistochemical (Uroplakin III, alpha-SMA, Factor VIII), and immunofluorescence (CD31) analysis were performed to assess graft regenerative capacity and angiogenesis. In mouse model, statistically significant increase in microvascular density was demonstrated in the 2 ng/g ACM group. When this concentration was used in porcine model, recellularization increased significantly from weeks 4 to 10 in HA-VEGF-ACM, with progressive decrease in fibrosis. Significantly increased vascularization, coupled with increased urothelium and smooth muscle cell (SMC) regeneration, was observed in HA-VEGF grafts at week 10 in the center and periphery, compared with week 4. HA-VEGF grafts displayed highest in vivo epithelialization, neovascularization, and SMCs regeneration. A total of 2 ng/g tissue VEGF when incorporated with HA proved effective in stimulating robust graft recellularization and vascularization, coordinated with increased urothelial bladder development and SMC augmentation into bundles by week 10. PMID:20694987

Loai, Yasir; Yeger, Herman; Coz, Cyrielle; Antoon, Roula; Islam, Syed S; Moore, Katherine; Farhat, Walid A

2010-09-15

294

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

295

Privacy driven internet ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we

Tuan Anh Trinh; Laszlo Gyarmati

2012-01-01

296

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM SIMULATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Terrestrial Habitats Project at the Western Ecology Division (Corvallis, OR) is developing tools and databases to meet the needs of Program Office clients for assessing risks to wildlife and terrestrial ecosystems. Because habitat is a dynamic condition in real-world environm...

297

Limiting Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to understand that physical factors - temperature and precipitation - limit the growth of vegetative ecosystems. Students observe and record seasonal changes in their local study site. They establish that these phenomena follow annual cycles and conclude the activity by creating displays that illustrate the repeating pattern associated with the appearance and disappearance of seasonal markers.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

298

Ecosystem Services: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused reprint explains how natural ecosystems produce services upon which we are dependent. For example, they: provide us with clean water and air, pollinate our crops and disperse seeds, protect us from extreme weather and ultraviolet light, and control pests and disease-carrying organisms.

Ecological Society of America (;)

2000-06-01

299

Effects on aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems, recent scientific and public interest has focused on marine primary producers and on the aquatic web, which has resulted in a multitude of studies indicating mostly detrimental effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic organisms. The interest has expanded to include ecologically significant groups and major biomass producers using mesocosm studies, emphasizing

D.-P. Häder; H. D. Kumar; R. C. Smith; R. C. Worrest

1998-01-01

300

Boston Harbor Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates ecosystem zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.

301

An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.  

PubMed

The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them. PMID:18551237

Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

2008-01-01

302

POEM: PESTICIDE ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pesticide Orchard Ecosystem Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard ecosystem. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...

303

Exploring the Systems in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson, students use a systems thinking approach to explore the components and processes of ecosystems. They analyze both a hypothetical and a local ecosystem by identifying abiotic and biotic components and their relationships.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

304

Ecological Basis for Ecosystem Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guiding principles based on conservation biology are applied in assessing ecosystem needs. Ecosystem, economic, and social needs are integrated in a decision model in which the guiding principles are used as a primary filter for evaluating proposed action...

C. B. Edminster D. A. Boyce L. Perry M. R. Kaufmann P. Mehlhop P. S. Corn R. L. Bassett R. T. Graham R. T. Reynolds W. H. Moir W. M. Block

1994-01-01

305

Ecosystem Restoration Research at GWERD  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...

306

Energetics of an Aquatic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is meant to give students an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and the processes and concepts that they are composed of and to give students a feel for how ecosystems affect the larger community.

William H. Leonard (University of Nebraska;)

1982-06-21

307

Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to\\u000aexploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are\\u000athought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve\\u000acomplex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to\\u000athese properties have not been made explicit in Digital Ecosystems research.\\u000aHere, we discuss how biological properties contribute

Gerard Briscoe; Suzanne Sadedin; Gregory Paperin

2007-01-01

308

Alaska's Aquatic Ecosystem (on CD-ROM with Search and Retrieval Software).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CD-ROM contains a rich variety of information on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of Alaska, including some of the spectacular animals and plants that live there. It is designed for use by anyone with an interest in aquatic ecosystems, and will be...

2000-01-01

309

The state of the ecosystem on Anticosti Island, Qu?bec.  

PubMed Central

The state of the ecosystem of Anticosti Island, Québec, was studied by veterinary students (n = 17) and faculty (n = 4) in the summer of 1999. The field of ecosystem health is an integrative science requiring the expertise of professionals in several disciplines, including socioeconomic, ecological, biophysical, human health, and animal health (1).

Silverstone, A M

2001-01-01

310

Landscape evaluation for ecosystem planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape evaluation is important in the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development. The objective of this paper is to review and explore methods for evaluation of landscapes for ecosystem planning. Ecosystem planning is the process of land use decision-making that considers organisms and processes that characterize the ecosystem as a whole. Risk assessments, precautionary principles, adaptive management and scenario approaches

Yosihiro Natuhara

2006-01-01

311

Ecosystem effects of marine fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most fisheries literature avoids speaking about ecosystem impacts of fishing, either because impacts are not demonstrated or because a causal relationship between impacts and fishing cannot be formally established with the available information. However, there is mounting evidence that fishing has undesired effects in the marine ecosystems. This overview examines the wide ecosystem effects of fishing, describing and illustrating the

R Goñi

1998-01-01

312

Antarctica: A Cold Desert Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Antarctica lesson has students locate the continent on a globe and on a map, describe and illustrate major Antarctic ecosystems, and explain relationships between those ecosystems. They will also construct a rough map of Antarctic ecosystems and explore relationships among the creatures that populate them. This lesson can be adapted to focus on other regions, including the one in which students live.

313

Desert Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on adaptations that desert animals must make in order to survive in the harsh desert environment. Each student studies a certain creature and reports on specific adaptations it has made, and then a game is played to introduce students to these concepts. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

314

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

315

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

316

COUNTERACTING ECOSYSTEM LOSSES DUE TO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Interventions into ecosystems to develop the built/socio-physical environment involve normative decisions regarding human well-being that inevitably compromise ecosystem capacities, but ecosystem sustainability is conditioned by properties established by ecosystems and unrelated ...

317

Issues in Ecology, Issue 10: Sustaining Healthy Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report addresses the conservation of freshwater ecosystems within the United States. A comparison of the pre-settlement and current conditions of U.S. freshwater resources is provided. Requirements for maintaining freshwater ecosystem physical and biotic components, such as flow patterns, sediment/organic inputs, temperature, light, chemical/nutrient conditions, and plant/animal assemblages are discussed. Freshwater ecosystem management case studies on the Colorado River, the Great Lakes, and South Florida are presented. The report also elaborates on the need to balance human use against needs of freshwater ecosystems. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 2003.

Jackson, Robert

2010-02-16

318

[Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].  

PubMed

Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches. PMID:19129956

Schmidt, Kirsten

2008-01-01

319

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

...scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals...scrapie-positive animal, high-risk animal, exposed animal,...

2014-01-01

320

ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.  

PubMed

Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight. PMID:14245775

SEBEOK, T A

1965-02-26

321

Animal papillomaviruses.  

PubMed

We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. PMID:23711385

Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

2013-10-01

322

An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Assess the Status of a Mediterranean Ecosystem, the Posidonia oceanica Seagrass Meadow  

PubMed Central

Biotic indices, which reflect the quality of the environment, are widely used in the marine realm. Sometimes, key species or ecosystem engineers are selected for this purpose. This is the case of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely used as a biological quality element in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). The good quality of a water body and the apparent health of a species, whether or not an ecosystem engineer such as P. oceanica, is not always indicative of the good structure and functioning of the whole ecosystem. A key point of the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the ecosystem-based approach. Here, on the basis of a simplified conceptual model of the P. oceanica ecosystem, we have proposed an ecosystem-based index of the quality of its functioning, compliant with the MSFD requirements. This index (EBQI) is based upon a set of representative functional compartments, the weighting of these compartments and the assessment of the quality of each compartment by comparison of a supposed baseline. The index well discriminated 17 sites in the north-western Mediterranean (French Riviera, Provence, Corsica, Catalonia and Balearic Islands) covering a wide range of human pressure levels. The strong points of the EBQI are that it is easy to implement, non-destructive, relatively robust, according to the selection of the compartments and to their weighting, and associated with confidence indices that indicate possible weakness and biases and therefore the need for further field data acquisition.

Personnic, Sebastien; Boudouresque, Charles F.; Astruch, Patrick; Ballesteros, Enric; Blouet, Sylvain; Bellan-Santini, Denise; Bonhomme, Patrick; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Feunteun, Eric; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pastor, Jeremy; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Florent; Thibaut, Thierry; Ruitton, Sandrine

2014-01-01

323

Conservation of Priority Birds in Sagebrush Ecosystems1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagebrush ecosystems occupy over 62,000,000 ha of the western US. However, they have been degraded or completely eliminated by agricultural conversion, over- grazing by domestic livestock, invasion of exotic plants, expansion of pinyon and juniper woodlands, un- characteristic wildfires, and fragmentation. This habitat loss has led to an increasing number of special status species, including 630 plant and animal species

Terrell D. Rich; Michael J. Wisdom; Victoria A. Saab

324

Ecosystems and the value of adjacent protected areas to agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without anthropogenic influence, Europe would not have the beautiful and rich landscape we see today. The development of open spaces through crop cultivation and animal husbandry has led to the wide diversity of landscape that exists in Europe… Over centuries people have bred livestock and cultivated plants especially suited to their local environment. Biologically valuable traditional agro-ecosystems developed within each

Waltraud Kugler; Elli Broxham Stahl

2008-01-01

325

Cross-Scale Morphology, Geometry, and Dynamics of Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the proposition that a small set of plant, animal, and abiotic processes structure ecosystems across scales in time and space. Earlier studies have suggested that these key structuring processes establish a small number of dominant temporal frequencies that entrain other processes. These frequencies often differ from each other by at least an order of magnitude. If true,

C. S. Holling

1992-01-01

326

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: SUMMARY OF A SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Summarizing presentations at a symposium on air pollutant effects on aquatic ecosystems, this document includes an overview of U.S. research programs, atmospheric emissions and deposition, cycling processes, and effects on plants and animals. Current U.S. research addresses ecosy...

327

Bivalve grazing, nutrient cycling and phytoplankton dynamics in an estuarine ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis has considered the impact of the suspension feeding bivalve Mytilusedulis on nutrient cycling and phytoplankton in an estuarine ecosystem. The research was started within the framework of an extensive research project with the objective to evaluate the changes in the Oosterschelde ecosystem as an effect of a coastal engineering project (Nienhuis & Smaal, 1994). The Oosterschelde estuary is

T. C. Prins

1996-01-01

328

Mojave Desert Ecosystem Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Department of Defense (DOD) program, the Mojave Ecosystem Database Program (MEDP) represents the DOD's "first attempt to meld together a shared scientific database that can be used to affect dynamic sustainable land management decisions." Although the mission statement of MEDP reflects a somewhat oxymoronic goal, e.g., maintaining "critical DOD installations within the Mojave Desert Ecosystem ... while protecting the environment," the site nevertheless represents an opportunity for researchers to access environmental models and potentially influence land management within the Mojave Ecoregion. The searchable site offers information about and/or access to Geospatial Data, Metadata, Geomorphic Landform Data, and a Spatial Bibliography, among other regional resources. An excellent selection of links points users to a wealth of additional and variously detailed (governmental) information.

329

Western Hemlock Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old- growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington, USA, during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy-covariance measurements of water-vapor fluxes above the forest (Ee) and at the forest floor (Eu) to examine

Michael H. Unsworth; Kyaw Tha

330

Managing the Everglades Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore the Everglades ecosystem using the Internet. They will develop an understanding about conservation of resources in the context of the Everglades, explore relationships between species and habitats, and develop an understanding of how human beings have altered the equilibrium in the Everglades. This lesson uses the resources on the Everglades National Park website, providing students with experiences that they may not be able to acquire firsthand.

331

SFRSF: Our Coastal Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page highlights the coastal ecosystems of southern Florida. Research displayed from poster presentations covers the coastal area habitats, sustaining and enhancing coastal waters, major coastal challenges, restoring and enhancing estuaries, and using science for effective resource management. The six estuaries discussed are the Caloosahatchee, Southwest Florida, Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, Florida Keys, and St. Lucie estuaries. Specific issues concerning each estuary are covered, and links are provided for additional information.

332

'''Plastic Organism'' Ecosystems''  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will construct a model ecosystem to help explain the interactions between organisms and their environments in this guided inquiry lesson. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Kaci May (North Charleston Elementary @ McNair)

2004-04-01

333

Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?  

PubMed

Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R; Petit, Marie-Agnès

2014-01-01

334

Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?  

PubMed Central

Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity.

De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnes

2014-01-01

335

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ON EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Climate change and environmental change are a subset of the larger set of ecosystem changes that are promoting the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. The complexity of the interconnectedness between a wide range of factors influencing the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases means that uncertainty will continue to be a feature of the future. Central Veterinary Authorities

Peter Black; Mike Nunn

336

Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration (Abstracts)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its high standards, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC, discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has released more wetland resources. Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration contains abstracts from a 1993 symposium in Jamestown, North Dakota. All files may be downloaded (.zip format).

337

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

338

Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept.  

PubMed

Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also enables the social and political changes required to ensure valuation of ecosystem functions and related biodiversity in ways beyond their measurement on an economic scale. PMID:19659684

Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai

2010-02-01

339

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

340

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

341

Carbon dioxide dynamics in an artificial ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental artificial ecosystem was established as a tool to understand the behavior of closed ecosystem and to develop the technology for a future bioregenerative life support system for lunar or planetary exploration. Total effective volume of the system is 0.7 m3 . It consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a photo-bioreactor which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella), respectively. For uniform and sustained observations, lettuce and silkworms was cultivated using sequential cultivation method, and microalgae using continuous culture. Four researchers took turns breathing the system air through a tube for brief periods every few hours. A mathematic model, simulating the carbon dioxide dynamics was developed. The main biological parameters concerning photosynthesis of lettuce and microalgae, respiration of silkworms and human were validated by the experimental data. The model described the respiratory relationship between autotrophic and heterotrophic compartments. A control strategy was proposed as a tool for the atmosphere management of the artificial ecosystem.

Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

342

Effects of who-ecosystem manipulations on ecosystem internal processes.  

PubMed

Whole-ecosystem manipulation is a useful tool for investigating the effects of air pollution, air pollution reduction strategies and management practices on the health and productivity of forests, and has become widely used in forest ecosystem research. This review of the whole-ecosystem manipulation research gives an overview of the recent and ongoing research within this field and synthesizes the results obtained so far. PMID:21236826

Beier, C; Rasmussen, L

1994-06-01

343

Genetically Engineered Animal Models of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of transgenic research has proven to be a powerful and popular tool for investigating the contribution of specific genes known or suspected to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Many different experimental approaches have been pursued in an effort to mimic one or more of the numerous and diverse features characterizing Alzheimer's disease. Results have been

Linda S. Higgins; Barbara Cordell

1996-01-01

344

Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OIE Welfare Standards on slaughter transport, and killing of animals for disease control are basic minimum standards that every country should follow. The OIE, European Union, and many private standards used by commercial industry have an emphasis on animal based outcome standards instead of engineering based standards. Numerical scoring is used by both private industry and some governments to

Temple Grandin

2010-01-01

345

Recombinant protein production in transgenic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineering of animals for recombinant protein production has gone beyond the stage of identifying proper regulatory sequences. Efforts are now spent on the generation of transgenic animals that process heterologous proteins more efficiently. Another line of research is the development of strategies aimed at bypassing pronuclear microinjection.

Yann Echelard

1996-01-01

346

Functional traits, the phylogeny of function, and ecosystem service vulnerability  

PubMed Central

People depend on benefits provided by ecological systems. Understanding how these ecosystem services – and the ecosystem properties underpinning them – respond to drivers of change is therefore an urgent priority. We address this challenge through developing a novel risk-assessment framework that integrates ecological and evolutionary perspectives on functional traits to determine species’ effects on ecosystems and their tolerance of environmental changes. We define Specific Effect Function (SEF) as the per-gram or per capita capacity of a species to affect an ecosystem property, and Specific Response Function (SRF) as the ability of a species to maintain or enhance its population as the environment changes. Our risk assessment is based on the idea that the security of ecosystem services depends on how effects (SEFs) and tolerances (SRFs) of organisms – which both depend on combinations of functional traits – correlate across species and how they are arranged on the species’ phylogeny. Four extreme situations are theoretically possible, from minimum concern when SEF and SRF are neither correlated nor show a phylogenetic signal, to maximum concern when they are negatively correlated (i.e., the most important species are the least tolerant) and phylogenetically patterned (lacking independent backup). We illustrate the assessment with five case studies, involving both plant and animal examples. However, the extent to which the frequency of the four plausible outcomes, or their intermediates, apply more widely in real-world ecological systems is an open question that needs empirical evidence, and suggests a research agenda at the interface of evolutionary biology and ecosystem ecology.

Diaz, Sandra; Purvis, Andy; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Mace, Georgina M; Donoghue, Michael J; Ewers, Robert M; Jordano, Pedro; Pearse, William D

2013-01-01

347

Ecosystem in a Bottle Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will introduce the key concepts of what an ecosystem is, how different components interact in an ecosystem, and how various inputs can impact a system. Students will build a TerrAqua investigation column in a plastic bottle and observe and record the changes that take place in the mini ecosystem over time. Step by step directions are included, with illustrations, for completing the experiment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Orzali, Joe

2009-01-01

348

Experiments in Valuing Wetland Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A utility-theoretic model indicates that mitigation prices for wetland ecosystems depend on preferences and technical knowledge. Empirical analysis found gaps in respondents= knowledge about such ecosystems.,Valuing wetland,types requires dealing with respondents= possible misinformation, by developing tools for informing respondents or by combining service-based valuations with valid technical data. Wetlands ecosystems are valued for a range of ecological services. These

John P. Hoehn; Frank Lupi; Michael Kaplowitz

349

Declining Birds in Grassland Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the grassland ecosystem with respect to declining bird species. This report is the effort of a number of agencies to develop a strategy for addressing grassland bird information needs. Grasslands are the most imperiled ecosystem worldwide, and birds associated with this ecosystem are on a decline. This report addresses monitoring issues, species in concern, and the effects of habitat and landscape on grassland birds.

350

The Tragedy of Ecosystem Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Derived from funds of natural capital, ecosystem services contribute greatly to human welfare, yet are rarely traded in markets. Most supporting (e.g., soil formation) and regulating (e.g., water purification, pest regulation) ecosystem services, and some cultural (e.g., aesthetic enrichment) and provisioning (e.g., capture fisheries, fuel wood) ecosystem services are declining because of a complex social trap, the tragedy of ecosystem services, which results in part from the overconsumption of common-pool resources. Additionally, current economic incentives encourage the development of funds of natural capital on private lands for marketable commodities at the expense of ecosystem services that benefit the public. Such ecosystem services are therefore underprovided. Most critically, property law reinforces these market failures by creating incentives to convert funds of natural capital into marketable goods and by assigning no property rights to ecosystem service benefits. Although there is no one pathway out of this tragedy of ecosystem services, potentially effective remedies lie in the evolution of the common law of property, in the reform of economic incentives, and in the development of ecosystem service districts.

Christopher L. Lant (Southern Illinois University;)

2008-11-03

351

Templates of food–habitat resources for the organization of soil animals in temperate and tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems are shaped and maintained by plant–decomposer interactions. The food and habitat of animal populations are biogenic and are mainly of plant origin (plant litter) in terrestrial ecosystems. Primary resources of the food-habitat template for the organization of soil animals are provided by the primary production of plants, and are then modified through decomposition

Hiroshi Takeda; Takuya Abe

2001-01-01

352

Baltimore Ecosystem Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many ecologists work to understand how various parts of a given ecological system work or function with other systems in their vicinity, but relatively few attempt to bring together all of this work with major urban areas. One such impressive project is the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, which aims to understand metropolitan Baltimore as an ecological system; and in doing so, bring together researchers from the biological, physical and social sciences to work on this formidable task that is truly interdisciplinary. At the site, visitors can learn about the staff of the project and read about its various thematic areas of inquiry, including biodiversity, education, soil, stream and watershed studies, and vegetation. A good place to start before diving into the numerous research projects would be the research area, which explains the basic goals of the project, the theories that the research team is drawing on, and the central questions of its work. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study has also been approved for use in classrooms by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and educators will find materials that they can draw on to teach various concepts and ideas here as well.

353

"Pleistocene Park" - A Glacial Ecosystem in a Warming World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most people if asked what association they have to the phrase - ice age, will answer - "Mammoth". But mammoths are not only big wooly elephants which went extinct in the beginning of Holocene. They were also part of a great ecosystem, the Northern Steppe or Mammoth Ecosystem, which was the world's largest ecosystem for hundreds thousand of years. This ecosystem, with extremely high rates of biocycling, could maintain animal densities which can be hardly found anywhere in the modern world. Northern steppe played an important role in shaping the glacial climate of the planet. High albedo grasslands reflected a much bigger portion of sun heat back to the atmosphere. Cold soils and permafrost served as sinks of carbon, helping to keep greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at low levels. In the beginning of Holocene, simultaneously with wave of human expansion, an extinction wave took place. Tens of megafauna species became extinct at that time worldwide, while ones that resisted the extinction substantially dropped in numbers. The Northern Steppe ecosystem became imbalanced. Without large numbers of herbivores grazing and trampling the pasture, trees, shrubs and moss invaded grasslands. Within just a few hundreds years the mammoth ecosystem was gone, replaced by much lower productivity ecosystems. Already 14 thousand year ago, by simply increasing hunting pressure, humans managed to dramatically change Earth's appearance. We propose that by artificially maintaining a high animal density and diversity on a limited territory for extended period of time, it will be possible to reverse the shift, reestablishing the productive Northern Steppe ecosystem. Moss, shrubs and tree sprouts are not able to resist grazing pressure so they will be quickly replaced by grasses and herbs. Animals digesting all aboveground biomass would accelerate nutrition cycling and consequently increase bioproductivity. Higher bioproductivity would increase evapotranspiration, keeping soils dry and runoff low. This would further increase nutrient availability in the soil. Water limitation would force roots grow deeper to cold soil horizons where these roots (carbon) will be sequestered for a long period of time. After high productivity and high diversity of animals in the ecosystem is reached, this ecosystem will once again be able to compete and to expand. To test this hypothesis, we have started the experiment named "Pleistocene Park". For over 15 years we have brought different herbivore species to the fenced area in the Kolyma river lowland, keep them at high density and see the ecosystem transformation. Now Pleistocene Park is size of 20 km2 and home for 7 big herbivores species. It is a small version of how the Mammoth Steppe ecosystem looked in the past and may look in the future. Pleistocene Park is a place where scientists can conduct in situ research and see how restoration of the ice age ecosystem may help mitigate future climatic changes. Arctic is a weakly populated region with no possibilities for agriculture. Modern civilization treats bigger part of the Arctic as wastelands. So why don't turn this "wasteland" into something that can strongly benefit our civilization in the future?

Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

2011-12-01

354

Bethesda Animal Technical Services  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Bethesda Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support This service is designed to provide the highest quality of care and support services for animal research activities conducted at the NCI-Bethesda campus Animal

355

The factor of scale in ecosystem mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems come in many scales or relative sizes. The relationships between an ecosystem at one scale and ecosystems at smaller or larger scales must be examined in order to predict the effects of management prescriptions on resource outputs. A disturbance to an ecosystem may affect smaller component ecosystems, which are encompassed in larger systems that control the operation of the

Robert G. Bailey

1985-01-01

356

Animal Models of Narcolepsy  

PubMed Central

Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in canine narcolepsy. In 1999, two independent studies revealed that orexin neurotransmission deficiency was pivotal to the development of narcolepsy with cataplexy. This scientific leap fueled the generation of several genetically engineered mouse and rat models of narcolepsy. To facilitate further research, it is imperative that researchers reach a consensus concerning the evaluation of narcoleptic behavioral and EEG phenomenology in these models.

Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCarley, Robert W.

2013-01-01

357

Stoichiometry of nutrient recycling by vertebrates in a tropical stream: linking species identity and ecosystem processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological stoichiometry offers a framework for predicting how animal species vary in recycling nutrients, thus providing a mechanism for how animal species identity mediates ecosystem processes. Here we show that variation in the rates and ratios at which 28 vertebrate species (fish, amphibians) recycled nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a tropical stream supports stoichiometry theory. Mass-specific P excretion rate

Michael J. Vanni; Alexander S. Flecker; James M. Hood; Jenifer L. Headworth

2002-01-01

358

System approach to grazing in desert ecosystems: A case study in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - This paper highlights a system approach to grazing in a desert ecosystem used by the Range and Animal Development Research in the northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Various factors affecting plant and animal production in a high potential desert system (wadi bottom) are discussed. The use of cultural treatments for increased forage production, the effect

M. M. Mirreh

359

Global Trajectories of the Long-Term Decline of Coral Reef Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of coral reef ecosystems began centuries ago, but there is no global summary of the magnitude of change. We compiled records, extending back thousands of years, of the status and trends of seven major guilds of carnivores, herbivores, and architectural species from 14 regions. Large animals declined before small animals and architectural species, and Atlantic reefs declined before reefs

John M. Pandolfi; Roger H. Bradbury; Enric Sala; Terence P. Hughes; Karen A. Bjorndal; Richard G. Cooke; Deborah McArdle; Loren McClenachan; Marah J. H. Newman; Gustavo Paredes; Robert R. Warner; Jeremy B. C. Jackson

2003-01-01

360

Engineering Control Observations and Recommendations for Insect Rearing Facilities at Pink Boll Worm Rearing Facility, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs (PPQ), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Phoenix, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In early 1993, the Engineering Control Technology Branch of the Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering was asked to assist in an Occupational Asthma Identification project being carried out by the Clinical Investigations Branch of the Division of R...

P. A. Froehlich

1995-01-01

361

Ecosystem Studies and Geographic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In shifting emphasis from accumulation of facts to methods of investigation and cognitive skills, the concept of ecosystem is a powerful organizing principle for geography. The connectivity of all things in an environment, the flow of energy through the system are stressed. The use of ecosystem as a framework for inquiry in the classroom is…

Renner, John M.

1970-01-01

362

Monitoring Earth's Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partnered with Goddard Space Flight Center, Sensit Technologies Inc. developed a third-generation Portable Apparatus for Rapid Acquisitions of Bidirectional Observations of Land and Atmosphere, or PARABOLA III for short. Now commercially available, PARABOLA III is designed to measure the reflected signature of a variety of Earth surface types, from rangeland vegetation to ice and snow. It can rapidly acquire data for almost the complete sky and ground-looking hemispheres, with no missing data and sufficient dynamic range to measure direct solar radiance. The instrument was actively used in the Boreal Ecosystem- Atmosphere Study which provided useful information in designing a Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer, a small satellite being built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory that will measure sunlight reflected by the Earth into space.

1997-01-01

363

Create your own Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, student teams will create a controlled experiment by building ecosystems in two 2-liter bottles. Teams determine the control conditions of both bottles, identify a test variable, and run the experiment for several weeks to determine the role of the test variable in the system. The experiment uses living organisms such as aquatic plants or pond water microorganisms, a pH and ammonia test kit, light source and thermometer. Questions assessing understanding are provided. This resource is supported by Chapter 1, "What is Global System Science?" part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

364

Ecosystems, Organisms, and Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience is about is the concept, and the term, "self-organization." The history of this term, originally introduced by Immanuel Kant to characterize the unique properties of living organisms, is inseparable from the history of biology. Only in the second half of the 20th century does it begin to acquire the promise of a physicalistic understanding. This it does with two critical transformations in the meaning of the term: first, with the advent of cybernetics and its dissolution of the boundary between organisms and machines, and second, with the mathematical triumphs of nonlinear dynamical systems theory and accompanying claims to having dissolved the boundary between organisms and such physical phenomena as thunderstorms. How do these transformations affect the applicability of self-organization to the ecosystem--that provocatively hybrid entity that is part organism, part machine, and perhaps even part thunderstorm?

EVELYN FOX KELLER (;)

2005-12-01

365

Biodiversity and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-16

366

Attitudes towards wild animal conservation: a comparative study of the Yi and Mosuo in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global wild animal resources are declining due to various pressures, which will greatly affect local biodiversity and ecosystem services. Understanding local people's attitudes towards wild animal conservation in high biodiversity areas is of major importance for conservation efforts. Sampling and questionnaire survey methods were employed to examine people's attitudes toward wild animal conservation in a comparative case study of two

Naiyi Yang; Endi Zhang; Min Chen

2010-01-01

367

CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The terrestrial biosphere plays a prominent role in the global carbon (C) cycle. errestrial ecosystems are currently accumulating C and it appears feasible to manage existing terrestrial (forest, agronomic, desert) ecosystems to maintain or increase C storage. orest ecosystems ca...

368

How Much Is an Ecosystem Worth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson engages students in critical thinking about the value of ecosystems. Students assess ecosystem services, consider the benefits of biomonitors, explore ecosystem databases, brainstorm What if? scenariosand more!

John Ausema (Gonzaga College High School;)

2005-07-01

369

Predicting ecosystem risk  

SciTech Connect

This book is a primer on how to approach the analysis of environmental impacts. It provides opposing views and alternative techniques of analysis. The chapter devoted to risks associated with forest management is the most substantial in the book. Other issues addressed in depth include global change, genetically engineered microorganisms and products containing recombinant DNA, radioactive materials, and ecological risks of highways.

Cairns, J. Jr.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Orvos, D.R. (eds.)

1992-01-01

370

Biotic and Abiotic Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will research ecosystems and list the biotic and abiotic factors in that ecosystem. As table partners visit the links below, choose 3 of the listed ecosystems and find out what kinds of biotic and abiotic factors are present in each of the ecosystems you picked. Read about each ecosystem, look at any pictures included on the website, and then list 12 factors of each ecosystem in ...

Smith, Mrs.

2010-10-17

371

Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens , and Plesiomonas shigelloides in Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates from Coastal California Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal ecosystems of California are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land–sea interface is not well understood. This study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems in central California. A variety of filter-feeding clams, mussels, worms, and crab tissues were selectively cultured

W. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; I. A. Gardner; E. R. Atwill; B. A. Byrne; S. Jang; M. Harris; J. Ames; D. Jessup; D. Paradies; K. Worcester; A. Melli; P. A. Conrad

2006-01-01

372

Assuring consumer safety without animals  

PubMed Central

Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals in their everyday lives through interactions with the environment and through the use of consumer products. It is a basic requirement that these products are tested to assure they are safe under normal and reasonably foreseeable conditions of use. Within the European Union, the majority of tests used for generating toxicological data rely on animals. However recent changes in legislation (e.g., 7th amendment of the Cosmetics Directive and REACH) are driving researchers to develop and adopt non-animal alternative methods with which to assure human safety. Great strides have been made to this effect, but what other opportunities/technologies exist that could expedite this? Tissue engineering has increasing scope to contribute to replacing animals with scientifically robust alternatives in basic research and safety testing, but is this application of the technology being fully exploited? This review highlights how the consumer products industry is applying tissue engineering to ensure chemicals are safe for human use without using animals, and identifies areas for future development and application of the technology.

Westmoreland, Carl

2009-01-01

373

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

374

Seabird-driven shifts in Arctic pond ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Migratory animals such as seabirds, salmon and whales can transport large quantities of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, greatly enriching recipient food webs. As many of these animals biomagnify contaminants, they can also focus pollutants at toxic levels. Seabirds arguably represent the most significant biovectors of nutrients and contaminants from the ocean to the land, given their sheer numbers and global distribution. However, long-term census data on seabirds are rare. Using palaeolimnological proxies, we show that a colony of Arctic seabirds has experienced climate-induced population increases in recent decades. We then document increasing concentrations of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls and cadmium, in pond sediments that are linked to biotransport by seabirds. Our findings suggest that climate-related shifts in global seabird populations will have the unexpected consequence of restructuring coastal ecosystems.

Michelutti, Neal; Keatley, Bronwyn E.; Brimble, Samantha; Blais, Jules M.; Liu, Huijun; Douglas, Marianne S.V.; Mallory, Mark L.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Smol, John P.

2008-01-01

375

Animals around the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What kinds of animals live in South Africa? Your teacher will give you KWL chart First, lets learn about Elephants Animals Record in your chart what you learn. Now lets learn about other animals Animals How is it similar or different from the Elephant? Project: Create a poster on one of the animals we discussed in this lesson. See the teacher ...

Carly, Ms.

2011-10-27

376

Putting the Engine Back in Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electrical and Computer Engineering programs across the nation are seeing a decrease in engineering student enrollment and retention. Electronic systems and components these days are far too small and complex to allow an inquisitive student to explore and satisfy their curiosity about how these gadgets work. These students often take to exploring mechanical systems instead and are thus led away from Electrical and Computer Engineering. Similarly, with advances in computer simulations of engineering circuits and models that produce realistic results, engineering programs have transitioned away from physical hardware and hands-on experimentation. This trend away from having students being able to "tinker" with real hardware is detrimental to their development into well rounded engineers. In addition, as globalization continues, engineers must broaden their team-work and technical skills. This paper describes a hardware, software and courseware learning ecosystem that has been created to capture student attention and develop a broader skill set. Laboratory and in-class exercises use POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) based laboratory modules to engage students in learning through exploration, critical thinking, and team and cooperative participation exercises. Laboratory and in-class exercises are designed to teach the student how to explore a new technology to be able to learn more about it. In fact, learning how to learn is a key outcome. Laboratory hardware is designed to provide easy connection to real-world devices and allow students to extend their explorations from classroom theory to the practical application of technology they are learning.

Cady, Fred; Mclellan, John

2011-05-25

377

The Decline of Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the risks that freshwater ecosystems face and how species nearby are affected by dams, dredging, and channelization of streams. It points out that even though freshwater ecosystems are limited in extent, covering about 1 percent of the Earth's surface, they are highly diverse and contain a disproportionally large number of the world's species. Statistics are given to illustrate the increase in waterways that have been altered for navigation. Some actions that are being taken to reduce threats to freshwater ecosystems are also mentioned.

1999-01-01

378

Environmental Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students explore the various roles of environmental engineers, including: environmental cleanup, water quality, groundwater resources, surface water and groundwater flow, water contamination, waste disposal and air pollution. Specifically, students learn about the factors that affect water quality and the conditions that enable different animals and plants to survive in their environments. Next, students learn about groundwater and how environmental engineers study groundwater to predict the distribution of surface pollution. Students also learn how water flows through the ground, what an aquifer is and what soil properties are used to predict groundwater flow. Additionally, students discover that the water they drink everyday comes from many different sources, including surface water and groundwater. They investigate possible scenarios of drinking water contamination and how contaminants can negatively affect the organisms that come in contact with them. Students learn about the three most common methods of waste disposal and how environmental engineers continue to develop technologies to dispose of trash. Lastly, students learn what causes air pollution and how to investigate the different pollutants that exist, such as toxic gases and particulate matter. Also, they investigate the technologies developed by engineers to reduce air pollution.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

379

Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem and the photosynthetic terrestrial ecosystems could reflect the difference between energy fluxes from the Sun and the Earth's interior. Based on the result, it can be concluded that the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is quite minor (although interesting and important) component of the modern Earth's biosphere.

Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

2012-12-01

380

Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services.

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Diaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, Jose; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

2009-01-01

381

Sources for Animal Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As ecological and human pressures on animal populations increase, so does the discussion of the importance of animal biodiversity. This paper presents sources that can be used to research animal biodiversity and related topics.

Margaret A. Mellinger

2004-01-01

382

The ecosystem study on Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect

During the 1950`s and 1960`s, the Laboratory of Radiation Biology at the University of Washington carried out an intensive study of this Atoll, which was contaminated with radioactive fallout from the {open_quotes}Bravo shot{close_quotes} in 1954. This study involved many aspects of the environment and the plant and animal life: soils, land plants, marine life, birds, geology and hydrology, and human diets as well. In much of the research, the fortuitiously present radioactive isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, were tracers. Although the term {open_quotes}ecosystem study{close_quotes} was not in vogue at that time, it is clear that this was an early use of the ecosystem approach. Soil types and their development, the distribution of mineral elements in plants and soils, including predominant radionuclides, distribution and growth of native terrestrial plants in relation to topography and salinity, some aspects of the human diets, micronutrient nutrition of the coconut palm, island and islet development and stability, were given attention in the studies. Some of the findings in the various areas of study will be presented and discussed. 32 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Walker, R.B.; Gessel, S.P.; Held, E.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-07-01

383

Ecosystem restoration on the California Channel Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration of natural habitat has become increasingly important over the last three decades in the United States, first as mitigation for development (especially in wetlands), and more recently in natural areas. This latter restoration has come about as land managing agencies have seen the need to reverse the impact of past land uses and agencies like the National Park Service have taken on the responsibility for less-than-pristine lands. Restorations have typically been carried out with little prior study and with no follow-up monitoring. On the Channel Islands, the need for restoration is great, but the desire is to base this restoration on sound ecological understanding. By conducting surveys, implementing long-term research and monitoring, and by conducting population and community dynamics research, the necessary data is obtained to arrive at such an understanding. Once management actions have been taken to effect restoration, monitoring is used to determine the success of those actions. The intention is to gain enough of an understanding of the islands' ecosystems that we can manage to restore, not just populations of native plants and animals, but also the processes of a naturally functioning ecosystem. ?? International Scientific Publications, New Delhi.

Halvorson, W. L.

2004-01-01

384

Avian wildlife as sentinels of ecosystem health.  

PubMed

Birds have been widely used as sentinels of ecosystem health reflecting changes in habitat quality, increased incidence of disease, and exposure to and effects of chemical contaminants. Numerous studies addressing these issues focus on the breeding period, since hormonal, behavioural, reproductive, and developmental aspects of the health can be observed over a relatively short time-span. Many body systems within individuals are tightly integrated and interdependent, and can be affected by contaminant chemicals, disease, and habitat changes in complex ways. Animals higher in the food web will reflect cumulative effects of multiple stressors. Such features make birds ideal indicators for assessing environmental health in areas of environmental concern. Five case studies are presented, highlighting the use of different species which have provided insight into ecosystem sustainability, including (i) the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances of sagebrush habitat on the greater northern sage grouse Centrocercus urophasianus; (ii) the high prevalence of disease in very specific passerine species in the Canary Islands closely paralleling deterioration of formerly productive desert habitat and ensuing interspecific stressors; (iii) fractures, abnormal bone structure, and associated biochemical aberrations in nestling storks exposed to acidic tailings mud from a dyke rupture at an iron pyrite mine near Sevilla, Spain; (iv) newly presented data demonstrating biochemical changes in nestling peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and associations with exposure to major chemical classes in the Great Lakes Basin of Canada; and (v) the variability in responses of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor to contaminants, biological and meteorological challenges when breeding in the Athabasca oil sands. PMID:23260372

Smits, Judit E G; Fernie, Kimberly J

2013-05-01

385

An Ecosystem Paradigm for Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of a workshop on the nature of ecosystem ecology as a science. The growing political importance of ecology reflects increasing public interest in environmental values and life support systems. Ecologists are expected to assume int...

P. L. Johnson

1977-01-01

386

ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION: DYNAMIC WATERSHED SIMULATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This research focuses on developing methods and models to determine how terrestrial ecosystem/habitats will respond to anthropogenic stress. The primary objective is to develop a comprehensive modeling framework for predicting the effects of multiple stressors on key hydrologic,...

387

SOUTH FLORIDA ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The South Florida Ecosystem Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure current and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. Using the United States Environmenta...

388

Geospatial tools for Ecosystem Services  

EPA Science Inventory

Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient loads. ...

389

Restoration of Longleaf Pine Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems once occupied 38 million ha in the Southeastern United States, occurring as forests, woodlands, and savannas on a variety of sites ranging from wet flatwoods to xeric sandhills and rocky mountainous ridges. Chara...

D. G. Brockway D. J. Tomczak E. E. Johnson K. W. Outcalt

2005-01-01

390

Visualization of the casting process through computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer animation on a personal computer (PC) is becoming increasingly popular as a visualization tool. With the increasing CPU power and high-resolution graphics of the PC, and the rapid evolution of animation software, engineering processes in industry can be visualized on the PC through computer animation. In this paper, the visualization of a solidification process inside a casting through computer

F. L. Tan; S. C. Fok

1996-01-01

391

Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies.

Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

2006-01-01

392

Designing Payments for Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Policy Series by James Salzman brings attention to a rapidly developing phenomenon—payments for ecosystem services (PES).\\u000aSalzman, the Samuel F. Mordecai Professor of Law and the Nicholas Institute Professor of Environmental Policy at Duke University, explains when and where ecosystem services can be provided by voluntary markets rather than government actions. The key to understanding how PES work is

James Salzman

2010-01-01

393

Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

2004-01-01

394

Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) disturb sediments and fertilize streams with marine-derived nutrients during their annual spawning runs, leading researchers\\u000a to classify these fish as ecosystem engineers and providers of resource subsidies. While these processes strongly influence\\u000a the structure and function of salmon streams, the magnitude of salmon influence varies widely across studies. Here, we use\\u000a meta-analysis to evaluate potential sources

David J. Janetski; Dominic T. Chaloner; Scott D. Tiegs; Gary A. Lamberti

2009-01-01

395

Restoring Central Asian Floodplain Ecosystems as Natural Capital and Cultural Heritage in a Continental Desert Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent decades, the restoration of degraded and damaged ecosystems has become a challenge for landscape management, nature\\u000a conservation, and sustainable land-use development throughout the world. As rivers and their floodplains provide many ecosystem\\u000a services, e.g. the purification of water, combating desertification, the accumulation of carbon, and providing habitats for\\u000a plants and animals, a particular focus is on their restoration.

Stefan Zerbe; Niels Thevs

396

Construction Engineering Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) research facility is part of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (USAERDC) of the Army Corps of Engineers' research and development organization. CERL "conducts research and development in infrastructure and environmental sustainment." New technologies that the lab develops are used "to help military installations provide and maintain quality training lands and facilities for soldiers and their families." Some applications are also found in the private sector. The research is organized into numerous themes, including the study of enduring buildings, ecosystem management, land use planning, and seismic engineering. The website describes each of the themes and offers a link to its database of publications and products/capabilities. Visitors can also search the database by keyword. Another section of the website describes the portal software used to develop and maintain the website.

397

Thermal Acclimation and Adaptation of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem responses to temperature change are collectively determined by its constituents, which are plants, animals, microbes, and their interactions. It has been long documented that all plant, animals, and microbial carbon metabolism (photosynthesis, respiration) can acclimate and respond to changing temperatures, influencing the response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to climate change. Climate change also can induce competition between species with different thermal responses leading to changes in community composition. While a great deal of research has been done on species-level responses to temperature, it is yet to examine thermal acclimation of adaptation of ecosystem carbon processes to temperature change. With the advent of eddy flux measurements, it is possible to directly characterize the ecosystem-scale temperature response of carbon storage. In this study, we quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), from which the responses of apparent optimal temperatures across broad spatial and temporal scales were examined. While temperature responses are normally parameterized in terms of the physiological variables describing photosynthesis and respiration, we focus on the apparent optimal behavior of NEE. Because the measurement integrated over multiple individuals and species within the footprint of the measurement (100s to 1000s of ha), it is challenging to interpret this measurement in terms of classical physiological variables such as the Q10. Rather we focus on the realized behavior of the ecosystem and its sensitivity to temperature. These empirical response functions can then be used as a benchmark for model evaluation and testing. Our synthesis of 656 site-years of eddy covariance data over the world shows that temperature response curves of NEE are parabolic, with their optima temperature strongly correlated with site growing season temperature across the globe and with annual mean temperature over years at individual sites. The differential response of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature may act to produce apparent optima, and an internannual adjustment of this optimum to within-year weather conditions. This phenomenon may influence the long-term response of ecosystem carbon storage and community composition to global temperature changes, and may contribute to the apparent higher sensitivity of global ecosystem carbon storage to rainfall anomalies than to temperature. Thermal responses on interannual time scales may dampen temperature-driven variability of NEE directly caused by temperature anomalies.

Luo, Y.; Niu, S.; Fei, S.; Yuan, W.; Zhang, Z.; Schimel, D.; Fluxnet Pis, .

2010-12-01

398

Belowground Dynamics in Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS Mangrove ecosystems are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal communities are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services (fig. 1). Mangrove wetlands are important filters of materials moving between the land and sea, trapping sediment, nutrients, and pollutants in runoff from uplands and preventing their direct introduction into sensitive marine ecosystems such as seagrass beds and coral reefs. Mangroves serve as nursery grounds and refuge for a variety of organisms and are consequently vital to the biological productivity of coastal waters. Furthermore, because mangroves are highly resilient to disturbances such as hurricanes, they represent a self-sustaining, protective barrier for human populations living in the coastal zone. Mangrove ecosystems also contribute to shoreline stabilization through consolidation of unstable mineral sediments and peat formation. In order to help conserve mangrove ecoystems, scientists with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand the dynamics that impact these vital ecosystems.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

399

Net ecosystem exchange of two tropical ecosystems in Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change, particularly in the tropics, has a significant impact on the global climate due to biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks. With a changing climate, an improved understanding of changes in net primary productivity and carbon storage potentials of tropical ecosystems is needed. However, continuous measurements of ecosystem fluxes are sparse in tropical regions and only few localities exist in Central America. Thus, our objective is to analyse the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of two tropical ecosystems in Sardinilla, Central Panama (9.3Ë? N, 79.6Ë? W, 70 m a.s.l.) and to assess their carbon storage potentials based on flux tower measurements using the eddy covariance method. Ecosystem CO2 and H2O fluxes of a native tree plantation (planted in 2001) and an adjacent, traditionally grazed pasture are measured continuously and simultaneously since June 2007. Our results of nearly two years of continuous operation show clear seasonal and annual differences of NEE between a tropical pasture and a native tree plantation in Panama. Although midday photosynthetic activity of the pasture vegetation leads to high productivity of the dominating C4 grasses, respiration losses exceed photosynthetic inputs and the pasture ecosystem is a carbon source on an annual scale. In contrast, our results indicate a clear carbon storage potential for the plantation ecosystem. Since our measurements only provide an insight into the initial establishment phase of an improved afforestation project, it will be essential to investigate whether these differences already allow to estimate carbon sequestration potentials, or whether longer-term developments will reduce these differences of CO2 uptake with increasing age of the plantation.

Wolf, S.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

2009-04-01

400

Optimising the management of complex dynamic ecosystems. An ecological-economic modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.<\\/span><\\/o:p><\\/span>

Ecosystems supply a wide range of goods and services to mankind. This includes, for example, timber supplied by forests, and animal feed supplied by rangeland systems. In addition, ecosystems supply a range of essential life support services, such as the regulation of climatic

L. G. Hein

2005-01-01

401

Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.  

PubMed

Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

2006-02-01

402

Proposed Initiative Would Study Earth's Weathering Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Earth's surface, a complex suite of chemical, biological, and physical processes combines to create the engine that transforms bedrock into soil (Figure 1). Earth's weathering engine provides nutrients to nourish ecosystems and human society, mediates the transport of toxic components within the biosphere, creates water flow paths that carve and weaken bedrock, and contributes to the evolution of

Suzanne P. Anderson; Joel Blum; Susan L. Brantley; Oliver Chadwick; Jon Chorover; Louis A. Derry; James I. Drever; Janet G. Hering; James W. Kirchner; Lee R. Kump; Daniel Richter; Art F. White

2004-01-01

403

Physics for Animation Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

2011-01-01

404

Global Climate Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations that show the climatology of the seasonal cycle for the time period 1959-1997. The individual frames in each animation show the map pattern of the long-term average of a particular monthly climate variable. Animation topics include global energy balance, temperature, global water balance, and atmospheric circulation and winds. The animations are used as teaching tools in climatology and global environmental change courses to visualize the seasonal variations of, and interactions among a set of climate variables. Animations are presented as both animated .gif files and as Flash animations.

Climvis.org

405

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

406

Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of natural variation in flow, and many of the 12 springs types do not develop hydric soils or wetland vegetation. These factors and their normally small size preclude springs as jurisdictional wetlands by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Army Corps of Engineers criteria. Helocrenes (springfed wet meadows, cienegas, and some fens) are considered as wetlands, but the other 11 types of terrestrial springs often are not. The use of the phrase 'GDE' applies to any aquatic ecosystem supported by groundwater, and the utility of this phrase as a descriptor of springs is diluted by its application to all subterranean and surface aquatic habitats. The failure to recognize the importance of springs ecosystems has become a quiet but global crisis, in part due to inappropriate conceptual understanding and poor jurisdictional terminology. We clarify relationships between these concepts and terms to establish effective, consistent monitoring, assessment, restoration, management, and monitoring goals and protocols for improving springs stewardship.

Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

2013-12-01

407

Expanding exergy analysis to account for ecosystem products and services.  

PubMed

Exergy analysis is a thermodynamic approach used for analyzing and improving the efficiency of chemical and thermal processes. It has also been extended for life cycle assessment and sustainability evaluation of industrial products and processes. Although these extensions recognize the importance of capital and labor inputs and environmental impact, most of them ignore the crucial role that ecosystems play in sustaining all industrial activity. Decisions based on approaches that take nature for granted continue to cause significant deterioration in the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services that are essential for every human activity. Accounting for nature's contribution is also important for determining the impact and sustainablility of industrial activity. In contrast, emergy analysis, a thermodynamic method from systems ecology, does account for ecosystems, but has encountered a lot of resistance and criticism, particularly from economists, physicists, and engineers. This paper expands the engineering concept of Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CEC) analysis to include the contribution of ecosystems, which leads to the concept of Ecological Cumulative Exergy Consumption (ECEC). Practical challenges in computing ECEC for industrial processes are identified and a formal algorithm based on network algebra is proposed. ECEC is shown to be closely related to emergy, and both concepts become equivalent if the analysis boundary, allocation method, and approach for combining global energy inputs are identical. This insight permits combination of the best features of emergy and exergy analysis, and shows that most of the controversial aspects of emergy analysis need not hinder its use for including the exergetic contribution of ecosystems. Examples illustrate the approach and highlight the potential benefits of accounting for nature's contribution to industrial activity. PMID:15296331

Hau, Jorge L; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2004-07-01

408

Animals in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

White, Angela

1988-01-01

409

Functional traits, the phylogeny of function, and ecosystem service vulnerability.  

PubMed

People depend on benefits provided by ecological systems. Understanding how these ecosystem services - and the ecosystem properties underpinning them - respond to drivers of change is therefore an urgent priority. We address this challenge through developing a novel risk-assessment framework that integrates ecological and evolutionary perspectives on functional traits to determine species' effects on ecosystems and their tolerance of environmental changes. We define Specific Effect Function (SEF) as the per-gram or per capita capacity of a species to affect an ecosystem property, and Specific Response Function (SRF) as the ability of a species to maintain or enhance its population as the environment changes. Our risk assessment is based on the idea that the security of ecosystem services depends on how effects (SEFs) and tolerances (SRFs) of organisms - which both depend on combinations of functional traits - correlate across species and how they are arranged on the species' phylogeny. Four extreme situations are theoretically possible, from minimum concern when SEF and SRF are neither correlated nor show a phylogenetic signal, to maximum concern when they are negatively correlated (i.e., the most important species are the least tolerant) and phylogenetically patterned (lacking independent backup). We illustrate the assessment with five case studies, involving both plant and animal examples. However, the extent to which the frequency of the four plausible outcomes, or their intermediates, apply more widely in real-world ecological systems is an open question that needs empirical evidence, and suggests a research agenda at the interface of evolutionary biology and ecosystem ecology. PMID:24101986

Díaz, Sandra; Purvis, Andy; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Mace, Georgina M; Donoghue, Michael J; Ewers, Robert M; Jordano, Pedro; Pearse, William D

2013-09-01

410

Microbial ecology of the watery ecosystems of Evros river in North Eastern Greece and its influence upon the cultivated soil ecosystem.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial ecosystem of cultivated soils along the Evros river in NE Greece. Evros river together with its derivative rivers constitute the capital source of life and sustainable development of the area. Along this riverside watery ecosystem systematic agro-cultures were developed such as wheat, corn and vegetable cultures. The evaluation of the ecosystem microbial charge was conducted in both axes which are the watery ecosystem and the riverside cultivated soil area. Considerable discrimination of water quality was observed when considering chemical and microbiological parameters of the Evros river ecosystem. Ardas river possesses a better water quality than Evros and Erythropotamos, which is mainly due to the higher quantities that these two rivers accumulate from industrial, farming and urban residues leading to higher degree of pollution. An increased microbial pollution was recorded in two of the three rivers monitored and a direct relation in microbial and chemical charging between water and cultivated-soil ecosystems was observed. The protection of these ecosystems with appropriate cultivated practices and control of human and animal activities will define the homeostasis of the environmental area. PMID:21669296

Vavias, S; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stefanis, C; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

2011-12-01

411

Animal and Animal Products Trade in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa has the potential for increasing livestock production and exports but faces several production and international trade constraints. To promote international trade, new rules and regulations have been established under the Agriculture Agreements of the World Trade Organization that African countries can take advantage of to expand their export trade. This paper reviews African trade in animal and animal products

E. N. Tambi; O. W. Maina; R. Bessin

2004-01-01

412

Ecosystem Services Research Program: LTG 2: Monitor, map, and model ecosystem services at multiple scales  

EPA Science Inventory

Mapping ecosystem services is a high priority and an area of significant ORD expertise. Monitoring will be confined to designing a monitoring system for accounting for ecosystem service changes. This will move EMAP condition monitoring to ecosystem services monitoring, building...

413

[Oral ecosystem in elderly people].  

PubMed

The mouth is a complex natural cavity which constitutes the initial segment of the digestive tract. It is an essential actor of the vital functions as nutrition, language, communication. The whole mouth (teeth, periodontium, mucous membranes, tongue) is constantly hydrated and lubricated by the saliva. At any age, a balance becomes established between the bacterial proliferations, the salivary flow, the adapted tissular answer: it is the oral ecosystem. The regulation of this ecosystem participates in the protection of the oral complex against current inflammatory and infectious pathologies (caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, candidiasis). In elderly, the modification of the salivary flow, the appearance of specific pathologies (root caries, edentulism, periodontitis), the local conditions (removable dentures), the development of general pathologies, the development of general pathologies (diabetes, hypertension, immunosuppression, the insufficient oral care are so many elements which are going to destabilize the oral ecosystem, to favor the formation of the dental plaque and to weaken oral tissues. The preservation of this ecosystem is essential for elderly: it allows to eat in good conditions and so to prevent the risks of undernutrition. The authors describe the oral physiopathology (oral microflora, salivary secretion) and the strategies to be adopted to protect the balance of the oral ecosystem in geriatric population. PMID:23803630

Lacoste-Ferré, Marie-Hélène; Hermabessière, Sophie; Jézéquel, Fabienne; Rolland, Yves

2013-06-01

414

Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.  

PubMed

Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. PMID:23786594

Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

2014-02-01

415

Animal Models of Subjective Tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus is one of the major audiological diseases, affecting a significant portion of the ageing society. Despite its huge personal and presumed economic impact there are only limited therapeutic options available. The reason for this deficiency lies in the very nature of the disease as it is deeply connected to elementary plasticity of auditory processing in the central nervous system. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for developing a therapy that reverses the plastic changes underlying the pathogenesis of tinnitus. This requires experiments that address individual neurons and small networks, something usually not feasible in human patients. However, in animals such invasive experiments on the level of single neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution are possible. Therefore, animal models are a very critical element in the combined efforts for engineering new therapies. This review provides an overview over the most important features of animal models of tinnitus: which laboratory species are suitable, how to induce tinnitus, and how to characterize the perceived tinnitus by behavioral means. In particular, these aspects of tinnitus animal models are discussed in the light of transferability to the human patients.

2014-01-01

416

Animal models of subjective tinnitus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus is one of the major audiological diseases, affecting a significant portion of the ageing society. Despite its huge personal and presumed economic impact there are only limited therapeutic options available. The reason for this deficiency lies in the very nature of the disease as it is deeply connected to elementary plasticity of auditory processing in the central nervous system. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for developing a therapy that reverses the plastic changes underlying the pathogenesis of tinnitus. This requires experiments that address individual neurons and small networks, something usually not feasible in human patients. However, in animals such invasive experiments on the level of single neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution are possible. Therefore, animal models are a very critical element in the combined efforts for engineering new therapies. This review provides an overview over the most important features of animal models of tinnitus: which laboratory species are suitable, how to induce tinnitus, and how to characterize the perceived tinnitus by behavioral means. In particular, these aspects of tinnitus animal models are discussed in the light of transferability to the human patients. PMID:24829805

von der Behrens, Wolfger

2014-01-01

417

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

418

Spatial Pattern Enhances Ecosystem Functioning in an African Savanna  

PubMed Central

The finding that regular spatial patterns can emerge in nature from local interactions between organisms has prompted a search for the ecological importance of these patterns. Theoretical models have predicted that patterning may have positive emergent effects on fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity. We provide empirical support for this prediction. In dryland ecosystems, termite mounds are often hotspots of plant growth (primary productivity). Using detailed observations and manipulative experiments in an African savanna, we show that these mounds are also local hotspots of animal abundance (secondary and tertiary productivity): insect abundance and biomass decreased with distance from the nearest termite mound, as did the abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of insect-eating predators. Null-model analyses indicated that at the landscape scale, the evenly spaced distribution of termite mounds produced dramatically greater abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of consumers across trophic levels than would be obtained in landscapes with randomly distributed mounds. These emergent properties of spatial pattern arose because the average distance from an arbitrarily chosen point to the nearest feature in a landscape is minimized in landscapes where the features are hyper-dispersed (i.e., uniformly spaced). This suggests that the linkage between patterning and ecosystem functioning will be common to systems spanning the range of human management intensities. The centrality of spatial pattern to system-wide biomass accumulation underscores the need to conserve pattern-generating organisms and mechanisms, and to incorporate landscape patterning in efforts to restore degraded habitats and maximize the delivery of ecosystem services.

Pringle, Robert M.; Doak, Daniel F.; Brody, Alison K.; Jocque, Rudy; Palmer, Todd M.

2010-01-01

419

Photodegradation Pathways in Arid Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest in improving our understanding of decomposition patterns in arid and semi-arid ecosystems and under potentially drier future conditions has led to a flurry of research related to abiotic degradation processes. Oxidation of organic matter by solar radiation (photodegradation) is one abiotic degradation process that contributes significantly to litter decomposition rates. Our meta-analysis results show that increasing solar radiation exposure corresponds to an average increase of 23% in litter mass loss rate with large variation among studies associated primarily with environmental and litter chemistry characteristics. Laboratory studies demonstrate that photodegradation results in CO2 emissions. Indirect estimates suggest that photodegradation could account for as much as 60% of ecosystem CO2 emissions from dry ecosystems, but these CO2 fluxes have not been measured in intact ecosystems. The current data suggest that photodegradation is important, not only for understanding decomposition patterns, but also for modeling organic matter turnover and ecosystem C cycling. However, the mechanisms by which photodegradation operates, along with their environmental and litter chemistry controls, are still poorly understood. Photodegradation can directly influence decomposition rates and ecosystem CO2 flux via photochemical mineralization. It can also indirectly influence biotic decomposition rates by facilitating microbial degradation through breakdown of more recalcitrant compounds into simpler substrates or by suppressing microbial activity directly. All of these pathways influence the decomposition process, but the relative importance of each is uncertain. Furthermore, a specific suite of controls regulates each of these pathways (e.g., environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity; physical environment such as canopy architecture and contact with soil; and litter chemistry characteristics such as lignin and cellulose content), and these controls have not yet been identified or quantified. To advance our understanding of photodegradation and its role in decomposition and in ecosystem C cycling, we must characterize its mechanisms and their associated controls and incorporate this understanding into biogeochemical models. Our objective is to summarize the current state of understanding of photodegradation and discuss some paths forward to address remaining critical gaps in knowledge about its mechanisms and influence on ecosystem C balance.

King, J. Y.; Lin, Y.; Adair, E. C.; Brandt, L.; Carbone, M. S.

2013-12-01

420

Computational modeling for eco engineering: Making the connections between engineering and ecology (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological engineering, or eco engineering, is an emerging field in the study of integrating ecology and engineering, concerned with the design, monitoring, and construction of ecosystems. According to Mitsch (1996) 'the design of sustainable ecosystems intends to integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both'. Eco engineering emerged as a new idea in the early 1960s, and the concept has seen refinement since then. As a commonly practiced field of engineering it is relatively novel. Howard Odum (1963) and others first introduced it as 'utilizing natural energy sources as the predominant input to manipulate and control environmental systems'. Mtisch and Jorgensen (1989) were the first to define eco engineering, to provide eco engineering principles and conceptual eco engineering models. Later they refined the definition and increased the number of principles. They suggested that the goals of eco engineering are: a) the restoration of ecosystems that have been substantially disturbed by human activities such as environmental pollution or land disturbance, and b) the development of new sustainable ecosystems that have both human and ecological values. Here a more detailed overview of eco engineering is provided, particularly with regard to how engineers and ecologists are utilizing multi-dimensional computational models to link ecology and engineering, resulting in increasingly successful project implementation. Descriptions are provided pertaining to 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional hydrodynamic models and their use at small- and large-scale applications. A range of conceptual models that have been developed to aid the in the creation of linkages between ecology and engineering are discussed. Finally, several case studies that link ecology and engineering via computational modeling are provided. These studies include localized stream rehabilitation, spawning gravel enhancement on a large river system, and watershed-wide floodplain modeling of the Sacramento River Valley.

Bowles, C.

2013-12-01

421

Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

Morton, Eugene S.

1983-01-01

422

Animal Technical Services- Bethesda  

Cancer.gov

Ordering to DVR Operated and Contract Facilities NCI Investigators Ordering Animals to be housed in Division of Veterinary Resources (DVR) Facilities must use the NIH Centralized Animal Procurement System (CAPS). This is an ADB/Delpro system, which requires

423

Peak Ring Crater Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An annotated animation taking the viewer through the sequence of events during an impact, in cross section view. The animation speed cannot be controlled, unfortunately, but the images are large and clear.

Arizona, University O.

424

Effective Parallel Algorithm Animation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AFIT Algorithm Animation Research Facility (AAARF) was developed by the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) as a teaching aid for data structures and algorithm design. In particular, an extensive set of performance animations has been developed f...

P. W. Chase

1994-01-01

425

Animations in spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Ole Haglund mentioned in this journal that it was possible to incorporate animations into spreadsheets. We would like to describe what might be an easier way to incorporate animations into spreadsheets using Excel™ software.

Aubrecht, Gordon J.; Bolland, T. Kenneth; Ziegler, Michael G.

1999-12-01

426

"Name" that Animal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

Laird, Shirley

2010-01-01

427

Working with Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After discussing various job categories involving working with animals, the authors give more specific information about the occupations of humane agent, animal care attendant, conservation officer, veterinary technician, and zoo keeper. (MF)

Herrmann, Charles F., III; Hodge, Guy

1978-01-01

428

Animals in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

Rowan, Andrew N.

1981-01-01

429

First Aid: Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Breastfeeding FAQs Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size What's ...

430

Animal Technical Services- Bethesda  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Courier Services Weekly courier service is available for local shipments on Tuesdays and Thursdays; animals are transported in a temperature-controlled vehicle. Contact Holly Wastler, hwastler@ncifcrf.gov

431

Is It an Animal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about animals. The probe specifically seeks to find out what characteristics students use to determine whether an organism is classified as an animal.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

432

Animal bites (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... a clean cloth until bleeding subsides. If the animal is wild or domestic but not vaccinated there may be a concern about rabies. When possible the animal must be quarantined or autopsied to determine if ...

433

DNA Replication Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an animation to explain DNA replication. It is an interactive simulation activity for students. See also "Transcription and Translation Animation" to get all of the steps from DNA to protein.

Littell, Mcdougal

2012-07-19

434

Retainer for laboratory animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

Lee, R. W.

1979-01-01

435

Animal marks and trails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Items in nature, such as twigs and leaves, can show bite and chew marks where animals have been eating off of plants. Animals make trails by traveling over the same area several times to get to a destination.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-13

436

78 FR 50052 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...management for sustainable river ecosystems; Corps' outreach opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; and introduction of a multi-year work plan for the Board. The Board will also briefly discuss...

2013-08-16

437

Frame by Frame Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter covers a method for animating frame by frame using Flash symbols in a manner that is closer to traditional animation\\u000a techniques. Modern technology has, in many ways, eliminated much of the drudgery of doing animation in contrast to how animation\\u000a was created many years ago. However, the basic techniques and thought processes at the very core of creating

Allan S. Rosson

438

Live like an Animal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students design an innovative human shelter that is inspired and informed by an animal structure. Each group is assigned an animal class, and they gather information about shelters used by the animals in that class. After researching the topic and brainstorming ideas, students build small prototypes (models) of the structures. Finally, they present their products, explaining what attribute of the animal structure influenced their design.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

439

Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage  

EPA Science Inventory

Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

440

Population diversity and ecosystem services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current rate of biodiversity loss threatens to disrupt greatly the functioning of ecosystems, with potentially significant consequences for humanity. The magnitude of the loss is generally measured with the use of species extinction rates, an approach that understates the severity of the problem and masks some of its most important consequences. Here, we propose a major expansion of this

Gary W. Luck; Gretchen C. Daily; Paul R. Ehrlich

2003-01-01

441

RESILIENCE OF ECOSYSTEMS TO DISTURBANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Resilience, in an ecological context, is one of several terms that characterize the response of an ecosystem to disturbance. Other such terms include persistence, resistance and stability. Two definitions of resilience have become prominent in the literature, both of which derive...

442

Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that

B. P. V. Hunt; E. A. Pakhomov; G. W. Hosie; V. Siegel; P. Ward; K. Bernard

2008-01-01

443

The Structure of Ecosystems. Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Input-output theory is developed for an ecosystem in terms of the production and respiration energy flows. The theory reveals a 'structure' of the system by demonstrating the direct and indirect energy glow dependence of each member of the system upon the...

B. Hannon

1973-01-01

444

Planning for Ecosystem Service Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Market mechanisms are emerging as means of offsetting the environmental effects of growth. Unfortunately, formal regulation of ecosystem markets is often separated from broader planning for urban development, resulting in offsets that are unsustainable in the face of future urban growth.Purpose: We aimed to assess how 2008 federal regulations that actively promote aquatic resource markets and encourage watershed planning

Todd K. BenDor; Martin W. Doyle

2009-01-01

445

Introduction: Disturbance and Caribbean Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the article, the authors summarize the post-hurricane trajectories of various ecosystem components in the LEF. They also address how responses to other types of disturbance can be brought together to obtain a more thorough understanding of the comparat...

J. K. Zimmerman M. R. Willig L. R. Walker W. L. Silver

1996-01-01

446

Modelling fire affected ecosystem restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems is usually ascribed to the seasonal climate, that is characterized by the alternation between mild temperatures and abundant rainfall in Spring and Autumn, and the high temperatures and scarce rainfall producing severe water deficit in Summer. Many factors influence watershed response altered by forest fire forcing: rainfall intensity, fire intensity, vegetation cover, soil properties and moisture content, the time interval between the fire and a rainfall episode and its associated rain rate. The fire changed soil propreties and the burned vegetation cover and the consequent soil surface exposition to high raindrops impacts are found to trigger increasing overland flow, so accelerating soil erosion. Post fire water erosion usually strongly increases in the time interval ranging from the fire extinction to the first year after it. Its persistence is strictly connected to the soil and vegetation restoration, the last occurring at different time scales. In this context, a new model aimed to analyse fire affected ecosystem restoration is presented. It is a spatially distributed model accounting of the hydrological fluxes generation and propagation, the water erosion and of the vegetation dynamic connected both to hydrological cycle and erosion. The model is able to take into account the diverse fire effects persistance of its various components (soil and vegetation) at different time scales. The application to the case study of Rio Mannu basin, a typical Mediterranean ecosystem site located in Sardinia, Italy, highlights modelling capability in studying ecosystem restoration.

Rulli, M.; Santini, M.; Rosso, R.

2011-12-01

447

Ecosystem Overfishing in the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the ecosystem) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production

Marta Coll; Simone Libralato; Sergi Tudela; Isabel Palomera; Fabio Pranovi

2008-01-01

448

Influence of arthropods on ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthropod interactions with plants and microbes influence the amounts of living and dead organic matter and transfers of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Arthropods in the canopy have their greatest effect on mobile elements such as potassium, whereas soil detritivores influence mineralization rates of less mobile elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium. Nominal (baseline) herbivory and detritivory combine to speed

T. R. Seastedt; D. A. Jr. Crossley

1984-01-01

449

Science, Medicine and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history, status, and potential of animal research is described in the hopes of providing the information which will allow people to judge the merit and necessity for continuing animal research. The use of animals in research; advances as a result of a...

J. E. Burris S. Olson

1991-01-01

450

Animals in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners use a Flash animation running in a browser to study how animals and humans move. Students examine images captured by Eadweard Muybridge in the late nineteenth century; by starting, slowing, and stopping the animation, learners gain valuable insights into biomechanics of bipeds and quadrupeds.

451

Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

Hinshaw, Craig

2003-01-01

452

Flexible Animation Computer Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Stallcup, Scott S.

1990-01-01

453

Careers Working with Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys careers in working with animals and gives suggestions for use of this topic in the classroom. Activities involve identifying reasons for choosing any career, careers involving animals (traditional and nontraditional), community personnel, and pros and cons of animal careers. Two student activity sheets are included for duplicating. (DH)

Soltow, Willow

1985-01-01

454

Morris Animal Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... We are a global leader in animal health science, and our funding helps more species in more places than that of any other organization in the world. Morris Animal Foundation News “Golden” Leader Nominated for National Veterinary Technician Award Morris Animal Foundation’s Erin Searfoss ...

455

Invent an Animal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity and game, learners explore how animals adapt for survival through coloration, markings and camouflage. By inventing, designing and hiding their own animal models, and hunting for other learners' hidden animals, learners investigate how predators and prey also use shape and behavior to blend into their habitats, so they can succeessfully hunt for food or escape from being eaten.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

456

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. D...

457

Valuing Puget Sound's Valued Ecosystems Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Valued ecosystem components, or VECs, are key elements of the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration Project (PSNERP) conceptual framework for nearshore restoration. This paper discusses the underlying human values that motivate the choice of VECs an...

A. W. Petersen T. M. Leschine

2007-01-01

458

Evolution Experiments with an Artificial Ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technique of ecosystem reconstruction provides a mechanism for examining assumptions about natural ecosystems and their evolution. A hierarchical computer program has been developed with genetic, organismic and population levels embedded in an ecosyst...

M. Conrad H. H. Pattee

1971-01-01

459

Willamette Ecosystem Service Project: Research Prospectus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Willamette Ecosystem Services Project seeks to quantify ecosystem services and understand the effects of anthropogenic stresses on those services in order to provide a rigorous scientific basis for valuing ecological benefits of existing and proposed ...

2007-01-01

460

INDICATORS OF ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY FOR ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ideal indicators of ecosystem integrity integrate multiple structural and functional attributes of the ecosystem, have temporal and spatial dimensions, express real variability, are standardized with respect to reference conditions, societal goals, or both, and support prediction...

461

RADICALLY CONTESTED ASSERTIONS IN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem management is a magnet for controversy, in part because some of its formulations rest on questionable assertions that are radically contested. These assertions are important to understanding much of the conflict surrounding ecosystem management and, therrefore, deserve...

462

How do polar marine ecosystems respond to rapid climate change?  

PubMed

Climate change will alter marine ecosystems; however, the complexity of the food webs, combined with chronic undersampling, constrains efforts to predict their future and to optimally manage and protect marine resources. Sustained observations at the West Antarctic Peninsula show that in this region, rapid environmental change has coincided with shifts in the food web, from its base up to apex predators. New strategies will be required to gain further insight into how the marine climate system has influenced such changes and how it will do so in the future. Robotic networks, satellites, ships, and instruments mounted on animals and ice will collect data needed to improve numerical models that can then be used to study the future of polar ecosystems as climate change progresses. PMID:20558708

Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Martinson, Douglas G; Meredith, Michael P; Moline, Mark A; Fraser, William R

2010-06-18

463

Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the build- ing blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species

N. Leader-Williams

2002-01-01

464

Biodiversity and industry ecosystem management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term biodiversity describes the array of interacting, genetically distinct populations and species in a region, the communities they comprise, and the variety of ecosystems of which they are functioning parts. Ecosystem health, a closely related concept, is described in terms of a process identifying biological indicators, end points, and values. The decline of populations or species, an accelerating trend worldwide, can lead to simplification of ecosystem processes, thus threatening the stability and sustainability of ecosystem services directly relevant to human welfare in the chain of economic and ecological relationships. The challenge of addressing issues of such enormous scope and complexity has highlighted the limitations of ecology-as-science. Additionally, biosphere-scale conflicts seem to lie beyond the scope of conventional economics, leading to differences of opinion about the commodity value of biodiversity and of the services that intact ecosystems provide. In the face of these uncertainties, many scientists and economists have adopted principles that clearly assign burdens of proof to those who would promote the loss of biodiversity and that also establish “near-trump” (preeminent) status for ecological integrity. Electric utility facilities and operations impact biodiversity whenever construction, operation, or maintenance of generation, delivery, and support facilities alters landscapes and habitats and thereby impacts species. Although industry is accustomed to dealing with broad environmental concerns (such as global warming or acid rain), the biodiversity issue invokes hemisphere-wide, regional, local, and site-specific concerns all at the same time. Industry can proactively address these issues of scope and scale in two main ways: first, by aligning strategically with the broad research agenda put forth by informed scientists and institutions; and second, by supporting focused management processes whose results will contribute incrementally to the broader agenda of rebuilding or maintaining biodiversity.

Coleman, William G.

1996-11-01

465

Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

Martin-Lopez, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Garcia-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David Garcia Del; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Barbara; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Santos-Martin, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; Lopez-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

2012-01-01

466

Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services have attracted worldwide attention. Despite the overwhelming evidence\\u000a of these impacts and a growing appreciation for ecosystem services, however, researchers and policymakers rarely directly\\u000a address the connection between invasions and ecosystem services.Various attempts have been made to address the ecosystem processes\\u000a that are affected by invasive species (e.g., Levine et al. 2003;

Heather Charles; Jeffrey S. Dukes

467

Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate engineering (CE), the intentional modification of the climate in order to reduce the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, is sometimes touted as a potential response to climate change. Increasing interest in the topic has led to proposals for empirical tests of hypothesized CE techniques, which raise serious ethical concerns. We propose three ethical guidelines for CE researchers, derived from the ethics literature on research with human and animal subjects, applicable in the event that CE research progresses beyond computer modeling. The Principle of Respect requires that the scientific community secure the global public's consent, voiced through their governmental representatives, before beginning any empirical research. The Principle of Beneficence and Justice requires that researchers strive for a favorable risk-benefit ratio and a fair distribution of risks and anticipated benefits, all while protecting the basic rights of affected individuals. Finally, the Minimization Principle requires that researchers minimize the extent and intensity of each experiment by ensuring that no experiments last longer, cover a greater geographical extent, or have a greater impact on the climate, ecosystem, or human welfare than is necessary to test the specific hypotheses in question. Field experiments that might affect humans or ecosystems in significant ways should not proceed until a full discussion of the ethics of CE research occurs and appropriate institutions for regulating such experiments are established.

Morrow, David R.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael

2009-10-01

468

A synthetic Escherichia coli predator-prey ecosystem  

PubMed Central

We have constructed a synthetic ecosystem consisting of two Escherichia coli populations, which communicate bi-directionally through quorum sensing and regulate each other's gene expression and survival via engineered gene circuits. Our synthetic ecosystem resembles canonical predat