Science.gov

Sample records for animal health diagnostic

  1. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Immunohistochemistry Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology ­ Immunohistochemistry Laboratory Page 1 of 1 Document Antibodies Prepared/Reviewed by: Martin Slade, Technical Service Supervisor, Histology Laboratory Joy Cramer

  2. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Page 1 of 2 Issue Date: 5/25/2012 Document Title: Histology Laboratory Research Prices Document Code: AP-HISTO-CHT-010-V.01 Histology Laboratory Research Prices Prepared/Reviewed by: Martin Slade, Technical Service Supervisor, Histology Laboratory Tissues

  3. Animal Contact Occupational Health & Safety

    E-print Network

    Feig, Andrew

    Animal Contact Occupational Health & Safety Program (AniCon) 2014 Office of Environmental Health & Safety www.oehs.wayne.edu #12;2 AniCon Program Overview A Board Certified Occupational Health Nurse guidelines set forth in the National Research Council's publication Occupational Health and Safety

  4. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  5. CALIFORNIA ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Paul

    CALIFORNIA ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY LABORATORY Quality Program Statement TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN and poultry health management Ensuring the safety of foods of animal origin Protection from diseases common. Page 1 of 2 #12;CALIFORNIA ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY LABORATORY Quality Program Statement Preventive

  6. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  7. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  8. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. PMID:19967940

  9. Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rönmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components. PMID:25282018

  10. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Home Our Focus Animal Health Animal Welfare Biotechnology Business Services Civil Rights Emergency Response Imports & Exports ... JSR 286) Popular Topics Animal Health Animal Welfare Biotechnology Emergency Response Imports & Exports International Services Plant Health ...

  11. Companion animals as sentinels for public health.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Peggy L

    2009-03-01

    Animal sentinel surveillance is a key component of public health risk assessment. While many species serve as animal sentinels, companion animals have an especially valuable role as sentinels because of their unique place in people's lives, with exposure to similar household and recreational risk factors as those for the people who own them. Dogs and cats can help in early identification of food contamination, infectious disease transmission, environmental contamination, and even bioterrorism or chemical terrorism events. Early detection, leading to early intervention, can minimize the impact of these adverse events on both animal and human health. PMID:19185191

  12. World Organisation for Animal Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Veterinary Services Food safety and animal welfare History Worldwide organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional Commissions Specialist Commissions Our members Delegates Member Countries Key texts Basic texts Cooperation agreements Official Acts ...

  13. Balancing Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria and antibiotics have likely co-existed since the beginning of time; one seeks only to survive (bacteria) while the other (antibiotics) serves multiple functions. The discovery of antimicrobials began a ‘golden age’ in medicine as previously untreatable diseases were cured. Animals benefite...

  14. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    PubMed

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue. PMID:25000781

  15. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  16. 76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  17. 76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  18. STANFORD UNIVERSITY LABORATORY ANIMAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    3.16.05 STANFORD UNIVERSITY LABORATORY ANIMAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM Tuberculosis Symptom Questionnaire For use by personnel that have previously had a positive PPD skin test. Name (Print told by a health practitioner that your immune system is suppressed or compromised? No Yes Don't Know

  19. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  20. Animals as sentinels of environmental health hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, L.T.; Fairbrother, A.; Guarino, A.M.; Bergman, H.L.; Buck, W.B.

    1991-08-01

    The Committee on Animals as Monitors of Environmental Hazards was formed when the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry requested that the National Academy of Sciences gather an NRC committee to review and evaluate the usefulness of animal epidemiologic studies for human risk assessment and recommend the types of data that should be collected. With specific questions in mind, the committee attempted to determine how animals could be used for ecological and human health risk determinations as well as to provide an early-warning system for risk assessment and management.

  1. 76 FR 63210 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal...

  2. Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory System Dog and Cat Necropsy Release Form

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory System Dog and Cat Necropsy Release Form PD PATH FORM 01/Agency Address Address City, state, zip City, state, zip Phone Phone Fax Fax Email Email Animal Information: Animal ID Species Breed Age Sex Has the animal bitten anyone in the 10 days prior to its death? No Yes

  3. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  4. Animal health: Tackling a mitey problem.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Kathryn

    2015-07-11

    The poultry ectoparasite Dermanyssus gallinae, known to poultry farmers as 'red mite', has a negative impact on animal health and is a vector of viruses and bacteria. It also sometimes attacks poultry farm workers, and human infestations have been reported originating from pigeons' nests in urban areas. A European project is currently investigating synergistic and holistic approaches to improving the health, welfare and productivity of laying hens through more effective prevention and control of the red mite. Kathryn Bartley reports from a two-day conference held in Italy in May, which provided an update on progress with the project. PMID:26160787

  5. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  6. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  7. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  8. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

  9. Microsoft Word - SOP 2 002 Animal Health Evaluation.doc

    Cancer.gov

    LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCES PROGRAM - SAIC-FREDERICK SOP NUMBER : 2.002 EFFECTIVE DATE: 7/20/2006 REVISION NUMBER: 3 PAGE 1 of 4 TITLE: Animal Health Evaluation Prepared by: Julie Bullock Veterinary Associate Reviewed By:

  10. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes. PMID:26231503

  11. 76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider public health, conservation of natural resources, and the stability of livestock economies. Tentative topics for discussion at the upcoming meeting include: Animal disease traceability. Aquaculture.... The U.S. Department of Agriculture's role in public health initiatives. National disease...

  12. Use of health information technology to reduce diagnostic errors

    PubMed Central

    El-Kareh, Robert; Hasan, Omar; Schiff, Gordon D

    2013-01-01

    Background Health information technology (HIT) systems have the potential to reduce delayed, missed or incorrect diagnoses. We describe and classify the current state of diagnostic HIT and identify future research directions. Methods A multi-pronged literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, backwards and forwards reference searches and contributions from domain experts. We included HIT systems evaluated in clinical and experimental settings as well as previous reviews, and excluded radiology computer-aided diagnosis, monitor alerts and alarms, and studies focused on disease staging and prognosis. Articles were organised within a conceptual framework of the diagnostic process and areas requiring further investigation were identified. Results HIT approaches, tools and algorithms were identified and organised into 10 categories related to those assisting: (1) information gathering; (2) information organisation and display; (3) differential diagnosis generation; (4) weighing of diagnoses; (5) generation of diagnostic plan; (6) access to diagnostic reference information; (7) facilitating follow-up; (8) screening for early detection in asymptomatic patients; (9) collaborative diagnosis; and (10) facilitating diagnostic feedback to clinicians. We found many studies characterising potential interventions, but relatively few evaluating the interventions in actual clinical settings and even fewer demonstrating clinical impact. Conclusions Diagnostic HIT research is still in its early stages with few demonstrations of measurable clinical impact. Future efforts need to focus on: (1) improving methods and criteria for measurement of the diagnostic process using electronic data; (2) better usability and interfaces in electronic health records; (3) more meaningful incorporation of evidence-based diagnostic protocols within clinical workflows; and (4) systematic feedback of diagnostic performance. PMID:23852973

  13. BARNARD COLLEGE PRIMARY CARE HEALTH SERVICE Health History for Personnel with Animal Contact

    E-print Network

    BARNARD COLLEGE PRIMARY CARE HEALTH SERVICE Health History for Personnel with Animal Contact Please print or type: Name:_________________________ MR #:_________________________ Laboratory Animal Use: (Select which statement is applicable to your status) 1. I

  14. Human and Animal Sentinels for Shared Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Scotch, Matthew; Conti, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Summary The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions, and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such “shared risks” from environmental hazards has not been realized. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data, and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The One Health initiative and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sharing of knowledge about sentinel events in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species. PMID:20148187

  15. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and... information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study. OMB Number:...

  16. [Animal- assisted therapy in health care facilities].

    PubMed

    Jofré M, Leonor

    2005-09-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a novel interventional program with important benefits in the management of patients with chronic diseases and prolonged hospitalization. The relationship between animals and patients facilitates adaptation to a new, stressing hospital environment, helps in diminishing anxiety, stress, pain and blood pressure and increases mobility and muscular strength. This therapy can be developed by pets themselves or by specially trained animals. Dogs are the most frequently used animals because of their training and sociability skills. Patients and animals participating in these programs require special care in order to avoid transmission of infectious diseases associated with pets, hypersensitivity and accidents during their visits. Implementation of animal - assisted therapy in care centers requires a permanent revision of suggested guidelines and program objectives. PMID:16077894

  17. Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Tools for Early Detection of Arthropod-Borne Animal Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of existing and emerging nucleic acid diagnostic tools for arthropod-borne animal viral diseases. The outbreak of West Nile virus in the United Sates (U.S.) and the recent outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in East Africa have h...

  18. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials. PMID:26119294

  19. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  20. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  1. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  2. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  3. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  4. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  5. Issues and special features of animal health research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  6. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  7. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  8. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  9. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  10. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  11. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  12. Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

  13. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  14. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  15. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  16. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  17. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  18. 9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...The extent to which movement of animals and animal products is controlled from regions...quantity and quality of sampling and testing? (10) Diagnostic laboratory...Policies and infrastructure for animal disease control in the...

  19. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Feedlot 2011 Study AGENCY... information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring Feedlot 2011 Study. DATES: We will... Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring...

  20. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...C. 8301 et seq.), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...APHIS operates the National Animal Health Monitoring System...and challenges, including animal identification, confinement and handling, care, and disease testing; Describe health...

  1. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  2. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  3. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  4. 76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  5. 75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2009-0025] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  6. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  7. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

  8. Cloning of farm animals: impact on animal health and welfare and implications in trade.

    PubMed

    Menéndez González, S; Reist, M

    2011-02-01

    The commercial use of animal cloning for breeding food producing animals has been limited so far by biological and technical constraints such as adverse effects on the health and welfare of animals, especially high perinatal and postnatal disease and mortality of clones. However, the improvement of the technique may overcome those problems in future and contribute to the spread of cloning in agricultural production, which raises concern not only on health and welfare aspects but also on food safety and ethics. This may cause conflict in international trade. The present article reviews these topics on the basis of up-to-date scientific opinions. PMID:21274831

  9. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    PubMed

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration. PMID:25707190

  10. Containment and competition: transgenic animals in the One Health agenda.

    PubMed

    Lezaun, Javier; Porter, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    The development of the One World, One Health agenda coincides in time with the appearance of a different model for the management of human-animal relations: the genetic manipulation of animal species in order to curtail their ability as carriers of human pathogens. In this paper we examine two examples of this emergent transgenic approach to disease control: the development of transgenic chickens incapable of shedding avian flu viruses, and the creation of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to dengue or malaria infection. Our analysis elaborates three distinctions between the One World, One Health agenda and its transgenic counterpoint. The first concerns the conceptualization of outbreaks and the forms of surveillance that support disease control efforts. The second addresses the nature of the interspecies interface, and the relative role of humans and animals in preventing pathogen transmission. The third axis of comparison considers the proprietary dimensions of transgenic animals and their implications for the assumed public health ethos of One Health programs. We argue that the fundamental difference between these two approaches to infectious disease control can be summarized as one between strategies of containment and strategies of competition. While One World, One Health programs seek to establish an equilibrium in the human-animal interface in order to contain the circulation of pathogens across species, transgenic strategies deliberately trigger a new ecological dynamic by introducing novel animal varieties designed to out-compete pathogen-carrying hosts and vectors. In other words, while One World, One Health policies focus on introducing measures of inter-species containment, transgenic approaches derive their prophylactic benefit from provoking new cycles of intra-species competition between GM animals and their wild-type counterparts. The coexistence of these divergent health protection strategies, we suggest, helps to elucidate enduring tensions and concerns about how humans should relate to, appraise, and intervene on animals and their habitats. PMID:24961736

  11. The contribution of farm animals to human health.

    PubMed

    Kues, Wilfried A; Niemann, Heiner

    2004-06-01

    Farm animals and their products have a longstanding and successful history of providing significant contributions to human nutrition, clothing, facilitation of labour, research, development and medicine and have thus been essential in improving life expectancy and human health. With the advent of transgenic technologies the potential of farm animals for improving human health is growing and many areas remain to be explored. Recent breakthroughs in reproductive technologies, such as somatic cloning and in vitro embryo production, and their merger with molecular genetic tools, will further advance progress in this field. Here, we have summarized the contribution of farm animals to human health, covering the production of antimicrobial peptides, dietary supplements or functional foods, animals used as disease models and the contribution of animals to solving urgent environmental problems and challenges in medicine such as the shortage of human cells, tissues and organs and therapeutic proteins. Some of these areas have already reached the level of preclinical testing or commercial application, others will be further advanced only when the genomes of the animals concerned have been sequenced and annotated. Provided the necessary precautions are being taken, the transmission of pathogens from animals to humans can be avoided to provide adequate security. Overall, the promising perspectives of farm animals and their products warrant further research and development in this field. PMID:15158058

  12. IN.2.3 Guidelines on Issuing Health Certificates for Animals Leaving U of I Laboratory Animal Facilities

    E-print Network

    Chen, Deming

    IN.2.3 Guidelines on Issuing Health Certificates for Animals Leaving U of I Laboratory Animal Facilities Health certificates are required for many animal species when transporting them across state animals even when not required by state or federal regulations. Many institutions request/require a prior

  13. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Page 1 of 1

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    ° amyloid Congo Red/Potassium Permanganate argentaffin cells, melanin Fontana Masson argyrophilic granules) melanin Melanin Bleach + H&E mucins Alcian Blue and PAS muscle striations PTAH (muscle) myelin LFB

  14. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that information adapted to audiences with low health literacy suits people with high health literacy as well. PMID:25586711

  15. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  16. Echinococcus granulosus: Epidemiology and state-of-the-art of diagnostics in animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, Philip; Mastin, Alexander; van Kesteren, Freya; Boufana, Belgees

    2015-10-30

    Diagnosis and detection of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) infection in animals is a prerequisite for epidemiological studies and surveillance of echinococcosis in endemic, re-emergent or emergent transmission zones. Advances in diagnostic approaches for definitive hosts and livestock, however, have not progressed equally over the last 20 years. Development of laboratory based diagnostics for canids using coproantigen ELISA and also coproPCR, have had a huge impact on epidemiological studies and more recently on surveillance during hydatid control programmes. In contrast, diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock still relies largely on conventional post-mortem inspection, despite a relatively low diagnostic sensitivity especially in early infections, as current serodiagnostics do not provide a sufficiently specific and sensitive practical pre-mortem alternative. As a result, testing of dog faecal samples by coproantigen ELISA, often combined with mass ultrasound screening programmes for human CE, has been the preferred approach for monitoring and surveillance in resource-poor endemic areas and during control schemes. In this article we review the current options and approaches for diagnosis of E. granulosus infection in definitive and animal intermediate hosts (including applications in non-domesticated species) and make conclusions and recommendations for further improvements in diagnosis for use in epidemiological studies and surveillance schemes. PMID:26321135

  17. Application of DIVA vaccines and their companion diagnostic tests to foreign animal disease eradication.

    PubMed

    Pasick, John

    2004-12-01

    The risk of foreign animal disease introduction continues to exist despite Canada's strict regulations concerning the importation of animals and animal products. Given the rapidity with which these diseases can spread, especially in areas with dense livestock populations, eradication efforts which rely solely on quarantine and stamping-out measures can present a formidable undertaking. This, combined with growing economic and ethical considerations, has led to renewed interest in the use of vaccination as a tool in controlling foreign animal disease outbreaks. Vaccination has effects at the individual and population levels. Efficacious vaccines reduce or prevent clinical signs without necessarily preventing virus replication. They may also increase the dose of virus needed to establish an infection and/or reduce the level and duration of virus shedding following infection. Vaccine effectiveness within a population is a function of its ability to reduce virus transmission. Transmission is best described by the reproductive ratio, R, which is defined as the average number of new infections caused by one infectious individual. By helping to reduce the R-value below 1, vaccination can be an effective adjunct in abbreviating an outbreak. Nevertheless, vaccination can also complicate serological surveillance activities that follow eradication, if the antibody response induced by vaccination is indistinguishable from that which follows infection. This disadvantage can be overcome by the use of DIVA vaccines and their companion diagnostic tests. The term DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated individuals) was coined in 1999 by J. T. van Oirschot of the Central Veterinary Institute, in The Netherlands. It is now generally used as an acronym for 'differentiating infected from vaccinated animals'. The term was originally applied to the use of marker vaccines, which are based on deletion mutants of wild-type microbes, in conjunction with a differentiating diagnostic test. The DIVA strategy has been extended to include subunit and killed whole-virus vaccines. This system makes possible the mass vaccination of a susceptible animal population without compromising the serological identification of convalescent individuals. The DIVA approach has been applied successfully to pseudorabies and avian influenza eradication, and has been proposed for use in foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever eradication campaigns. This paper will survey current vaccine technology, the host immune response, and companion diagnostic tests that are available for pseudorabies, foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza. PMID:15984335

  18. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal... that the Secretary of Agriculture intends to establish the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal... Committee on Animal Health (the Committee) is to advise the Secretary of Agriculture on means to...

  19. Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health.

    PubMed

    Cirulli, Francesca; Borgi, Marta; Berry, Alessandra; Francia, Nadia; Alleva, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions. PMID:22194067

  20. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  1. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

  2. Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N.; Alexandersen, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009. PMID:24155436

  3. Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional model was developed and presented here to identify critical control points in associated biochemical pathways and further understand that how environmental factors impact the immune system to affect animal health.. A general comparison of the differences in cellular responses to mild v...

  4. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  5. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  6. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  7. CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to A new independent body for animal health: A modern

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    . In addition to directly benefiting the health and welfare of animals, animal health research is increasinglyCONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to A new independent body for animal health: A modern governance and funding structure for tackling animal diseases June 2009 Page 1 of 3 DEFRA: A new independent

  8. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  9. Public health implications of animals in retail food outlets.

    PubMed

    Dyjack, David T; Ho, Jessica; Lynes, Rahel; Lynes, Rachel; Bliss, Jesse C

    2013-12-01

    Growing societal interest to permit animals into retail food outlets presents both risks and benefits to the dining public and consumers. This article summarizes a literature review that evaluated the associated potential public health issues related to this subject. Using the EBSCOhost research protocol and Google search engines between March 2010 and June 2011, the authors have compiled and synthesized scientific research articles, empirical scientific literature, and publicly available news media. While pets are known carriers of bacteria and parasites, among others, the relative risk associated with specific pet-human interactions in the dining public has yet to be established in a clear and consistent manner. Much of the available health-risk-factor evidence reflects pets in domestic conditions and interaction with farm animals. Special consideration is recommended for vulnerable populations such as children, asthmatics, the elderly, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised. PMID:24437046

  10. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  11. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...mission, APHIS operates the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS...practices and challenges, including animal identification, fencing, animal care and handling, trade and movement, and disease testing; Describe the...

  12. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...surveillance programs are maintained, and the owners of animals involved with animal disease control or surveillance programs. Such...or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing laboratories. Employee, cooperator, and...

  13. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ..., contact Mr. Chris Quatrano, Industry Analyst, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, VS, APHIS, 2150..., this 11th day of May 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  14. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...strategies, prioritizing animal health imperatives...membership. Nomination forms are available on the...ocio.usda.gov/forms/doc/AD-755.pdf...needs of the diverse groups served by the Department...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

  15. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... on matters of public health, conservation of national resources, stability of livestock economies, livestock disease management and traceability strategies, prioritizing animal health imperatives, and...

  16. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Laboratory Network (NAHLN) AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of a... records being proposed is the National Animal ] Health Laboratory Network. This notice is necessary to... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Barbara M. Martin, National Animal Health Laboratory...

  17. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Ms. Sandra Warnken, Management and Program Analyst, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, VS... animal health management practices. We are asking the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of...

  18. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2012 Study. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study. OMB Number: 0579-0315. Type of Request: Reinstatement of an...

  19. Diagnostic Classification 0-3: Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multi-disciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  20. Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood. Diagnostic Classification: 0-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Serena, Ed.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multidisciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  1. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  2. Role of mycotoxins in human and animal nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Solomons, G; Lewis, C; Anderson, J G

    1995-01-01

    The impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health is now increasingly recognised. Mycotoxin entry to the human and animal dietary systems is mainly by ingestion but increasing evidence also points at entry by inhalation. Mycotoxins exhibit a wide array of biological effects and individual mycotoxins can be mutagenic, carcinogenic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, or oestrogenic. Average levels of ingestion of currently known mycotoxins in most EEC countries are rather low. Little is known about the consequences to humans of such mycotoxin intakes. Establishing a causal relationship between mycotoxin exposure and human disease is complicated by uncertainties associated with human epidemiological studies. Analysis of mycotoxin adducts in human populations can act as a surrogate for human genotoxicity. Mycotoxins can also be immunosuppressive and appear to involve cellular immune phenomena and non-specific humoral factors associated with immunity. PMID:7582615

  3. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  4. Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

  5. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. PMID:22335835

  6. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model. PMID:22916854

  7. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. PMID:26233459

  8. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. Methods This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. Results All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. Conclusions The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities, community members, local to national political leaders, as well as the technical personnel from veterinary, medical and public health sectors since it affects both humans and animals. PMID:26218368

  9. Cellular diagnostics and coral health: declining coral health in the Florida Keys.

    PubMed

    Downs, C A; Fauth, John E; Robinson, Charles E; Curry, Richard; Lanzendorf, Brenda; Halas, John C; Halas, Judith; Woodley, Cheryl M

    2005-01-01

    Coral reefs within the Florida Keys are disappearing at an alarming rate. Coral cover in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary declined by 38% from 1996 to 2000. In 2000, populations of Montastraea annularis at four sites near Molasses Reef within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and one reef within Biscayne National Park were sampled on a quarterly basis. Anecdotal observations showed corals at Alina's Reef in Biscayne National Park appeared healthy in March, but experienced an acute loss of coral cover by August. Cellular Diagnostic analysis indicated that Alina's Reef corals were in distress: they had been afflicted with a severe oxidative damaging and protein-denaturing stress that affected both the corals and their symbiotic zooxanthellae. This condition was associated with a significant xenobiotic detoxification response in both species, reflecting probable chemical contaminant exposure. These results demonstrate that applying a Cellular Diagnostic approach can be effective in helping to identify stress and its underlying causes, providing diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of coral health. PMID:15992830

  10. Report from the Second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health: Critical Needs, Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

  11. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

  12. Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although oftenModeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness Randall S. Singer overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals

  13. United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    E-print Network

    United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine April 2010 1 Lacey Act Primer United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine #12;United States Department of Agriculture Animal

  14. Estimating Diagnostic Test Accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Accounting for the Complexities of Population Structure in Food Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hartnack, Sonja; Nathues, Christina; Nathues, Heiko; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Lewis, Fraser Iain

    2014-01-01

    For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test (“gold standard”) is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect), robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI) and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9) and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3), respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8). For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals. PMID:24906140

  15. Engineering Microbiomes to Improve Plant and Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Mueller, U G; Sachs, J L

    2015-10-01

    Animal and plant microbiomes encompass diverse microbial communities that colonize every accessible host tissue. These microbiomes enhance host functions, contributing to host health and fitness. A novel approach to improve animal and plant fitness is to artificially select upon microbiomes, thus engineering evolved microbiomes with specific effects on host fitness. We call this engineering approach host-mediated microbiome selection, because this method selects upon microbial communities indirectly through the host and leverages host traits that evolved to influence microbiomes. In essence, host phenotypes are used as probes to gauge and manipulate those microbiome functions that impact host fitness. To facilitate research on host-mediated microbiome engineering, we explain and compare the principal methods to impose artificial selection on microbiomes; discuss advantages and potential challenges of each method; offer a skeptical appraisal of each method in light of these potential challenges; and outline experimental strategies to optimize microbiome engineering. Finally, we develop a predictive framework for microbiome engineering that organizes research around principles of artificial selection, quantitative genetics, and microbial community-ecology. PMID:26422463

  16. Occupational Health and Safety Animal Job Exposure Form

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    activities performed by UCSB participants. Enrollment in this program is an annual requirement. Mailing Necropsy Surgery Euthanasia Tissue Harvest Other: (List) Animal Use Risk Assessment Animal Use Location

  17. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ..., through questionnaires and biologic sampling, to: Describe trends in sheep health and management practices... the economic impact of selected animal health management practices. ] We are asking the Office of... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of an Information...

  18. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    PubMed Central

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animalshealth, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  19. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals' health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  20. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  1. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  2. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  3. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  4. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  5. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  6. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Needs Assessment study, contact Mr. Chris Quatrano... 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. BILLING CODE...

  7. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths Are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Beasley, Val R.

    2015-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks. PMID:25903764

  8. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  9. The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits of sexually selected colourants?

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    REVIEW The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits February 2005; MS. number: ARV-29) Several classes of pigments impart flamboyant colours on animals colourants in animals confer similar physiological benefits. Here I make the observation that the other major

  10. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  11. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Sheep 2011 Study. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before October 26, 2010... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Sheep 2011 Study, contact Ms. Sandra Warnken, Management...

  12. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study... National Animal Health Monitoring System Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study. DATES: We will...-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study, contact Ms. Sandra Warnken, Management and Program...

  13. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... System's Cervid 2014 Study to support the farmed cervid industry in the United States. DATES: We will...: For information on the Cervid 2014 Study, contact Mr. Chris Quatrano, Industry Analyst, Centers...

  14. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... System's Bison 2014 Study to support the bison industry of the United States. DATES: We will consider all...: For information on the Bison 2014 Study, contact Mr. Chris Quatrano, Industry Analyst, Centers...

  15. Free Bird Health and Veterinary Animal and Veterinary U.S. Food & Drug

    E-print Network

    Peterson, M. Nils

    Free Bird Health and Veterinary Websites Animal and Veterinary ­ U.S. Food & Drug Administration Veterinarians www.aav.org/?page=basiccare Pet bird care basics and bird health exams info. Avian & Exotic Animal Care ­ Care Sheets for Birds - avianandexotic.com/birds Husbandry and care for birds. Two of the vets

  16. Investigating the Overlooked Genomes That Impact Animal Health: The Gut Microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucosal surfaces of humans and animals are colonized by a diverse microbiota that contributes significantly to host health. The gut microbiome influences animal health through assuring nutritional uptake and metabolism, developing and mediating innate immunity, and modulating virulence and abun...

  17. Seropositivity to Toxoplasma infection in sheep samples submitted to Animal and Plant Health Agency laboratories between 2005 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J P; Smith, R P

    2015-05-30

    Ovine serum samples submitted to Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) (formerly the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency) - Weybridge regional laboratories in England and Wales for diagnostic and monitoring purposes between 2005 and 2012 were investigated for possible spatial and temporal variations in seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Of the 4354 samples tested by latex agglutination, 2361 (54.2 per cent) were seropositive. No correlation between seropositivity and climatic conditions was identified by mixed-effects modelling using meteorological data summaries. The proportion of seropositive samples collected during November was found to be significantly lower than those collected during other months and samples from the North West England and North Wales Regions had significantly lower odds of being positive. Spatial cluster analysis identified a significantly higher proportion of seropositive animals in East Anglia and the South, East and Midlands of England. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis detected a single significant cluster of seropositive animals dating from January 2006 to January 2011, which covered a large proportion of the farm locations. As well as confirming high overall levels of infection within the national flock, these findings also indicate possible temporal and regional variations in exposure of sheep to T. gondii. PMID:25888604

  18. 77 FR 59590 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ...Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Reporting System AGENCY: Animal and Plant...through improved laboratory information management systems, the information collected regarding...

  19. Using Animation as an Information Tool to Advance Health Research Literacy among Minority Participants

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video’s cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants’ ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

  20. Automated multiphasic health testing. Diagnostic and testing results obtained at the Health Evaluation Center. Public Health Service Hospital, Baltimore.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, B; Holland, P M; Hsieh, R K

    1975-01-01

    The results of automated multiphasic health testing (AMHT) were evaluated with special attention to diagnoses made by physicians and to false positive results, as well as to laboratory test results. The study population consisted of 1,157 patients at the Health Evaluation Center of the Public Health Service Hospital in Baltimore. Although 95 percent of the patients had at least one newly diagnosed disease or condition., the percentage dropped to 78 percent when dental abnormalities were excluded and to 70 percent when dental, vision, and hearing abnormalities were excluded. Abnormal laboratory test results were observed for 98 percent of the patients, and 36 percent had at least one false positive test result. The study results indicated that AMHT is a highly productive method for comprehensive medical testing with a variety of uses other than mass screening. The productive diagnostic yield combined witha high percentage of false positive results dictate the need for careful planning for followup care, strict attention to quality control, and excellent communication between the AMHT center and the practicing physician. Images p133-a PMID:805446

  1. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  2. Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

  3. BATTERY HEALTH DIAGNOSTICS USING RETROSPECTIVE-COST SUBSYSTEM IDENTIFICATION: SENSITIVITY TO NOISE AND INITIALIZATION ERRORS

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Dennis S.

    BATTERY HEALTH DIAGNOSTICS USING RETROSPECTIVE-COST SUBSYSTEM IDENTIFICATION: SENSITIVITY TO NOISE of Li-ion batteries requires knowledge of certain battery internal dynamics (e.g., lithium consumption that represents the battery using an electrochemistry-based battery charge/discharge model of Doyle, Fuller

  4. Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health. PMID:1600580

  5. Application of Microbial Genomics to Improve Aquatic Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis have greatly increased our understanding of microorganism gene content, pathogenesis, taxonomy, and evolution. Currently, there are over three hundred completed, publicly-available microbial genomes. To date, no genome of an aquatic animal pathogen...

  6. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation...Animal Studies; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration...serve as an environmental health resource to the public and regulatory and health agencies...

  7. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    PubMed

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians. PMID:25631884

  8. Antibiotic resistance—consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

  9. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

  10. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  11. Modeling the Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence with Genetic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Hitzemann, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD) using the DSM-IV-R is categorical, based on an individual’s manifestation of three or more symptoms from a list of seven. AD risk can be traced to both genetic and environmental sources. Most genetic studies of AD risk implicitly assume that an AD diagnosis represents a single underlying genetic factor. We recently found that the criteria for an AD diagnosis represent three somewhat distinct genetic paths to individual risk. Specifically, heavy use and tolerance versus withdrawal and continued use despite problems reflected separate genetic factors. However, some data suggest that genetic risk for AD is adequately described with a single underlying genetic risk factor. Rodent animal models for alcohol-related phenotypes typically target discrete aspects of the complex human AD diagnosis. Here, we review the literature derived from genetic animal models in an attempt to determine whether they support a single-factor or multiple-factor genetic structure. We conclude that there is modest support in the animal literature that alcohol tolerance and withdrawal reflect distinct genetic risk factors, in agreement with our human data. We suggest areas where more research could clarify this attempt to align the rodent and human data. PMID:21910077

  12. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  13. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  14. LAHVA: Linked Animal-Human Health Visual Analytics Ross Maciejewski Benjamin Tyner Yun Jang Cheng Zheng Rimma V. Nehme

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Ross

    LAHVA: Linked Animal-Human Health Visual Analytics Ross Maciejewski Benjamin Tyner Yun Jang Cheng of Medicine ABSTRACT Coordinated animal-human health monitoring can provide an early warning system with fewer. Companion animals are exposed to the same substances as humans and monitoring their health can function

  15. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  16. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  17. One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A

    2012-11-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381

  18. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella sp. in domestic cats in an animal shelter and the comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques as diagnostic tools 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Melinda J.

    2004-11-15

    -1 PREVALENCE OF Salmonella sp. IN DOMESTIC CATS IN AN ANIMAL SHELTER AND THE COMPARISON OF CULTURE AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TECHNIQUES AS DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS A Thesis by MELINDA J. LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A... OF CULTURE AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TECHNIQUES AS DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS A Thesis by MELINDA J. LEE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style...

  20. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  1. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  2. Animal Productivity and Health Responses to Hind-Gut Acidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the large intestine of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, and/or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates to the large intestine, hind-gut ac...

  3. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  4. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on Aquatic Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the latter portion of the 20th century, North America experienced numerous large-scale mortality events affecting a broad diversity of aquatic animals. Short-term forensic investigations of these events have sometimes characterized a causative agent or condition, but have rare...

  5. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  6. Ecology of Disease: The Intersection of Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...

  7. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  8. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  9. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  10. Cross-diagnostic validity of the Nottingham health profile index of distress (NHPD)

    PubMed Central

    Wann-Hansson, Christine; Klevsgård, Rosemarie; Hagell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background The Nottingham Health Profile index of Distress (NHPD) has been proposed as a generic undimensional 24-item measure of illness-related distress that is embedded in the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Data indicate that the NHPD may have psychometric advantages to the 6-dimensional NHP profile scores. Detailed psychometric evaluations are, however, lacking. Furthermore, to support the validity of the generic property of outcome measures evidence that scores can be interpreted in the same manner in different diagnostic groups are needed. It is currently unknown if NHPD scores have the same meaning across patient populations. This study evaluated the measurement properties and cross-diagnostic validity of the NHPD as a survey instrument among people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods Data from 215 (PD) and 258 (PAD) people were Rasch analyzed regarding model fit, reliability, differential item functioning (DIF), unidimensionality and targeting. In cases of cross-diagnostic DIF this was adjusted for and the impact of DIF on the total score and person measures was assessed. Results The NHPD was found to have good overall and individual item fit in both disorders as well as in the pooled sample, but seven items displayed signs of cross-diagnostic DIF. Following adjustment for DIF some aspects of model fit were slightly compromised, whereas others improved somewhat. DIF did not impact total NHPD scores or resulting person measures, but the unadjusted scale displayed minor signs of multidimensionality. Reliability was > 0.8 in all within- and cross-diagnostic analyses. Items tended to represent more distress (mean, 0 logits) than that experienced by the sample (mean, -1.6 logits). Conclusion This study supports the within- and cross-diagnostic validity of the NHPD as a survey tool among people with PD and PAD. We encourage others to reassess available NHP data within the NHPD framework to further evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this simple patient-reported index of illness-related distress. PMID:18597691

  11. Animal-human connections, "one health," and the syndemic approach to prevention.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie; Buntain, Bonnie J; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2009-03-01

    A syndemic involves two or more afflictions that, by interacting synergistically, contribute to excess burdens of disease. A syndemic approach to prevention, meanwhile, focuses on connections among health-related problems, considers those connections when developing health policies, and aligns with forces for social change. In this short report, we expand the syndemic concept to acknowledge the extent to which animal health connects with human health and, with reference to existing publications, we demonstrate the pertinence of this expanded definition for a syndemic approach to prevention. Our demonstration assumes practical importance in relation to the concept of 'one health', which many prominent veterinary and human health scientists have recently endorsed as a sound basis for redressing human diseases, animal diseases, and environmental degradation worldwide. While social scientists have mostly ignored animal health, few 'one health' proponents have emphasized social conditions or involved social scientists. By explicitly accommodating animal-human connections in our expanded conceptualization of a syndemic, we hope to help create a space in which human health, veterinary, and social scientists may learn from one another, collaborate in research, and cooperate to clear the way for innovations in prevention. PMID:19157669

  12. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  13. Gut microbiota-generated metabolites in animal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Jae; Hase, Koji

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. We describe the different roles of gut microbiome activity and their metabolites in regulating distinct host physiology and the molecular mechanisms by which gut metabolites cause physiological homeostasis via regulating specific host signaling pathways. Future studies in this direction using different animal models will provide the key concepts to understanding the evolutionarily conserved chemical dialogues between gut microbiota and metazoan cells and also human diseases associated with gut microbiota and metabolites. PMID:24838170

  14. MSc WILD ANIMAL HEALTH / BIOLOGY CURRICULUM MANAGERS LIST Course Directors Mr Michael Waters / Dr Tony Sainsbury (ZSL)

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    MSc WILD ANIMAL HEALTH / BIOLOGY CURRICULUM MANAGERS LIST Course Directors Mr Michael Waters / Dr Waters Health and Welfare of Captive Wild Animals Dr Tony Sainsbury / Mr Michael Waters Interventions Dr Michael Waters Ecosystem Health Dr Tony Sainsbury / Mr Michael Waters Evaluation of the Health and Welfare

  15. Economic analysis and costing of animal health: a literature review of methods and importance.

    PubMed

    Dehove, A; Commault, J; Petitclerc, M; Teissier, M; Macé, J

    2012-08-01

    Myriads of data, a host of methods, but no single universal indicator. The Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Gap Analysis helps to quantify the needs of national Veterinary Services. In a world of scarce public financial resources and heightened transparency and accountability, official Veterinary Services (national Veterinary Authorities) must be able to justify their needs in economic and budgetary terms to their line minister, national parliament and the public at large, or in negotiations with donors. Animal health and Veterinary Service activities are a global public good. It is the responsibility of governments to maintain animal health systems, including networks for the surveillance and control of animal diseases to ensure the early detection of suspected animal disease outbreaks, a rapid response and, where possible, eradication of animal disease outbreaks 'at source'. The establishment of animal health systems is a core responsibility of the State, and it requires the use of public funds, although it does not preclude public-private partnerships and strategies for ensuring complementarity between the partners concerned. The PVS Gap Analysis mission of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a method for analysing and quantifying disparities between a baseline situation (determined by PVS Evaluation using the OIE PVS Tool) and the target levels set by the country itself in accordance with its priorities. An added advantage is that the method can be used for training and awareness raising. PMID:23413736

  16. A critical view of transgender health care in Germany: Psychopathologizing gender identity - Symptom of 'disordered' psychiatric/psychological diagnostics?

    PubMed

    Güldenring, Annette

    2015-10-01

    After explaining the essential trans* terminology, I offer a short historical overview of the way health care has dealt with the subject of gender, trans* and health in different times. In the third section, I compare the world's most important diagnostic manuals, namely the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), i.e. their criteria for 'gender identity disorders' (ICD-10) and 'gender dysphoria' (DSM-5). The fourth section branch out the factors which influence every diagnostic conception - of no matter whom - in the health care system. The last section discusses the implications resulting from this diagnostic dilemma for the health situation of gender nonconforming people. PMID:26569634

  17. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

  18. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    PubMed

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n=70), Germany (n=60), Spain (n=28) and Sweden (n=57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice and improve their advice by showing, for example, the potential benefits of their advice. PMID:26179079

  19. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 14:1124, 2002 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2002

    E-print Network

    11 Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 14:11­24, 2002 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2002 Induction of Skin Ulcers in Atlantic Menhaden by Injection and Aqueous Exposure to the Zoospores, Virginia 23062, USA VICKI S. BLAZER National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Biological Resources Division

  20. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure... paper we are making available for comment presents a structure we believe will give the NAHLN...

  1. The public health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations on local communities.

    PubMed

    Greger, Michael; Koneswaran, Gowri

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been well-documented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs. PMID:20010001

  2. Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

  3. Challenges and options for animal and public health services in the next two decades.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E

    2006-04-01

    Trade in livestock and livestock products makes up approximately one sixth of global agriculture trade. This trade is demand driven, primarily by growing human populations, changing economies, and consumer preferences in developing countries. Different rates of population growth, economic growth, urbanisation, environmental sustainability, and technology transfer will determine which countries will reap the greatest benefits. Global trends in demand and supply for food, not terrorism, will drive the future of animal and public health service delivery. To benefit the greatest number of people and countries, animal and public health services should support policies that temper growing disparities among rich and poor countries, city and rural populations, and the sexes. Economic growth is critical to overcoming disparities between countries and best supported by integrated animal health, public health, labour, and foreign policies. Opportunities for job growth will be the greatest along the value added chain of food production and will require significant investments in science- (risk-) based education. PMID:16796064

  4. Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

  5. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee. PMID:21489237

  6. Exercise improves biomarkers of health and stress in animals fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Helaine M; Hagerman, Ann E; Nagy, Szilvia; Philip, Ben; Byrnes, Robyn N; Woodward, Jane L; Callahan, Phyllis; Wiley, Ronald L

    2005-01-31

    Voluntary and forced exercise decrease morbidity and mortality in laboratory animals. Caloric restriction has similar effects on health and unique benefits on life span. Nonetheless, in most experiments, animals do not have access to physical activity and are fed ad libitum (AL). We hypothesized that with regular access to either unlimited running wheel exercise (EX) or limited physical activity (PA), key biomarkers of health would be enhanced enough to counter some consequences of a sedentary AL lifestyle. This 16-month study compared body weight, tumor number and size, tissue lesions, oxidative stress, and reactive stress in (1) sedentary animals with no access to physical activity (SED); (2) animals with access to hour-long, twice weekly activity in a large box (PA); and (3) animals with access every other day to a running wheel (EX). At the end of the study, EX body weight was 8-9% lower than PA and SED. In addition, EX had no kidney lesions versus 50% in PA and SED, and had smaller tumor size (10+/-2 vs. 14+/-4 and 30+/-4 mm). Exhaustive exercise lowered glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in EX and PA, but in SED, the ratio was depressed even in resting animals. In all treatments, prolactin (PRL) levels were lower in resting animals than in acutely exercised animals. In conclusion, EX had the most favorable health biomarkers while SED had the least. PA did not confer gross health benefits different than the SED group, but was biochemically more similar to EX animals. PMID:15642608

  7. Office of Environmental Health and Safety Animal Contact Occupational Health and Safety (AniCon)

    E-print Network

    Feig, Andrew

    animal allergies as a result of exposure to protein allergens in animal's urine, saliva, blood, dander to mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pig, cats, and dogs are common. Risk factors for becoming allergic

  8. The nature of animal health economics in relation to veterinary epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Mlangwa, J E; Samui, K L

    1996-09-01

    Animal health economics is being formally integrated into such institutions as sub-Saharan African universities and Veterinary Services. Unfortunately, the nature of the relationship between economics and epidemiology is not clearly understood. Economics has an extensive theoretical apparatus and an array of methods and techniques. Animal health economics has two interrelated branches: economics for the planning and management of animal health services and economic analysis of diseases and interventions. Epidemiology and economics, although separate scientific areas, are complementary when the goal is efficient management of animal health and associated delivery systems. In performing economic analyses, an "economic model' should determine data requirements (epidemiological and socioeconomic), as such analyses invariably require epidemiological inputs. The core concepts in economic analysis are as follows: conceptual models, opportunity cost of resources, marginal analysis and partial analysis. Important methods include statistical models, mathematical programming, budgets, cost minimisation, decision analysis, variants of cost-benefit analysis and simulation. Given the nature of animal health economics, veterinarians who want to practise as economists need a thorough training in economic principles and methods, in addition to training in basic epidemiology. PMID:9025136

  9. How well do health professionals interpret diagnostic information? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Davenport, Clare; Jameson, Catherine; Burke, Margaret; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Hyde, Chris; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether clinicians differ in how they evaluate and interpret diagnostic test information. Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from inception to September 2013; bibliographies of retrieved studies, experts and citation search of key included studies. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Primary studies that provided information on the accuracy of any diagnostic test (eg, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios) to health professionals and that reported outcomes relating to their understanding of information on or implications of test accuracy. Results We included 24 studies. 6 assessed ability to define accuracy metrics: health professionals were less likely to identify the correct definition of likelihood ratios than of sensitivity and specificity. –25 studies assessed Bayesian reasoning. Most assessed the influence of a positive test result on the probability of disease: they generally found health professionals’ estimation of post-test probability to be poor, with a tendency to overestimation. 3 studies found that approaches based on likelihood ratios resulted in more accurate estimates of post-test probability than approaches based on estimates of sensitivity and specificity alone, while 3 found less accurate estimates. 5 studies found that presenting natural frequencies rather than probabilities improved post-test probability estimation and speed of calculations. Conclusions Commonly used measures of test accuracy are poorly understood by health professionals. Reporting test accuracy using natural frequencies and visual aids may facilitate improved understanding and better estimation of the post-test probability of disease. PMID:26220870

  10. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  11. [Occupational hygiene and health hazards related to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)].

    PubMed

    Buczy?ska, Alina; Szadkowska-Sta?czyk, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of harmful agents, inherent in the intensive production of pigs, create an important problem concerning the protection of workers' health. Concentration of many animals on relatively small areas contributes to high air contaminations inside swine confinement buildings. They are mostly induced by bioaerosols, such as organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxins, glucans and irritant gases. In view of the health care and safety of people employed in animal farming, it is crucial to conduct research involving a comprehensive evaluation of exposure to occupational hazards, indicating their level determinants and increasing the scientific information on dose-response relations. This article presents the review of the literature on the process of pig farming in Poland, including legislation, occupational hygiene and potential risk for the health of animal-handling workers. PMID:20677432

  12. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-01-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (?D) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health. PMID:25691980

  13. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-02-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (?D) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health. PMID:25691980

  14. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  15. Animal health risks associated with the transportation and utilisation of wildlife products.

    PubMed

    Bengis, R G

    1997-04-01

    The animal health risks associated with the movement of wildlife products are infinitely less than those associated with the movement of live animals. Very few pathogens are sufficiently robust to survive the significant changes in temperature, pH, moisture content and osmolality which occur post mortem, or which are associated with preservation processes such as pickling, smoking or drying. Certain pathogens, however, (e.g. foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever [hog cholera] and African swine fever viruses and the anthrax bacillus) are hardy and resistant to these environmental changes and therefore constitute a finite animal health risk if raw, undercooked or under-preserved products from infected wild animals are imported. Other less robust pathogens, such as rinderpest virus, may remain infectious in animal products if these are obtained from acutely infected animals and frozen immediately. Macroparasitic diseases such as trichinellosis and echinococcosis-hydatidosis, if present in the unprocessed tissues of infected wildlife, are potentially infectious to carnivorous or omnivorous companion animals. The importation of untreated wet hides may result in the introduction of alien ectoparasites and/or the infectious diseases for which they are vectors. The author discusses the more significant pathogens found in free-ranging wildlife which should be taken into consideration when importing wildlife products from endemically or epidemically infected countries. PMID:9329110

  16. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog bites, parasite levels and dog demographics are needed to measure the long-term sustainability of benefits to dog, human and wildlife health. PMID:25439233

  17. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions, such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however, some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions, such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health, and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which OS may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins. PMID:26664975

  18. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human-Companion Animal Bond

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Gregg K.; Day, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  19. Setting the One Health agenda and the human-companion animal bond.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Gregg K; Day, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    "One Health", also called "One Medicine", began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  20. Diagnostics in a digital age: an opportunity to strengthen health systems and improve health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    2015-11-01

    Diagnostics play a critical role in clinical decision making, and in disease control and prevention. Rapid point-of-care (POC) tests for infectious diseases can improve access to diagnosis and patient management, but the quality of these tests vary, quality of testing is often not assured and there are few mechanisms to capture test results for surveillance when the testing is so decentralised. A new generation of POC molecular tests that are highly sensitive and specific, robust and easy to use are now available for deployment in low resource settings. Decentralisation of testing outside of the laboratory can put tremendous stress on the healthcare system and presents challenges for training and quality assurance. A feature of many of these POC molecular devices is that they are equipped with data transmission capacities. In a digital age, it is possible to link data from diagnostic laboratories and POC test readers and devices to provide data on testing coverage, disease trends and timely information for early warning of infectious disease outbreaks to inform design or optimisation of disease control and elimination programmes. Data connectivity also allows control programmes to monitor the quality of tests and testing, and optimise supply chain management; thus, increasing the efficiency of healthcare systems and improving patient outcomes. PMID:26553825

  1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Pantosti, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

  2. Trans-diagnostic Psychopathology Factors and Sexual Minority Mental Health: Evidence of Disparities and Associations with Minority Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mental health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals has traditionally taken a disorder-by-disorder approach. Recently developed trans-diagnostic approaches provide a new method to frame such investigations; however, trans-diagnostic factors have yet to be applied to sexual minority mental health disparities research. The current study applied this methodology to investigate mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals in a large national probability sample (N = 34,653). Twelve-month diagnoses of 13 common mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were modeled, and multi-group analysis indicated a sexual orientation-invariant trans-diagnostic latent structure. Significant disparities at the latent trans-diagnostic factor level were observed; these factor-level disparities are manifested as observed mental disorder disparities. Gender differences typically seen in trans-diagnostic research were not present between sexual minority women and men. Trans-diagnostic internalizing and externalizing factors were then used as outcomes in a minority stress framework and were positively predicted by lifetime history of sexual orientation-related minority stressors (i.e., discrimination and victimization). Implications for using trans-diagnostic approaches to frame intervention efforts, supplement disorder-by-disorder disparities methodologies, and synthesize piecemeal disparities literatures are discussed. PMID:25530981

  3. Are diagnostic and public health bacteriology ready to become branches of genomic medicine?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic medical bacteriology is a conservative discipline. When busy house officers scribble 'M, C & S' on a form, they are requesting two techniques - microscopy and culture of microorganisms - that date back to the late 17th and late 19th century, respectively. The third technique - antibiotic susceptibility testing - has changed little in a half a century. Relatively few front-line diagnostic bacteriology laboratories have embraced molecular methods; on my own campus, the hospital's medical microbiology department does not even possess a thermal cycler! And yet in the research arena, genome sequencing has transformed almost every corner of the biomedical sciences, including the study of bacterial pathogens Furthermore, over the past 5 years, high-throughput (or 'next-generation') sequencing technologies have delivered a step change in our ability to sequence microbial genomes [1]. Since arriving in the market place, these technologies have experienced sustained technical improvement, which, twinned with lively competition between alternative platforms, has placed sequencing in a state of 'permanent revolution'. At last, it seems that genomics has come up with a game-changer, a killer app, a disruptive technology that even those long wedded to the Gram stain and the agar plate can no longer ignore. Does this mean we are on the brink of a revolution in diagnostic and public health microbiology, in which high-throughput sequencing usurps the traditional 'M, C & S', or will the discipline's innate conservatism stand firm for decades to come? PMID:21861847

  4. Risk analysis and its link with standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, K; Murray, N

    2011-04-01

    Among the agreements included in the treaty that created the World Trade Organization (WTO) in January 1995 is the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) that sets out the basic rules for food safety and animal and plant health standards. The SPS Agreement designates the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the organisation responsible for developing international standards for animal health and zoonoses. The SPS Agreement requires that the sanitary measures that WTO members apply should be based on science and encourages them to either apply measures based on the OIE standards or, if they choose to adopt a higher level of protection than that provided by these standards, apply measures based on a science-based risk assessment. The OIE also provides a procedural framework for risk analysis for its Member Countries to use. Despite the inevitable challenges that arise in carrying out a risk analysis of the international trade in animals and animal products, the OIE risk analysis framework provides a structured approach that facilitates the identification, assessment, management and communication of these risks. PMID:21809770

  5. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

  6. NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM SWINE 2000: A SURVEILLANCE STUDY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 IN SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a national surveillance system (National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000) to monitor the presence of pathogens in swine, 2526 swine fecal samples were collected from 57 sites in the top 17 swine producing states to investigate the natural occurrence of Escherichia coli 0157 in ...

  7. Electronic Communication in Africa--the Promotion of Animal Health Information Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Erica E.; Miller, E. Stan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the Veterinary Science Library at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) promotes electronic communication through various Internet and other network links. Provides a sample of online information sources available to veterinary teams and animal health workers, and a list of electronic addresses for South African libraries and…

  8. Global Antimicrobial Resistance: Where Is the Connection between Animal and Human Public Health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public and animal health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upwar...

  9. 77 FR 50457 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Intent To Renew and Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...should include a nomination form along with a cover letter...experience. Nomination forms are available on the Internet...ocio.usda.gov/forms/doc/AD-755.pdf...the needs of the diverse groups served by the Department...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

  10. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in a major site of e-waste dumping such as West Africa. Therefore, considerations are also given on data gaps possibly fitting a systematic risk assessment of the e-waste health impacts in different subscenarios as well as possible protective factors for exposed subpopulations.

  11. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  12. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.

    PubMed

    Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. PMID:21215766

  13. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fernández-Cruz, M.L.; Bertelsen, U.; Renshaw, D.W.; Peltonen, K.; Anadon, A.; Feil, A.; Sanders, P.; Wester, P.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

  14. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    PubMed

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses. PMID:25464873

  15. Co-ordinated interdisciplinary efforts on research in animal production and health.

    PubMed

    Houe, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS) concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL), the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV) and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL). CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision support tools for disease control in swine and cattle herds. The interdisciplinary research groups organised in a centre without walls are found very useful for dealing with complex issues. The initial phases in the projects may be long as it takes time for different researchers to define common goals and identify methods. The individual researcher must get some insight in other disciplines without loosing his/her own area of expertise. In order to reach a synthesis of the different parts of a project, it is important that the project is well organised and there is participation of researchers with both specialised insight and researchers with a more broad insight in the problems. It is also important that the integration process is balanced, and not too many research disciplines are included in the same project. PMID:15259781

  16. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response. PMID:23413743

  17. University of Toronto Office of Environmental Health and Safety Procedures for Cleaning Bird and Animal Feces, Urine and Nesting Areas.

    E-print Network

    Chan, Hue Sun

    University of Toronto ­ Office of Environmental Health and Safety Procedures for Cleaning Bird and Animal Feces, Urine and Nesting Areas. August 2013 Page 1 of 2 Procedures for Cleaning Bird and Animal Urine, Feces and Nesting Areas Office of Environmental Health and Safety 1.0 INTRODUCTION Birds

  18. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community. PMID:25812199

  19. Two-layer Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) with passive capillary valves for mHealth medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width???height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings. PMID:25626544

  20. Luminescence-Based Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coating Health and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines designed for higher temperature operation, a diagnostic capability for the health and performance of TBCs will be essential to indicate when a mitigating action needs to be taken before premature TBC failure threatens engine performance or safety. In particular, it is shown that rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers can be integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence emission that can be monitored to assess TBC erosion and delamination progression, and to map surface and subsurface temperatures as a measure of TBC performance. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers are presented.

  1. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  2. DSM-5, ICD-10, ICD-11, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, and Person-Centered Integrative Diagnosis: An Overview for College Mental Health Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stewart E.

    2014-01-01

    Therapists in the field of college mental health counseling commonly voice an ambivalent orientation towards the utilization of formal psychological diagnostic systems yet often use diagnostic terms. Knowledge of the current and emerging diagnostic systems may contribute to greater syntheses of these differing approaches. This article will first…

  3. Developmentally-Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: DSM-IV, RDC-PA, and the revised DC: 0-3

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this paper, we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children included DC:0-3, a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infant, toddlers, and preschoolers. We will briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Lastly, we will review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. PMID:21142337

  4. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the... quality in animal studies. The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), Division of the... Director, OHAT, DNTP, NIEHS, P.O. Box 12233, K2-04, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Phone:...

  5. Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Katie G

    2010-01-01

    Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks. PMID:20838176

  6. Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, 2010 Model-Based Assurance of Diagnostic Procedures

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, 2010 1 Model-Based Assurance of DTV to assure fifteen of the procedures developed for diagnosing problems in an electrical power procedures. This approach can therefore contribute to assuring the correctness of diagnostic procedures

  7. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all stakeholders and a well-regulated private service in order to mitigate the constraints apparent in the government service. PMID:25685946

  8. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    PubMed

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy or meat) can only be sustainable with adequate marketing, supply of quality feed, veterinary services, labour, management and control of pollution. Animal health programmes play a keyrole in the proposed system approach. PMID:1502778

  9. “The Maasai Need Cows and the Cows Need Maasai,” the Use of a Photovoice Approach to Assess Animal Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Frank; Clancy, Eoin; Thomas, Adam; Kutz, Susan; Hatfield, Jennifer; Orsel, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The Maasai pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa depend on their livestock for income and food. Livestock production can be significantly improved by addressing animal health concerns. We explored the use of photovoice, a participatory action research method, to strengthen our understanding of the Maasai’s animal health needs. Nine interviewees, representing warriors, elders, and women, identified animal, social, and human health themes. The use of photography provided a new medium for Maasai to express their needs and a focus for researcher–participant communications, thereby facilitating new insights across language and cultural barriers.

  10. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  11. The role of the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Colby, M; Coats, M; Brake, D; Fine, J

    2013-01-01

    The development of countermeasures to support an effective response to Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD) poses a challenge on a global scale and necessitates the coordinated involvement of scientists from government, industry and academia, as well as regulatory entities. The Agricultural Defense Branch under the Chemical and Biological Defense Division (CBD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) supports this important mission within the United States. This article provides an overview of the Agricultural Defense Branch's vaccine and diagnostic TAD project. PMID:23689879

  12. Timely Reporting and Interactive Visualization of Animal Health and Slaughterhouse Surveillance Data in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Muellner, Ulrich J.; Vial, Flavie; Wohlfender, Franziska; Hadorn, Daniela; Reist, Martin; Muellner, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess, and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programing skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programing skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences) for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems. PMID:26664974

  13. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  14. Robust diagnostics for Bayesian compressive sensing with applications to structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Beck, James L.; Li, Hui; Wu, Stephen

    2011-04-01

    In structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for civil structures, signal compression is often important to reduce the cost of data transfer and storage because of the large volumes of data generated from the monitoring system. Compressive sensing is a novel data compressing method whereby one does not measure the entire signal directly but rather a set of related ("projected") measurements. The length of the required compressive-sensing measurements is typically much smaller than the original signal, therefore increasing the efficiency of data transfer and storage. Recently, a Bayesian formalism has also been employed for optimal compressive sensing, which adopts the ideas in the relevance vector machine (RVM) as a decompression tool, such as the automatic relevance determination prior (ARD). Recently publications illustrate the benefits of using the Bayesian compressive sensing (BCS) method. However, none of these publications have investigated the robustness of the BCS method. We show that the usual RVM optimization algorithm lacks robustness when the number of measurements is a lot less than the length of the signals because it can produce sub-optimal signal representations; as a result, BCS is not robust when high compression efficiency is required. This induces a tradeoff between efficiently compressing data and accurately decompressing it. Based on a study of the robustness of the BCS method, diagnostic tools are proposed to investigate whether the compressed representation of the signal is optimal. With reliable diagnostics, the performance of the BCS method can be monitored effectively. The numerical results show that it is a powerful tool to examine the correctness of reconstruction results without knowing the original signal.

  15. 77 FR 59590 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... the National Animal Health Reporting System, contact Mr. Chris Quatrano, Management and Program... record. Done in Washington, DC, this 24th day of September 2012. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator,...

  16. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P???0.05), lower calf mortality (P???0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P???0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P???0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P???0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P???0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  17. Time-scheduled delivery of computer health animations: "Installing" healthy habits of computer use.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sy-Chyi; Chern, Jin-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    The development of modern technology brings convenience to our lives but removes physical activity from our daily routines, thereby putting our lives at risk. Extended computer use may contribute to symptoms such as visual impairment and musculoskeletal disorders. To help reduce the risk of physical inactivity and promote healthier computer use, this study developed a time-scheduled delivery of health-related animations for users sitting in front of computers for prolonged periods. In addition, we examined the effects that the program had on the computer-related health behavior intentions and actions of participants. Two waves of questionnaires were implemented for data collection before and after intervention. The results showed that the animation program indeed had a positive effect on participants' healthy computer use actions in terms of breathtaking, body massages, and body stretches. It also helped to bridge the intention-action gap of the health behaviors. The development and evaluation were documented, and users' experiences/suggestions were discussed at the end. PMID:23715211

  18. The new World Organisation for Animal Health standards on avian influenza and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Alex B

    2007-03-01

    In 2002, the World Organisation for Animal Health began a review of the chapter on avian influenza by convening a group of experts to revise the most recent scientific literature. The group drafted the initial text that would provide the necessary recommendations on avian influenza control and prevention measures. The main objectives of this draft were to provide clear notification criteria, as well as commodity-specific, risk-based mitigating measures, that would provide safety when trading and encourage transparent reporting. PMID:17494578

  19. Non-Invasive Health Diagnostics using Eye as a 'Window to the Body'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    As a 'window to the body', the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and help develop preventative/therapeutic countermeasures early. The effects of space travel on human body are similar to those of normal aging. For example, radiation exposure in space could lead to formation of cataracts and cancer by damaging the DNA and causing gene mutation. Additionally, the zero-gravity environment causes fluid shifts in the upper extremities of the body and changes the way blood flows and organ system performs. Here on Earth, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are major eye diseases and are expected to double in next two decades. To detect, prevent, and treat untoward effects of prolonged space travel in real-time requires the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. We are developing fiber-optic sensors to evaluate the ocular tissues in health, aging, and disease employing the techniques of dynamic light scattering (cataract, uveitis, Alzheimer's, glaucoma, DR, radiation damage, refractive surgery outcomes), auto-fluorescence (aging, DR), laser-Doppler flowmetry (choroidal blood flow), Raman spectroscopy (AMD), polarimetry (diabetes), and retinal oximetry (occult blood loss). The non-invasive feature of these technologies integrated in a head-mounted/goggles-like device permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling evaluation of the results to therapy that may ultimately be useful in various telemedicine applications on Earth and in space.

  20. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  1. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  2. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  3. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  4. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  5. Concentrations and health risk assessment of trace elements in animal-derived food in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Jizhong; Yu, Yingxin; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements in animal-derived food in Shenzhen, Southern China. The concentrations of 14 trace elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ni, Co, Se and Ti) in a total of 220 meat samples, collected from the local markets of Shenzhen were determined. Cu, Fe and Zn were the major elements, with concentrations approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of other elements. However, the daily intakes of Cu, Fe and Zn merely via the consumption of the meat products were lower than the recommended nutrient intake values provided by the 2013 Chinese Dietary Guide. Among the non-essential trace elements, Cd was accumulated in animal viscera, and the concentration ratios of chicken gizzard/chicken, chicken liver/chicken, pig kidney/pork and pig liver/pork were 41.6, 55.2, 863 and 177, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of As were found in aquatic products, especially in marine fish. The concentration of As in marine fish was slightly higher than the limits recommended by China, USA and Croatia. The health risk assessment of trace elements through the consumption of meat products by adult residents in Shenzhen was evaluated by using the target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The total THQ was greater than 1, implying a potential health risk. Approximately 66% of total THQ values, mainly from As, were from the consumption of aquatic products. PMID:26401636

  6. An integrated process and management tools for ranking multiple emerging threats to animal health.

    PubMed

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Voller, Fay; Montibeller, Gilberto; Franco, L Alberto; Sribhashyam, Sumitra; Watson, Eamon; Hartley, Matt; Gibbens, Jane C

    2013-02-01

    The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs supports the use of systematic tools for the prioritisation of known and well defined animal diseases to facilitate long and medium term planning of surveillance and disease control activities. The recognition that emerging events were not covered by the existing disease-specific approaches led to the establishment of the Veterinary Risk Group (VRG), constituted of government officials, and supporting structures such as the Risk Management Cycle and the Emerging Threat Highlight Report (ETHiR), to facilitate the identification, reporting and assessment of emerging threats to UK's animal health. Since its inception in November 2009 to the end of February 2011, the VRG reviewed 111 threats and vulnerabilities (T&V) reported through ETHiR. In July 2010 a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria-decision-analysis (MCDA) improved ETHiR to allow the systematic prioritisation of emerging T&V. The DSS allows the regular ranking of emerging T&V by calculating a set of measurement indices related to the actual impact, possible impact on public perception and level of available capabilities associated with every T&V. The systematic characterisation of the processes leading to the assessment of T&V by the VRG has led to a consistent, auditable and transparent approach to the identification and assessment of emerging risks. The regular use of MCDA to manage a portfolio of emerging risks represents a different and novel application of MCDA in a health related context. PMID:22954461

  7. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    PubMed Central

    Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Béla

    2013-01-01

    After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of Escherichia coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development, and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence) among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these “bad genes” in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR) commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the future. PMID:24027562

  8. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Shimaa M G; Ali, Haytham; Chase, Christopher C L; Cepica, Arnost

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities. PMID:25900363

  10. Potentially toxic contamination of sediments, water and two animal species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: relevance to human health.

    PubMed

    Vrhovnik, Petra; Arrebola, Juan P; Serafimovski, Todor; Dolenec, Tadej; Smuc, Nastja Rogan; Dolenec, Matej; Mutch, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the research were: (1) to examine the concentrations of metals in Vimba melanops and Rana temporaria and (2) to evaluate the potential risks of the contaminated organisms to human health in Makedonska Kamenica region. Analyses identified high levels of Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in studied animals, which also exceeded their permissible levels in food. In sediment and soil samples, levels of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and As were perceived, while Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and As were increased in water samples. Results of transfer factor revealed that the examined animals had higher bioaccumulation rate from surrounding waters than from sediments or soils. The accomplished Health Risk Index disclosed that studied animals can have considerably high health risks for inhabitants. Conclusively, they could be considered as highly contaminated with metals and can consequently harm human health, especially children in their early development stages. PMID:23747817

  11. Improving lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA) diagnostics via biomarker enrichment for mHealth.

    PubMed

    Lai, James J; Stayton, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Optical detection technologies based on mobile devices can be utilized to enable many mHealth applications, including a reader for lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, an intrinsic challenge associated with LFIA for clinical diagnostics is the limitation in sensitivity. Therefore, rapid and simple specimen processing strategies can directly enable more sensitive LFIA by purifying and concentrating biomarkers. Here, a binary reagent system is presented for concentrating analytes from a larger volume specimen to improve the malaria LFIA's limit of detection (LOD). The biomarker enrichment process utilizes temperature-responsive gold-streptavidin conjugates, biotinylated antibodies, and temperature-responsive magnetic nanoparticles. The temperature-responsive gold colloids were synthesized by modifying the citrate-stabilized gold colloids with a diblock copolymer, containing a thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) segment and a gold-binding block composed of NIPAAm-co-N,N-dimethylaminoethylacrylamide. The gold-streptavidin conjugates were synthesized by conjugating temperature-responsive gold colloids with streptavidin via covalent linkages using carbodiimide chemistry chemistry. The gold conjugates formed half-sandwiches, gold labeled biomarker, by complexing with biotinylated antibodies that were bound to Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), a malaria antigen. When a thermal stimulus was applied in conjunction with a magnetic field, the half-sandwiches and temperature-responsive magnetic nanoparticles that were both decorated with pNIPAAm formed large aggregates that were efficiently magnetically separated from human plasma. The binary reagent system was applied to a large volume (500 ?L) specimen for concentrating biomarker 50-fold into a small volume and applied directly to an off-the-shelf malaria LFIA to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:25626532

  12. Animal Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tobacco Treatments Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Animal Bites ... many as 1 percent of all visits to pediatric emergency centers during the summer months are for ...

  13. Hemoglobin A1c as a Diagnostic Tool: Public Health Implications From an Actor–Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Public health arguments for collecting hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) data, particularly in clinical settings, should be reframed to place more emphasis on nonmedical determinants of population health. We compare individual- with population-level interpretations of HbA1c titers. This comparison reveals that public health researchers need to pay close attention to diagnostic tests and their uses, including rhetorical uses. We also synthesize historical and current evidence to map out 2 possible scenarios for the future. In the first scenario, prevention efforts emphasize primary care and focus almost entirely downstream. The second scenario anticipates downstream interventions but also upstream interventions targeting environments. Our analysis adapts actor–network theory to strategic planning and forecasting in public health. PMID:22095361

  14. Introduction: The University of Connecticut Health Center is actively involved in working with animals. In

    E-print Network

    with animals. In performing your assigned duties, you may at times come in contact with animals that animals are being housed and maintained. If you have concerns regarding the welfare of animals, please contact Alison D. Pohl in the Animal Care Committee Office, (860) 679-4129, pohl@uchc.edu, or ooacc

  15. Report on Investigation of Allegations of Noncompliance with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals at

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals at Primate Products Inc. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare;Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare Report on Investigation of Allegations of Noncompliance with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals at Primate Products, Inc

  16. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a networked laboratory...officials, and owners of animals undergoing testing in a networked laboratory...primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a networked...

  17. Predictors of clients' satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services in periurban ghana.

    PubMed

    Turkson, Paa Kobina

    2011-01-01

    The study used logistic regression modelling to determine predictors of satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services for 889 clients (livestock and poultry keepers) in periurban Ghana. Of the 15 indicators tested as predictors of satisfaction in this study, 8 were included in the best fit model. These were accessibility, availability of services, service charge, effectiveness, efficiency, quality of services, meeting client needs, and getting help. Efficiency and effectiveness were perceived by the respondents to be synonymous, as were service quality and effectiveness, as suggested by ORs > 10 when cross tabulated. Therefore, one or the other could be used in future studies but not both to avoid collinearity. The identified predictors could be targeted for improvement in quality of service delivery to livestock and poultry keepers in Ghana. PMID:21647393

  18. A new medical research model: ethically and responsibly advancing health for humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Olson, Patricia N; Ganzert, Robin R

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of genomics, computational analytics, emerging technologies, and personalized medicine, the possibility of a new research model is emerging. Using the clues from thousands of species living on our planet, scientists from many disciplines (medicine, veterinary medicine, wildlife) must collaborate, prioritize, and strategize on how to address causes of health and disease. Such clues should guide disease prevention, as well as the development of innovative, efficacious, and gentler therapies. Geographic and language barriers must be broken down, and scientists--even within a single academic, corporate, or government research site--must be vigilant in seeking the help of nonmedical disciplines of colleagues from whence answers might come. The public will become more interested in and demanding of such a model, desiring that all family members (humans and animals) have an opportunity for a long and healthy life. Above all, such activities will be humanely conducted with outcomes having the greatest chance for success. PMID:25387116

  19. Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Talsness, Chris E.; Andrade, Anderson J. M.; Kuriyama, Sergio N.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Components used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are detected in humans. In addition to their utility in plastics, an inadvertent characteristic of these chemicals is the ability to alter the endocrine system. Phthalates function as anti-androgens while the main action attributed to BPA is oestrogen-like activity. PBDE and TBBPA have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis while PBDEs also exhibit anti-androgen action. Experimental investigations in animals indicate a wide variety of effects associated with exposure to these compounds, causing concern regarding potential risk to human health. For example, the spectrum of effects following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Concentrations of BPA in the foetal mouse within the range of unconjugated BPA levels observed in human foetal blood have produced effects in animal experiments. Finally, thyroid hormones are essential for normal neurological development and reproductive function. Human body burdens of these chemicals are detected with high prevalence, and concentrations in young children, a group particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. PMID:19528057

  20. Animal health surveillance: navigation amidst the flotsam of human frailty and fiscal inertia.

    PubMed

    Kellar, J A

    2012-07-01

    National veterinary services monitor endemic, emerging and exotic disease situations. They intervene when epidemic tendencies demand. They unravel complex disease situations. They do so as monopolies, in environments of political influence and budgetary restraint. When human, animal health and trade protection dictate, they design import or domestic disease control programs. As much as 80% of program expenditures are on surveillance. Their initiatives are scrutinized by treasuries from which they seek funding, industries from which they seek collaboration and trading partners from whom they seek recognition. In democracies, surveillance and control programs are often the products of a complicated consultative process. It involves individuals who have both a commitment to improving an existing animal health situation and access to the required resources. The generations that designed traditionally risk-averse national surveillance and control programs have given way to a new one which is more epidemiologically informed. Their successors design programs bearing epidemiologically based improvements. The transition, however, has not been overwhelmingly welcomed. Expenditures on surveillance are tolerated out of fear during outbreaks of foreign or re-emergence of indigenous disease. Between epidemics, they decline at the hands of producers' unwillingness and budgetary restraint. Human nature responds to the high cost of surveillance in forms ranging from naïveté through to conspiracy. While legislation cannot subdue such human frailty, several other opportunities exist. Education can remove the majority of problems caused by ignorance, leaving the minority that arise intentionally. Technology decreases the high cost of testing which tempts individuals to cut corners. International standards assist National Veterinary Services to overcome domestic resistance. PMID:22310236

  1. Escaping the Golden Cage: Animal Models of Eating Disorders in the Post-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Era.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Michael; Croghan, Anna E; Cui, Huxing

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are severe, life-threatening mental illnesses characterized by marked disturbances in body image and eating patterns. Attempts to understand the neurobiological basis of EDs have been hindered by the perception that EDs are primarily socially reinforced behaviors and not the result of a pathophysiologic process. This view is reflected by the diagnostic criteria of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, which emphasize intrapsychic conflicts such as "inability to maintain body weight," "undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation," and "denial of the seriousness of low body weight" over neuropsychological measures. The neuropsychological constructs introduced within the research domain criteria (RDoC) matrix offer new hope for determining the neural substrate underlying the biological predisposition to EDs. We present selected studies demonstrating deficits in patients with EDs within each domain of the RDoC and propose a set of behavioral tasks in model systems that reflect aspects of that deficit. Finally, we propose a battery of tasks to examine comprehensively the function of neural circuits relevant to the development of EDs. PMID:25777657

  2. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  3. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as ‘ergot alkaloid intoxication’. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  4. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate change and disease emergence 13 3.4 Outbreak investigations 13 4 Surveillance and surveys 15 4.1 Investigation of disease prevalence 15 4.2 Developments in surveillance methodology 16 4.2.1 Risk-based surveillance and scenario tree modelling 16 4.2.2 Spatial and temporal analysis 16 4.3 Test validation 17 5 Spread, establishment and impact of pathogens 18 5.1 Identifying routes of spread 18 5.1.1 Ex-ante studies of disease spread 19 5.1.2 Ex-post observational studies 21 5.2 Identifying risk factors for disease establishment 23 5.3 Assessing impact at the population level 24 5.3.1 Recording mortality 24 5.3.2 Farm health and production records 26 5.3.3 Assessing the impact of disease in wild populations 27 6 Conclusions 31 7 Competing interests 32 8 Authors' contributions 32 9 Acknowledgements 33 10 References 33 PMID:21834990

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Orand, J P

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine are complex issues that are currently a source of major international concern. It is therefore essential for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to consider this issue, while at the same time continuing to address the problem of zoonotic diseases. That is why the OIE has included objectives for veterinary drugs, especially antimicrobials, in its Strategic Plan. The OIE plays an active part in discussions on this subject in conjunction with other international organisations working in this field, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, the OIE has adopted guidelines both for defining harmonised methodologies for antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring and for helping countries to conduct a risk analysis tailored to their situation and to take appropriate management measures. The OIE has included this issue in its programme of assistance to countries by offering them structural enhancement tools: the Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (O1E PVS Tool), PVS Gap Analysis, veterinary legislation support, and training for veterinary national focal points, with the aid of its Collaborating Centres for veterinary medicinal products. Only by mobilising all countries to improve the quality of antimicrobials, to introduce antimicrobial resistance surveillance and to implement measures for the responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials, will it be possible to halt the spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:22849287

  6. Enteric Viruses of Humans and Animals in Aquatic Environments: Health Risks, Detection, and Potential Water Quality Assessment Tools

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Lipp, Erin K.

    2005-01-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses threaten both human and animal health. These pathogens are host specific and cause a wide range of diseases and symptoms in humans or other animals. While considerable research has documented the risk of enteric viruses to human health from contact with contaminated water, the current bacterial indicator-based methods for evaluation of water quality are often ineffectual proxies for pathogenic viruses. Additionally, relatively little work has specifically investigated the risk of waterborne viruses to animal health, and this risk currently is not addressed by routine water quality assessments. Nonetheless, because of their host specificity, enteric viruses can fulfill a unique role both for assessing health risks and as measures of contamination source in a watershed, yet the use of animal, as well as human, host-specific viruses in determining sources of fecal pollution has received little attention. With improved molecular detection assays, viruses from key host groups can be targeted directly using PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. A multispecies viral analysis would provide needed information for controlling pollution by source, determining human health risks based on assessments of human virus loading and exposure, and determining potential risks to production animal health and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic pathogens. While there is a need to better understand the prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, the development of improved methods for specific and sensitive detection will facilitate the use of these microbes for library-independent source tracking and water quality assessment tools. PMID:15944460

  7. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16–December 28, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010–July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial collaboration are crucial to achieve the goal of rabies-free status in Taiwan. PMID:26162074

  8. Health-seeking behaviour, diagnostics and transmission dynamics in the control of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Medley, Graham F; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Olliaro, Piero L; Adams, Emily R

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Indian subcontinent have committed to reducing the incidence of kala-azar, a clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis, to below 1 in 10,000 by 2020. We address the role of timing of use and accuracy of diagnostics in kala-azar control and elimination. We use empirical data on health-seeking behaviour and health-system performance from the Indian state of Bihar, Bangladesh and Nepal to parameterize a mathematical model. Diagnosis of cases is key to case management, control and surveillance. Treatment of cases prevents onward transmission, and we show that the differences in time to diagnosis in these three settings explain the observed differences in incidence. Shortening the time from health-care seeking to diagnosis is likely to lead to dramatic reductions in incidence in Bihar, bringing the incidence down to the levels seen in Bangladesh and Nepal. The results emphasize the importance of maintaining population and health-system awareness, particularly as transmission and disease incidence decline. We explore the possibility of diagnosing patients before the onset of clinical kala-azar (before 14 days fever), and show that this could have a marked impact on incidence, even for a moderately sensitive test. However, limited specificity (that results in false positives) is a major barrier to such a strategy. Diagnostic tests of high specificity used at an early stage of active infection, even if sensitivity is only moderate, could have a key role in the control of kala-azar, and prevent its resurgence when paired with the passive health-care system and tests of high sensitivity, such as the test for rK39 antibody response. PMID:26633763

  9. The inception and development of basic animal health systems: examples of German development co-operation.

    PubMed

    Leidl, K; Baumann, M P O; Schenkel, F

    2004-04-01

    About thirty years ago the financial, logistic and manpower resources of veterinary and animal production services in the developing world were stretched to the limit. Epizootic disease control was their main and often only field activity, which left livestock owners to manage their daily production and health problems alone. To meet their requirements, Veterinary Services in these countries came under increasing public and political pressure to modify and adjust their approaches. This gave rise to a series of workshops in Africa (e.g. Bujumbura in Burundi and Blantyre in Malawi) and South-East Asia (e.g. Singapore, and Khon Kaen in Thailand), most of which were organised and facilitated by the German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) in close collaboration with French and British development co-operation agencies and universities. These workshops stimulated discussion with the key stakeholders and, thus, were most beneficial in supporting the process of developing alternative approaches. This paper reports in particular on the outcomes of the regional workshops held in Bujumbura, Burundi, in 1984, Blantyre, Malawi, in 1985, Bangui, Central African Republic, in 1988, Khon Kaen, Thailand, in 1989, Schmitten, Germany, in 1991, and Mzuzu, Malawi, in 1996 and 2000. For more than two decades, concepts of community-based livestock services in general, and primary animal health activities (PAHAs) in particular, have been developed and established in various developing countries. Over the years the PAHA concept has proved to be effective and has shown that livestock-keeping communities clearly benefit from such programmes. In presenting key features from some prominent and successful project examples (GTZ-supported projects in Thailand, Malawi and Somalia) it can be demonstrated that such approaches are not static but rather dynamic, requiring open minded innovative partners on both sides. Over the last few years, the delivery of PAHA has become the domain of non-governmental organisations. The propagation and application of this approach in various developing countries with limited veterinary infrastructure is supporting a privatisation process within the existing governmental veterinary structures, thus, allowing veterinary departments more freedom to focus on their core functions. PMID:15200099

  10. Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

    2010-10-01

    Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (P<0.05). On the contrary, the perceived risk of contracting a zoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (P<0.05). Stratification of the risk of zoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose respondents to an increased risk of contracting zoonoses. Public health promotion on education and inter-disciplinary one-health collaboration between vets, public health practitioners and policy makers should result in a more efficient and effective joint approach to the diagnosis and control of zoonoses in Tanzania. PMID:24409636

  11. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  12. An epidemiological survey of therapy and diagnostic procedures used by Norwegian small animal practitioners in cases of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bredal, W P

    1998-09-01

    Forty per cent of the members of the Norwegian Small Animal Veterinary Association (NSAVA) returned a questionnaire regarding the treatment and diagnosis of canine nasal mite infection in their practices in 1996. A total of 2392 dogs were treated for this infection by 156 NSAVA members in clinical practice in that year, averaging 15.3 treated dogs per veterinarian. An estimated minimum of 6000 Norwegian dogs were treated for nasal mite infection in 1996, at an estimated cost of treatment exceeding 3.3 million NOK. Fifty-nine per cent of the practitioners included at least a case history and clinical examination as diagnostic criteria prior to initiating treatment for nasal mite infection. Fewer than 10% routinely performed more thorough diagnostic procedures, and only 1.8% of the diagnoses were verified prior to treatment. A total of 27 different treatment regimens, involving either subcutaneously injected ivermectin or orally administered milbemycin oxime, were routinely used by NSAVA veterinarians to treat these dogs. Seventy-two (53%) of the veterinarians used ivermectin exclusively, 14 (10%) used milbemycin oxime exclusively, while 50 (37%) used both ivermectin and milbemycin oxime. No other drugs were used. Evaluation of treatment was made by assessing resolution of the clinical signs following treatment, and 97% of the veterinarians were satisfied with the effect of the treatment regimen they used. Adverse side-effects following treatment for nasal mite infection in 1996 were seen on 9 occasions; 4 following ivermectin administration and 2 following milbemycin oxime treatment, while in 3 cases no information on the drug used was provided. The risk of adverse reactions to treatment of nasal mite infection in dogs was 0.4%. PMID:9810635

  13. FATE OF DIETARY PERCHLORATE IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS: RELEVANCE TO ANIMAL HEALTH AND LEVELS IN THE MILK SUPPLY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for fiv...

  14. Healthy Animals --Healthy People The official magazine of the Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University

    E-print Network

    Healthy Animals -- Healthy People The official magazine of the Center for Veterinary Health in physiological sciences at OSU. For more on the dog, see Page 112. Photography by Phil Shockley 4 NEW FACES Eight of the Education Amendments of 1972, Americans with Disabilities Act of1990,andotherfederallawsandregulations,doesnotdiscriminateonthebasisofrace,color

  15. An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

  16. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  17. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  18. Animal models for some important RNA viruses of public health concern in SEARO countries: viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Badole, Sachin L; Yadav, Pragya D; Patil, Dilip R; Mourya, Devendra T

    2015-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are major public health problems in the South-East Asia Regional (SEAR) countries. VHFs are a group of illnesses; that are caused by four families of viruses, viz. Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae. All VHFs have common features: they affect several organs and damage the blood vessels. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage. To understand pathogenesis, genetic and environmental influence that increase the risk of VHFs, efficacy and safety studies on candidate vaccines and testing of various therapeutic agents, appropriate animal models are essential tools in public and animals health. In the current review, the suitable animal models for Flavivirus [Dengue hemorhagic fever (DHF), Kyasanur forest disease (KFD)]; Bunyavirus [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), Hantavirus fever (HF)]; and Paramyxovirus [Nipah virus fever (NiV)] have been reviewed with specific emphasis on emerging and reemerging viruses in SEAR countries. PMID:25815861

  19. Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an imag...

  20. Laboratory Animal Allergen Exposure Reduction Training Wayne State University, Office of Environmental Health & Safety

    E-print Network

    Feig, Andrew

    in research) Rabbits Gerbils Guinea pigs Cats Dogs Birds Animal Allergy Symptoms (symptoms listed.g., animal room ventilation, etc...) e) Lifestyle (e.g., smoking, etc...) #12;2) Medical History & Genetic

  1. The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,…

  2. Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M?=?4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD?=?0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD ?=?0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p?=?0·021) and depression (p?=?0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID:25419743

  3. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms. PMID:23031524

  4. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  5. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. PMID:22769234

  6. National Wildlife Health Center Wildlife Health Bulletin 2015-05

    E-print Network

    to work closely with the USDA-Animal Plant Health Inspection Service-Wildlife Services, the U.S. Fish and the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine's Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal migration. Consequently, it is important that wildlife managers continue to be alert for morbidity

  7. UBC's researchers contribute to a global effort to save lives, fight disease and address critical health issues concerning humans and animals.

    E-print Network

    Michelson, David G.

    health issues concerning humans and animals. Our dedicated researchers have helped to improve heart, lung and kidney failure. Some have even made breakthroughs in animal-borne diseases that can (SARS). At most universities, scientific research involving animals plays an essential role in saving

  8. The association between proximity to animal-feeding operations and community health: a protocol for updating a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlots to house 50,000 cattle, and poultry houses to house 250,000 hens. There is primary research that suggests livestock facilities that confine animals indoors for feeding can represent a health hazard for surrounding communities. In this protocol, we describe a review about the association between proximity to animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals in nearby communities. A systematic review of the topic was published by some members of our group in 2010. The purpose of this review is to update that review. Methods/Design The populations of interest are people living in communities near livestock production facilities. Outcomes of interest are any health outcome measured in humans such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, and mental health. Measures of antibiotic resistance in people from the communities compared to measures of resistance found in animals and the environment on animal-feeding operations will also be summarized. The exposure of interest will be exposure to livestock production using a variety of metrics such as distance from facilities, endotoxin levels, and measures of odor. Electronic searches will be conducted using MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process (via OvidSP), CAB Abstracts (via Web of Knowledge), and Science Citation Index (via Web of Knowledge). No language or date restriction will be applied. We will access the risk of bias using a pilot version of a tool developed by the Methods Groups of the Cochrane Collaboration for non-randomized interventions. We propose to conduct a meta-analysis for each health metric (e.g., combining all respiratory disease outcomes, combining all gastrointestinal outcomes). A planned subgroup analysis will be based on the domains of the risk of bias. Discussion This systematic review will provide synthesis of current evidence reporting the association between living near an animal-feeding operation and human health. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010521 PMID:25200608

  9. Mid-ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Profiling of HIV/AIDS Sera for Novel Systems Diagnostics in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Sitole, Lungile; Steffens, Francois; Krüger, Tjaart P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Global health, whether in developed or developing countries, is in need of robust systems diagnostics for major diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, impacting the world populations. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of serum is a quick and reagent-free methodology with which to analyze metabolic alterations such as those caused by disease or treatment. In this study, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy was investigated as a means of distinguishing HIV-infected treatment-experienced (HIVpos ARTpos, n=39) and HIV-infected-treatment-naïve (HIVpos ARTneg, n=16) subjects from uninfected control subjects (n=30). Multivariate pattern recognition techniques, including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), successfully distinguished sample classes, while univariate approaches identified significant differences (p<0.05) after Benjamini-Hochberg corrections. OPLS-DA discriminated between all groups with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of >90%. Compared to uninfected controls, HIVpos ARTpos and HIVpos ARTneg subjects displayed significant differences in spectral regions linked to lipids/fatty acids (3010?cm?1), carbohydrates (1299?cm?1; 1498?cm?1), glucose (1035?cm?1), and proteins (1600?cm?1; 1652?cm?1). These are all molecules shown by conventional biochemical analysis to be affected by HIV/ART interference. The biofluid metabolomics approach applied here successfully differentiated global metabolic profiles of HIV-infected patients and uninfected controls and detected potential biomarkers for development into indicators of host response to treatment and/or disease progression. Our findings therefore contribute to ongoing efforts for capacity-building in global health for robust omics science and systems diagnostics towards major diseases impacting population health. PMID:24937213

  10. A Vision for Better Health: Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Gemperline, Erin; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules from small molecules to large proteins by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. Its usefulness in biomarker discovery towards clinical applications has obtained success by correlating the molecular expression of tissues acquired from MSI with well-established histology. Results To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in clinical applications, such as biomarker diagnostics of different diseases, prognostics of disease severities and metabolic response to drug treatment, etc. These studies have provided significant insight in clinical studies over the years and current technical advances are further facilitating the improvement of this field. Although the underlying concept is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis must be taken into account for successful applications of MSI. Herein, we briefly reviewed these key elements yet focused on the clinical applications of MSI that cannot be addressed by other means. Conclusions Challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed to conclude that the ever-growing applications with continuous development of this powerful analytical tool will lead to a better understanding of the biology of diseases and improvements in clinical diagnostics. PMID:23078851

  11. The Microbiome: The Trillions of Microorganisms That Maintain Health and Cause Disease in Humans and Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A Rodrigues; Proctor, L M; Surette, M G; Suchodolski, J S

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome is the complex collection of microorganisms, their genes, and their metabolites, colonizing the human and animal mucosal surfaces, digestive tract, and skin. It is now well known that the microbiome interacts with its host, assisting in digestion and detoxification, supporting immunity, protecting against pathogens, and maintaining health. Studies published to date have demonstrated that healthy individuals are often colonized with different microbiomes than those with disease involving various organ systems. This review covers a brief history of the development of the microbiome field, the main objectives of the Human Microbiome Project, and the most common microbiomes inhabiting the human respiratory tract, companion animal digestive tract, and skin in humans and companion animals. The main changes in the microbiomes in patients with pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous lesions are described. PMID:26220947

  12. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended. PMID:26631396

  13. [Impact on public health of quinolone resistance in animal-origin bacteria].

    PubMed

    Orden Gutiérrez, J A; de la Fuente López, R

    2001-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most useful classes of antimicrobial agents used in human and animal medicine today, both because of their spectrum and their physicochemical properties. The use of quinolones in animals is a matter of special concern because it could contribute to the acquisition of resistance in foodborn bacteria (such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and this, in turn, could lead to a reduction in the efficacy of such compounds in treating infections in humans. However, the causal relationship between the use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine and the isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in humans has not been generally proven and, moreover, the use of fluoroquinolones in animals is only one of the many factors implicated in the resistance to these antimicrobials. Even so, the surveillance of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and foods and the prudent use of these antimicrobials in animals should have the highest priority. PMID:11693069

  14. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions.

    PubMed

    McClellan, R O

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. PMID:6186479

  15. Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

    2008-07-01

    Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

  16. Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Tilman Jakob; Bouyrakhen, Samira; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine Margarete; Wöckel, Lars; Poustka, Fritz; Zepf, Florian Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria) were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10). In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES. PMID:23787053

  17. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence-based identification of bacteria in laboratory rodents: a practical approach in laboratory animal bacteriology diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Benga, Laurentiu; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Köhrer, Karl; Gougoula, Christina; Sager, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Correct identification of bacteria is crucial for the management of rodent colonies. Some bacteria are difficult to identify phenotypically outside reference laboratories. In this study, we evaluated the utility of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing as a means of identifying a collection of 30 isolates of rodent origin which are conventionally difficult to identify. Sequence analysis of the first approximate 720 to 880 bp of the 5'- end of 16S rDNA identified 25 isolates (83.33%) with ? 99% similarity to a sequence of a type strain, whereas three isolates (10%) displayed a sequence similarity ? 97% but <99% to the type strain sequences. These similarity scores were used to define identification to species and genus levels, respectively. Two of the 30 isolates (6.67%) displayed a sequence similarity of ? 95 but <97% to the reference strains and were thus allocated to a family. This technique allowed us to document the association of mice with bacteria relevant for the colonies management such as Pasteurellaceae, Bordetella hinzii or Streptococcus danieliae. In addition, human potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Paracoccus yeei or others not yet reported in mouse bacterial species such as Leucobacter chironomi, Neisseria perflava and Pantoea dispersa were observed. In conclusion, the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, with higher performance characteristics than the classical phenotypic methods, for identification of laboratory animal bacteria. For the first time this method allowed us to document the association of certain bacterial species with the laboratory mouse. PMID:24876090

  18. Acute Phase Response in Animals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase response is a complex systemic early-defense system activated by trauma, infection, stress, neoplasia, and inflammation. Although nonspecific, it serves as a core of the innate immune response involving physical and molecular barriers and responses that serve to prevent infection, clear potential pathogens, initiate inflammatory processes, and contribute to resolution and the healing process. Acute phase proteins, an integral part of the acute phase response, have been a focus of many applications in human diagnostic medicine and recently have been identified in common animal species. Potential applications to diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of animal health, and laboratory animal welfare are readily apparent. PMID:20034426

  19. Toxoplasma gondii: history and diagnostic test development.

    PubMed

    Wyrosdick, Heidi M; Schaefer, John J

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that causes toxoplasmosis in people and other animals. It is considered one of the most common parasitic infections in the world due to its impressive range of hosts, widespread environmental contamination and the diverse means by which animals can be infected. Despite its ubiquity and numerous ongoing research efforts into both its basic biology and clinical management, many aspects of diagnosis and management of this disease are poorly understood. The range of diagnostic options that is available for veterinary diagnostic investigators are notably more limited than those available to medical diagnosticians, making accurate interpretation of each test result critical. The current review joins other reviews on the parasite with a particular emphasis on the history and continued development of diagnostic tests that are useful for veterinary diagnostic investigations. An understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of current diagnostic techniques will assist veterinary and public health officials in formulating effective treatment and control strategies in diverse animal populations. PMID:26568360

  20. The environmental and public health risks associated with arsenical use in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Nachman, Keeve

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic exposures contribute significantly to the burden of preventable disease worldwide, specifically related to increased risks of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Most exposures are associated with natural contamination of groundwater, which is difficult to mitigate when these sources are used for drinking water. An anthropogenic source of arsenic exposure stems from the widespread use of arsenical drugs in food-animal production in the United States and China, among many countries. This use results in residual contamination of food products from animals raised with the drugs, as well as environmental contamination associated with disposal of wastes from these animals. Land disposal of these wastes can contaminate surface and ground water, and the conversion of animal wastes into fertilizer pellets for home use as well as the introduction of animal waste incinerators may increase opportunities for exposure. As an intentional additive to animal feed, use of arsenical drugs is a preventable source of human exposure. The domestic practice of using these drugs in poultry production has been the subject of media attention and limited research, though the use of these drugs in domestic swine production and in the rapidly growing foreign animal production industry remains largely uncharacterized. This continued expansion of arsenical drug use may likely increase the burden of global human arsenic exposure and risk. PMID:18991934

  1. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the potential value of examining hematological parameters as an approach to better understand the ecological relevance of parasite-host interactions. PMID:26657699

  2. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the potential value of examining hematological parameters as an approach to better understand the ecological relevance of parasite-host interactions. PMID:26657699

  3. Addressing governance challenges in the provision of animal health services: A review of the literature and empirical application transaction cost theory.

    PubMed

    Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina; Nielsen, Thea

    2015-11-01

    Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades. The focuses of the past reforms were on market failures to decide what the public sector, the private sector, and the "third sector" (the community-based sector) should do with regard to providing animal health services. However, such frameworks have paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. This paper presents a framework for analyzing institutional arrangements for providing animal health services that focus not only on market failures, but also on governance challenges, such as elite capture, and absenteeism of staff. As an analytical basis, Williamson's discriminating alignment hypothesis is applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of different institutional arrangements for animal health services in view of both market failures and governance challenges. This framework is used to generate testable hypotheses on the appropriateness of different institutional arrangements for providing animal health services, depending on context-specific circumstances. Data from Uganda and Kenya on clinical veterinary services is used to provide an empirical test of these hypotheses and to demonstrate application of Williamson's transaction cost theory to veterinary service delivery. The paper concludes that strong public sector involvement, especially in building and strengthening a synergistic relation-based referral arrangement between paraprofessionals and veterinarians is imperative in improving animal health service delivery in developing countries. PMID:26477330

  4. NONINVASIVE BATTERY-HEALTH DIAGNOSTICS USING RETROSPECTIVE-COST IDENTIFICATION OF INACCESSIBLE SUBSYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Dennis S.

    , this paper presents a simulation-based study that assumes as the truth model of the battery an electrochemistry- based battery charge/discharge model of Doyle, Fuller, and New- man, and later augmented with a battery-health model by Ra- madass. First, this truth model is used to generate the data needed

  5. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... with public health such as the Departments of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services for the... the Departments of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services for the purposes of zoonotic... before a court or adjudicative body before which the agency is authorized to appear, when the agency,...

  6. Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2014-01-15

    The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an image stacking algorithm to decrease the image noise and enhance weak signals, and (2) an optical signal amplifier utilizing a capillary tube array. These approaches were used in a detection system which includes multi-wavelength LEDs capable of exciting many fluorophores in multiple wavelengths, a mobile phone or a webcam as a detector, and capillary tube array configured with 36 capillary tubes for signal enhancement. The capillary array enables a ~100× increase in signal sensitivity for fluorescein, reducing the limit of detection (LOD) for mobile phones and webcams from 1000 nM to 10nM. Computational image stacking enables another ~10× increase in signal sensitivity, further reducing the LOD for webcam from 10nM to 1 nM. To demonstrate the feasibility of the device for the detection of disease-related biomarkers, adenovirus DNA labeled with SYBR green or fluorescein was analyzed by both our capillary array and a commercial plate reader. The LOD for the capillary array was 5 ug/mL, and that of the plate reader was 1 ug/mL. Similar results were obtained using DNA stained with fluorescein. The combination of the two signal amplification approaches enables a ~1000× increase in LOD for the webcam platform. This brings it into the range of a conventional plate reader while using a smaller sample volume (10 ul) than the plate reader requires (100 ul). This suggests that such a device could be suitable for biosensing applications where up to 10 fold smaller sample sizes are needed. The simple optical configuration for mHealth described in this paper employing the combined capillary and image processing signal amplification is capable of measuring weak fluorescent signals without the need of dedicated laboratories. It has the potential to be used to increase sensitivity of other optically based mHealth technologies, and may increase mHealth's clinical utility, especially for telemedicine and for resource-poor settings and global health applications. PMID:23928092

  7. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  8. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  9. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  10. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may furnish services... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  11. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  12. 75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  13. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  14. Health Professionals Information for Diagnostics Related Groups (DRGs) with the Use of a Website.

    PubMed

    Mpizopoulou, Katerina; Mpizopoulou, Zoe; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna; Mantas, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the costs of hospital care in developed countries absorbed a high proportion of total health resources. In Greece, after the establishment of the National Health System (NHS), funding for hospitals comes mainly from the state budget, and social insurance, therefore auditing of hospital cost is imperative to ensure their viability, especially at this time when the country is tested by economic crisis. Overtime many factors for the increase of hospital cost have been mentioned, such as the rapid development of medical technology, the low level of organization of the hospital system and the low productivity of human resources. The problem of rising health expenditure over the past decades is a worldwide phenomenon and it has brought about many changes in traditional retrospective methods for financing in the hospital sector, with prospective financial forms that combine patient composition and needs, and the productive activity of hospital need to the rationalization and contain expenditures. The system of Diagnosis Related Groups was a revolutionary success over the past decades and has now achieved worldwide recognition. PMID:26152971

  15. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  16. The effectiveness of community-based animal health workers, for the poor, for communities and for public safety.

    PubMed

    Peeling, D; Holden, S

    2004-04-01

    The development of community animal health (CAH) is an invaluable tool for addressing a series of challenges, particularly for the policy-maker, whose prime concern is public welfare. This paper examines three of the major challenges which confront governments, particularly the governments of less-developed countries, namely, the collapse of government services, the crucial issue of poverty reduction and the misuse of animal drugs. Although CAH is a potentially powerful tool for approaching all of these problems, the authors argue that CAH can only be fully exploited on a macroscopic level by developing strong institutions to support and regulate such community initiatives. In some countries, developing such institutions depends upon accepting the more fundamental and controversial principle of legalising non-professional animal health service providers who work within the private sector. In Section 1, the authors outline the three principal challenges which face governments, particularly in developing countries, and to which CAH offers a potential solution. Sections 2 to 4 investigate the evidence relating to each of these challenges in turn. Section 5 briefly draws on the lessons that have been generated by field experiences over the years, to propose how governments may develop CAH systems to their best advantage. PMID:15200101

  17. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... calf health from birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat quality; and Estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns...

  18. Transcription profiling in environmental diagnostics: health assessments in Columbia River basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Connon, Richard E; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Hostetter, Nathan J; Javidmehr, Alireza; Roby, Daniel D; Evans, Allen F; Loge, Frank J; Werner, Inge

    2012-06-01

    The health condition of out-migrating juvenile salmonids can influence migration success. Physical damage, pathogenic infection, contaminant exposure, and immune system status can affect survival probability. The present study is part of a wider investigation of out-migration success in juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and focuses on the application of molecular profiling to assess sublethal effects of environmental stressors in field-collected fish. We used a suite of genes in O. mykiss to specifically assess responses that could be directly related to steelhead health condition during out-migration. These biomarkers were used on juvenile steelhead captured in the Snake River, a tributary of the Columbia River, in Washington, USA, and were applied on gill and anterior head kidney tissue to assess immune system responses, pathogen-defense (NRAMP, Mx, CXC), general stress (HSP70), metal-binding (metallothionein-A), and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1) utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Upon capture, fish were ranked according to visual external physical conditions into good, fair, poor, and bad categories; gills and kidney tissues were then dissected and preserved for gene analyses. Transcription responses were tissue-specific for gill and anterior head kidney with less significant responses in gill tissue than in kidney. Significant differences between the condition ranks were attributed to NRAMP, MX, CXC, and Cyp1a1 responses. Gene profiling correlated gene expression with pathogen presence, and results indicated that gene profiling can be a useful tool for identifying specific pathogen types responsible for disease. Principal component analysis (PCA) further correlated these responses with specific health condition categories, strongly differentiating good, poor, and bad condition ranks. We conclude that molecular profiling is an informative and useful tool that could be applied to indicate and monitor numerous population-level parameters of management interest. PMID:22587496

  19. Tuberculosis infection in wildlife from the Ruaha ecosystem Tanzania: implications for wildlife, domestic animals, and human health.

    PubMed

    Clifford, D L; Kazwala, R R; Sadiki, H; Roug, A; Muse, E A; Coppolillo, P C; Mazet, J A K

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen of conservation, livestock, and public health concern, was detected in eight species of wildlife inhabiting protected areas bordering endemic livestock grazing lands. We tested tissues from 179 opportunistically sampled hunter-killed, depredation, road-killed, and live-captured wild animals, representing 30 species, in and adjacent to Ruaha National Park in south-central Tanzania. Tissue culture and PCR were used to detect 12 (8.1%) M. bovis-infected animals and 15 (10.1%) animals infected with non-tuberculosis complex mycobacteria. Kirk's dik-dik, vervet monkey, and yellow baboon were confirmed infected for the first time. The M. bovis spoligotype isolated from infected wildlife was identical to local livestock, providing evidence for livestock-wildlife pathogen transmission. Thus we advocate an ecosystem-based approach for bovine tuberculosis management that improves critical ecological functions in protected areas and grazing lands, reduces focal population density build-up along the edges of protected areas, and minimizes ecological stressors that increase animals' susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis. PMID:23601163

  20. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  1. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements of section 354 of the Public Health Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  2. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements of section 354 of the Public Health Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  3. Pollution and contamination of the domestic environment leading to detrimental, long run and possible irreversible effects upon human and animal health and longevity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animal health and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.

  4. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ?5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg?1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  5. Notice of a Report on the Review of Responses to the National Institutes of Health Request for Information (RFI): Standards for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

    E-print Network

    of the Guide. Background The Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS for and using animals in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate. Further with methods and practices that have proved to be consistent with high-quality humane care and use. A Request

  6. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  10. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  11. Aspergillus flavus Genomics: Gateway to Human and Animal Health, Food Safety, and Crop Resistance to Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that has existed in nature for thousands of years. A. flavus is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It is also an allergen causing allergic reaction in humans. A. flavus in...

  12. INVESTIGATIONS OF REPORTED PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN THE THREE MILE ISLAND AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the ...

  13. Animal Well-Being in Small Poultry Flocks: Improving bird health and product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer interest in farm animal welfare is increasing and, while there is little legislation, voluntary welfare assurance programs exist; however, most small poultry producers do not participate in these programs. Raising birds in small flocks has some inherent welfare advantages, such as ample sp...

  14. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals and in the environment: Progress on research to safeguard human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases of humans and many animals caused by protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium has become a very important pathogen in drinking water, detected in over 90% of the surface waters tested in the United States and found in surface waters worldwi...

  15. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...Evaluate dairy calf health from birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat quality; and Estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of foodborne pathogens. The...

  18. Comparison of Milk Yield and Animal Health in Turkish Farms with Differing Stall Types and Resting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  19. The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

  20. Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health

    PubMed Central

    Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

  1. Rodents on pig and chicken farms - a potential threat to human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

  2. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  3. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  4. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  5. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  6. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  7. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  8. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  9. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  10. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  11. Listeriosis in animals, its public health significance (food-borne zoonosis) and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Listeriosis is an infectious and fatal disease of animals, birds, fish, crustaceans and humans. It is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular pathogen with unique potential to spread from cell to cell, thereby crossing blood-brain, intestinal and placental barriers. The organism possesses a pile of virulence factors that help to infect the host and evade from host immune machinery. Though disease occurrence is sporadic throughout the world, it can result in severe damage during an outbreak. Listeriosis is characterized by septicaemia, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal infections and gastroenteritis with the incubation period varying with the form of infection. L. monocytogenes has been isolated worldwide from humans, animals, poultry, environmental sources like soil, river, decaying plants, and food sources like milk, meat and their products, seafood and vegetables. Since appropriate vaccines are not available and infection is mainly transmitted through foods in humans and animals, hygienic practices can prevent its spread. The present review describes etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, pathogenesis, public health significance, and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of this disease. Special attention has been given to novel as well as prospective emerging therapies that include bacteriophage and cytokine therapy, avian egg yolk antibodies and herbal therapy. Various vaccines, including advances in recombinant and DNA vaccines and their modes of eliciting immune response, are also discussed. Due focus has also been given regarding appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for better management of this zoonotic disease. PMID:26073265

  12. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  13. The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

  14. 76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... of APHIS' intent. On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register an interim rule (76 FR... health status of a foreign region. Additionally, we are proposing criteria for considering a region to be... from a requesting region to most expeditiously conduct an evaluation. DATES: We will consider...

  15. Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

  16. Alternative antimicrobial supplements that positively impact animal health and food safety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotic usage is a common practice in the livestock industry that has progressively gained attention from consumers of livestock products in regard to human and environmental health. Specifically, sub-therapeutic usage of antibiotics and the belief that prophylactic supplementation leads to anti...

  17. The diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) may be present in 10%–20% of patients in medical settings. Routine depression screening is sometimes recommended to improve depression management. However, studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools have typically used data-driven, exploratory methods to select optimal cutoffs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cutoff points around whatever cutoff score is most accurate in that given study. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cutoff points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each possible cutoff point. As a result, traditional meta-analyses may generate exaggerated estimates of accuracy. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by synthesizing data from all studies for each cutoff score to obtain diagnostic accuracy estimates. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the shorter PHQ-2 and PHQ-8 are commonly recommended for depression screening. Thus, the primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2 to detect MDD among adults across all potentially relevant cutoff scores. Secondary analyses involve assessing accuracy accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, sex, medical comorbidity). Methods/design Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will include studies that included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of MDD based on a validated structured or semi-structured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of the administration of the PHQ. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, perform full article review, and extract study data. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cutoff values. Discussion The proposed IPD meta-analyses will allow us to obtain estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010673 PMID:25348422

  18. Ectoparasites of free-roaming and captive animals in South Carolina zoos and an assessment of their threat to animals welfare and public health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasites were collected from free-roaming and captive animals in zoos to document the species present and to determine if they were associated with vertebrate pathogens. We examined 133 animals or their associated nesting and bedding materials for ectoparasites. Fifty-five species of ectoparasi...

  19. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  20. Humans as animal sentinels for forecasting asthma events: helping health services become more responsive.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    The concept of forecasting asthma using humans as animal sentinels is uncommon. This study explores the plausibility of predicting future asthma daily admissions using retrospective data in London (2005-2006). Negative binomial regressions were used in modeling; allowing the non-contiguous autoregressive components. Selected lags were based on partial autocorrelation function (PACF) plot with a maximum lag of 7 days. The model was contrasted with naïve historical and seasonal models. All models were cross validated. Mean daily asthma admission in 2005 was 27.9 and in 2006 it was 28.9. The lags 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were independently associated with daily asthma admissions based on their PACF plots. The lag model prediction of peak admissions were often slightly out of synchronization with the actual data, but the days of greater admissions were better matched than the days of lower admissions. A further investigation across various populations is necessary. PMID:23118897

  1. Humans as Animal Sentinels for Forecasting Asthma Events: Helping Health Services Become More Responsive

    PubMed Central

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of forecasting asthma using humans as animal sentinels is uncommon. This study explores the plausibility of predicting future asthma daily admissions using retrospective data in London (2005–2006). Negative binomial regressions were used in modeling; allowing the non-contiguous autoregressive components. Selected lags were based on partial autocorrelation function (PACF) plot with a maximum lag of 7 days. The model was contrasted with naïve historical and seasonal models. All models were cross validated. Mean daily asthma admission in 2005 was 27.9 and in 2006 it was 28.9. The lags 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were independently associated with daily asthma admissions based on their PACF plots. The lag model prediction of peak admissions were often slightly out of synchronization with the actual data, but the days of greater admissions were better matched than the days of lower admissions. A further investigation across various populations is necessary. PMID:23118897

  2. Critical windows of exposure for children's health: the reproductive system in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, J L; Hughes, C; Foster, W; Hales, B F; Robaire, B

    2000-01-01

    Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely affect the reproductive system. Currently, available data indicate that the consequences of exposure depend on the nature of the chemical, its target, and the timing of exposure relative to critical windows in development of the reproductive system. The reproductive system is designed to produce gametes in far greater excess than would seem to be necessary for the survival of species. Ten to hundreds of millions of spermatozoa are generated daily by most adult male mammals, yet very few of these germ cells succeed in transmitting their genetic material to the next generation. Although the number of oocytes produced in mammalian females is more limited, and their production occurs only during fetal life, most ovaries contain several orders of magnitude more oocytes than ever will be fertilized. Toxicant exposures may affect critical events in the development of the reproductive system, ranging from early primordial germ cell determination to gonadal differentiation, gametogenesis, external genitalia, or signaling events regulating sexual behavior. Although there are differences between the human reproductive system and that of the usual animal models, such models have been extremely useful in assessing risks for key human reproductive and developmental processes. The objectives for future studies should include the elucidation of the specific cellular and molecular targets of known toxicants; the design of a systematic approach to the identification of reproductive toxicants; and the development of sensitive, specific, and predictive animal models, minimally invasive surrogate markers, or in vitro tests to assess reproductive system function during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10852849

  3. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

  4. Decision Making for Animal Health and Welfare: Integrating Risk-Benefit Analysis with Prospect Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers’ choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers’ assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers’ management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

  5. Decision making for animal health and welfare: integrating risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2014-06-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers' choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers' assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers' management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

  6. Potential Health Risks Associated to ICSI: Insights from Animal Models and Strategies for a Safe Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Calabuig, María Jesús; López-Cardona, Angela Patricia; Fernández-González, Raúl; Ramos-Ibeas, Priscila; Fonseca Balvís, Noelia; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Bermejo-Álvarez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Artificial reproductive techniques are currently responsible for 1.7–4% of the births in developed countries and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most commonly used, accounting for 70–80% of the cycles performed. Despite being an invaluable tool for infertile couples, the technique bypasses several biological barriers that naturally select the gametes to achieve an optimal embryonic and fetal development. In this perspective, ICSI has been associated with an increased risk for diverse health problems, ranging from premature births and diverse metabolic disorders in the offspring to more severe complications such as abortions, congenital malformations, and imprinting disorders. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of the technique per se on these adverse outcomes and highlight the importance of several experiments using mammalian models to truthfully test these implications and to uncover the molecular base that origins these health problems. We also dissect the specific hazards associated to ICSI and describe some strategies that have been developed to mimic the gamete selection occurring in natural conception in order to improve the safety of the procedure. PMID:25478554

  7. Evaluation and delivery of domestic animal health services in remote communities in the Northwest Territories: A case study of status and needs

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Ryan K.; Kutz, Susan J.; Millins, Caroline; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.; Leighton, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Domestic animal health services are supplied to communities in Canada’s Northwest Territories (NT) in diverse ways, including private veterinary practices in 2 of 33 communities, and by mail-order, fly-in, free clinics, and a government-coordinated lay vaccinator program in some of the other 31 communities. We evaluated delivery, needs, and potential uptake of domestic animal health services in the Sahtu Settlement Area, NT by offering free clinics for 225 dogs in 2008 and 2009; and administered questionnaires to 42 dog owners and 67 students in 2008. Owners indicated that 20% of dogs were neutered, 37% had had rabies vaccinations, and 29% had been dewormed. Physical examination of dogs demonstrated that 54% were “thin” and 4% were “emaciated.” Owners and youth showed a range of attitudes toward dogs and supported improved domestic animal health services. Future services need to build on existing programs and collaborate with communities to ensure relevance, ownership, and sustainability. PMID:21197203

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Animal Bite Victims Attending an Anti-rabies Health Center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P.; Mor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings Between July 2012 and March 2013 a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 384 bite victims or their guardians in the case of minors (aged <15 years). Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using generalized linear models. Almost all participants (99%) were aware that rabies was transmitted by the bite or lick of a rabid dog, however only 20.1% identified “germs” as the cause of disease. A majority of participants stated rabies could be prevented by avoiding dog bites (64.6%) and confining dogs (53.9%); fewer (41.7%) recognized vaccination of dogs/cats as an important preventive strategy. Regarding attitudes, most (91.1%) agreed that medical evaluation should be sought as soon as possible. However, most (75.0%) also believed that traditional healers could cure rabies. Rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p = 0.015) and Protestant religion (OR = 2.4, p = 0.041) were independently associated with this belief. Among 186 participants who owned dogs, only 9 (4.8%) had ever vaccinated their dog and more than 90% of respondents indicated that their dog was free-roaming or cohabitated with the family. Only 7.0% of participants applied correct first aid following exposure, and the majority (47.7%) reported that the animal was killed by the community following the incident. Female sex and Muslim religion were independently associated with higher and lower practices scores, respectively, due largely to differences in animal management practices following the incident. Conclusions/Significance Although respondents demonstrated reasonably sound knowledge of rabies and its transmission, attitudes and practices were inconsistent with rabies prevention. Culturally- and gender-sensitive activities that promote proper first aid and healthcare seeking behavior as well as appropriate animal management, particularly in rural areas, are needed to prevent deaths associated with rabies in this setting. PMID:26114573

  9. Effects on pulmonary health of neighboring residents of concentrated animal feeding operations: exposure assessed using optimized estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Anja; Römmelt, Horst; Ehrenstein, Vera; van Strien, Rob; Praml, Georg; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors' Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points was optimized using cluster analysis. Individual exposure of 457 nonfarm subjects was interpolated by weighting method. Mean estimated annual ammonia levels varied between 16 and 24 ?g/m³. Higher exposed participants were more likely to be sensitized against ubiquitous allergens as compared to lower exposed subjects (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-13.2). In addition, they showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV?) (adjusted mean difference in % of predicted -8%; 95% CI -13% to -3%). The authors' previous findings that CAFOs may contribute to burden of respiratory diseases were confirmed by this study. PMID:21864103

  10. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  11. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  12. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  13. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  14. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  15. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  16. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  17. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  18. An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

    2014-07-16

    Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread. PMID:24629777

  19. Adjusting Our Lens: Can Developmental Differences in Diagnostic Reasoning Be Harnessed to Improve Health Professional and Trainee Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Ilgen, Jonathan S.; Bowen, Judith L.; Yarris, Lalena M.; Fu, Rongwei; Lowe, Robert A.; Eva, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Research in cognition has yielded considerable understanding of the diagnostic reasoning process and its evolution during clinical training. This study sought to determine whether or not this literature could be used to improve the assessment of trainees’ diagnostic skill by manipulating testing conditions that encourage different modes of reasoning. Methods The authors developed an online, vignette-based instrument with two sets of testing instructions. The “first impression” condition encouraged non-analytic responses while the “directed search” condition prompted structured analytic responses. Subjects encountered six cases under the first impression condition, then six cases under the directed search condition. Each condition had three straightforward (simple), and three ambiguous (complex) cases. Subjects were stratified by clinical experience: novice (third and fourth year medical students), intermediate (post graduate year [PGY] 1 and 2 residents), and experienced (PGY 3 residents and faculty). Two investigators scored the exams independently. Mean diagnostic accuracies were calculated for each group. Differences in diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the examination as a function of the predictor variables were assessed. Results The exam was completed by 115 subjects. Diagnostic accuracy was significantly associated with the independent variables of case complexity, clinical experience, and testing condition. Overall, mean diagnostic accuracy and the extent to which the test consistently discriminated between subjects (i.e., yielded reliable scores) was higher when participants were given directed search instructions than when they were given first impression instructions. In addition, the pattern of reliability was found to depend on experience: simple cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between novices, complex cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between intermediate residents, and neither type of case discriminated well between experienced practitioners. Conclusions These results yield concrete guidance regarding test construction for the purpose of diagnostic skill assessment. The instruction strategy and complexity of cases selected should depend on the experience level and breadth of experience of the subjects one is attempting to assess. PMID:21999563

  20. 76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... FR 32391-32400, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0137), and effective October 1, 2009, we established, for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services... Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice pertains to user fees charged for...

  1. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... FR 32391-32400, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0137), and effective October 1, 2009, we established, for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary... plasm, organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export...

  2. Recommendations concerning the new U.S. National Institutes of Health initiative to balance the sex of cells and animals in preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Umans, Jason G

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced last May that steps will be taken to address the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. To further address this announcement, in September 2014, scientists with varying perspectives came together at Georgetown University to discuss the following questions. (1) What metrics should the NIH use to assess tangible progress on policy changes designed to address the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research? (2) How effective can education be in reducing the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research and what educational initiatives sponsored by the NIH would most likely effect change? (3) What criteria should the NIH use to determine rigorously defined exceptions to the future proposal requirement of a balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies? (4) What additional strategies in addition to proposal requirements should NIH use to reduce the overreliance of male cells and animals in preclinical research? The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from researchers not only from diverse disciplines of basic and translational science including biology, cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, neuroscience, cardiology, endocrinology, nephrology, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology, but also from recognized experts in publishing, industry, advocacy, science policy, clinical medicine, and population health. We offer our recommendations to aid the NIH as it selects, implements, monitors, and optimizes strategies to correct the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. PMID:25713032

  3. The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.

    PubMed

    Ben Jebara, K

    2010-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can jeopardise the biosecurity of several countries, an entire region or even the whole world. The reference status of a non-transparent RL could be questioned. PMID:21309446

  4. TESTING OF SWINE FECES OBTAINED THROUGH THE NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM'S SWINE 2000 STUDY FOR THE PRESENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national study on the natural occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in swine feces by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), was carried out by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS). With the cooperation of pork producers from 13 of...

  5. CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: “Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health” sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

  6. Diagnostic History and Treatment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs On This Page Key findings One-half ... identified as having ASD by a range of health care providers. School-aged CSHCN identified as having ASD ...

  7. The Performance of Children with Mental Health Disorders on the ADOS-G: A Question of Diagnostic Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Darryn M.; Hartley, Sigan L.; McCoy, Robin; Gerrard-Morris, Aimee E.; Dill, Kameron

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the reported number of children identified as having one of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased exponentially. One proposed reason for the dramatic increase in the prevalence of ASD is diagnostic substitution, whereby children with other disorders incorrectly receive a diagnosis of ASD. Little research has…

  8. Mental health screening in kindergarten youth: a multistudy examination of the concurrent and diagnostic validity of the Impairment Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Girio-Herrera, Erin; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Owens, Julie Sarno

    2015-03-01

    Using a multistudy approach, we examined the utility of the Impairment Rating Scale (IRS; Fabiano et al., 2006) as a screening tool for detecting kindergarten children who are at risk for social, emotional, academic, and behavioral problems. In Study 1 (N = 568), we evaluated the concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the parent and teacher IRS test score inferences in relation to scores from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). In Study 2 (N = 242), we addressed limitations in Study 1 and evaluated the concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the parent and teacher IRS test score inferences in relation to scores from BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), quarterly grades, kindergarten reading competency tests, and daily behavior outcomes on a classwide discipline system. Results indicate moderate to strong concurrent and diagnostic validity utility for the teacher IRS test score inferences and low to moderate concurrent and diagnostic validity utility for the parent IRS test score inferences. IRS scores of 3 or 4 may represent appropriate cutpoints for determining risk status in kindergarten youth depending on school districts' intended use of the tool for screening. Implications for future research and practice in universal school-based screening are discussed. PMID:25222431

  9. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

  10. Screening for Depression in Medical Settings with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): A Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David; Brealey, Stephen; Hewitt, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Objective To summarize the psychometric properties of the PHQ2 and PHQ9 as screening instruments for depression. Interventions We identified 17 validation studies conducted in primary care; medical outpatients; and specialist medical services (cardiology, gynecology, stroke, dermatology, head injury, and otolaryngology). Electronic databases from 1994 to February 2007 (MEDLINE, PsycLIT, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane registers) plus study reference lists have been used for this study. Translations included US English, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, German and Arabic). Summary sensitivity, specificity, likelihood and diagnostic odds ratios (OR) against a gold standard (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were calculated for each study. We used random effects bivariate meta-analysis at recommended cut points to produce summary receiver–operator characteristic (sROC) curves. We explored heterogeneity with metaregression. Measurements and Main Results Fourteen studies (5,026 participants) validated the PHQ9 against MDD: sensitivity?=?0.80 (95% CI 0.71–0.87); specificity?=?0.92 (95% CI 0.88–0.95); positive likelihood ratio?=?10.12 (95% CI 6.52–15.67); negative likelihood ratio?=?0.22 (0.15 to 0.32). There was substantial heterogeneity (Diagnostic Odds Ratio heterogeneity I2?=?82%), which was not explained by study setting (primary care versus general hospital); method of scoring (cutoff ??10 versus “diagnostic algorithm”); or study quality (blinded versus unblinded). The diagnostic validity of the PHQ2 was only validated in 3 studies and showed wide variability in sensitivity. Conclusions The PHQ9 is acceptable, and as good as longer clinician-administered instruments in a range of settings, countries, and populations. More research is needed to validate the PHQ2 to see if its diagnostic properties approach those of the PHQ9. PMID:17874169

  11. Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-h detection of Salmonella in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-08-17

    A comparative study of a 20-h, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organisation for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 81 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD50) was found to be 7.19 and 7.24 CFU/sample for the PCR method and NMKL187, respectively. A very good correlation between results obtained by the two methods was found (Cohen's kappa=0.92). The relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were found to be 97.5%, 102.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals. PMID:22437008

  12. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  13. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  14. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  15. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  16. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  17. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  18. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  19. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  20. Genomics and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As management in the pig industry changes the range of pathogens to which pigs are exposed is altered, from parasites for pigs raised outdoors and viruses and bacteria for indoor pigs. Moreover, as consumers demand pork products free of antibiotic contamination, it becomes increasingly more importan...

  1. Wonder world of phages: potential biocontrol agents safeguarding biosphere and health of animals and humans- current scenario and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Kumar, Amit; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3 virophages have been discovered including the Sputnik virophages that are used to study genetic recombination. Virophages also find their application in antiviral therapy; as engineer of ecological system etc. In brief, present review deals with various dimensions of these beneficial viruses that are being used and can be successfully used in future for safeguarding biosphere including animal and human health. PMID:24897785

  2. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    PubMed Central

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  3. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long­standing and difficult challenge

  4. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior ¡ Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long-standing and difficult challenge

  5. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  7. Diagnostic Laparoscopy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sponsorship Opportunities Login Diagnostic Laparoscopy Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon Diagnostic ... 2015 CME Credits Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  8. An Appeal to the Global Health Community for a Tripartite Innovation: An "Essential Diagnostics List," "Health in All Policies," and "See-Through 21(st) Century Science and Ethics".

    PubMed

    Dove, Edward S; Barlas, I Ömer; Birch, Kean; Boehme, Catharina; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Byne, William M; Chaverneff, Florence; Co?kun, Yavuz; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Dereli, Türkay; Diwakar, Shyam; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Ero?lu-Kesim, Belgin; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Güngör, K?vanç; Gürsoy, Ulvi; Hekim, Nezih; Huzair, Farah; Kaushik, Kabeer; Kickbusch, Ilona; K?ro?lu, Olcay; Kolker, Eugene; Könönen, Eija; Lin, Biaoyang; Llerena, Adrian; Malhan, Faruk; Nair, Bipin; Patrinos, George P; ?arda?, Semra; Sert, Özlem; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Steuten, Lotte M G; Toraman, Cengiz; Vayena, Effy; Wang, Wei; Warnich, Louise; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-08-01

    Diagnostics spanning a wide range of new biotechnologies, including proteomics, metabolomics, and nanotechnology, are emerging as companion tests to innovative medicines. In this Opinion, we present the rationale for promulgating an "Essential Diagnostics List." Additionally, we explain the ways in which adopting a vision for "Health in All Policies" could link essential diagnostics with robust and timely societal outcomes such as sustainable development, human rights, gender parity, and alleviation of poverty. We do so in three ways. First, we propose the need for a new, "see through" taxonomy for knowledge-based innovation as we transition from the material industries (e.g., textiles, plastic, cement, glass) dominant in the 20(th) century to the anticipated knowledge industry of the 21st century. If knowledge is the currency of the present century, then it is sensible to adopt an approach that thoroughly examines scientific knowledge, starting with the production aims, methods, quality, distribution, access, and the ends it purports to serve. Second, we explain that this knowledge trajectory focus on innovation is crucial and applicable across all sectors, including public, private, or public-private partnerships, as it underscores the fact that scientific knowledge is a co-product of technology, human values, and social systems. By making the value systems embedded in scientific design and knowledge co-production transparent, we all stand to benefit from sustainable and transparent science. Third, we appeal to the global health community to consider the necessary qualities of good governance for 21st century organizations that will embark on developing essential diagnostics. These have importance not only for science and knowledge-based innovation, but also for the ways in which we can build open, healthy, and peaceful civil societies today and for future generations. PMID:26161545

  9. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  10. 9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Exosomes as renal inductive signals in health and disease, and their application as diagnostic markers and therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Mirja; Samoylenko, Anatoliy; Vainio, Seppo J.

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete around 30–1000 nm membrane-enclosed vesicles, of which members of the subgroup between 30 and 100 nm are termed exosomes (EXs). EXs are released into the extracellular space and are widely present in body fluids and incorporated mRNA, miRNA, proteins, and signaling molecules. Increasing amounts of evidence suggest that EXs play an important role not only in cell-to-cell communication but also in various physiological and disease processes. EXs secreted by kidney cells control nephron function and are involved in kidney diseases and cancers. This makes them potential targets for diagnostic and therapeutic applications such as non-invasive biomarkers and cell-free vaccines and for use as drug delivery vehicles. This review provides an overview on the known roles of EXs in kidney development and diseases, including renal cancer. Additionally, it covers recent findings on their significance as diagnostic markers and on therapeutic applications to renal diseases and cancers. The intention is to promote an awareness of how many questions still remain open but are certainly worth investigating. PMID:26539435

  6. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  7. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  8. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  9. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  10. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  11. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  12. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  13. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  14. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  15. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.25 Animal identification. Each...

  16. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  17. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.25 Animal identification. Each...

  18. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.25 Animal identification. Each...

  19. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  20. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  1. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  2. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  3. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.25 Animal identification. Each...

  4. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.25 Animal identification. Each...

  5. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  6. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  7. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  8. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, as well as allergic responses to inhaled conidia. Some prevalent forms of animal aspergillosis are invasive fatal infections in sea fan corals, stonebrood mummification in honey bees, pulmonary and air sac infection in birds, mycotic abortion and mammary gland infections in cattle, guttural pouch mycoses in horses, sinonasal infections in dogs and cats, and invasive pulmonary and cerebral infections in marine mammals and nonhuman primates. This article represents a comprehensive overview of the most common infections reported by Aspergillus species and the corresponding diseases in various types of animals. PMID:26316211

  9. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L

    2012-06-01

    Global efforts to control malaria are more complex than those for other infectious diseases, in part because of vector transmission, the complex clinical presentation of Plasmodium infections, >1 Plasmodium species causing infection, geographic distribution of vectors and infection, and drug resistance. The World Health Organization approach to global malaria control focuses on 2 components: vector control and diagnosis and treatment of clinical malaria. Although microscopy performed on peripheral blood smears remains the most widely used diagnostic test and the standard against which other tests are measured, rapid expansion of diagnostic testing worldwide will require use of other diagnostic approaches. This review will focus on the malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) for detecting malaria parasitemia, both in terms of performance characteristics of MRDTs and how they are used under field conditions. The emphasis will be on the performance and use of MRDTs in regions of endemicity, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, where most malaria-related deaths occur. PMID:22550113

  10. Point-of-care G6PD diagnostics for Plasmodium vivax malaria is a clinical and public health urgency.

    PubMed

    Baird, J Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax threatens over 2 billion people globally and sickens tens of millions annually. Recent clinical evidence discredits the long-held notion of this infection as intrinsically benign revealing an often threatening course associated with mortality. Most acute attacks by this species derive from latent forms in the human liver called hypnozoites. Radical cure for P. vivax malaria includes therapy aimed both at the acute attack (blood schizontocidal) and against future attacks (hypnozoitocidal). The only hypnozoitocide available is primaquine, a drug causing life-threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients with the inherited blood disorder glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. This disorder affects 400 million people worldwide, at an average prevalence of 8 % in malaria-endemic nations. In the absence of certain knowledge regarding the G6PD status of patients infected by P. vivax, providers must choose between the risk of harm caused by primaquine and that caused by the parasite by withholding therapy. Resolving this dilemma requires the availability of point-of-care G6PD diagnostics practical for use in the impoverished rural tropics where the vast majority of malaria patients seek care. PMID:26652887

  11. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... for stakeholders to offer their input on the new framework being developed for animal disease traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES:...

  12. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... for stakeholders to offer their input on the new framework being developed for animal disease traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service....

  13. 75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... opportunity for stakeholders to offer their input on the new framework being developed for animal disease... meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES: The meetings will...

  14. Applications of the thermography in the animal production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeiro, Carlos; Vizcaino, Elena; Morales, Joaquín.; Manso, Alberto; Díaz, Immaculada; Montalvo, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography is a working technology for over decades, which have been applied mainly in the buildings. We want to move this use to the animal production in order to help us to detect problems of energy efficiency in the facilities preventing, for example, the animal's welfare. In animal production it is necessary to provide a suitable microclimate according to age and production stage of the animals. This microclimate is achieved in the facilities through the environment modification artificially, providing an appropriate comfort for the animals. Many of the problems detected in farms are related to a poor environmental management and control. This is where infrared thermography becomes an essential diagnostic tool to detect failures in the facilities that will be related with health and performance of the animals. The use of this technology in energy audits for buildings, facilities, etc. is becoming more frequent, enabling the technician to easily detect and assess the temperature and energy losses, and it can be used as a support to draft reports and to transmit the situation to the owner in a visual format. In this way, both will be able to decide what improvements are required. Until now, there was not an appropriate technology with affordable prices and easy to manage enough in order to allow the use of the thermography like a routine tool for the diagnostic of these problems, but currently there are some solutions which are starting to appear on the market to meet the requirements needed by the industry.

  15. Echinococcus multilocularis: Epidemiology, surveillance and state-of-the-art diagnostics from a veterinary public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Conraths, Franz J; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the larval (metacestode) stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is considered one of the most serious parasitic zoonoses in Central and Eastern Europe and is emerging also in large parts of Asia and in North America. The red fox represents the main definitive host of E. multilocularis in Europe, but the raccoon dog, the domestic dog and to a much lesser extent the domestic cat also represent potential definitive hosts. The natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis are mainly voles. The spectrum of accidental hosts is broad and includes many species of monkeys, pigs, dogs and humans which get infected by oral uptake of the viable eggs. Yet, human AE is a very rare disease in Europe; incidences have increased in recent years, while the infection is widely distributed in foxes with high prevalences reaching up to 70% in some areas. Generally, infected foxes represent a zoonotic risk, which may be particularly relevant in urban areas. Furthermore, there is concern that the risk for humans to acquire AE may rise due to the suspected geographical spread of the parasite as assessed by infections in its definitive hosts and the high prevalences in some regions. Monitoring and surveillance activities have therefore been initiated in a few European countries. Several diagnostic strategies have been developed and validated in recent years, applying classical worm detection by microscopy, but also immunological (ELISA for coproantigen detection) and molecular tests (copro-DNA detection by PCR). However, there is an urgent need for defining minimal requirements and harmonised approaches for these activities to allow for a reliable assessment of the epidemiological situation in Europe and comparable results from different countries. PMID:26298509

  16. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOPROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF CARCINOGEN-TREATED ANIMAL TISSUES AND HUMAN CELLS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  17. ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study Research Facilities Applying The M.S. degree in Animal Sciences may be earned for a program of study in reproductive physiology, animal health, nutrition to assistantships in the Animal and Veterinary Sciences field devote half time to work as directed by their major

  18. 77 FR 14706 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment, in consultation...technical criteria to ensure that medical diagnostic equipment, including...mammography equipment, and other imaging equipment used by health care...on health care providers or medical device manufacturers....

  19. This form must be submitted to the Graduate College prior to any activity that involves human or animal subjects, intellectual property issues, or environmental health and safety training. This form must include

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    or animal subjects, intellectual property issues, or environmental health and safety training. This form of the need to fully comply with the requirements that I must follow concerning the rights and welfare of human or animal subjects while pursuing the research f r my thesis or dissertation. I further certify

  20. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...