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1

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 607-253-3900 Web: diagcenter Testing for Possible Contamination Information for Pet Owners The first step that should be taken whenever (FDA) can be contacted at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/ReportaProblem/ucm182403.htm

Keinan, Alon

2

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts  

E-print Network

Pa containers) Protocol for Sampling Depending on the species of animal being tested, it is recommendedAnimal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 6072533100 Web: diagcenter Leptospirosis FA/Growth Testing Sample Procurement Test Name (and code): Leptospirosis FA (LeptoFA) AHDC Lab

Keinan, Alon

3

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts  

E-print Network

be interpreted cautiously. Single positive or negative tests are meaningless as cats may shed intermittently positive on multiple tests over an 8-month pe- riod. A cat that tests negative on monthly tests over a 5Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 607-253-3900 Web: diagcenter

Keinan, Alon

4

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs Background on Lyme disease Lyme Multiplex Assay was developed at the Animal Health Diagnostic Center at Cornell University of a warm-blooded host, such as dogs, horses, or humans (Fig. 2). In response to infection, #12;Animal

Keinan, Alon

5

(continued) DL-942 8/12 Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

's recommendations, results from the AHDC will be reported out as test POSITIVE or test NEGATIVE with no quantitative.nyschap.vet.cornell.edu/module/johnes/johnes.asp. Diagnostic testing is only one piece of the control strategy aimed at identifying animals that are shedding(continued) DL-942 8/12 Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell

Keinan, Alon

6

Pneumovirus N RT-qPCR Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

. Stability Pneumoviruses are extremely labile. An effort should be made to begin purification for testing No AnimalsTested References Renshaw, R.W., Zylich, N.C., Laverack, M.A., Glaser, A.L., Dubovi, E.J., 2010Pneumovirus N RT-qPCR Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell

Keinan, Alon

7

Histopathology Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center LAB USE ONLY  

E-print Network

-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu PLEASE NOTE: SAMPLES SUBMITTED FOR TESTING BECOME THE PROPERTY OF THE ANIMAL HEALTHHistopathology Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center LAB USE ONLY: FedEx/UPS Service Address: PO Box 5786 240 Farrier Rd Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Ithaca, NY 14853

Keinan, Alon

8

(continued) DL-943 8/12 Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

interventions and testing. What sample is needed? At least 15 grams of bovine feces from an individual animal this assay performs up to the standards necessary to meet your needs. What are the details of the test(continued) DL-943 8/12 Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell

Keinan, Alon

9

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Horse Cytokine 5-plex Assay  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Horse Cytokine 5-plex Assay Cytokines are soluble messenger molecules of the immune system. They are indicators of innate and adaptive immunity and have multiple is produced by most regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Many other cell types of the innate and adaptive immune

Keinan, Alon

10

ANIMAL HEALTH DIAGNOSTIC LAB-LASP Prices 2013 & 2014  

Cancer.gov

09/18/14 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research ANIMAL HEALTH DIAGNOSTIC LAB-LASP Services without a price for a given year: may not be available, the price is pending or it hasn't been selected to be displayed on the web. Service Code

11

DL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET  

E-print Network

and older * Please see either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDCDL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

Keinan, Alon

12

DL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET  

E-print Network

either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDC website at diagcenterDL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

Keinan, Alon

13

Animal Health Diagnostic Center -Emerging Issues Canine Influenza Virus  

E-print Network

Inhibition and PCR Tests Performed at Cornell on Canine Samples Location HI Negative* HI Positive* PCRAnimal Health Diagnostic Center - Emerging Issues Canine Influenza Virus Detection - Sampling - Statistics Printable version of this page Test Summary for Canine Influenza Virus in Dogs Hemagglutination

Keinan, Alon

14

In partnership with the New York State Department of Agriculture & Markets' Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Program Animal Health  

E-print Network

Laboratory Program Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test & Fee Schedule and Submission Guidelines web site 6/12/2012 College of Veterinary Medicine Cornell University Ithaca, New York #12; #12;Animal Health Diagnostic Center Table of Contents Animal Health Diagnostic Center web: http

Keinan, Alon

15

DL-1020 1/2011 Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

. Aerobic culture and anaerobic culture each require separate bottles with different media. If the animal(s) to mix blood with blood culture media. Blood will not clot due to anticoagulants in media. DO Culture Technique Please follow these directions when filling blood culture bottles. For greatest recovery

Keinan, Alon

16

Non-Veterinary Tick Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

FIELDS, PRINT LEGIBLY, AND ENTER ONLY ONE SUBMITTER PER FORM AHDC acct No. 128439 Submitter Account No No: Fax No: Email: Please select how you wish to receive results based on the information you TRANSMITTED. SEX CODES: M=Male, F=Female AGE CODES: Y=Years, M=Months Price Person/animal from whom tick

Keinan, Alon

17

Immunoglobulin G, Equine Chemistry Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

immunity from the ingestion of colostrum within the first few hours after birth is critical to the health ill", or uveitis. Additionally, poor colostrum quality or premature lactation in mare could cause low colostrum is 800 mg/dL or greater. Levels

Keinan, Alon

18

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments Feline Tests Feline Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 Tests, Equine Cushings Tests , Feline Adrenal Function Tests, or Appendix C. Endocrinology22.00 ACTH

Keinan, Alon

19

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments Equine Tests Equine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 4 hours for equine. For more information, see Equine Cushing's Tests or AppendixC. For Equine only

Keinan, Alon

20

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments Canine Tests Canine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 in insulated container with ice pack. For more information, see Canine Adrenal & Pituitary Function Tests

Keinan, Alon

21

Animal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853 20 Export Testing Tips The Animal Health Diagnostic with you to provide efficient export testing services. Our Laboratory performs most of the tests routinely

Keinan, Alon

22

Vaccines and diagnostic tools for animal health: the influence of biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of improved vaccine and diagnostic-based disease control strategies has benefited considerably from advances in biotechnology, particularly those relating to recombinant DNA technology. Efficiency of the vaccine development process has been increased at all levels, from the analysis of immune responses to the production and delivery of protective antigens to the target species. Serological analysis of antibody prevalence has also

D. J McKeever; J. E. O Rege

1999-01-01

23

Development of Vaccines, Diagnostics, and Immunotherapeutics for Use in Livestock and Companion Animals  

E-print Network

recombinant antibodies for this aspect of companion animal health. The research- ers have developedDevelopment of Vaccines, Diagnostics, and Immunotherapeutics for Use in Livestock and Companion Animals Our research priorities include development of vaccines, diagnostics, and immunotherapeutics

24

Diagnostic Virology: From Animals to Automation  

E-print Network

Methods for diagnosis of viral infection have progressed rapidly during the past two to three decades from animal inoculation to computer automation. Virus isolation, however, still remains the "gold standard. " With the availability of antiviral agents, physicians now demand accurate laboratory diagnosis of their patients ' illnesses in order to give proper treatment. Discovery of unknown viral agents still requires continued search and diligent effort. Despite the progress of modern medicine during the past two or three decades, viral diagnostic facilities are still not readily available in most of the hospitaloperated microbiology laboratories but generally exist either as part of university research laboratories or regional health departments. Conventional viral diagnostic methods have been time-consuming, expensive, and inaccessible to the practicing physicians; thus an accurate viral diagnosis has infrequently been attempted. In recent years, however, the importance of viral infection has been increasingly recognized, particularly as a cause of serious disease in the immunocompromised patient and in the neonate, as well as a cause of sexually transmitted disease. In addition, new antiviral agents are becoming available. With the advent of effective antiviral therapy,

G. D. Hsiung Ph. D

1984-01-01

25

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic for identification. Since no commercially available vaccine exists against Salmonella, disinfection and other

Keinan, Alon

26

Phenobarbital Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

ranges (see Interpretation) Lag Time 1 day Required Sample 1 mL Serum, EDTA plasma, Heparin plasma Test Clinical Pathology, Phenobarbital, Analytical Validation completed 4/7/11 Amphibia No Avian Yes Bovine Yes

Keinan, Alon

27

USGS National Wildlife Health Center Diagnostic Case Submission Guidelines  

E-print Network

to the submitting agency, its wildlife populations, or domestic animal and human health. Type of Specimens to the submitting agency, its wildlife populations, domestic animals or human health. Types of CasesUSGS National Wildlife Health Center Diagnostic Case Submission Guidelines

28

Companion animals and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pets, or companion animals, are said to be good for people. Until recently there has been little serious study of the effects on people's health of their interactions with companion animals. This is in spite of the fact that they have shared human lives for centuries and their beneficial effects have been known for at least 200 years. This paper

AT Edney

1992-01-01

29

Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal  

E-print Network

Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal feeds USDA of effectiveness.) #12;Animal Health Literacy Campaign Go to the CVM page, http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/, then Click on Animal Health Literacy Click on Animal Health Literacy Campaign Great general references

30

Companion animals and human health.  

PubMed

Pets, or companion animals, are said to be good for people. Until recently there has been little serious study of the effects on people's health of their interactions with companion animals. This is in spite of the fact that they have shared human lives for centuries and their beneficial effects have been known for at least 200 years. This paper reviews the ways in which companion animals have favourable effects on human health and behaviour, for example, as guides for blind and deaf people, for enriching the lives of long stay patients and for providing physical activity like horse riding for the severely disabled. Current knowledge of the effects of animals on human psychological, behavioural, physiological and social development is reviewed, including the use of animals in prison programmes. New findings in Australia show that pet owners had marked reduction in risk factors related to cardiac disease compared with non-owners. Other recent work has indicated that companion animals are able to act as 'early warning systems' for acute human conditions such as epileptic seizures. PMID:1534428

Edney, A T

1992-04-01

31

78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...laboratories working to protect animal and public health and...providing diagnostic testing aimed at detecting biological...to the nation's food animals. The concept paper we...providing diagnostic testing aimed at detecting biological...to the nation's food animals. Participating...

2013-04-24

32

ANIMAL MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS LAB-LASP Prices 2013 & 2014  

Cancer.gov

09/18/14 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research ANIMAL MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS LAB-LASP Services without a price for a given year: may not be available, the price is pending or it hasn't been selected to be displayed on the web. Service Code

33

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts  

E-print Network

Examination Hemogram (CBC), routine Hemogram, partial Red Blood Cell Exam, parasites Genera-specific PCR tests of illness related to infection, the parasites may be detected on Giemsa-stained blood smears, within red blood cells. It is extremely important for the requestor to be certain of which tests are required

Keinan, Alon

34

National aquatic animal health plans: the Australian experience.  

PubMed

Following a major pilchard (Sardinops sagax) mortality event in 1995, Australia recognised the need for a national approach to aquatic animal health, particularly with respectto disease response. Cooperation between industry and government led to the development of AQUAPLAN, Australia's National Strategic Plan for Aquatic Animal Health. Under AQUAPLAN, institutional arrangements for the national technical response to aquatic animal health emergencies were developed based on existing arrangements for terrestrial animal health. The number and range of Australian Aquatic Veterinary Emergency Plan (AQUAVETPLAN) manuals are rising steadily; these are manuals that outline Australia's approach to national disease preparedness and propose the technical response and control strategies to be activated. Additional resources include standard diagnostic techniques and a disease field identification guide. Simulation exercises provide training to respond to aquatic emergency animal disease events. While resource issues and addressing governance remain priorities for the further implementation of AQUAPLAN, the highest priority is the development of a formal arrangement between governments and private sectors on the response to an aquatic emergency animal disease event. PMID:18666480

Bernoth, E M; Ernst, I; Wright, B

2008-04-01

35

Companion animals and human health: an overview.  

PubMed

Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reaching. PMID:8786595

Edney, A T

1995-12-01

36

Companion animals and human health: an overview.  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reaching. PMID:8786595

Edney, A T

1995-01-01

37

Industrialized farm animal production: health concerns.  

PubMed

Modern livestock farming industry practice continues to cause concern about hazardous exposures among workers and nearby residents. Occupational and environmental health nurses can join other advocates and encourage policies that protect workers, communities, and the environment from confined animal feeding operations health hazards. PMID:24806042

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-05-01

38

Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

Reif, John S.

2011-01-01

39

Safeguarding Animal Health AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES &  

E-print Network

) Fishhook (Cercopagis pengoi) Water fleas Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) Green crabs (Carcinus maenas previously affected primarily trout in Europe. #12;Safeguarding Animal Health Ia Farmed rainbow trout Devastating losses on farms Always ranked as the #1 disease of salmonids in Europe Europeans (government

40

Optimization of vaccine production for animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines on the basis of mammalian cell cultures are of major importance for human and animal health. Therefore efforts are undertaken for the improved production of more effective vaccines. Of course, the main purpose of all these approaches is to save lives and improve the quality of life for human beings. However, there is also some remarkable effort in the

W. Noe; R. Bux; W. Berthold; W. Werz

1994-01-01

41

STANFORD UNIVERSITY LABORATORY ANIMAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM  

E-print Network

3.16.05 STANFORD UNIVERSITY LABORATORY ANIMAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM Tuberculosis Symptom Questionnaire For use by personnel that have previously had a positive PPD skin test. Name (Print? Excessive weight loss Persistent coughing Excessive fatigue Coughing up blood Persistent fever Have you been

42

Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

43

The need to include animal protection in public health policies  

PubMed Central

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-01-01

44

Transgenesis in Animal Agriculture: Addressing Animal Health and Welfare Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Food and Drug Administration’s final Guidance for Industry on the regulation of transgenesis in animal agriculture\\u000a has paved the way for the commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) farm animals. The production-related diseases associated\\u000a with extant breeding technologies are reviewed, as well as the predictable welfare consequences of continued emphasis on prolificacy\\u000a at the potential expense of physical fitness.

Michael Greger

45

Minnesota Board of Animal Health 625 Robert Street North  

E-print Network

to perform. To help ensure compliance with Minnesota CWD testing requirements, the Board of Animal Health, the Board of Animal Health will pay the laboratory fees for CWD testing under the following conditions: 1 of an animal is submitted to the laboratory for CWD testing. This gross examination fee is needed to cover

Thomas, David D.

46

Effective animal health disease surveillance using a network-enabled approach.  

PubMed

There are many benefits that derive from real-time knowledge of the health status of the national livestock population. Effective animal disease surveillance is a requirement for countries that trade in live animals and their products in order to comply with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines. Rapid identification of introduced and emerging disease allows rapid response and mitigation of the economic consequences. Connections between animal and human disease caused by a common pathogen can be recognized and control measures implemented, thereby protecting public health and maintaining public confidence in the food supply. Production-limiting diseases can be monitored, and control programmes be evaluated with benefits accruing from decreased economic losses associated with disease as well as reducing the welfare concerns associated with diseased animals. Establishing a surveillance programme across a wide area with diverse ecosystems and political administrations as Canada is a complex challenge. When funding became available from a government programme to enable early detection of a bio-terrorist attack on livestock, the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network (CAHSN) became officially established. An existing web-based information platform that supports intelligence exchange, surveillance and response for public health issues in Canada was adapted to link the network animal health laboratories. A minimum data set was developed that facilitated sharing of results between participating laboratories and jurisdictions as the first step in creating the capacity for national disease trend analysis. In each of the network laboratories, similar quality assurance and bio-containment systems have been funded and supported, and diagnostic staff have been trained and certified on a suite of diagnostic tests for foreign animal diseases. This ensures that national standards are maintained throughout all of the diagnostic laboratories. This paper describes the genesis of CAHSN, its current capability and governance, and potential for future development. PMID:20846188

Kloeze, H; Mukhi, S; Kitching, P; Lees, V W; Alexandersen, S

2010-12-01

47

Helping animals, people and the planet Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories  

E-print Network

Collins, CO 80523-1644 Voice: 970.297.1281 Fax: 970.297.0320 www.dlab.colostate.edu Lab Technician Class-month, Administrative Professional; Lab Technician The Colorado State University (CSU) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, graduate and post-doctoral students. The VDL seeks to fill 1 full-time Lab Technician position to work

Rutledge, Steven

48

ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10  

E-print Network

ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10 AERO Aerospace Science Laboratory C11 AGAD Agricultural Administration Building G8 AHF Animal Holding Facility G10 AQUA Boilermaker Aquatic Center D6 AR Armory G6 ARMS Armstrong (Neil) Hall of Engineering G5 ASTL

49

Page 1 of 5 Alison Van Eenennaam, UC Davis Applications of Animal Biotechnology in Animal Health, January 2009  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 5 Alison Van Eenennaam, UC Davis Applications of Animal Biotechnology in Animal Health, January 2009 POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING Written by Bill Pohlmeier disapproval among consumers. In addition to enhancing animal well-being, improving animal health has the added

Delany, Mary E.

50

Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns DEPARfMMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICFS Public Health Service  

E-print Network

--=--- -- - -- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - ----~ Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns DEPARf of Health SUBJECT: Communicating Animal Care and Use Concerns within the NIH Intramural Research Program As the NIH Institutional Official (IO) for Intramural animal research this memorandum reaffirms my commitment

Bandettini, Peter A.

51

Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the

Pirkko Hämeenoja

2002-01-01

52

78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System...Abstract: Under the Animal Health Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...measures related to animal welfare; Estimate the...

2013-05-09

53

Syphilis: Continuing public health and diagnostic challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the “great imitator” of disease, syphilis, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, continues to be a conceptually elusive condition that is surrounded by diagnostic ambiguity and clinical misunderstanding.\\u000a Concurrent HIV infection adds further difficulty by introducing the oldest and most confusing medical conundrum into the socially\\u000a and biologically complex situation of treating patients with a virus we are still

Demetre Daskalakis

2008-01-01

54

Climate change and animal health in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Climate change is expected to have direct and indirect impacts on African livestock. Direct impacts include increased ambient temperature, floods and droughts. Indirect impacts are the result of reduced availability of water and forage and changes in the environment that promote the spread of contagious diseases through increased contact between animals, or increased survival or availability of the agent

P. Van den Bossche; J. A. W. Coetzer

55

Transgenic plants for animal health: plant-made vaccine antigens for animal infectious disease control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of plant species have been genetically modified to accumulate vaccine antigens for human and animal health and the\\u000a first vaccine candidates are approaching the market. The regulatory burden for animal vaccines is less than that for human\\u000a use and this has attracted the attention of researchers and companies, and investment in plant-made vaccines for animal infectious\\u000a disease control

J. J. Joensuu; V. Niklander-Teeri; J. E. Brandle

2008-01-01

56

76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee. DATES: The meeting will be held July 22, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight time)....

2011-05-19

57

Early Detection of Important Animal Health Events J. L. Andrews  

E-print Network

tested; � Syndrome; and � Diagnosis. However, no incidence of major animal health events was reported, one entry noted that over ten-thousand cattle, 100% of the farm, had suffered heart failure. When

Stockie, John

58

The future of anti-infective products in animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery, development and marketing of animal health anti-infective products are at an important crossroads. Traditional anti-infective products include antibiotics, parasiticides and vaccines, which are administered to either food production or companion animals. The convergence of market conditions, new regulatory guidance, political decisions and food safety concerns has led to a redirection of research away from traditional antibiotics and towards

Thomas R. Shryock

2004-01-01

59

Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the

Matthew Scotch; Lynda Odofin; Peter Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

60

Use of health information technology to reduce diagnostic errors  

PubMed Central

Background Health information technology (HIT) systems have the potential to reduce delayed, missed or incorrect diagnoses. We describe and classify the current state of diagnostic HIT and identify future research directions. Methods A multi-pronged literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, backwards and forwards reference searches and contributions from domain experts. We included HIT systems evaluated in clinical and experimental settings as well as previous reviews, and excluded radiology computer-aided diagnosis, monitor alerts and alarms, and studies focused on disease staging and prognosis. Articles were organised within a conceptual framework of the diagnostic process and areas requiring further investigation were identified. Results HIT approaches, tools and algorithms were identified and organised into 10 categories related to those assisting: (1) information gathering; (2) information organisation and display; (3) differential diagnosis generation; (4) weighing of diagnoses; (5) generation of diagnostic plan; (6) access to diagnostic reference information; (7) facilitating follow-up; (8) screening for early detection in asymptomatic patients; (9) collaborative diagnosis; and (10) facilitating diagnostic feedback to clinicians. We found many studies characterising potential interventions, but relatively few evaluating the interventions in actual clinical settings and even fewer demonstrating clinical impact. Conclusions Diagnostic HIT research is still in its early stages with few demonstrations of measurable clinical impact. Future efforts need to focus on: (1) improving methods and criteria for measurement of the diagnostic process using electronic data; (2) better usability and interfaces in electronic health records; (3) more meaningful incorporation of evidence-based diagnostic protocols within clinical workflows; and (4) systematic feedback of diagnostic performance. PMID:23852973

El-Kareh, Robert; Hasan, Omar; Schiff, Gordon D

2013-01-01

61

Evaluating a Dental Diagnostic Terminology in an Electronic Health Record  

PubMed Central

Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school’s predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization. PMID:21546594

White, Joel M.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C.; Ramoni, Rachel L.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.

2011-01-01

62

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

2010-01-01

63

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

2013-01-01

64

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

2011-01-01

65

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

2012-01-01

66

The contribution of farm animals to human health.  

PubMed

Farm animals and their products have a longstanding and successful history of providing significant contributions to human nutrition, clothing, facilitation of labour, research, development and medicine and have thus been essential in improving life expectancy and human health. With the advent of transgenic technologies the potential of farm animals for improving human health is growing and many areas remain to be explored. Recent breakthroughs in reproductive technologies, such as somatic cloning and in vitro embryo production, and their merger with molecular genetic tools, will further advance progress in this field. Here, we have summarized the contribution of farm animals to human health, covering the production of antimicrobial peptides, dietary supplements or functional foods, animals used as disease models and the contribution of animals to solving urgent environmental problems and challenges in medicine such as the shortage of human cells, tissues and organs and therapeutic proteins. Some of these areas have already reached the level of preclinical testing or commercial application, others will be further advanced only when the genomes of the animals concerned have been sequenced and annotated. Provided the necessary precautions are being taken, the transmission of pathogens from animals to humans can be avoided to provide adequate security. Overall, the promising perspectives of farm animals and their products warrant further research and development in this field. PMID:15158058

Kues, Wilfried A; Niemann, Heiner

2004-06-01

67

Mental Health Promotion with Animated Characters: Exploring Issues and Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore the possibility of using animated characters as personal social companions for supporting interventions for promoting health behaviors. We explore how supportive feedback could be provided to users of such artificial companion systems, by coupling both personalized intervention content from a mental health perspective with personalized affective social agents such as graphical facial avatars or Embodied

Christine L. Lisetti; Eric Wagner

68

78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-01-09

69

78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...C. 8301 et seq.), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...APHIS operates the National Animal Health Monitoring System...and challenges, including animal identification, confinement and handling, care, and disease testing; Describe health...

2013-09-23

70

76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...the Swine 2012 Study will be analyzed...of automated, electronic, mechanical...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2011-08-23

71

9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The extent to which movement of animals and animal products is controlled from regions...quantity and quality of sampling and testing? (10) Diagnostic laboratory...Policies and infrastructure for animal disease control in the...

2010-01-01

72

9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The extent to which movement of animals and animal products is controlled from regions...quantity and quality of sampling and testing? (10) Diagnostic laboratory...Policies and infrastructure for animal disease control in the...

2011-01-01

73

9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The extent to which movement of animals and animal products is controlled from regions...quantity and quality of sampling and testing? (10) Diagnostic laboratory...Policies and infrastructure for animal disease control in the...

2012-01-01

74

76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The extent to which movement of animals and animal products is controlled from regions...quantity and quality of sampling and testing? Diagnostic laboratory capabilities...Policies and infrastructure for animal disease control in the...

2011-12-28

75

Diagnostic Evaluation of Dementia in the Secondary Health Care Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We conducted a nationwide registry-based study of the quality of diagnostic evaluation for dementia in the secondary health care sector. Method: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from the patient population (4,682 patients) registered for the first time with a dementia diagnosis in the nationwide hospital registries during the last 6 months of 2003. Through medical record review, we

Thien Kieu Thi Phung; Birgitte Bo Andersen; Lars Vedel Kessing; Preben Bo Mortensen; Gunhild Waldemar

2009-01-01

76

Computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics for global health applications.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

Coskun, Ahmet F; Ozcan, Aydogan

2014-02-01

77

DL-941 1/08 Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

diameter, 8002585361) Sampling vials: one culture, one cytology (contains EDTA for centrifugation and submit an aliquot for fluid analysis. 16. Find a laboratory with experience reading BAL fluid cytology crowding and/or commingled age groups of cattle. In other species, BAL fluid cytology has better

Keinan, Alon

78

DL-945 1/09 Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

, reusable tail wraps, etc. Ultrasound probes should be covered with an equine rectal sleeve. Any equipment with an antiseptic or alcohol. Use disposable plastic garbage bags to line any buckets used for washing or cleaning

Keinan, Alon

79

Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University  

E-print Network

(true negatives) and 6 EPM necropsy positive cases (true positives). Using these two different standards or inexperience is understandable and although not the preferred approach, a positive serum IgG test cause false positive results. The original standard WB (Granstrom et al. 1993) was well validated

Keinan, Alon

80

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses  

E-print Network

C or OspF multiplex beads, are detected by a fluorescent conjugate and are evaluated in a multiplex reader on fluorescent beads and allows the simultaneous measurement of antibodies to all three B. burgdorferi antigens's body, bacteria again change their surface expression ­ OspC disappears and OspF is expressed

Keinan, Alon

81

Immunoglobulin G, Camelid -Chem Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

via colostrum. IgG levels can also be measured in New World Camelids of any age as one measure of acquired immunity. Passive immunity from the ingestion of colostrum within the first few hours after birth of infections, such as sepsis, "joint ill", or uveitis. Additionally, poor colostrum quality or premature

Keinan, Alon

82

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Page 1 of 1  

E-print Network

Grimelius and Pasqual axons Bielschowski bacteria +/- Gram +/- basement membrane JMS and PAS bilirubin Hall's bilirubin calcium Von Kossa cartilage and mucin Alcian Blue/PAS chlamydia PVK connective tissue and muscle

Pawlowski, Wojtek

83

One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice.  

PubMed

Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses. PMID:21872779

Souza, Marcy J

2011-09-01

84

Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.  

PubMed

The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

2014-08-01

85

Managing animal health status information in the cattle market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the problem of information in the cattle market, particularly as it relates to the status of animal health, and discusses ways to limit it with the view to improving social surplus. Against this background, it aims to achieve three major objectives. Firstly, it describes the ways of improving the level of information through such schemes as Conventional

Olivier Rat-Aspert; Habtu T. Weldegebriel; Alistair W. Stott; C. Fourichon

2008-01-01

86

Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.  

PubMed

The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia. PMID:18819679

Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

2008-08-01

87

Page 1 of 3 Animal Health Fact Sheet  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 3 Animal Health Fact Sheet September 5, 2012 Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis What? There is a vaccine available for use in horses that does an excellent job of protecting them from EEE. The frequency of vaccination is based on the horse, the environment, and several other factors. All horse owners should consult

Hayden, Nancy J.

88

Forages for Grazing Animal Health AGRICULTURE IN 2008  

E-print Network

; and isoflavones to mimic estrogenic activity. Genetic transformation of forage plants to express novel bio-active proteins also has potential to impact animal health issues. One exciting possibility is the genetic transformation of a forage crop (grass or legume) to ex- press a novel Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal

89

Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

Gill, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

90

[Eco-pathologies: effect on public health and animal health].  

PubMed

This study emphasizes on pathologies which rates are increasing due to human activities that alter the environment such as industries, deforestación, etc.... This ecopathologies are different from those caused by occasional natural agents. On the contrary, the agents responsible for these pathologies include gases such as CO2, NO and SO, released to the atmosphere, metals such as mercury, cupper, plumb, cadmium and chrome, contaminating soil and water, and pathogens of protein nature, i.e. prions, extended through the utilisation of feed of animal origin in intensive farming. PMID:11455755

Pérez Pérez, F

2001-01-01

91

Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

1999-01-01

92

Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle  

PubMed Central

There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492

2011-01-01

93

78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine...Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...collecting data on livestock health. Participation in any NAHMS study is voluntary, and...

2013-04-24

94

CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to A new independent body for animal health: A modern  

E-print Network

health research, both to directly improve animal health and to improve understanding at the human-animal on the implications of the proposals for animal research. Question 2: Comments are invited on the proposals for a new to have one locus for animal health policy responsibilities such as research and development; surveillance

Rambaut, Andrew

95

Public health implications of animals in retail food outlets.  

PubMed

Growing societal interest to permit animals into retail food outlets presents both risks and benefits to the dining public and consumers. This article summarizes a literature review that evaluated the associated potential public health issues related to this subject. Using the EBSCOhost research protocol and Google search engines between March 2010 and June 2011, the authors have compiled and synthesized scientific research articles, empirical scientific literature, and publicly available news media. While pets are known carriers of bacteria and parasites, among others, the relative risk associated with specific pet-human interactions in the dining public has yet to be established in a clear and consistent manner. Much of the available health-risk-factor evidence reflects pets in domestic conditions and interaction with farm animals. Special consideration is recommended for vulnerable populations such as children, asthmatics, the elderly, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised. PMID:24437046

Dyjack, David T; Ho, Jessica; Lynes, Rahel; Lynes, Rachel; Bliss, Jesse C

2013-12-01

96

Concepts of Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Livestock Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) developed four new ethical principles of organic\\u000a agriculture to guide its future development: the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. The key distinctive concept\\u000a of animal welfare in organic agriculture combines naturalness and human care, and can be linked meaningfully with these principles.\\u000a In practice, a number of challenges

Mette VaarstHugo; Hugo F. Alrøe

97

Health risks associated with animal waste from intensive livestock units.  

PubMed

Potential health risks associated with animal waste arise as a consequence of direct microbial problems particularly salmonellosis, indirect microbial problems arising from drug resistance etc., toxic residues from therapeutic or prophylactic agents, or from poisonous gases generated in liquid waste. The biggest of these hazards arises from direct microbial problems but fortunately experience in the UK suggests that these problems can be controlled reasonably well if sensible action is taken both at the planning and operative stages. PMID:386865

Stevens, A J

1978-01-01

98

Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

PubMed Central

A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

2007-01-01

99

Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S

2007-02-01

100

Recycling biowaste--human and animal health problems.  

PubMed

Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use. PMID:11995393

Albihn, A

2001-01-01

101

78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission, APHIS operates the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS...practices and challenges, including animal identification, fencing, animal care and handling, trade and movement, and disease testing; Describe the...

2013-09-23

102

76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...surveillance programs are maintained, and the owners of animals involved with animal disease control or surveillance programs. Such...or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing laboratories. Employee, cooperator, and...

2011-11-28

103

Malaria diagnostic capacity in health facilities in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment is one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria in Ethiopia where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are sympatric and require different treatment regimens. Microscopy is the standard for malaria diagnosis at the health centres and hospitals whereas rapid diagnostic tests are used at community-level health posts. The current study was designed to assess malaria microscopy capacity of health facilities in Oromia Regional State and Dire Dawa Administrative City, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2011 in 122 health facilities, where health professionals were interviewed using a pre-tested, standardized assessment tool and facilities’ laboratory practices were assessed by direct observation. Results Of the 122 assessed facilities, 104 (85%) were health centres and 18 (15%) were hospitals. Out of 94 health facilities reportedly performing blood films, only 34 (36%) used both thin and thick smears for malaria diagnosis. The quality of stained slides was graded in 66 health facilities as excellent, good and poor quality in 11(17%), 31 (47%) and 24 (36%) respectively. Quality assurance guidelines and malaria microscopy standard operating procedures were found in only 13 (11%) facilities and 12 (10%) had involved in external quality assessment activities, and 32 (26%) had supportive supervision within six months of the survey. Only seven (6%) facilities reported at least one staff’s participation in malaria microscopy refresher training during the previous 12 months. Although most facilities, 96 (79%), had binocular microscopes, only eight (7%) had the necessary reagents and supplies to perform malaria microscopy. Treatment guidelines for malaria were available in only 38 (31%) of the surveyed facilities. Febrile patients with negative malaria laboratory test results were managed with artemether-lumefantrine or chloroquine in 51% (53/104) of assessed health facilities. Conclusions The current study indicated that most of the health facilities had basic infrastructure and equipment to perform malaria laboratory diagnosis but with significant gaps in continuous laboratory supplies and reagents, and lack of training and supportive supervision. Overcoming these gaps will be critical to ensure that malaria laboratory diagnosis is of high-quality for better patient management. PMID:25073561

2014-01-01

104

Animal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority  

E-print Network

measures necessary for animal research and forward proposed experimental chemical and radioactive useAnimal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority California Code in laboratory animal facilities or have substantial animal contact. The National Institute of Health (NIH

de Lijser, Peter

105

Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health.  

PubMed

The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brownstein, John S; Madoff, Lawrence C; McCraw, Sarah L; Gurr, Sarah J

2012-04-12

106

Economic and Social Impact of Science at the Institute for Animal Health  

E-print Network

Economic and Social Impact of Science at the Institute for Animal Health Background 1 Controlling community 8 Publications 8 BACKGROUND The Institute for Animal Health (IAH) has the mission 'to deliver high in controlling outbreaks of disease and qualitatively improving animal health. This is part of the Governments

Rambaut, Andrew

107

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza  

E-print Network

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 2 Animal are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic

Kammen, Daniel M.

108

Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.  

PubMed

Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

Deckers, Jan

2013-03-01

109

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

110

Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.  

PubMed

Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

2014-03-01

111

Improved diagnosis for nine viral diseases considered as notifiable by the world organization for animal health.  

PubMed

Nine viral diseases included in the World Organization for Animal Health list of notifiable diseases (former list A) were chosen for their contagiousness and high capacity of spreading to improve their diagnosis using new and emerging technologies. All the selected diseases--foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis, classical swine fever, African swine fever, bluetongue, African horse sickness, Newcastle disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza--are considered as transboundary diseases, which detection causes the prohibition of livestock exportation, and, thus, it leads to high economical losses. The applied diagnostic techniques can fall into two categories: (i) nucleic-acid detection, including padlock probes, real-time PCR with TaqMan, minor groove binding probes and fluorescence energy transfer reaction probes, isothermal amplification like the Cleavase/Invader assay or the loop-mediated amplification technology and the development of rapid kits for 'mobile' PCR and (ii) antigen-antibody detection systems like simplified and more sensitive ELISA tests. Besides, internal controls have been improved for nucleic acid-detecting methods by using an RNA plant virus--Cowpea Mosaic Virus--to ensure the stability of the RNA used as a positive control in diagnostic real-time RT-PCR assays. The development of these diagnosis techniques has required the joint efforts of a European consortium in which nine diagnostic laboratories and an SME who have collaborated since 2004 within the European Union-funded Lab-on-site project. The results obtained are shown in this paper. PMID:18666965

Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Uttenthal, A; Rasmussen, T B; Hakhverdyan, M; King, D P; Ferris, N P; Ebert, K; Reid, S M; Kiss, I; Brocchi, E; Cordioli, P; Hjerner, B; McMenamy, M; McKillen, J; Ahmed, J S; Belak, S

2008-08-01

112

Respiratory Health Effects of Large Animal Farming Environments  

PubMed Central

With increases in large animal-feeding operations to meet consumer demand, adverse upper and lower respiratory health effects in exposed agriculture workers is a concern. The aim of this study was to review large animal confinement feeding operational exposures associated with respiratory disease with focus on recent advances in the knowledge of causative factors and cellular and immunological mechanisms. A PubMed search was conducted with the following keywords: airway, farm, swine, dairy, horse, cattle inflammation, organic dust, endotoxin, and peptidoglycan that were published between 1980 and current. Articles were selected based on their relevance to environmental exposure and reference to airway diseases. Airway diseases included rhinitis, sinusitis, mucus membrane inflammation syndrome, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome. There is lower prevalence of IgE-mediated asthma and atopy in farmers and their children, but organic dust worsens existing asthma. Multiple etiologic factors are linked to disease including allergens, organic dusts, endotoxins, peptidoglycans and gases. Large animal confinement feeding operations contain a wide-diversity of microbes with increasing focus on Gram-positive bacteria and archeabacteria as opposed to Gram-negative bacteria in mediating disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like innate immune pathways respond to these exposures. Finally, a chronic inflammatory adaptation, tolerance-like response in chronically exposed workers occurs. Large animal confinement farming exposures produces a wide spectrum of upper and lower respiratory tract diseases due to the complex diversity of organic dust, particulates, microbial cell wall components and gases and resultant activation of various innate immune receptor signaling pathways. PMID:23199220

May, Sara; Romberger, Debra J.; Poole, Jill A.

2014-01-01

113

77 FR 42255 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Animal Health Monitoring System; Layers 2013 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...the Layers 2013 Study will be used for...of automated, electronic, mechanical...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2012-07-18

114

Who Monitors the Use of Animals in United States Department of Agriculture -Animal and Plant Health  

E-print Network

by a designated committee Animal defined as "any vertebrate animal used in research, teaching or testing". #12 and facilities Review all protocols describing animal use; procedures may not begin until protocols are approved compounds in the laboratory prior to testing in an animal model #12;

115

Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

Girolamo, Francesco Di; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

2014-01-01

116

Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood. Diagnostic Classification: 0-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multidisciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

Wieder, Serena, Ed.

117

Diagnostic Classification 0-3: Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multi-disciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.

118

Administrator's Guide for Animal Facilitated Therapy Programs in Federal Health Care Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Animal facilitated therapy has positively impacted upon a wide variety of both in-patient and outpatient medical treatment programs. This study outlines a variety of issues and answers surrounding the inclusion of animals into health care organizations an...

T. E. Catanzaro

1983-01-01

119

9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...import_export/animals/reg_request...have been reported in domestic livestock...have been reported in wildlife for at least the past...recognition of their animal health status, the...information submitted in accordance with...

2013-01-01

120

Animals as Sentinels of Human Environmental Health Hazards: An Evidence-Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recognition that animals could be serving as sentinels for environmental risks to human health, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the use of animal sentinel data in human health \\u000adecision making. We performed a systematic review of the animal sentinel literature to assess the evidence linking such events to human health. A search of MEDLINE identified peer-reviewed original studies

Peter M. Rabinowitz; Zimra Gordon; Rebecca Holmes; Brynn Taylor; Matthew Wilcox; Daniel Chudnov; Prakash Nadkarni; F. Joshua Dein

2005-01-01

121

Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

2010-01-01

122

Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

2011-10-01

123

Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

2012-03-01

124

CYTOTECHNOLOGISTS are health professionals who practice diagnostic cytology, the examination of cells removed from all body  

E-print Network

1 #12;2 #12;3 CYTOTECHNOLOGISTS are health professionals who practice diagnostic cytology abnormalities and to correlate cytologic findings with clinical information before a diagnosis is rendered Outlook The use of diagnostic cytology as a tool in the early detection of cancer has increased throughout

Cheng, Mei-Fang

125

UNCG Health and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research  

E-print Network

UNCG Health and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research PREFACE and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research (HSPUSTR) is to prevent occupational effective interactions among researchers, the Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), the Consulting

Saidak, Filip

126

UNAUTHORISED USAGE OF VETERINARY DRUGS AS A POTENTIAL RISK TO HUMAN AND ANIMAL HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the developed world the sustainable rearing of food producing animals depends a great deal on the use of veterinary medicines - pharmacologically active compounds. Their usage is fundamental to achieving a desirable level of animal and public health protection. This is particularly necessary in highly industrialized animal production systems. In addition, their use may be required to achieve acceptable

Ksenija BANOVI?; Vedran POLJAK; Mirjana BABAN

127

An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in mental health. The techniques and intentions, along with demographic queries, were

Dana M. OCallaghan; Cynthia K. Chandler

2011-01-01

128

COMMUNITY-BASED ANIMAL HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEMS: IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF VETERINARY SERVICE DELIVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to give a brief introduction to community-based animal health workers (CAHW). It will refer the reader to sources of more detailed information not only on the modalities of establishing quality community-based animal health worker delivery systems but also on those CAHW issues that veterinary policy makers should appreciate in order to make rational decisions on improving the

Tim Leyland; Andy Catley

129

Introduction: the provision of animal health services in a changing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have

C. de Haan

2004-01-01

130

Functional genomics: tools for improving farm animal health and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The first genome sequence assemblies of farm animal species are now accessible through public domain databases, and further sequencing projects are in rapid progress. In addition, large collections of expressed sequences have been obtained, which will aid in constructing annotated transcript maps for many economically important species. Thus, the breeding of farm animals is entering the post-genome era. Functional

S. Hiendleder; S. Bauersachs; A. Boulesteix; H. Blum; G. J. Arnold; T. Fröhlich

2005-01-01

131

Using Animation as an Information Tool to Advance Health Research Literacy among Minority Participants  

PubMed Central

Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video’s cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants’ ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

2013-01-01

132

Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.  

PubMed

Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

2013-01-01

133

Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and envi- ronmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, \\

Kelley J. Donham; Steven Wing; David Osterberg; Jan L. Flora; Carol Hodne; Kendall M. Thu; Peter S. Thorne

2006-01-01

134

Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development  

PubMed Central

The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

Delwart, Eric

2012-01-01

135

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Griffith, Christopher

136

Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.  

PubMed Central

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health. PMID:1600580

1992-01-01

137

Animal Health and Management and Their Impact on Economic Efficiency1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between animal health and economic efficiency were examined using data from genetic investigations and management studies. Genetic investiga- tions have indicated that cows bred for high production do require more health care, but that increased costs for health care negate only a small fraction of the greater returns from cows that are genet- ically superior for yield traits. These

C. W. Young; V. R. Eidman; J. K. Reneau

1985-01-01

138

Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.  

PubMed

The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training. PMID:20128484

Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

2009-08-01

139

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

140

Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

2011-01-01

141

Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic

A. Kijlstra; I. A. J. M. Eijck

2006-01-01

142

Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

Jonas, Albert M.

1984-01-01

143

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2011-01-01

144

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2010-01-01

145

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2014-01-01

146

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2013-01-01

147

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2012-01-01

148

Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.  

PubMed

Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

2014-05-01

149

76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0076...Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

2011-08-31

150

75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0073...Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

2010-08-26

151

[Update - health risks induced by ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging].  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate. PMID:24297861

Knüsli, Claudio; Walter, Martin

2013-12-01

152

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia,

Kathleen N. Colby; Julie K. Levy; Kiri F. Dunn; Rachel I. Michaud

2011-01-01

153

Monoclonal antibodies in animal production; their use in diagnostics and passive immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in

P. Booman

1989-01-01

154

Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary. PMID:23905014

Kassiri, Hamid; Amani, Hamid; Lotfi, Massoud

2013-01-01

155

Gaps in the evidence about companion animals and human health: some suggestions for progress.  

PubMed

A number of researchers have explored the relationship between companion animal ownership and human physical and psychological health. Results have been inconclusive, with positive, neutral and negative effects variously reported in the literature. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of any influence are frustratingly unclear. A number of conceptual and methodological weaknesses have hampered progress in our understanding of how companion animals may impact upon human health. The two evidence gaps discussed in this paper, with suggestions for needed next steps, are: (i) a preponderance of anecdotal reports and cross-sectional research designs; and (ii) failure to control for a host of other known influences on human health including health habits, level of attachment to the companion animal and human social supports. Finally, an example of these gaps is provided in relation to the literature on the effects of animals on elderly nursing home residents. PMID:21199382

Chur-Hansen, Anna; Stern, Cindy; Winefield, Helen

2010-09-01

156

Discussion Guide - Units 8 - 9 - People and Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Units covered in this section are: Unit 8 - Animal Health and the Environment Unit 9 -Some Biomedical Success Stories Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

157

Gut microbiota-generated metabolites in animal health and disease.  

PubMed

Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. We describe the different roles of gut microbiome activity and their metabolites in regulating distinct host physiology and the molecular mechanisms by which gut metabolites cause physiological homeostasis via regulating specific host signaling pathways. Future studies in this direction using different animal models will provide the key concepts to understanding the evolutionarily conserved chemical dialogues between gut microbiota and metazoan cells and also human diseases associated with gut microbiota and metabolites. PMID:24838170

Lee, Won-Jae; Hase, Koji

2014-06-01

158

An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

2011-01-01

159

Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

Parshall, Debra Phillips

2003-01-01

160

Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

Enticott, Gareth

2012-01-01

161

Disease prevention and preparedness for animal health emergencies in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The animal health situation in the Middle East is particularly unfavourable, as this area is exposed to many serious animal diseases. The Middle East is ill-prepared to institute disease prevention and control measures, due to deficiencies at both national and regional levels. Early detection, diagnosis and reporting of diseases must become a priority within these countries and effective communication

A. Shimshony; P. Economides

162

Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers’ welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition,

G. A. Kaasschieter; R. de Jong; J. B. Schiere; D. Zwart

1992-01-01

163

A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services  

PubMed Central

Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

2008-01-01

164

Scientific Opinion of the Scientific Committee Food Safety, Animal Health and Welfare and Environmental Impact of Animals1 derived from Cloning by Somatic Cell Nucleus Transfer (SCNT) and their Offspring and Products Obtained from those Animals2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In 2007 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on the food safety, animal health, animal welfare and environmental implications of animal clones, obtained through somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) technique, of their progeny and of the products obtained from those animals. In view of the multidisciplinary nature of

Sue Barlow; Andrew Chesson; John D. Collins; Albert Flynn; Anthony Hardy; Ada Knaap; Jan Schans; Josef Schlatter; Vittorio Silano; Staffan Skerfving; Philippe Vannier

165

What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

2007-01-01

166

Research on animal health and welfare in organic farming—a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic standards aim at good livestock health and welfare. A literature search on organic animal health and welfare was performed in October–November 2001 to investigate how well these aims compare with reality, and to see what areas have been researched. The search also made it apparent that national and historical differences in organic standards and in the way organic farming

Vonne Lund; Bo Algers

2003-01-01

167

System health management and space medicine predictive diagnostics. Common concepts and approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission design for future human exploration spaceflight (moon, asteroids and Mars), with their inherent risks and communications delays, requires a shift in space medicine from a telemedicine paradigm to that of medical autonomy. With the absence of real-time medical ground support, clinical decision support technologies for health monitoring and diagnostics may be required to assist the onboard Crew Medical Officer

Alexandre Popov

2012-01-01

168

Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach  

PubMed Central

Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

2013-01-01

169

Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.  

PubMed

Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

2014-04-01

170

Biosecurity is a process to protect the health of farm animals and the people that take care  

E-print Network

Biosecurity is a process to protect the health of farm animals and the people that take care by rapid response is necessary to protect the American livestock industry. All segments of the animal to other herds you may visit? Are your visits planned in the best order to protect animal health

Bolding, M. Chad

171

Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

Balsam, Joshua Michael

172

[Policies, operational framework and guidelines of the Inter-American Committee on Aquatic Animal Health].  

PubMed

The Americas are home to a large population of aquatic animals, most of which are used in aquaculture. Production systems are diverse and are distributed over a wide and varied geographical area. This presents a challenge for the region, which must be able to meet food safety requirements for aquatic animals traded in the international market. The authors describe the creation of the Inter-American Committee on Aquatic Animal Health (IAC-AAH), as well as its composition, operation, objectives, the activities of the groups that form the Committee and the various activities conducted so far. PMID:18666479

Martínez, B; Tella, S Koloffon; McGladdery, S; Enríquez, R

2008-04-01

173

Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees*†  

PubMed Central

The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565

Steelman, Susan C.

2014-01-01

174

Policy on the Occupational Health & Safety Program in the Care and Use of Animals in Research and Instruction  

E-print Network

Policy on the Occupational Health & Safety Program in the Care and Use of Animals in Research for Research, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and Regional FirstCare's Occupational Health Service (RFC OHS). The National Research Council's Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use

Arnold, Jonathan

175

Operational modelling to guide implementation and scale-up of diagnostic tests within the health system: exploring opportunities for parasitic disease diagnostics based on example application for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Research and innovation in the diagnosis of infectious and parasitic diseases has led to the development of several promising diagnostic tools, for example in malaria there is extensive literature concerning the use of rapid diagnostic tests. This means policymakers in many low and middle income countries need to make difficult decisions about which of the recommended tools and approaches to implement and scale-up. The test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of the tools alone are not a sufficient basis on which to make these decisions as policymakers need to also consider the best combination of tools, whether the new tools should complement or replace existing diagnostics and who should be tested. Diagnostic strategies need dovetailing to different epidemiology and structural resource constraints (e.g. existing diagnostic pathways, human resources and laboratory capacity). We propose operational modelling to assist with these complex decisions. Projections of patient, health system and cost impacts are essential and operational modelling of the relevant elements of the health system could provide these projections and support rational decisions. We demonstrate how the technique of operational modelling applied in the developing world to support decisions on diagnostics for tuberculosis, could in a parallel way, provide useful insights to support implementation of appropriate diagnostic innovations for parasitic diseases. PMID:25035934

Langley, Ivor; Adams, Emily; Doulla, Basra; Squire, S Bertel

2014-12-01

176

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

Pantosti, Annalisa

2012-01-01

177

Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio\\/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery

B. B. Chomel; N. Marano

178

The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits of sexually selected colourants?  

E-print Network

REVIEW The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits used to become colourful also have antioxidant and immunoregulatory properties that allow individuals exhibit antioxidant activity in living systems. Thus, many types of pigment-based colour ornaments

McGraw, Kevin J.

179

Review—Animal Waste Used as Livestock Feed: Dangers to Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foodborne illness remains a common and serious problem, despite efforts to improve slaughterhouse inspection and food preparation practices. A potential contributor to this problem that has heretofore escaped serious public health scrutiny is the feeding of animal excrement to livestock, a common practice in some parts of the United States. In 1994, 18% of poultry producers in Arkansas collectively fed

Eric R. Haapapuro; Neal D. Barnard; Michele Simon

1997-01-01

180

DO GENETICALLY ENGINEERED (GE) CROPS IMPACT ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD PRODUCTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically engineered (GE) varieties of alfalfa, a major livestock feedstuff, raises questions about the effects of feeding this product to food-producing animals. There is a wealth of peer-reviewed studies examining the effects of feeding GE crops to livestock. Hundreds of scientific studies have found no difference in the productive performance or health of livestock that have been

Alison Van Eenennaam

181

College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine  

E-print Network

of ecology, evolution or organismal biology. To undertake administration as requested by the Director biology and ecology with that in comparative and veterinary medicine. Unique in the UK, the range of our. Investigating key questions in environmental change, emerging diseases, and animal and ecosystem health requires

Glasgow, University of

182

College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine  

E-print Network

of ecology, evolution or organismal biology. To undertake administration as requested by the Director and ecology with that in comparative and veterinary medicine. Unique in the UK, the range of our studies spans in environmental change, emerging diseases, and animal and ecosystem health requires an integration of empirical

Glasgow, University of

183

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012  

E-print Network

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012 I. USDA/AES Funds USDA and Colorado Agriculture Experiment Station funds funds. Multistate projects are listed at lgu.umd.edu/lgu_v2/ and www

Stephens, Graeme L.

184

Downloaded: 14 Nov 2008journals.cambridge.org How will public and animal health interventions drive  

E-print Network

Downloaded: 14 Nov 2008journals.cambridge.org How will public and animal health interventions drive, such as chemotherapy and vaccination, alter parasite survival and repro- duction, the main selective pressures shaping models of long-lasting interventions, such as vaccination, and regularly repeated short interventions

Read, Andrew

185

Page 1 of 3 Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 3 Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine BAH-Science 4.; Kaare, M.; Haydon, D.T. Metapopulation dynamics of rabies and the efficacy of vaccination PROCEEDINGS) Evaluation of cost-effective strategies for rabies post-exposure vaccination in low-income countries. PLo

Guo, Zaoyang

186

Modelling the economics of animal health control programs using dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new application of an optimization tool, dynamic programming (DP), is described to model the economics of animal health control programs. To demonstrate the value of this technique, a model is applied to determine optimal net benefits of controlling East Coast fever (ECF) in Malawi Zebu cattle in the Lilongwe plateau. The objective function was the present value of net

David C. Hall; Harry M. Kaiser; Robert W. Blake

1998-01-01

187

Afghanistan and the development of alternative systems of animal health in the absence of effective government  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study describes the efforts by both non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies to develop an alternative system for delivering animal health services in Afghanistan, during a period in which there was effectively no government. The authors examine the period from the mid-1980s to the year 2003. During this time, Afghanistan experienced war and severe civil unrest, resulting in

B. E. C. Schreuder; D. E. Ward

2004-01-01

188

Center for Animal Health and Food Safety www.cahfs.umn.edu 612-625-8709  

E-print Network

Center for Animal Health and Food Safety www.cahfs.umn.edu 612-625-8709 College of Veterinary do not develop symptoms of disease. Some people may develop an acute lung infection, beginning, bone, or other organs, including the prostate gland, testes, kidneys, and the brain. What

Minnesota, University of

189

Identified and unidentified challenges for reproductive biotechnologies regarding infectious diseases in animal and public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to review the known and theoretical risks for in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos as well as for nuclear transferred or transgenic embryos in terms of animal diseases or diseases of public health consequence. For in vivo derived embryos, a considerable number of experiments and scientific investigations have resulted in recommended

M. Thibier

2001-01-01

190

Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symposium Overview: Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

1995-01-01

191

Animal Health Technicians: A Survey of Program Graduates and of Veterinarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles the reports of two surveys conducted by Cosumnes River College to determine the status of graduates of its Animal Health Technician program, and to assess the acceptance and use of such paraprofessionals by area veterinarians. Information concerning type of employment, state certification, salaries, types of duties, length…

Barsaleau, Richard B.; Walters, Henry R.

192

Making Decisions About Our Animals' Health Care: Does It Matter Whether We Are Owners or Guardians?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of opposition has been mounted against legislation that changes the language describing the relationship between people and their animals from “owner” to “guardian.” One of the primary arguments focuses on the claim that pet “guardians” might be faced with more limited health care choices for their pets. Behind these arguments is the premise that no one should

Susan J. Hankin

2009-01-01

193

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. PMID:21215766

Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

2013-08-01

194

Coherence of animal health, welfare and carcass quality in pork production chains.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to measure the potential impact of animal health and welfare on the carcass quality. 99 pigs under equal housing and feeding conditions were involved in the study. Effects of the immune system on carcass composition, meat quality and performance data of slaughter pigs became measureable by quantification of acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). The results were not significantly affected by gender or breed. The calculated correlations between chosen animal health indicators and carcass quality parameters prove an influence of health and welfare on performance, carcass composition and meat quality traits. The acute phase proteins could also be valuable as a predictive indicator for risk assessment in meat inspection, as increased Hp concentrations in slaughter blood indicate a 16 times higher risk for organ abnormalities and Pig-MAP concentrations above 0.7mg/ml a 10 times higher risk. PMID:23602397

Klauke, Thorsten N; Piñeiro, Matilde; Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia; Plattes, Susanne; Selhorst, Thomas; Petersen, Brigitte

2013-11-01

195

Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

2012-01-01

196

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN...with meat-and-bone meal or greaves derived...

2011-01-01

197

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN...with meat-and-bone meal or greaves derived...

2013-01-01

198

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN...with meat-and-bone meal or greaves derived...

2012-01-01

199

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN...with meat-and-bone meal or greaves derived...

2010-01-01

200

The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

2014-01-01

201

Systems approach to animal health services delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of privatisation.  

PubMed

The theory of privatisation is first reviewed with respect to animal health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Then, using the systems approach advocated in an accompanying paper, the authors argue that the nature of animal production systems obtaining in any economy is of central importance in determining the type and mixture of animal health services delivery systems present. These are influenced, in turn, by the demand placed on the production system by consumers, the levels of consumer income and the policies enacted by governments. The authors compare the situation in sub-Saharan Africa with that in developed countries, especially the United States of America. Theory would predict that privatisation of veterinary services in sub-Saharan Africa will be evolutionary rather than revolutionary, even with deliberate policies to encourage privatisation. In regard to personnel, private services would be much easier to develop on the basis of auxiliaries and technicians, rather than self-employed veterinarians and their associates. Hasty or wholesale privatisation, involving the creation of a cadre of self-employed veterinarians will, in the face of market failure, result in a reduction in the services available to low input/low output production systems. The general level of animal health care provided to certain types of producers will thus be lower than currently available. These theoretical predictions are borne out in practice. PMID:7949344

Mlangwa, J E; Kisauzi, D N

1994-09-01

202

Constraints to the integration of the contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) vaccine into Kenya's animal health delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal health is key to successful livestock production in developing countries. The development and delivery of vaccines against major epidemic diseases is one component of improving animal health. This paper presents a case study from Kenya on the production and delivery of a vaccine against Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a major disease of goats. The vaccine, while technically a viable

Michele E. Lipner; Ralph B. Brown

1995-01-01

203

Veterinary public health: Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the assessment of consumer risks of residues of tetracyclines in slaughter pigs in the Netherlands. The assessed risks were toxic and allergic reactions, and the disturbance of the consumers’ intestinal flora. Toxic and allergic reactions in humans and animals have only been observed at therapeutic doses, affecting between an estimated 1 in 5000 and one 1 in

B. R. Berends; A. E. J. M. van den Bogaard; F. Van Knapen; J. M. A. Snijders

2001-01-01

204

Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141

Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

2014-06-01

205

Animal health studies using participatory epidemiology in the Mandrare Valley, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Pastoral herders in Madagascar have limited access to animal health workers and veterinary medicines, and more information on their livestock diseases is needed, so that effective animal health programmes can be implemented. In this study, participatory epidemiology methods were used to gather such information in the Mandrare Valley. These included pair-wise ranking and matrix scoring. Eleven diseases were deemed to be priorities by pair-wise ranking. Matrix scoring and characterisation showed that the informant groups associated many disease syndromes with the same diseases, indicating agreement and understanding of the key diseases. The Malagasy-named syndromes, Soko, Besorko and Mamany lio, which are gastrointestinal parasitism, clostridial disease and babesiosis, respectively, were identified by every informant group. A greater sample size may be needed to characterise the diseases precisely with matrix scoring because, in this study, the matrices' scores had wide confidence intervals. PMID:23999777

Bardsley, Elise L; Thrusfield, Michael V

2014-01-01

206

Bracken-associated human and animal health hazards: chemical, biological and pathological evidence.  

PubMed

Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is a widely distributed carcinogenic fern, to whose toxins human populations are exposed through multiple routes. Animals are also affected by bracken toxins, leading to serious production losses yearly. Accordingly, several governmental reports regarding the safeguard of public health against bracken carcinogens have been recently issued. This review describes the main bioactive compounds identified in bracken and their biological effects at the molecular, cellular, pathological and populational levels, with particular emphasis on ptaquiloside, the main bracken carcinogen. Recent biopathological studies shedding further light on the genotoxicity immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity of ptaquiloside are discussed. Key steps on the long effort to understand bracken toxicology are also reviewed, along with the latest findings on new bracken toxins and human exposures routes. The presence of ptaquiloside and related terpene glycosides in milk, meat and water are of particular concern from the viewpoints of both human and animal health. PMID:22226718

Gil da Costa, R M; Bastos, M M S M; Oliveira, P A; Lopes, C

2012-02-15

207

Health Is Associated With Antiparasite Behavior and Fear of Disease-Relevant Animals in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary arms races between humans and parasites resulted in a set of behavioral adaptations that serve as parasite-avoidance mechanisms. We investigated associations among reported health of the respondent, antiparasite behavior, and sensitivity to disgust and fear of disease-relevant and irrelevant animals. Ninety-seven participants (15–19 years old) rated their fear and disgust at 25 colorful pictures of disease-relevant and disease-irrelevant invertebrates.

Pavol Prokop; Jana Fan?ovi?ová; Peter Fedor

2010-01-01

208

Innovations in Companion Animal Health Introducing dynamic new treatments, developing stronger diagnostic tools, pioneering veterinary disciplines,  

E-print Network

that school faculty members have achieved. The vital role of taurine in the feline diet ­ Veterinary shelter medicine program ­ The UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program and residency have radically

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

209

Lavender Foal Syndrome Sample Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center LAB USE ONLY  

E-print Network

PER FORM *Owner's name ________________________________________________ Veterinarian Account number of a licensed veterinarian. The veterinarian's information is required only for those samples submitted under the account of a licensed veterinarian. It will be the veterinarian's responsibility to provide results

Keinan, Alon

210

Occupational health and safety aspects of animal handling in dairy production.  

PubMed

Livestock handling in dairy production is associated with a number of health and safety issues. A large number of fatal and nonfatal injuries still occur when handling livestock. The many animal handling tasks on a dairy farm include moving cattle between different locations, vaccination, administration of medication, hoof care, artificial insemination, ear tagging, milking, and loading onto trucks. There are particular problems with bulls, which continue to cause considerable numbers of injuries and fatalities in dairy production. In order to reduce the number of injuries during animal handling on dairy farms, it is important to understand the key factors in human-animal interactions. These include handler attitudes and behavior, animal behavior, and fear in cows. Care when in close proximity to the animal is the key for safe handling, including knowledge of the flight zone, and use of the right types of tools and suitable restraint equipment. Thus, in order to create safe working conditions during livestock handling, it is important to provide handlers with adequate training and to establish sound safety management procedures on the farm. PMID:23844794

Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Hagevoort, G Robert; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Douphrate, David I; Pinzke, Stefan; Grandin, Temple

2013-01-01

211

Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios  

SciTech Connect

E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in a major site of e-waste dumping such as West Africa. Therefore, considerations are also given on data gaps possibly fitting a systematic risk assessment of the e-waste health impacts in different subscenarios as well as possible protective factors for exposed subpopulations.

Frazzoli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.frazzoli@iss.i [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Orisakwe, Orish Ebere [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, College of Health Sciences Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Dragone, Roberto [Institute of Nanostructured Materials (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, at the Department of Chemistry of the 'Sapienza' University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy)

2010-11-15

212

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines  

PubMed Central

Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

Krogh, Carmen ME

2014-01-01

213

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.  

PubMed

In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

2014-10-01

214

The impact of health on individual retirement plans: self-reported versus diagnostic measures.  

PubMed

We reassess the impact of health on retirement plans of older workers using a unique survey-register match-up which allows comparing the retirement effects of potentially biased survey self-reports of health to those of unbiased register-based diagnostic measures. The aim is to investigate whether even for narrowly defined health measures a divergence exists in the impacts of health on retirement between self-reported health and objective physician-reported health. Our sample consists of older workers and retirees drawn from a Danish panel survey from 1997 and 2002, merged to longitudinal register data. Estimation of measurement error-reduced and selection-corrected pooled OLS and fixed effects models of retirement show that receiving a medical diagnosis is an important determinant of retirement planning for both men and women, in fact more important than economic factors. The type of diagnosis matters, however. For men, the largest reduction in planned retirement age occurs for a diagnosis of lung disease while for women it occurs for musculo-skeletal disease. Except for cardiovascular disease, diagnosed disease is more influential in men's retirement planning than in women's. Our study provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self-reports of health conditions with diffuse symptoms to the study of labor market outcomes. On the other hand, self-reported cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure does not appear to bias the estimated impact on planned retirement. PMID:19582695

Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

2010-07-01

215

Environmental health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations: anticipating hazards--searching for solutions.  

PubMed

A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans. PMID:17384781

Thorne, Peter S

2007-02-01

216

Reasons for relinquishment of companion animals in U.S. animal shelters: Selected health and personal issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In personal interviews, people surrendering their dogs and cats to 12 animal shelters in 4 regions of the country discussed their reasons for relinquishing their companion animals and answered questions about their own characteristics and those of their pet. The interviews identified 71 reasons for relinquishment. Personal issues lead the class of reasons for relinquishment of cats and ranked 3rd

Jennifer M Scarlett; M D Salman; New John C. Jr; Philip Kass

1999-01-01

217

Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.  

PubMed

In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines the alternative delivery systems that are emerging in the developing world and their strengths and weaknesses. The implications for food safety and trade are specifically highlighted. Also included are the practical experiences of countries, from all along the development continuum, that have introduced alternative systems. This paper deals with implications for the future, and while the growing importance of veterinary care for companion animals is acknowledged, the focus is on veterinary services for food animals. PMID:15200084

de Haan, C

2004-04-01

218

Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.  

PubMed

For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. PMID:22958252

Levings, Randall L

2012-09-01

219

Animal health policy principles for highly pathogenic avian influenza: shared experience from China and Canada.  

PubMed

Animal health policy for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) must, for the time being, be based on expert opinion and shared international experience. We used the intellectual capital and knowledge of experienced Chinese and Canadian practitioners and policy makers to inform policy options for China and find shared policy elements applicable to both countries. No peer-reviewed comprehensive evaluations or systematic regulatory impact assessments of animal health policies were found. Sixteen guiding policy principles emerged from our thematic analysis of Chinese and Canadian policies. We provide a list of shared policy goals, targets and elements for HPAI preparedness, response and recovery. Policy elements clustered in a manner consistent with core public health competencies. Complex situations like HPAI require complex and adaptive policies, yet policies that cross jurisdictions and are fully integrated across agencies are rare. We encourage countries to develop or deploy capacity to undertake and publish regulatory impact assessments and policy evaluation to identify policy needs and provide a basis for evidence-based policy development. PMID:20819200

Stephen, C; Ninghui, L; Yeh, F; Zhang, L

2011-08-01

220

A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.  

PubMed

Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P???0.05), lower calf mortality (P???0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P???0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P???0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P???0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P???0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

2014-10-01

221

Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.  

PubMed

We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication. PMID:18952731

Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

2009-02-01

222

Diagnostic Work-Up of Neurological Syndromes in a Rural African Setting: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Health Care Providers  

PubMed Central

Background Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. Results Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a “diviner” do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. Conclusion Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach. PMID:25340726

Mpanya, Alain; Boelaert, Marleen; Baloji, Sylvain; Matangila, Junior; Lubanza, Symphorien; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Chappuis, Francois; Lutumba, Pascal; Hendrickx, David

2014-01-01

223

Animals, Research, and Health "At the University of Toronto, animals are recognized as creatures of great intrinsic  

E-print Network

. In addition, scientists have developed new ways of dealing with other forms of serious illness, such as heart procedures, such as organ transplants. Only after these treatments have been proven to work safely on animals

Sokolowski, Marla

224

New Approaches to Improved Animal Health: Systems Biology and Modeling of Real Interactions of Pathogens and their Hosts  

E-print Network

New Approaches to Improved Animal Health: Systems Biology and Modeling of Real Interactions for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines · Prevent disease manifestations, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis, and vaccine formulation and deliveryare expected to enable enhanced

225

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA No. 2004-0123-2939, City of Liberal Animal Shelter, Liberal, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 2004, the City of Liberal, Kansas, asked the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for help in evaluating carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of employees that operate two euthanasia chambers at the city-run animal shelter. ...

2004-01-01

226

Does the use of antibiotics in food animals pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of antibiotics in food animals selects for bacteria resistant to antibiotics used in humans, and these might spread via the food to humans and cause human infection, hence the banning of growth-promoters. The actual danger seems small, and there might be disadvantages to human and to animal health. The low dosages used for growth promotion are an unquantified

Ian Phillips; Mark Casewell; Tony Cox; Brad De Groot; Christian Friis; Ron Jones; Charles Nightingale; Rodney Preston; John Waddell

227

Providing excellence in veterinary diagnostic services. FY 2010-2011 Exceptional Item  

E-print Network

that threaten Texas livestock and public health. · Expands the current diagnostic testing and animal disease and eradication of tick-borne and other vector-borne diseases of animal and public health significance. (Agri our southern border threaten both the economic viability of the agricultural (e.g. animal production

228

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

229

University leadership for innovation in global health and HIV/AIDS diagnostics.  

PubMed

Medical products used in the developed world often fail to adequately serve resource-limited settings where electricity, transportation and health care workers are not readily available. We suggest that the problem is not only a lack of coordinated financial resources to purchase existing medical products, but also a lack of products that are specifically designed for resource-limited settings. While donor organisations with a focus on global health are increasingly willing to bear the additional financial risk for the research and development of such high-impact medical products, corporations are still reluctant to take their best scientists and engineers away from more commercially attractive projects. Universities, on the other hand, given their teaching and research missions, are well positioned to engage in such high-risk development projects. A group of biomedical, engineering, business and social science researchers at Northwestern University (NU) propose a creative model to address significant social and health needs. The team's initial product focus is a rapid test for diagnosing infants with HIV. The NU model aligns the incentives and expertise of industry, donors and academia to innovate medical products, such as the infant HIV diagnostic test, for resource-limited settings. PMID:20119876

Palamountain, K M; Stewart, K A; Krauss, A; Kelso, D; Diermeier, D

2010-01-01

230

Hoarding of animals: an under-recognized public health problem in a difficult-to-study population.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to better characterize the problem of hoarding, or pathological collecting, of animals. METHODS: The author summarized data from a convenience sample of 54 case reports from 10 animal control agencies and humane societies across the country. RESULTS: The majority (76%) of hoarders were female, and 46% were 60 years of age or older. About half of the hoarders lived in single-person households. The animals most frequently involved were cats, dogs, farm animals, and birds. The median number of animals per case was 39, but there were four cases of more than 100 animals in a household. In 80% of cases animals were reportedly found dead or in poor condition. Prevalence estimates extrapolated from these data range from 700 to 2000 U.S. cases annually. CONCLUSIONS: Public health authorities should recognize that animal hoarding may be a sentinel for mental health problems or dementia, which merit serious assessment and prompt intervention. Improved cooperation between humane societies and public health authorities could facilitate the resolution of animal hoarding cases. PMID:9925176

Patronek, G J

1999-01-01

231

Detection of small trace molecules in human and animal exhalation by tunable diode lasers for applications in biochemistry and medical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, CO2, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is no need for any preliminary preparations of tested samples. Some pairs of the gases, for instance, CO and CO2, NH3 and CO2 and CO and N2O, can be measured simultaneously by one laser providing complex studies. The high sensitive gas analysis could provide necessary background to the noninvasive diagnostics in a wide variety of medical problems. Perspectives of the TDLS methods in application to medicine diagnostics are demonstrated by the first results of exhalation tests.

Stepanov, Eugene V.; Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Galagan, Marina E.

1995-02-01

232

A Model-based Health Monitoring and Diagnostic System for the UH-60 Helicopter. Appendix D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-based reasoning techniques hold much promise in providing comprehensive monitoring and diagnostics capabilities for complex systems. We are exploring the use of one of these techniques, which utilizes multi-signal modeling and the TEAMS-RT real-time diagnostic engine, on the UH-60 Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) flight research aircraft. We focus on the engine and transmission systems, and acquire sensor data across the 1553 bus as well as by direct analog-to-digital conversion from sensors to the QHuMS (Qualtech health and usage monitoring system) computer. The QHuMS computer uses commercially available components and is rack-mounted in the RASCAL facility. A multi-signal model of the transmission and engine subsystems enables studies of system testability and analysis of the degree of fault isolation available with various instrumentation suites. The model and examples of these analyses will be described and the data architectures enumerated. Flight tests of this system will validate the data architecture and provide real-time flight profiles to be further analyzed in the laboratory.

Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hindson, William; Sanderfer, Dwight; Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck

2001-01-01

233

Review of current problems and shortcomings in the Tanzanian animal health information system with suggestions on improvement.  

PubMed

Livestock diseases have always been the focus of the Tanzanian Veterinary Authorities. However, they have become more important since the formation of the World Trade Organisation and subsequent implementation of the various multilateral agreements on trade. There is also a strong political desire to improve the animal health status as part of poverty alleviation strategies. As a result there is a need to develop better systems for investigating and reporting of animal diseases. In order to follow the OIE pathway and to obtain a disease free status, reliable evidence of freedom from particular diseases is becoming an issue of major interest. Assessment of the Tanzanian animal health information system revealed two major problems; firstly, the absence of disease information that accurately reflects the health status of the source population, and secondly, an inefficient information management system which is unable to provide useful information on the spatial component of animal health. A strategic approach is proposed that involves the collection of animal health information using active surveillance techniques and the introduction of a geographic information system. This approach should improve the management and reporting of animal health information. PMID:12625383

Kivaria, F M; Kapaga, A M

2002-12-01

234

Spread of resistant bacteria and resistance genes from animals to humans--the public health consequences.  

PubMed

The paper reviews the lines of evidence which link the use of antimicrobial drugs for food animals with the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance in bacteria pathogenic to humans, with a particular focus on the public health aspects. Deductions from the epidemiology of food-borne infections, ecological studies, outbreak investigations, typing studies and direct epidemiological observations show that resistant bacteria are transferred from food animals to man. In addition to transfer in the food chain, exchange of mobile genetic elements among commensal and pathogenic bacteria contributes to the emergence of drug resistance. There is growing evidence that this has measurable consequences for human public health. One consequence is increased transmission supported by unrelated use of anti-microbials in humans. Other consequences are related to reduced efficacy of early empirical treatment, limitations in the choices for treatment after confirmed microbiological diagnosis, and finally a possible coselection of virulence traits. Recent epidemiological studies have measured these consequences in terms of excess mortality associated with resistance, increased duration of illness, and increased risk of invasive illness or hospitalization following infections with resistant Salmonella. PMID:15525367

Mølbak, K

2004-01-01

235

The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre and surveillance of wild animal diseases in Canada.  

PubMed Central

The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCWHC) was established in 1992 as an organization among Canada's 4 veterinary colleges, with a mandate to apply veterinary medicine to wildlife management and conservation in Canada. A major function of the CCWHC is nation-wide surveillance of wild animal diseases. Disease surveillance is conceived as consisting of 4 different activities: detection, diagnosis, information management, and use of information. In the CCWHC surveillance program, detection of disease is carried out by a wide range of professional and avocational field personnel, and much effort is expended to stimulate and support this activity. Diagnosis is done by personnel of provincial and federal veterinary laboratories and the CCWHC. Information management is achieved through a national database of wildlife disease incidents developed and maintained by the CCWHC. Use of information is enabled through established channels for distribution of information derived from the surveillance program to persons responsible for wildlife programs and policies, and to the public. There has been a high demand for the services of the CCWHC since its establishment. The CCWHC responds to approximately 2000 requests for information annually, distributes its newsletter to over 1700 recipients, examines approximately 1200 wild animal submissions each year, and has accumulated records of over 5000 disease incidents in its database. Technical information from the CCWHC has benefited federal, provincial/territorial, and nongovernment wildlife agencies; endangered species recovery programs; federal and provincial veterinary services; and federal and provincial public health programs. Images Figure 1. PMID:9167876

Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G A; Barker, I K; Daoust, P Y; Martineau, D

1997-01-01

236

Improvement in the Diagnostic Evaluation of a Positive Fecal Occult Blood Test in an Integrated Health Care Organization  

PubMed Central

Background Screening for fecal occult blood can be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality only if positive tests are appropriately followed up with complete diagnostic evaluation (i.e., colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy with double contrast barium enema) and treatment. Objectives To examine whether rates of complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) have improved over time after the implementation of tracking systems and physician guidelines within a large integrated health care organization. Research Design From 1993 to 2005, 8513 positive FOBTs were identified on 8291 enrollees aged 50–79 of a large health care system. Automated records were used to identify repeat FOBTs, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and double-contrast barium enema within one year after the positive FOBT. National rates of complete diagnostic evaluation were estimated from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Results In this integrated health care organization, the percentage of positive FOBTs followed by complete diagnostic evaluation within one year increased from 57%–64% in 1993–1996 to 82%–86% from 2000–2005. Use of repeat FOBT following a positive FOBT decreased from 28–31% in 1993–1996 to 6–11% in 2000–2005. Based on the National Health Interview Survey, only 52% of positive FOBTs from 2000–2005 were followed by complete diagnostic evaluation nationally. Conclusions Adherence to recommendations for complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive FOBT has greatly improved over time in an integrated group medical practice. Through the use of tracking systems and screening guidelines, it may be possible to reach levels of follow-up that are comparable to those observed in randomized trials. PMID:18725839

Miglioretti, Diana L.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Bradford, Susan Carol; Zauber, Ann G.; Kessler, Larry G.; Feuer, Eric J.; Grossman, David C.

2014-01-01

237

Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.  

PubMed

The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

Schillhorn van Veen, T W

2004-04-01

238

DSM-5, ICD-10, ICD-11, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, and Person-Centered Integrative Diagnosis: An Overview for College Mental Health Therapists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Therapists in the field of college mental health counseling commonly voice an ambivalent orientation towards the utilization of formal psychological diagnostic systems yet often use diagnostic terms. Knowledge of the current and emerging diagnostic systems may contribute to greater syntheses of these differing approaches. This article will first…

Cooper, Stewart E.

2014-01-01

239

The Role of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in the Maintenance of the Subjugation of Women: Implications for the Training of Future Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the publication of the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1952), the diagnostic classification of mental health issues has been rooted in an individualistic view of mental disorders. Although many of the changes in subsequent editions have resulted in clearer diagnostic classification, this individualistic approach fails to take into account the

Ann M. Lazaroff

240

Effects on Pulmonary Health of Neighboring Residents of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Exposure Assessed Using Optimized Estimation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors’ Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points

Anja Schulze; Horst Römmelt; Vera Ehrenstein; Rob van Strien; Georg Praml; Helmut Küchenhoff; Dennis Nowak; Katja Radon

2011-01-01

241

Developmentally-Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: DSM-IV, RDC-PA, and the revised DC: 0-3  

PubMed Central

As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this paper, we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children included DC:0-3, a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infant, toddlers, and preschoolers. We will briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Lastly, we will review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. PMID:21142337

Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

2011-01-01

242

Diagnostic, Symptom, and Functional Assessments of Hispanic Outpatients in Community Mental Health Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased US Hispanic diversity come diagnostic challenges associated with culture, language, and expression of mental\\u000a disorders. In a community-based clinic, we compared diagnostic agreement between Hispanic and non-Hispanic clinicians, and\\u000a a structured diagnostic instrument, in live and videotaped interviews with Hispanic adults. Percentage agreement and kappas\\u000a show low diagnostic reliability between clinicians, and between clinicians and instrument. Significant differences

Luis H. Zayas; Luis R. Torres; Leopoldo J. Cabassa

2009-01-01

243

Predictors of clients' satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services in periurban ghana.  

PubMed

The study used logistic regression modelling to determine predictors of satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services for 889 clients (livestock and poultry keepers) in periurban Ghana. Of the 15 indicators tested as predictors of satisfaction in this study, 8 were included in the best fit model. These were accessibility, availability of services, service charge, effectiveness, efficiency, quality of services, meeting client needs, and getting help. Efficiency and effectiveness were perceived by the respondents to be synonymous, as were service quality and effectiveness, as suggested by ORs > 10 when cross tabulated. Therefore, one or the other could be used in future studies but not both to avoid collinearity. The identified predictors could be targeted for improvement in quality of service delivery to livestock and poultry keepers in Ghana. PMID:21647393

Turkson, Paa Kobina

2011-01-01

244

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal diseases (21 U.S.C. 113a...voluntary inspection and certification of animal products; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and...

2013-01-01

245

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal diseases (21 U.S.C. 113a...voluntary inspection and certification of animal products; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and...

2011-01-01

246

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal diseases (21 U.S.C. 113a...voluntary inspection and certification of animal products; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and...

2010-01-01

247

75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a networked laboratory...officials, and owners of animals undergoing testing in a networked laboratory...primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a networked...

2010-08-18

248

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal diseases (21 U.S.C. 113a...voluntary inspection and certification of animal products; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and...

2012-01-01

249

Future of the animal health industry at a time of food crisis.  

PubMed

It is popular in some quarters to say that there is no food crisis; that there is food aplenty; and that the problem is one of distribution or other over-arching technical difficulty. To the starving, however, there is a food crisis; and it neither speaks well nor bodes well for humanity if we dismiss their plight so glibly. The United Nations has called for a large and rapid increase in food production. Veterinary parasitologists and industry leaders can contribute to the production of healthier livestock and the expansion of aquaculture, but enhanced production and better delivery of plant foods may provide faster relief. Although livestock farming is not the most energy-efficient way of producing food, meat will remain a significant component of the global diet for the foreseeable future. New measures for parasite control will be needed, and we must improve our methods of inventing them. They need not act directly against the parasite. In the distant future lie other threats to the inhabitants of planet Earth, and here we must acknowledge the cogency of the no-food-crisis argument. In the long term, the production of animal foods and animal feeds will be revamped in ways that depend on how (or whether) we solve the energy crisis, the environmental crisis, the increasingly dire regional population crises, and the current world financial crisis. Throughout the 20th century, the animal health industry had to adapt to industrialization and expansive agribusiness. It will have to adapt to even greater changes in the 21st century and beyond. PMID:19541422

Campbell, William C; Conder, George A; Marchiondo, Alan A

2009-08-01

250

Novel and emerging therapies safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals: a review.  

PubMed

Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals. PMID:24171271

Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Mahima; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Verma, Amit Kumar; Deb, Rajib; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kapoor, Sanjay

2013-02-01

251

[Use of geographical information systems in parasitic diseases and the importance of animal health economics].  

PubMed

In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented. PMID:18985590

Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tando?an, Murat

2008-01-01

252

UBC's researchers contribute to a global effort to save lives, fight disease and address critical health issues concerning humans and animals.  

E-print Network

health issues concerning humans and animals. Our dedicated researchers have helped to improve (SARS). At most universities, scientific research involving animals plays an essential role in saving lives and improving health. We only involve animals in research when no alternative exists. While we

Michelson, David G.

253

Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?  

PubMed

Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

2014-01-01

254

Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?  

PubMed Central

Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as ‘ergot alkaloid intoxication’. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

2014-01-01

255

The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges  

PubMed Central

Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate change and disease emergence 13 3.4 Outbreak investigations 13 4 Surveillance and surveys 15 4.1 Investigation of disease prevalence 15 4.2 Developments in surveillance methodology 16 4.2.1 Risk-based surveillance and scenario tree modelling 16 4.2.2 Spatial and temporal analysis 16 4.3 Test validation 17 5 Spread, establishment and impact of pathogens 18 5.1 Identifying routes of spread 18 5.1.1 Ex-ante studies of disease spread 19 5.1.2 Ex-post observational studies 21 5.2 Identifying risk factors for disease establishment 23 5.3 Assessing impact at the population level 24 5.3.1 Recording mortality 24 5.3.2 Farm health and production records 26 5.3.3 Assessing the impact of disease in wild populations 27 6 Conclusions 31 7 Competing interests 32 8 Authors' contributions 32 9 Acknowledgements 33 10 References 33 PMID:21834990

2011-01-01

256

The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

2010-01-01

257

Design and implementation of the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study.  

PubMed

The United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study was designed to estimate management, health and productivity parameters on pig operations in the United States. Sixteen major swine-producing states that accounted for nearly 91% of June 1, 1995 swine inventory and nearly three-fourths of United States swine producers were included in the study. In the initial phase of the study, National Agricultural Statistics Service enumerators collected information from 1477 producers involved in all phases of swine production (farrowing, nursery, and grower/finisher). Of these, 405 operations with > or = 300 finisher pigs (with at least one finisher pig > or = 54 kg) participated in the subsequent component of the study, which involved on-farm visits by state and federal veterinary medical officers and animal health technicians, and which concentrated on the grower/finisher phase of production. Of those eligible to take part in the second phase of the study, participation was higher among independent producers (48.3%) than among contract producers (15.3%). Participation was also higher among operations that used advanced record-keeping systems (such as record cards for individual breeding hogs or a computer-based record-keeping system). Thus, study results could have been influenced by response biases. As a biosecurity measure, 40.5 +/- 2.1% of operations restricted entry to employees only. For operations that permitted non-employees to enter the premises, relatively few enforced other biosecurity measures on visitors (0.4 +/- 0.1% required feed-delivery personnel and livestock handlers to shower before entering the premises; 3.3+/- 0.9% required a footbath; and 7.0 +/- 1.5% required feed-delivery personnel and livestock handlers not to have visited another operation with pigs on that day). The most common method of waste storage (used by 49.9 +/- 3.8% of operations with > or = 300 finisher pigs) was below-floor slurry or deep pit. PMID:9604264

Losinger, W C; Bush, E J; Hill, G W; Smith, M A; Garber, L P; Rodriguez, J M; Kane, G

1998-02-27

258

Non-Invasive Health Diagnostics using Eye as a 'Window to the Body'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a 'window to the body', the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and help develop preventative/therapeutic countermeasures early. The effects of space travel on human body are similar to those of normal aging. For example, radiation exposure in space could lead to formation of cataracts and cancer by damaging the DNA and causing gene mutation. Additionally, the zero-gravity environment causes fluid shifts in the upper extremities of the body and changes the way blood flows and organ system performs. Here on Earth, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are major eye diseases and are expected to double in next two decades. To detect, prevent, and treat untoward effects of prolonged space travel in real-time requires the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. We are developing fiber-optic sensors to evaluate the ocular tissues in health, aging, and disease employing the techniques of dynamic light scattering (cataract, uveitis, Alzheimer's, glaucoma, DR, radiation damage, refractive surgery outcomes), auto-fluorescence (aging, DR), laser-Doppler flowmetry (choroidal blood flow), Raman spectroscopy (AMD), polarimetry (diabetes), and retinal oximetry (occult blood loss). The non-invasive feature of these technologies integrated in a head-mounted/goggles-like device permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling evaluation of the results to therapy that may ultimately be useful in various telemedicine applications on Earth and in space.

Ansari, Rafat R.

2002-01-01

259

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal disease is a major social and economic problem across the United States, and throughout the world. Diseases can lead to animal suffering and distress, reduced performance, and possibly even death. Infectious diseases have major negative effects on poultry and livestock production, both in terms of economics and on animal welfare. The costs of animal disease are estimated to be

Alison Van Eenennaam

260

Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.  

PubMed

Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology. PMID:24092400

Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

2013-12-01

261

Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments’ responses, and barriers to involvement. Results Health departments’ roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health. PMID:23382947

Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

2013-01-01

262

Diagnostic Radiology Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The health systems agency that reviews certificate of need applications for replacing or adding diagnostic radiology equipment should benefit from these guidelines. To help determine need for diagnostic radiology equipment, the Health Services Council, In...

1978-01-01

263

The Awareness of Health Professionals in Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Parasites in Gaza Strip, Palestine  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnosis of intestinal parasites still depends on conventional methods in Gaza strip hospitals and private laboratories. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the opinion and the practice of physicians and medical laboratories technologists towards the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out during the period from August 2006 to December 2006. All the subjects during this period were eligible for the interview. The sample size included 371 individuals out of them 270 physicians and 101 medical laboratory technologists (MLTs). Simple random sampling was used to select the physicians and MLTs from eight hospitals and eleven primary health-care centers. Results: It was found that (57.8%) 156/270 of physicians depend on the direct smear microscopy in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza, compared to (31.7% (32/101) of MLT. Knowledge about the possible correlation of occult blood with reasons other than the presence of intestinal parasites was evident among both physicians and MLTs, reaching over 80% (P = 0.08). It was found that (54.4%, 147/270) of physicians and (73.3%. 74/101) of MLTs depend on wet mount result for of Entamoeba histolytica diagnosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Low awareness was found among both physicians and MLT regarding the diagnostic techniques used in the examination of intestinal parasites in Gaza Strip. Prescription of medicine by physicians sometimes depends on the clinical picture without laboratory confirmation. Advanced techniques were less used in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. PMID:24669336

Hindi, AI

2014-01-01

264

Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (P<0.05). On the contrary, the perceived risk of contracting a zoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (P<0.05). Stratification of the risk of zoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose respondents to an increased risk of contracting zoonoses. Public health promotion on education and inter-disciplinary one-health collaboration between vets, public health practitioners and policy makers should result in a more efficient and effective joint approach to the diagnosis and control of zoonoses in Tanzania. PMID:24409636

Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

2010-10-01

265

UniversityofFloridaSchoolofForestResources&Conservation The SFRC has 54 full-time faculty specializing in areas that include agroforestry, aquaculture, aquatic animal health, biological  

E-print Network

-time faculty specializing in areas that include agroforestry, aquaculture, aquatic animal health, biological from Orlando, Tallahassee, Jacksonville and Tampa. The Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean

Florida, University of

266

International regulations and standards for avian influenza, including the vaccine standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary For avian influenza the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has laid down international standards on notification, trade, diagnosis, surveillance and the production and use of vaccine. These standards are science- and risk-based to ensure safe trade in poultry and poultry products without unjustified barriers. The European Union, with its 27 Member States, has in place harmonised legislation in

C. J. M. Bruschke; M. Pittman; A. Laddomada

267

Impact Assessment of a Community-based Animal Health Project in Dollo Ado and Dollo Bay Districts, Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory methods were used to assess the impact of a community-based animal health worker (CAHW) project in two remote pastoralist districts of Ethiopia. The CAHW project had been operating for 3 years at the time of the assessment. Participatory methods were standardized and repeated with 10 groups of informants in the project area. The assessment showed significant reductions in disease

B. Admassu; T. Haile; B. Abera; A. Hussein; A. Catley

2005-01-01

268

The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

1993-01-01

269

From mice to men: What can animal models tell us about the relationship between mental health and physical activity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity has been associated with numerous benefits that extend to mental health, although how these benefits are accrued is not clear. The notion that animal research can prove useful in this regard may initially seem irrelevant and even inapplicable. However, there is a growing body of evidence, focusing in particular on exercise, to suggest that the biochemical changes induced

Gary Remington

2009-01-01

270

The application of economics in animal health programmes: a practical guide.  

PubMed

Economic analysis is a valuable technique in the planning and management of animal health programmes at the national policy level and at the level of individual livestock enterprises. Considerable experience has now been accumulated in the adaptation of methods of economics to address decisions on disease control issues. Different methods are appropriate for endemic diseases, for diseases which occur intermittently as local outbreaks, and for diseases which have the potential to cause an epidemic. A guide to the selection of the most suitable method is provided. The information required for analysis at individual herd level is much simpler than that required for national policy decisions and funding decisions by international agencies; an outline of the requirements for each level of analysis is provided. Issues surrounding the degree of risk of different choices are examined, and the application of decision analysis to higher-risk choices is introduced. Ways in which difficulties and hazards can be overcome are suggested for those unfamiliar with the techniques. Finally, procedures to provide confidence in the results of evaluations through sensitivity analysis are explained. PMID:10472670

Morris, R S

1999-08-01

271

Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women  

PubMed Central

Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M?=?4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD?=?0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD ?=?0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p?=?0·021) and depression (p?=?0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID:25419743

Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

2014-01-01

272

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics #12;Overview · Animation techniques ­Performance-based (motion capture) ­Traditional animation (frame

Treuille, Adrien

273

Lead (Pb) in sheep exposed to mining pollution: Implications for animal and human health.  

PubMed

Livestock from the ancient mining area of Sierra Madrona and Alcudia Valley (Spain) is exposed to elevated levels of lead (Pb), as previous studies based on blood monitoring have revealed. Here we have studied blood, liver and muscle Pb levels in sheep in order to know if Pb exposure could represent a risk for human consumers of the meat and offal of these animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted with ?4 years old (adults) ewes from the mining area (n=46) and a control area (n=21). Blood samples were taken before the sacrifice at the slaughterhouse, and liver and muscle samples were taken thereafter. At the same time, 2-3 year old rams (subadults, n=17) were blood sampled in the mining area. Blood, liver and muscle Pb levels were higher in the mining than in the control area. Blood Pb concentration in the mining area (n= 44, mean: 6.7?g/dl in ewes and 10.9?g/dl in rams) was above background levels (>6?g/dl) in 73.3 percent of animals. Liver Pb concentration in 68 percent of sheep from the mining area (n=32, mean: 6.16?g/g dry weight, d.w.) exceeded the minimum level associated with toxic exposure (5µg/g d.w.) and 87.5 percent of liver samples were above European Union Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) established for offal destined for human consumption (0.5µg/g w.w.~1.4µg/g d.w.). On the contrary, none of the muscle samples in ewes exceeded the EU MRL (0.1µg/g w.w.~0.34µg/g d.w.) established for meat, which may be related to the decline of blood Pb levels with age observed in the present study. These results suggest a potential health effect for sheep exposed to Pb pollution in this area and implications for food safety, but further research with lamb meat may be necessary to refine the risk assessment for human consumers. PMID:25086824

Pareja-Carrera, Jennifer; Mateo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime

2014-10-01

274

Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production  

PubMed Central

Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

2014-01-01

275

Animal prion diseases.  

PubMed

Prion diseases occur in many animal species, most notably in ruminants. While scrapie in sheep has been recognised for three centuries and goat scrapie has been recognised for decades, BSE in cattle is a relatively novel disease which was first diagnosed in the UK in the mid 1980s. BSE was most likely caused through dietary exposure to animal feed contaminated with prions and disease was subsequently transmitted to people. The BSE epidemic is almost at an end, but the recent identification of so called atypical forms of BSE and scrapie pose many questions about the possible spectrum of prion diseases in animals and their transmissibility to other species, including humans.The pathogenesis of animal prion diseases has been studied both in natural infections and in experimental animal models. Detection of infectivity is greatly helped by suitable rodent models, in particular transgenic mice. Clinically infected animals show characteristic neuropathology in the brain and spinal cord which is accompanied by the accumulation of a conformationally altered, protease-resistant host protein. The post-mortem diagnosis is based on the detection of this protein, PrP(Sc), but despite recent impressive developments a routine ante-mortem diagnostic test has proved elusive.There is no treatment for prion diseases in animals, but disease outbreaks are controlled through a mixture of movement restrictions on holdings, culling of affected animals and herds and, for classical scrapie in sheep, selective breeding for genetic resistance. Prions are very stable and can remain in the environment for prolonged periods. This poses serious practical questions with regard to the decontamination of infected premises. The control of BSE specifically through restrictions in animal feeding practises has been successful, but the changing spectrum of these diseases plus the economic pressures to relax feed bans and reduce levels of surveillance will require constant vigilance to safeguard animal and public health. PMID:23225014

Windl, Otto; Dawson, Mike

2012-01-01

276

The association between proximity to animal-feeding operations and community health: a protocol for updating a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlots to house 50,000 cattle, and poultry houses to house 250,000 hens. There is primary research that suggests livestock facilities that confine animals indoors for feeding can represent a health hazard for surrounding communities. In this protocol, we describe a review about the association between proximity to animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals in nearby communities. A systematic review of the topic was published by some members of our group in 2010. The purpose of this review is to update that review. Methods/Design The populations of interest are people living in communities near livestock production facilities. Outcomes of interest are any health outcome measured in humans such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, and mental health. Measures of antibiotic resistance in people from the communities compared to measures of resistance found in animals and the environment on animal-feeding operations will also be summarized. The exposure of interest will be exposure to livestock production using a variety of metrics such as distance from facilities, endotoxin levels, and measures of odor. Electronic searches will be conducted using MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process (via OvidSP), CAB Abstracts (via Web of Knowledge), and Science Citation Index (via Web of Knowledge). No language or date restriction will be applied. We will access the risk of bias using a pilot version of a tool developed by the Methods Groups of the Cochrane Collaboration for non-randomized interventions. We propose to conduct a meta-analysis for each health metric (e.g., combining all respiratory disease outcomes, combining all gastrointestinal outcomes). A planned subgroup analysis will be based on the domains of the risk of bias. Discussion This systematic review will provide synthesis of current evidence reporting the association between living near an animal-feeding operation and human health. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010521 PMID:25200608

2014-01-01

277

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP): a new diagnostic tool lights the world of diagnosis of animal and human pathogens: a review.  

PubMed

Diagnosis is an important part in case of animal husbandry as treatment of a disease depends on it. Advancement in molecular biology has generated various sophisticated tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), its versions along with pen-side diagnostic techniques. Every diagnostic test however has both advantages and disadvantages; PCR is not an exception to this statement. To ease the odds faced by PCR several non-PCR techniques which can amplify DNA at a constant temperature has become the need of hour, thus generating a variety of isothermal amplification techniques including Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) along with Self-Sustained Sequence Replication (3SR) and Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) and Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test. LAMP stands out to be a good and effective diagnostic test for empowering in developing countries as it does not require sophisticated equipments and skilled personnel and proves to be cost-effective. Performance of LAMP mainly relies on crafting of six primers (including 2 loop primers) ultimately accelerating the reaction. LAMP amplifies DNA in the process pyrophosphates are formed causing turbidity that facilitates visualisation in a more effective way than PCR. The Bst and Bsm polymerase are the required enzymes for LAMP that does not possess 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Results can be visualized by adding DNA binding dye, SYBR green. LAMP is more stable than PCR and real-time PCR. Non-involvement of template DNA preparation and ability to generate 10(9) copies of DNA are added benefits that make it more effective than NASBA or 3SR and SDA. Thus, it fetches researcher's interest in developing various versions of LAMP viz., its combination with lateral flow assay or micro LAMP and more recently lyophilized and electric (e) LAMP. Availability of ready to use LAMP kits has helped diagnosis of almost all pathogens. LAMP associated technologies however needs to be developed as a part of LAMP platform rather than developing them as separate entities. This review deals with all these salient features of this newly developed tool that has enlightened the world of diagnosis. PMID:24783797

Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, K; Chakraborty, Sandip; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kapoor, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Thomas, Prasad

2014-01-15

278

James A. Baker Institute for Animal Health CharlesHarrington/CU  

E-print Network

" and Medical Research on Upstate Campuses Lancelot, one of the Briard-mix dogs who was blind from birth until-Based Technologies #12;2] recently the first successful gene therapy for blindness in a large animal. One breed- total blindness. However, when the normal form of this gene is injected into an animal's retina

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

279

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Hazards, Environmental and Health Risks as the Latent Products of Late Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAFOs raise tens of thousands of animals in confined cages and feedlots, feed them high calorie diets, and ship them to slaughter in record time. These factory farms (as they are sometimes called) devastate neighboring environments with the releases of toxic methane gas and animal waste. Progress in modernized agricultural production has enabled us to feed the growing population but

Bryan R Clarey

2012-01-01

280

Benefiting from online mental status examination system and mental health diagnostic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this really hectic world, quite a number of people are exposed to situations where mental stress Is unavoidable. This leads to people having all kinds of mental health problems that eventually may turn to chronic mental disorders. People with mental health problems normally have the tendency of not admitting their health problems because of the stigma attached to these

Hajar Mat Jani; Jalan Kajang-Puchong; Selangor Darul Ehsan

2010-01-01

281

Evolution of the cooperation between the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.  

PubMed

The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization recognises the international standards adopted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in matters of animal health and zoonoses and those adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the Commission) in matters of food safety. The importance of the production phase in ensuring food safety has been acknowledged and the OIE and the Commission have been working to strengthen their cooperation since 2001, with the intent of promoting a holistic approach to the food chain. Procedures for exchanging information are in place, communication has improved and there is cross-referencing between the respective international standards of the two organisations. Good examples of collaboration in the development of standards include the texts produced by the two organisations regarding meat inspection and animal/product identification and traceability. At the same time, there is still room for improving cooperation and the legal services of the OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization are expected to work together to find options for closer collaboration between the OIE and the Commission. PMID:18293609

Berlingieri, F; Bruno, A; Njeumi, F; Cavirani, S

2007-12-01

282

Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no\\u000a studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning\\u000a to their home country.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008

Nicolae V Ostrovschi; Martin J Prince; Cathy Zimmerman; Mihai A Hotineanu; Lilia T Gorceag; Viorel I Gorceag; Clare Flach; Melanie A Abas

2011-01-01

283

Impact of new sexually transmitted disease diagnostics on clinical practice and public health policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) offer enhanced sensitivity and excellent specificity for many sexually transmitted\\u000a diseases. For some pathogens for which a practical diagnostic test does not exist, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), NAAT\\u000a are also useful. Further, most NAAT can be applied to less \\

Jeanne M. Marrazzo

2001-01-01

284

Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

285

Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements\\u000a are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth,\\u000a or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used

Seyed Reza Hashemi; Homa Davoodi

2011-01-01

286

An evaluation of the feasibility of using first-year veterinary students in animal health education programmes.  

PubMed

Awareness of the importance and relevance of community-oriented medical education is increasing. Although a number of medical faculties have already adopted this approach for their undergraduate training, this idea does not appear to have received the same degree of acceptance within veterinary schools. This study attempts to provide evidence in support of the feasibility of a community-oriented curriculum. First-year veterinary science students at the Medical University of Southern Africa received a very short orientation course on the social determinants of disease; the Primary Health Care (PHC) philosophy and how PHC differs from the basic health service approach; how to shift the locus of control for health away from the health professional and back into the community; dependency theory; basic pet care; sociology (including systems and conflict theory); problems with the application of a technological imperative within a systems perspective; social research; basic statistical concepts; health care systems and their evolution; marketing principles in relation to health education; the importance of positioning and how to effectively use communication skills within a classroom setting. After this course the students successfully participated in an animal health education programme within the community. PMID:8786616

Hohn, E W; Appelbaum, K

1996-03-01

287

Rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis and drug resistance in the industrialized world: clinical and public health benefits and barriers to implementation  

PubMed Central

In this article, we give an overview of new technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and drug resistance, consider their advantages over existing methodologies, broad issues of cost, cost-effectiveness and programmatic implementation, and their clinical as well as public health impact, focusing on the industrialized world. Molecular nucleic-acid amplification diagnostic systems have high specificity for TB diagnosis (and rifampicin resistance) but sensitivity for TB detection is more variable. Nevertheless, it is possible to diagnose TB and rifampicin resistance within a day and commercial automated systems make this possible with minimal training. Although studies are limited, these systems appear to be cost-effective. Most of these tools are of value clinically and for public health use. For example, whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis offers a powerful new approach to the identification of drug resistance and to map transmission at a community and population level. PMID:23987891

2013-01-01

288

The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,…

Beavers, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

289

Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills. PMID:21777495

2011-01-01

290

Units 11 - 12 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section contains two Units plus the Glossary and Index: Unit 11 - What Is MSMR? Unit 12 - Careers in Health and Health Research Glossary of Terms Used Index Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

291

16S ribosomal DNA sequence-based identification of bacteria in laboratory rodents: a practical approach in laboratory animal bacteriology diagnostics.  

PubMed

Correct identification of bacteria is crucial for the management of rodent colonies. Some bacteria are difficult to identify phenotypically outside reference laboratories. In this study, we evaluated the utility of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing as a means of identifying a collection of 30 isolates of rodent origin which are conventionally difficult to identify. Sequence analysis of the first approximate 720 to 880?bp of the 5'- end of 16S rDNA identified 25 isolates (83.33%) with ?99% similarity to a sequence of a type strain, whereas three isolates (10%) displayed a sequence similarity ?97% but <99% to the type strain sequences. These similarity scores were used to define identification to species and genus levels, respectively. Two of the 30 isolates (6.67%) displayed a sequence similarity of ?95 but <97% to the reference strains and were thus allocated to a family. This technique allowed us to document the association of mice with bacteria relevant for the colonies management such as Pasteurellaceae, Bordetella hinzii or Streptococcus danieliae. In addition, human potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Paracoccus yeei or others not yet reported in mouse bacterial species such as Leucobacter chironomi, Neisseria perflava and Pantoea dispersa were observed. In conclusion, the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, with higher performance characteristics than the classical phenotypic methods, for identification of laboratory animal bacteria. For the first time this method allowed us to document the association of certain bacterial species with the laboratory mouse. PMID:24876090

Benga, Laurentiu; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Köhrer, Karl; Gougoula, Christina; Sager, Martin

2014-10-01

292

Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.  

PubMed

Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305

Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

2013-08-01

293

Discussion Guide - Units 5 - 7 - People and Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Units covered in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

294

Page 1 of 6 Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine  

E-print Network

in Resource Centre Institute Staff - Research & Teaching Prof Colin E Adams Professor of Freshwater Ecology. The ecology of freshwater systems, and the conservation biology of aquatic animals Dr Harriet Auty PDRA Roman Biek Lecturer Ecology and evolution of infectious diseases; phylogenetics; molecular ecology

Glasgow, University of

295

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin,

J. L. C. M. Dorne; M. L. Fernández-Cruz; U. Bertelsen; D. W. Renshaw; K. Peltonen; A. Anadon; A. Feil; P. Sanders; P. Wester; J. Fink-Gremmels

296

Human Health Impact and Regulatory Issues Involving Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Animal Production Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from farms and animal carcasses are raising concerns that antibiotic use in agriculture may play a role in selecting for antibiotic resistance among foodborne bacteria. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a very controversial issue. Some contend that the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in agriculture creates a reservoir of resistant microorganisms in the environment that could

Mohamed S. Nawaz; Bruce D. Erickson; Ashraf A. Khan; Saeed A. Khan; Jairaj V. Pothuluri; Fatemeh Rafii; John B. Sutherland; R. Doug Wagner; Carl E. Cerniglia

297

INVESTIGATIONS OF REPORTED PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN THE THREE MILE ISLAND AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the ...

298

Trends in the organization and financing of livestock and animal health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world wide avalanche of change related to new political and economic paradigms has also affected animal agriculture. Changing views and objectives with respect to government support for agriculture in OECD countries, economic changes in Latin American and Africa countries, the GATT process and outcome, and interest in an ecosystems approach towards agriculture, are leading to a rethinking of the

Tjaart W. Schillhorn van Veen; Cees de Haan

1995-01-01

299

Units 5 - 7 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The units in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

300

Acute Phase Response in Animals: A Review  

PubMed Central

The acute phase response is a complex systemic early-defense system activated by trauma, infection, stress, neoplasia, and inflammation. Although nonspecific, it serves as a core of the innate immune response involving physical and molecular barriers and responses that serve to prevent infection, clear potential pathogens, initiate inflammatory processes, and contribute to resolution and the healing process. Acute phase proteins, an integral part of the acute phase response, have been a focus of many applications in human diagnostic medicine and recently have been identified in common animal species. Potential applications to diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of animal health, and laboratory animal welfare are readily apparent. PMID:20034426

Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

2009-01-01

301

Mid-ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Profiling of HIV/AIDS Sera for Novel Systems Diagnostics in Global Health  

PubMed Central

Abstract Global health, whether in developed or developing countries, is in need of robust systems diagnostics for major diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, impacting the world populations. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of serum is a quick and reagent-free methodology with which to analyze metabolic alterations such as those caused by disease or treatment. In this study, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy was investigated as a means of distinguishing HIV-infected treatment-experienced (HIVpos ARTpos, n=39) and HIV-infected-treatment-naïve (HIVpos ARTneg, n=16) subjects from uninfected control subjects (n=30). Multivariate pattern recognition techniques, including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), successfully distinguished sample classes, while univariate approaches identified significant differences (p<0.05) after Benjamini-Hochberg corrections. OPLS-DA discriminated between all groups with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of >90%. Compared to uninfected controls, HIVpos ARTpos and HIVpos ARTneg subjects displayed significant differences in spectral regions linked to lipids/fatty acids (3010?cm?1), carbohydrates (1299?cm?1; 1498?cm?1), glucose (1035?cm?1), and proteins (1600?cm?1; 1652?cm?1). These are all molecules shown by conventional biochemical analysis to be affected by HIV/ART interference. The biofluid metabolomics approach applied here successfully differentiated global metabolic profiles of HIV-infected patients and uninfected controls and detected potential biomarkers for development into indicators of host response to treatment and/or disease progression. Our findings therefore contribute to ongoing efforts for capacity-building in global health for robust omics science and systems diagnostics towards major diseases impacting population health. PMID:24937213

Sitole, Lungile; Steffens, Francois; Kruger, Tjaart P.J.

2014-01-01

302

Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals  

PubMed Central

Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ?5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg?1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

2010-01-01

303

Validation of disease diagnoses reported to the National Animal Health Monitoring System from a large Colorado beef feedlot.  

PubMed

Clinical observation and collection of biological specimens from a large beef feedlot (approximately 30,0000 animals) were used to evaluate 6 approaches for validation of a disease reporting system. Data collected during a 12-month period were used to evaluate each approach. A subsample of disease cases reported to the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) was compared with the clinical observations of the investigators. Although the agreement between clinical diagnosis by the NAHMS veterinarian and by feedlot health crews was high, the sensitivity and specificity of specific diagnoses varied from 100 to 18% and from 99 to 76%, respectively, which suggests that regular clinical observations by a veterinarian are needed to validate disease diagnoses reported to NAHMS by producers. Subsampling of a group of cattle by means of paired serologic determination of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus revealed a high serologic conversion rate to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and high levels of preexisting antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza-3 viruses. It was concluded that the current method of data collection for Colorado feedlots provides an acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity for the program. However, disease events that are not of economic importance to the feedlot operator will be underestimated. If an objective of NAHMS is to develop a base line of animal health conditions, diagnosis of diseases by current methods will be satisfactory. Occasional validation through clinical observations by a veterinarian will suffice to monitor quality of collected data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3372333

Salman, M D; Frank, G R; MacVean, D W; Reif, J S; Collins, J K; Jones, R

1988-04-15

304

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments  

E-print Network

** Samples Container Coolant Comments Bovine Tests Bovine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1-Extracted Drugs STAT+25 2 days 1) 4 mL heparinized plasma transferred to red top; 2) 10 mL heparinized whole blood.00 per sample Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) M-Sa 1-2 days 1) 1 mL separated serum or heparinized plasma

Keinan, Alon

305

Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

2008-07-01

306

Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people  

PubMed Central

Introduction This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria) were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10). In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES. PMID:23787053

Gaber, Tilman Jakob; Bouyrakhen, Samira; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine Margarete; Wockel, Lars; Poustka, Fritz; Zepf, Florian Daniel

2013-01-01

307

Development of the Spanish-language version of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule.  

PubMed

The use of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) to elicit DSM-III-defined mental disorders among Hispanic respondents in the Los Angeles site of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project required development of a Spanish translation of the instrument that would be understood readily by persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origin. The translation was carried out using back translation, bilingual test respondents, a bilingual translation staff, an extensive committee of experienced bilingual clinicians as translation consultants, and revision following clinical evaluation. A study of its reliability and comparison with clinical diagnoses obtained with Spanish-speaking psychiatric outpatients indicated satisfactory equivalence of the Spanish DIS to the English version. Early international use of the Spanish DIS promises new data on the cross-cultural validity and prevalence rates of DSM-III-diagnosed disorders. PMID:6639287

Karno, M; Burnam, A; Escobar, J I; Hough, R L; Eaton, W W

1983-11-01

308

Sound, stress, and seahorses: The consequences of a noisy environment to animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined stress responses to chronic noise exposure in a popular aquarium fish, the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Thirty-two animals were housed individually in either loud (123.3±1.0dB re: 1?Pa total RMS power at mid-water, 137.3±0.7dB at bottom) or quiet (110.6±0.58dB at mid-water, and 119.8±0.4dB at bottom) tanks for one month. Weekly behavioral observations were scored and compared between treatment means,

Paul A. Anderson; Ilze K. Berzins; Frank Fogarty; Heather J. Hamlin; Louis J. Guillette

2011-01-01

309

The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.  

PubMed Central

A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

1980-01-01

310

Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics.  

PubMed

The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an image stacking algorithm to decrease the image noise and enhance weak signals, and (2) an optical signal amplifier utilizing a capillary tube array. These approaches were used in a detection system which includes multi-wavelength LEDs capable of exciting many fluorophores in multiple wavelengths, a mobile phone or a webcam as a detector, and capillary tube array configured with 36 capillary tubes for signal enhancement. The capillary array enables a ~100× increase in signal sensitivity for fluorescein, reducing the limit of detection (LOD) for mobile phones and webcams from 1000 nM to 10nM. Computational image stacking enables another ~10× increase in signal sensitivity, further reducing the LOD for webcam from 10nM to 1 nM. To demonstrate the feasibility of the device for the detection of disease-related biomarkers, adenovirus DNA labeled with SYBR green or fluorescein was analyzed by both our capillary array and a commercial plate reader. The LOD for the capillary array was 5 ug/mL, and that of the plate reader was 1 ug/mL. Similar results were obtained using DNA stained with fluorescein. The combination of the two signal amplification approaches enables a ~1000× increase in LOD for the webcam platform. This brings it into the range of a conventional plate reader while using a smaller sample volume (10 ul) than the plate reader requires (100 ul). This suggests that such a device could be suitable for biosensing applications where up to 10 fold smaller sample sizes are needed. The simple optical configuration for mHealth described in this paper employing the combined capillary and image processing signal amplification is capable of measuring weak fluorescent signals without the need of dedicated laboratories. It has the potential to be used to increase sensitivity of other optically based mHealth technologies, and may increase mHealth's clinical utility, especially for telemedicine and for resource-poor settings and global health applications. PMID:23928092

Balsam, Joshua; Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

2014-01-15

311

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute;)

2001-06-01

312

Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

1985-01-01

313

9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

314

9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

315

9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

316

9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

317

Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct

Chiara Frazzoli; Orish Ebere Orisakwe; Roberto Dragone; Alberto Mantovani

2010-01-01

318

Selection for high immune response: an alternative approach to animal health maintenance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that variation in ability to respond immunologically correlates with health, Yorkshire pigs were bred for high (HIR) and low (LIR) antibody (Ab) and cell-mediated immune response (CMI). Selection was based on standardized measures of Ab (secondary response to hen egg white lysozyme, serum IgG concentration) and CMI (cutaneous delayed-type hypersenstivity to purified protein derivative of tuberculin

Bruce Wilkie; Bonnie Mallard

1999-01-01

319

Health economic evaluation of treatments for Alzheimer's disease: impact of new diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

The socio-economic impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias is enormous, and the potential economic challenges ahead are clear given the projected future numbers of individuals with these conditions. Because of the high prevalence and cost of dementia, it is very important to assess any intervention from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. The diagnostic criteria for preclinical AD suggested by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association workgroups in combination with the goal of effective disease-modifying treatment (DMT) are, however, a challenge for clinical practice and for the design of clinical trials. Key issues for future cost-effectiveness studies include the following: (i) the consequences for patients if diagnosis is shifted from AD-dementia to predementia states, (ii) bridging the gap between clinical trial populations and patients treated in clinical practice, (iii) translation of clinical trial end-points into measures that are meaningful to patients and policymakers/payers and (iv) how to measure long-term effects. To improve cost-effectiveness studies, long-term population-based data on disease progression, costs and outcomes in clinical practice are needed not only in dementia but also in predementia states. Reliable surrogate end-points in clinical trials that are sensitive to detect effects even in predementia states are also essential as well as robust and validated modelling methods from predementia states that also take into account comorbidities and age. Finally, the ethical consequences of early diagnosis should be considered. PMID:24605810

Wimo, A; Ballard, C; Brayne, C; Gauthier, S; Handels, R; Jones, R W; Jonsson, L; Khachaturian, A S; Kramberger, M

2014-03-01

320

Animal-free paralytic shellfish toxin testing--the Canadian perspective to improved health protection.  

PubMed

The performance characteristics of AOAC Official Method 2011.02 (the PCOX method) as a replacement for the AOAC mouse bioassay procedure have been well defined by validation studies, but these data do not communicate the complete story. The context provided by analyzing 9000 regulatory monitoring samples over 3 years demonstrates not only the reduction in animal use but also the increase in food safety that has been realized using a chemistry-based method. Detection of lower toxin levels provided early warning to enable directed sampling as toxin levels increased. The toxin profile information generated by a chemistry-based method was used to detect potential interferences qualitatively and can be used to assess the impact of changes recommended to monitoring programs. Such changes might include which toxins should be included in an action limit or the toxic equivalence factors used for these toxins. PMID:24830144

Rourke, Wade A; Murphy, Cory J

2014-01-01

321

Humans as Animal Sentinels for Forecasting Asthma Events: Helping Health Services Become More Responsive  

PubMed Central

The concept of forecasting asthma using humans as animal sentinels is uncommon. This study explores the plausibility of predicting future asthma daily admissions using retrospective data in London (2005–2006). Negative binomial regressions were used in modeling; allowing the non-contiguous autoregressive components. Selected lags were based on partial autocorrelation function (PACF) plot with a maximum lag of 7 days. The model was contrasted with naïve historical and seasonal models. All models were cross validated. Mean daily asthma admission in 2005 was 27.9 and in 2006 it was 28.9. The lags 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were independently associated with daily asthma admissions based on their PACF plots. The lag model prediction of peak admissions were often slightly out of synchronization with the actual data, but the days of greater admissions were better matched than the days of lower admissions. A further investigation across various populations is necessary. PMID:23118897

Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.

2012-01-01

322

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01X66.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01X66 - B6.Cg-Tg(CD207-cre)1Dhka/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 111 Strain: 01XA6 - STOCK Tgfb1 Rag2/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 107 Strain: 01XN3 - B6.Cg-Tg(GFAP-cre)8Gtm/Nci Results

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01XT5 - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc2)6070Njen/Nci

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 109,103 Strain: 01XG2 - FVB-Tg(MMTV-Myc)141-3Led/Nci

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XB9 - STOCK Brca2/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XAF - B6.129S4-Trp53/Nci Results

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XD5 - B6.D2-Tg(RIP1-Tag2)2Dh/Nci Results

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01XEA - B6;CBA-Tg(tetO-EGFR*L858R)56Hev/Nci

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XNA - FVB-Tg(Sprr2f-cre)1Dcas/Nci

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 101 Strain: 01XC8 - STOCK Brca1/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01BM1 - B6;129S-Blm/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XAA - B6.Cg-Apc/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 108 Strain: 01XBL - B6;129-Myf6/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01XE4 - FVB.129-Cdkn2a/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 107 Strain: 01XT3 - FVB.Cg-Tg(KRT14-HPV16)wt1Dh/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01XK8 - FVB-Tg(ARR2/Pbsn-MYC)7Key/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 114 Strain: 01XD8 - FVB/N-Tg(Fabp1-Cre)1Jig/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 112 Strain: 01XGB - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc3)12740Njen/Nci

341

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XBT - B6.Cg-Cdkn2a Tyr/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XGC - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc3)12775Njen/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01X62 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 114 Strain: 01XM2 - 129S4-Trp53/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 106 Strain: 01XL5 - B6.FVB-Tg(Ipfl-cre)1Tuv/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 117 Strain: 01XBR - B6;129-Ptch1/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XJ6 - B6.129-Kras/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XG7 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XC2 - FVB.129P2-Trp53/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XGA - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc2)6113Njen/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XAB - B6;129-Gt(ROSA)26Sor

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XBP - B6;129S-Nkx3-1/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01XF5 - B6.Cg-Tg(Pbsn-cre)4Prb/Nci Results

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 109 Strain: 01XBQ - B6;129S-Nkx3-1/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 112 Strain: 01XM8 - FVB/N-Tg(KRT5-tTA)1216Glk/Nci

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XN2 - FVB;129S6-Stk11/Nci

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 108 Strain: 01XH3 - B6.129-Pten/Nci Results

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Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 106 Strain: 01XC1 - FVB;129-Rb1/Nci Results

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Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 07/01/13 Thru 09/19/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01BM3 - B6.129S-Kras/Nci Results

365

Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

366

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

367

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

368

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

369

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

370

9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

371

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

372

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

373

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

374

9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

375

[Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].  

PubMed

The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

2007-01-01

376

Ebola: facing a new transboundary animal disease?  

PubMed

Ebola viruses are zoonotic pathogens with the potential of causing severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Bats have been identified as a reservoir for Ebola viruses but it remains unclear if transmission to an end host involves intermediate hosts. Recently, one of the Ebola species has been found in Philippine pigs raising concerns regarding animal health and food safety. Diagnostics have so far focused on human application, but enhanced pig surveillance and diagnostics, particularly in Asia, for Ebola virus infections seem to be needed to establish reasonable guidelines for public and animal health and food safety. Livestock vaccination against Ebola seems currently not justified but proper preparedness may include experimental vaccine approaches. PMID:23689898

Feldmann, F; Feldmann, H

2013-01-01

377

Decision making for animal health and welfare: integrating risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory.  

PubMed

This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers' choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers' assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers' management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

2014-06-01

378

Rapid Bacterial Whole-Genome Sequencing to Enhance Diagnostic and Public Health Microbiology  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE The latest generation of benchtop DNA sequencing platforms can provide an accurate whole-genome sequence (WGS) for a broad range of bacteria in less than a day. These could be used to more effectively contain the spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. OBJECTIVE To compare WGS with standard clinical microbiology practice for the investigation of nosocomial outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, the identification of genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance, and typing of other clinically important pathogens. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A laboratory-based study of hospital inpatients with a range of bacterial infections at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, a secondary and tertiary referral center in England, comparing WGS with standard diagnostic microbiology using stored bacterial isolates and clinical information. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Specimens were taken and processed as part of routine clinical care, and cultured isolates stored and referred for additional reference laboratory testing as necessary. Isolates underwent DNA extraction and library preparation prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Bioinformatic analyses were performed by persons blinded to the clinical, epidemiologic, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. RESULTS We investigated 2 putative nosocomial outbreaks, one caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and the other by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae; WGS accurately discriminated between outbreak and nonoutbreak isolates and was superior to conventional typing methods. We compared WGS with standard methods for the identification of the mechanism of carbapenem resistance in a range of gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, E cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae). This demonstrated concordance between phenotypic and genotypic results, and the ability to determine whether resistance was attributable to the presence of carbapenemases or other resistance mechanisms. Whole-genome sequencing was used to recapitulate reference laboratory typing of clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and to provide extended phylogenetic analyses of these. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The speed, accuracy, and depth of information provided by WGS platforms to confirm or refute outbreaks in hospitals and the community, and to accurately define transmission of multidrug-resistant and other organisms, represents an important advance. PMID:23857503

Reuter, Sandra; Ellington, Matthew J.; Cartwright, Edward J. P.; Koser, Claudio U.; Torok, M. Estee; Gouliouris, Theodore; Harris, Simon R.; Brown, Nicholas M.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Quail, Mike; Parkhill, Julian; Smith, Geoffrey P.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Peacock, Sharon J.

2014-01-01

379

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

380

Subsyndromal Depression and Anxiety in Older Adults: Health Related, Functional, Cognitive and Diagnostic Implications  

PubMed Central

Subsyndromal depression in later life is common in primary care. Comorbid anxiety disorders could exacerbate the negative effect of subsyndromal depression on functioning, health-related quality of life, comorbidity and/or cognition. We examined anxiety disorders coexisting with subsyndromal depression in participants ? age 50 in an NIH trial of Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care for indicated prevention of major depression. There were 247 participants, with Centers for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scores ? 11. Participants could have multiple psychiatric diagnoses: 22% of the sample had no DSM IV diagnosis; 39% of the sample had only 1 DSM IV diagnosis; 28% had 2 diagnoses; 6% had 3 DSM IV diagnoses; 4% had 4 DSM IV diagnoses; and 1% had 5 diagnoses. Furthermore, 34% of participants had a current comorbid DSM IV diagnosis of a syndromal anxiety disorder. We hypothesized that those with subsyndromal depression, alone relative to those with coexisting anxiety disorders, would report better health-related quality of life, less disability, less medical comorbidity and less cognitive impairment. However, there were no differences in quality of life based on the SF 12 nor in disability based on Late Life Function and Disability Instrument scores. There were no differences in medical comorbidity based on the Cumulative Illness Scale-Geriatrics scale scores nor in cognitive function based on the Executive Interview (EXIT), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Mini Mental Status Exam. Our findings suggest that about one third of participants 50 years and older with subsyndromal depression have comorbid anxiety disorders; however, this does not appear to be associated with worse quality of life, functioning, disability, cognitive function or medical comorbidity. PMID:23414701

Kasckow, JW; Karp, JF; Whyte, E; Butters, M; Brown, C; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, CF

2013-01-01

381

Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at ?20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:23865070

Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

2013-01-01

382

Antimicrobial use in aquaculture re-examined: its relevance to antimicrobial resistance and to animal and human health.  

PubMed

The worldwide growth of aquaculture has been accompanied by a rapid increase in therapeutic and prophylactic usage of antimicrobials including those important in human therapeutics. Approximately 80% of antimicrobials used in aquaculture enter the environment with their activity intact where they select for bacteria whose resistance arises from mutations or more importantly, from mobile genetic elements containing multiple resistance determinants transmissible to other bacteria. Such selection alters biodiversity in aquatic environments and the normal flora of fish and shellfish. The commonality of the mobilome (the total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome) between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria together with the presence of residual antimicrobials, biofilms, and high concentrations of bacteriophages where the aquatic environment may also be contaminated with pathogens of human and animal origin can stimulate exchange of genetic information between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria. Several recently found genetic elements and resistance determinants for quinolones, tetracyclines, and ?-lactamases are shared between aquatic bacteria, fish pathogens, and human pathogens, and appear to have originated in aquatic bacteria. Excessive use of antimicrobials in aquaculture can thus potentially negatively impact animal and human health as well as the aquatic environment and should be better assessed and regulated. PMID:23711078

Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Dölz, Humberto; Millanao, Ana; Buschmann, Alejandro H

2013-07-01

383

Farm and personal characteristics of the clientele of a community-based animal-health service programme in northern Malawi.  

PubMed

The social background, farm characteristics, indicators of income and self-evaluation returns of 96 randomly selected users of a Basic Animal Health Service (BAHS) programme in northern Malawi were compared with those of 96 matched past-users and 96 non-users, respectively. All 288 farms were visited between July and October 1997. Data analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate techniques. The results showed that, on average, BAHS users had larger cattle herds (16.3) than part-users (14.7) or non-users (12.4). Similarly, the annual yields of crops were higher for users compared to either of the other groups. Users occupied better houses and owned a larger number of farm and household items than did part-users or non-users. A third of all farmers were engaged in additional income generation to lessen the risk of poverty. However, analysis of the livestock management and the educational background of the farmers suggested that usage of the BAHS programme was not only determined by already existing 'wealth'. Improved livestock husbandry and management measures, which do not require capital investment, were more frequently applied by users compared to either of the other groups. Non-users and part-users had attained a lower level of education, were less open towards improved farming methods and felt less knowledgeable than BAHS users. The average straight-line distances from farms using BAHS to their respective village animal health worker (2.2 km) or veterinary assistant (2.9 km) were similar but varied according to ecological zone. Intensified extension and awareness meetings in villages will be required to get more non-users involved in BAHS. PMID:11360799

Hüttner, K; Leidl, K; Pfeiffer, D U; Jere, F B; Kasambara, D

2001-05-01

384

[Oral health conditions diagnostic in cerebral palsy individuals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is an encephalic static lesion defined as a non-progressive disorder of movements and posture. It is usually associated with epilepsy, speaking, hearing and sight disorders and also mental retardation. Even though, people who have CP need special care for the prevention of factors linked to oral problems, in the odontological context, the literary information is contradictory when it comes to the incidence of oral diseases on patients who have cerebral palsy. In order to determine the oral health and associated factors conditions, an epidemiological research has been made in 41 children who have cerebral palsy. The variables taken into account were: social-economical aspects, risk factors for the development of oral diseases, access to odontological care, caries index, periodontal disease, malocclusion and dental fluorose. Children who were examined showed a higher level of gingivitis and caries experience, mainly on the primary dentition, and also severe malocclusions, factors that indicate the need of early intervention, whether with educational programs or healing assistance. The study has shown that, in addition to the quantitative necessity of care, it is also necessary to improve the quality of these patients' consultations. PMID:19851607

Guerreiro, Patrícia Osório; Garcias, Gilberto de Lima

2009-01-01

385

Parent-Reported Mental Health in Preschoolers: Findings Using a Diagnostic Interview  

PubMed Central

Previous research suggests that many preschoolers meet criteria for psychiatric diagnoses; still, relatively little is known about preschool mental health, particularly emotional problems, in the community. The present study investigates the rates of parent-reported DSM-IV disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). 541 parents were interviewed with the PAPA. Of the children, 27.4% met criteria for a PAPA/DSM-IV diagnosis; 9.2% met criteria for two or more diagnoses. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (9.4%), specific phobia (9.1%), and separation anxiety disorder (5.4%) were the most common diagnoses; depression (1.8%), selective mutism (1.5%), and panic disorder (0.2%) were least common. In addition, there was significant comorbidity/covariation between depression, anxiety, and ODD, and between ODD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (odds ratios: 1.81-18.44; p < .05). The stability and clinical significance of diagnoses and patterns of comorbidity must be elucidated in future research. PMID:21683173

Bufferd, Sara J.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

2010-01-01

386

Early intervention in Alzheimer's disease: a health economic study of the effects of diagnostic timing  

PubMed Central

Background Intervention and treatment in Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD-dementia) can be cost effective but the majority of patients are not diagnosed in a timely manner. Technology is now available that can enable the earlier detection of cognitive loss associated with incipient dementia, offering the potential for earlier intervention in the UK health care system. This study aimed to determine to what extent the timing of an intervention affects its cost-effectiveness. Methods Using published data describing cognitive decline in the years prior to an AD diagnosis, we modelled the effects on healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life years of hypothetical symptomatic and disease-modifying interventions. Early and standard interventions were assumed to have equal clinical effects, but the early intervention could be applied up to eight years prior to standard diagnosis. Results A symptomatic treatment which immediately improved cognition by one MMSE point and reduced in efficacy over three years, would produce a maximum net benefit when applied at the earliest timepoint considered, i.e. eight years prior to standard diagnosis. In this scenario, the net benefit was reduced by around 17% for every year that intervention was delayed. In contrast, for a disease-modifying intervention which halted cognitive decline for one year, economic benefits would peak when treatment effects were applied two years prior to standard diagnosis. In these models, the maximum net benefit of the disease modifying intervention was fifteen times larger than that of the symptomatic treatment. Conclusion Timeliness of intervention is likely to have an important impact on the cost-effectiveness of both current and future treatments. Healthcare policy should aim to optimise the timing of AD-dementia diagnosis, which is likely to necessitate detecting and treating patients several years prior to current clinical practice. PMID:24885474

2014-01-01

387

Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals  

PubMed Central

We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

2014-01-01

388

Evaluation and delivery of domestic animal health services in remote communities in the Northwest Territories: A case study of status and needs  

PubMed Central

Domestic animal health services are supplied to communities in Canada’s Northwest Territories (NT) in diverse ways, including private veterinary practices in 2 of 33 communities, and by mail-order, fly-in, free clinics, and a government-coordinated lay vaccinator program in some of the other 31 communities. We evaluated delivery, needs, and potential uptake of domestic animal health services in the Sahtu Settlement Area, NT by offering free clinics for 225 dogs in 2008 and 2009; and administered questionnaires to 42 dog owners and 67 students in 2008. Owners indicated that 20% of dogs were neutered, 37% had had rabies vaccinations, and 29% had been dewormed. Physical examination of dogs demonstrated that 54% were “thin” and 4% were “emaciated.” Owners and youth showed a range of attitudes toward dogs and supported improved domestic animal health services. Future services need to build on existing programs and collaborate with communities to ensure relevance, ownership, and sustainability. PMID:21197203

Brook, Ryan K.; Kutz, Susan J.; Millins, Caroline; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.; Leighton, Ted

2010-01-01

389

Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11  

PubMed Central

Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny. PMID:23440448

Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S. K.

2012-01-01

390

Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres?  

PubMed Central

Background Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Methods The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC) microscopy, expert microscopy and a HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test (Paracheck) was compared in predicting malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the gold standard. Three hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria based on fever and or history of fever from a low and high transmission setting in Uganda were consecutively enrolled and provided blood samples for all tests. Accuracy of each test was calculated overall with 95% confidence interval and then adjusted for age-groups and level of transmission intensity using a stratified analysis. The endpoints were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00565071. Results Of the 300 patients, 88(29.3%) had fever, 56(18.7%) were positive by HC microscopy, 47(15.7%) by expert microscopy, 110(36.7%) by Paracheck and 89(29.7%) by PCR. The overall sensitivity >90% was only shown by Paracheck 91.0% [95%CI: 83.1-96.0]. The sensitivity of expert microscopy was 46%, similar to HC microscopy. The superior sensitivity of Paracheck compared to microscopy was maintained when data was stratified for transmission intensity and age. The overall specificity rates were: Paracheck 86.3% [95%CI: 80.9-90.6], HC microscopy 93.4% [95%CI: 89.1-96.3] and expert microscopy 97.2% [95%CI: 93.9-98.9]. The NPV >90% was shown by Paracheck 95.8% [95%CI: 91.9-98.2]. The overall PPV was <88% for all methods. Conclusion The HRP2-based RDT has shown superior sensitivity compared to microscopy in diagnosis of malaria and may be more suitable for screening of malaria infection. PMID:21126328

2010-01-01

391

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

392

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

393

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

394

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

395

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido RöÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

396

The human and animal health impacts of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of West Nile virus in Australia.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases can have substantial impacts on human and animal health, including major epidemics. West Nile virus (WNV) is of particular international importance due to its recent emergence and impact in the Western Hemisphere. Despite the presence of a sub-type of WNV (Kunjin virus, KUN) in Australia, a potential ecological niche could be occupied by an exotic strain of WNV of the North American type. This study assesses the probability an exotic strain of WNV enters Australia via an infected mosquito in an aircraft from the United States (U.S.) landing at Sydney airport, the probability it spreads to susceptible species and the impact of the resulting outbreak on human and animal health. A release, exposure and consequence assessment were conducted using expert opinion and scientific literature to parameterise the inputs for the models (OIE, 2009). Following establishment of WNV in Australia, the spatio-temporal spread of WNV was predicted over a six year period based on the Australian human and equine populations at-risk, the known distribution of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses in Australia, climatic factors, and the spread of WNV in the U.S. following it's incursion in New York City in 1999. The impact of this spread was measured as a multiplier of human and equine demographics using the U.S. incidence and case fatality rates as a reference. For an 8 month period from September to April (considering seasonal impact on mosquito activity during the coldest months in Australia and the U.S.), and assuming WNV is endemic in the U.S., the median probability an infected mosquito is introduced is 0.17, and the median number of infected mosquitoes introduced is predicted to be zero, with a 95th percentile range of one. The overall probability of a WNV outbreak (WNV released into Australia, susceptible hosts exposed and the virus spread) occurring in the human and the horse population during this time period is estimated to be 7.0×10(-6) and 3.9×10(-6), respectively. These values are largely influenced by the presence of mosquitoes in aircrafts and whether the introduced infected mosquito contacts wild birds. Results of this study suggest there is a low risk of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of WNV from the U.S via aircraft, and provides an insight into the magnitude and impact of the spread among human and horse populations. The generic framework presented could be applied to assess the potential introduction of other mosquito-borne diseases (which involve a wild bird transmission cycle) via international aircraft movements. PMID:23098914

Hernández-Jover, Marta; Roche, Sharon; Ward, Michael P

2013-05-01

397

The diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) may be present in 10%–20% of patients in medical settings. Routine depression screening is sometimes recommended to improve depression management. However, studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools have typically used data-driven, exploratory methods to select optimal cutoffs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cutoff points around whatever cutoff score is most accurate in that given study. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cutoff points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each possible cutoff point. As a result, traditional meta-analyses may generate exaggerated estimates of accuracy. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by synthesizing data from all studies for each cutoff score to obtain diagnostic accuracy estimates. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the shorter PHQ-2 and PHQ-8 are commonly recommended for depression screening. Thus, the primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2 to detect MDD among adults across all potentially relevant cutoff scores. Secondary analyses involve assessing accuracy accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, sex, medical comorbidity). Methods/design Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will include studies that included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of MDD based on a validated structured or semi-structured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of the administration of the PHQ. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, perform full article review, and extract study data. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cutoff values. Discussion The proposed IPD meta-analyses will allow us to obtain estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010673 PMID:25348422

2014-01-01

398

CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: ?Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health? sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

399

A REVIEW - THE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN FOOD PRODUCTION ANIMALS - DOES THIS CAUSE PROBLEMS IN HUMAN HEALTH?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the frequent consequences of antibiotic use is the development and spread of resistant bacteria in people and animals. If animals carry resistant bacteria, then food produced from these animals will often be colonised with these bacteria. After ingesting these foods, people can then carry these resistant bacteria and in some cases develop infections from them. Some of this

P. Collignon

400

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2012-01-01

401

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2011-01-01

402

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2013-01-01

403

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2014-01-01

404

Detection of small trace molecules in human and animal exhalation by tunable diode lasers for applications in biochemistry and medical diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, CO2, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is

Eugene V. Stepanov; Andrian I. Kuznetsov; Pavel V. Zyrianov; Vladimir Skrupskii; Yurii Shulagin; Marina E. Galagan

1995-01-01

405

Early experiences on the feasibility, acceptability, and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests at peripheral health centres in Uganda-insights into some barriers and facilitators  

PubMed Central

Background While feasibility of new health technologies in well-resourced healthcare settings is extensively documented, it is largely unknown in low-resourced settings. Uganda's decision to deploy and scale up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) in public health facilities and at the community level provides a useful entry point for documenting field experience, acceptance, and predictive variables for technology acceptance and use. These findings are important in informing implementation of new health technologies, plans, and budgets in low-resourced national disease control programmes. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study at 21 health centres in Uganda was undertaken in 2007 to elucidate the barriers and facilitators in the introduction of mRDTs as a new diagnostic technology at lower-level health facilities. Pre-tested interview questionnaires were administered through pre-structured patient exit interviews and semi-structured health worker interviews to gain an understanding of the response to this implementation. A conceptual framework on technology acceptance and use was adapted for this study and used to prepare the questionnaires. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes from the data. Results A total of 52 of 57 health workers (92%) reported a belief that a positive mRDT result was true, although only 41 of 57 (64%) believed that treatment with anti-malarials was justified for every positive mRDT case. Of the same health workers, only 49% believed that a negative mRDT result was truly negative. Factors linked to these findings were related to mRDT acceptance and use, including the design and characteristics of the device, availability and quality of mRDT ancillary supplies, health worker capacity to investigate febrile cases testing negative with the device and provide appropriate treatment, availability of effective malaria treatments, reliability of the health commodity supply chain, existing national policy recommendations, individual health worker dynamism, and vitality of supervision. Conclusions mRDTs were found to be acceptable to and used by the target users, provided clear policy guidelines exist, ancillary tools are easy to use and health supplies beyond the diagnostic tools are met. Based on our results, health workers' needs for comprehensive case management should be met, and specific guidance for managing febrile patients with negative test outcomes should be provided alongside the new health technology. The extent, to which the implementation process of mRDT-led, parasite-based diagnosis accommodates end user beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and satisfaction, as well as technology learnability and suitability, influences the level of acceptance and use of mRDTs. The effectiveness of the health system in providing the enabling environment and the integration of the diagnostic tool into routine service delivery is critical. PMID:22269037

2012-01-01

406

Wonder world of phages: potential biocontrol agents safeguarding biosphere and health of animals and humans- current scenario and perspectives.  

PubMed

Darwin's theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3 virophages have been discovered including the Sputnik virophages that are used to study genetic recombination. Virophages also find their application in antiviral therapy; as engineer of ecological system etc. In brief, present review deals with various dimensions of these beneficial viruses that are being used and can be successfully used in future for safeguarding biosphere including animal and human health. PMID:24897785

Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Kumar, Amit; Kapoor, Sanjay

2014-02-01

407

An alternative perspective on how laboratory medicine can contribute to solve the health care crisis: a model to save costs by acquiring excellence in diagnostic systems.  

PubMed

The rapid escalation in health care costs has led to the idea to deliver better care at lower costs, reshaping the responsibilities of the health care system to achieve the goal of creating value for the patient. The pressure for fiscal containment and the progressive reduction in available health care resources originated very short term strategies consisting of abrupt reductions in expenditure, specifically in the provision of clinical pathology laboratory medicine services. However, the impact of laboratory test results on diagnostic and therapeutic interventions has increased enormously in the past decade, due to advances in personalized medicine and to the strictly correlated requirement to use new biomarkers with increasing sensitivity and specificity in clinical practice. In order to create savings by delivering better care there is the need to invest financial resources in purchasing high technology and new sophisticated tests and to promote the expertise of clinical pathologists and laboratory medicine professionals. This approach to creating value in patient health care is more productive and sustainable ethically, morally and economically as a long-term strategy. It can be successfully achieved by applying defined rules that make public-private cooperation clearer, skipping incompatible solutions such as transforming clinical laboratories to 'industrially productive premises', outsourcing laboratory medicine services and using central acquisition of diagnostic systems. PMID:24080433

Mussap, Michele

2014-01-01

408

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

. Additionally, mice should be tested for Helicobacter as outlined in SOP 2.D.6, "Animal Health Monitoring health concerns: i. Additional testing of the sentinels or quarantine animals may be required2.D.9 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES for ANIMAL

Krovi, Venkat

409

Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

2011-01-01

410

Adjusting Our Lens: Can Developmental Differences in Diagnostic Reasoning Be Harnessed to Improve Health Professional and Trainee Assessment?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Research in cognition has yielded considerable understanding of the diagnostic reasoning process and its evolution during clinical training. This study sought to determine whether or not this literature could be used to improve the assessment of trainees’ diagnostic skill by manipulating testing conditions that encourage different modes of reasoning. Methods The authors developed an online, vignette-based instrument with two sets of testing instructions. The “first impression” condition encouraged non-analytic responses while the “directed search” condition prompted structured analytic responses. Subjects encountered six cases under the first impression condition, then six cases under the directed search condition. Each condition had three straightforward (simple), and three ambiguous (complex) cases. Subjects were stratified by clinical experience: novice (third and fourth year medical students), intermediate (post graduate year [PGY] 1 and 2 residents), and experienced (PGY 3 residents and faculty). Two investigators scored the exams independently. Mean diagnostic accuracies were calculated for each group. Differences in diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the examination as a function of the predictor variables were assessed. Results The exam was completed by 115 subjects. Diagnostic accuracy was significantly associated with the independent variables of case complexity, clinical experience, and testing condition. Overall, mean diagnostic accuracy and the extent to which the test consistently discriminated between subjects (i.e., yielded reliable scores) was higher when participants were given directed search instructions than when they were given first impression instructions. In addition, the pattern of reliability was found to depend on experience: simple cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between novices, complex cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between intermediate residents, and neither type of case discriminated well between experienced practitioners. Conclusions These results yield concrete guidance regarding test construction for the purpose of diagnostic skill assessment. The instruction strategy and complexity of cases selected should depend on the experience level and breadth of experience of the subjects one is attempting to assess. PMID:21999563

Ilgen, Jonathan S.; Bowen, Judith L.; Yarris, Lalena M.; Fu, Rongwei; Lowe, Robert A.; Eva, Kevin

2011-01-01

411

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

·Social learning #12;Social learning ·Possibly associative at least in some aspects. ·ObservingCHAPTER 9 ANIMAL COGNITION #12;Animal cognition ·Basic concepts ·Case study: incentive learning ·Rule learning ·Social learning #12;Rule learning ·A cognitive form of learning. ·Initial learning based

Cooper, Brenton G.

412

Direct analysis of carbohydrates in animal plasma by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and pulsed amperometric detection for use as a non-invasive diagnostic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper demonstrates that electrochemical detection (ECD) coupled to ion chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ECD–ESI\\/MS\\/MS) can be used to rapidly estimate some indications of the health status of organisms. The lactulose to mannitol ratio (L\\/M) is used as a non-invasive assay to investigate small intestinal absorption pathways and mucosal integrity. In the present study, an evaluation

Darja Kotnik; Andrej Šmidovnik; Petra Jazbec-Križman; Mitja Križman; Mirko Prošek

413

Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program  

E-print Network

Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program Approved by AACUC May 2003 Goals The goals of the Agricultural Animal Care Training Program are to ensure animal well-being, the validity and effectiveness of research and teaching activities, and the health and safety of animal care

Maxwell, Bruce D.

414

Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB. PMID:22012976

Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

2011-01-01

415

A review of RT-PCR technologies used in veterinary virology and disease control: Sensitive and specific diagnosis of five livestock diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods in the field of molecular diagnostics and research. The potential of this format to provide sensitive, specific and swift detection and quantification of viral RNAs has made it an indispensable tool for state-of-the-art diagnostics of important human and animal viral pathogens. Integration of these

Bernd Hoffmann; Martin Beer; Scott M. Reid; Peter Mertens; Chris A. L. Oura; Piet A. van Rijn; Marek J. Slomka; Jill Banks; Ian H. Brown; Dennis J. Alexander; Donald P. King

2009-01-01

416

Marketing Animal Facilitated Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal Facilitated Therapy (AFT) is the therapeutic use of the human-animal bond to improve a patient's physical and emotional health. It is an emerging treatment modality that is gaining acceptance among medical practitioners and healthcare administrators. Medical care has traditionally focused on the clinical well-being of the patient. But it is now widely recognized that emotional health is an integral

Kristine Howell-Newman; Robert L. Goldman

1994-01-01

417

Comparing primary and secondary health-care use between diagnostic routes before a colorectal cancer diagnosis: Cohort study using linked data  

PubMed Central

Background: Survival in cancer patients diagnosed following emergency presentations is poorer than those diagnosed through other routes. To identify points for intervention to improve survival, a better understanding of patients' primary and secondary health-care use before diagnosis is needed. Our aim was to compare colorectal cancer patients' health-care use by diagnostic route. Methods: Cohort study of colorectal cancers using linked primary and secondary care and cancer registry data (2009–2011) from four London boroughs. The prevalence of all and relevant GP consultations and rates of primary and secondary care use up to 21 months before diagnosis were compared across diagnostic routes (emergency, GP-referred and consultant/other). Results: The data set comprised 943 colorectal cancers with 24% diagnosed through emergency routes. Most (84%) emergency patients saw their GP 6 months before diagnosis but their symptom profile was distinct; fewer had symptoms meeting urgent referral criteria than GP-referred patients. Compared with GP-referred, emergency patients used primary care less (IRR: 0.85 (95% CI 0.78–0.93)) and urgent care more frequently (IRR: 1.56 (95% CI 1.12; 2.17)). Conclusions: Distinct patterns of health-care use in patients diagnosed through emergency routes were identified in this cohort. Such analyses using linked data can inform strategies for improving early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PMID:25072256

Sheringham, J R; Georghiou, T; Chitnis, X A; Bardsley, M

2014-01-01

418

Benchmark dose approaches in chemical health risk assessment in relation to number and distress of laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Use of benchmark dose (BMD) approaches is expected to increase substantially, with growing awareness among researchers and inclusion in regulatory testing guidance documents such as REACH. The BMD approach has clear advantages over the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) approach in defining toxicological thresholds, risk levels, and points of departure as the basis for setting guidance and limit values. Several aspects of the BMD may increase the use of laboratory animals; the optimal number of dose groups for BMD calculation is between five and ten, rather than the current standard of four; also, experiments with more animals will result in narrow confidence intervals. However, this paper presents several counterarguments suggesting that design of experiments suited for BMD analyses might be used to decrease the distress and use of laboratory animals. If experiments are performed with unequal group size, with fewer animals in the high response dose groups and more animals close to toxicological threshold, the aggregated distress might be reduced. In addition, there is a need to evaluate how the total number of animals affects the quality of BMD (e.g. in terms of confidence intervals). Development of strategies for optimal design of experiments requires tools which evaluate experimental designs from an ethical perspective; a concept of distress-adjusted number of animals is suggested. PMID:20800084

Oberg, Mattias

2010-12-01

419

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

420

The Performance of Children with Mental Health Disorders on the ADOS-G: A Question of Diagnostic Utility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few decades, the reported number of children identified as having one of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased exponentially. One proposed reason for the dramatic increase in the prevalence of ASD is diagnostic substitution, whereby children with other disorders incorrectly receive a diagnosis of ASD. Little research has…

Sikora, Darryn M.; Hartley, Sigan L.; McCoy, Robin; Gerrard-Morris, Aimee E.; Dill, Kameron

2008-01-01

421

Developing Canine Models of ADRP, AR, RP, and XLRP Gustavo D. Aguirre, Baker Institute for Animal Health  

E-print Network

Raffaello D'Andrea, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering $1,000,000, Department of Defense Bioavailability] Developing Canine Models of ADRP, AR, RP, and XLRP Gustavo D. Aguirre, Baker Institute for Animal

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

422

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

423

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

424

9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-01-01

425

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

426

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

427

9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

428

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

429

9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

430

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-01-01

431

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

432

9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-01-01

433

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

434

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

435

9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

436

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

437

9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-01-01

438

9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

439

9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

440

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

441

9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

442

9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

443

9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

444

9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

445

9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-01-01

446

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

447

9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

448

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

449

9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

450

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

451

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

452

9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

453

9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

454

9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-01-01

455

9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

456

9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-01-01

457

9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

458

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

459

The Diagnostic Accuracy and Validity of the Teen Screen Questionnaire-Mental Health for Clinical and Epidemiological Studies in Primary-Care Settings  

PubMed Central

Background: To validate a brief, self-reported, Teen Symptom Questionnaire–Mental Health (TSQ-M), for identifying adolescents with mental ill-health, designed for conducting epidemiological studies and clinical work in primary-care settings. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study of 146 adolescents, re-cruited six rural and urban schools, the newly developed TSQ-M as the measure for validation and General Health Questionnaire-12 item (GHQ-12) as the gold standard measure were administered by independent trained raters. Tests for diagnostic accuracy and validity were conducted. Results: A TSQ-M score of ?29 (Sn=75.68%, Sp=68.06, +LR=2.37, -LR=0.36, PPV=70.9, NPV=73.1) with the AUC of 0.79, is suggested for screening use in Indian populations. Besides the adequate face and content validity, TSQ-M has moderate internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = .64) suggesting that the construct of mental ill-health as conceptualized by TSQ-M has multiple sub-constructs. The presence of sub-constructs was demonstrated by an 8- factor structure, which explained 60% of variance. Conclusion: The TSQ-M is a psychometrically adequate, yet a brief measure, for clinical and research work in identifying mental ill-health among adolescents in primary-care settings in India. PMID:24860223

Nair, MK; Chacko, Deepa; Rajaraman, Venkateswaran; George, Babu; Samraj, Leena; Russell, Paul Swamidhas

2014-01-01

460

Does Animal Feeding Operation Pollution Hurt Public Health? A National Longitudinal Study of Health Externalities Identified by Geographic Shifts in Livestock Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency is currently gathering data to regulate livestock facilities under the Clean Air Act, legislation that purports to protect public health. To set rational policy, estimates of health externalities associated with livestock farming are necessary. This study uses geographic shifts in the industry to measure the impact of pollution on infant health. The article finds that a

Stacy Sneeringer

2009-01-01

461

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

462

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

463

QUANTITATIVE TOXICOPROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF CARCINOGEN-TREATED ANIMAL TISSUES AND HUMAN CELLS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

464

Clinical calibration of DSM-IV diagnoses in the World Mental Health (WMH) version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the rationale, design, and analysis plan for the WMH-CIDI clinical calibration studies. As no clinical gold standard assessment is available for the DSM-IV disorders assessed in the WMH-CIDI, we adopted the goal of calibration rather than validation; that is, we asked whether WMH-CIDI diagnoses are 'consistent' with diagnoses based on a state-of-the-art clinical research diagnostic

Ronald C. Kessler; Jamie Abelson; Olga Demler; Javier I. Escobar; Miriam Gibbon; Margaret E. Guyer; Mary J. Howes; Robert Jin; William A. Vega; Ellen E. Walters; Philip Wang; Alan Zaslavsky; Hui Zheng

2004-01-01

465

Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact,

Deborah J. Pain; Ruth L. Cromie; Julia Newth; Martin J. Brown; Eric Crutcher; Pippa Hardman; Louise Hurst; Rafael Mateo; Andrew A. Meharg; Annette C. Moran; Andrea Raab; Mark A. Taggart; Rhys E. Green

2010-01-01

466

Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and

Deborah J. Pain; Ruth L. Cromie; Julia Newth; Martin J. Brown; Eric Crutcher; Pippa Hardman; Louise Hurst; Rafael Mateo; Andrew A. Meharg; Annette C. Moran; Andrea Raab; Mark A. Taggart; Rhys E. Green; Andrew Iwaniuk

2010-01-01

467

COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

468

HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

469

Section A: Project Summary Title: Urban Environmental Geography, Public Health, and Pest Animals in US Cities, 1850-Present  

E-print Network

. Specifically, what have been the mistakes, successes, and injustices in past pest control interventions in poor. The social geography of pests, however, reflects the social position and physical surroundings of our neighborhoods. The researchers' objective is to use the ecological history and social geography of pest animals

Watson, Craig A.

470

Comparable measures of cognitive function in human infants and laboratory animals to identify environmental health risks to children.  

PubMed Central

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studies. Such a comparable test will allow researchers to observe the effect of environmental neurotoxicants in animals and relate those findings to humans. In this article, we present the results of a review of post-1990, peer-reviewed literature and current research examining measures of cognitive function that can be applied to both human infants (0-12 months old) and laboratory animals. We begin with a discussion of the definition of cognitive function and important considerations in cross-species research. We then describe identified comparable measures, providing a description of the test in human infants and animal subjects. Available information on test reliability, validity, and population norms, as well as test limitations and constraints, is also presented. PMID:14527843

Sharbaugh, Carolyn; Viet, Susan Marie; Fraser, Alexa; McMaster, Suzanne B

2003-01-01

471

A history of the traceability of animals and animal products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The author presents a review of the history of traceability as applied to live animals and animal products from antiquity to the 19th Century. The evidence shows that livestock farmers, owners, and those in charge of animal production and health were concerned with traceability from a very early stage. With regard to live animals, individual identification by means of

J. Blancou

2001-01-01

472

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare  

E-print Network

are the U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and TrainingOffice of Laboratory Animal Welfare National Institutes of Health PublicHealthService Policyon

Baker, Chris I.

473

The Navigation Guide--Evidence-Based Medicine Meets Environmental Health: Integration of Animal and Human Evidence for PFOA Effects on Fetal Growth  

PubMed Central

Background: The Navigation Guide is a novel systematic review method to synthesize scientific evidence and reach strength of evidence conclusions for environmental health decision making. Objective: Our aim was to integrate scientific findings from human and nonhuman studies to determine the overall strength of evidence for the question “Does developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) affect fetal growth in humans?” Methods: We developed and applied prespecified criteria to systematically and transparently a) rate the quality of the scientific evidence as “high,” “moderate,” or “low”; b) rate the strength of the human and nonhuman evidence separately as “sufficient,” “limited,” “moderate,” or “evidence of lack of toxicity”; and c) integrate the strength of the human and nonhuman evidence ratings into a strength of the evidence conclusion. Results: We identified 18 epidemiology studies and 21 animal toxicology studies relevant to our study question. We rated both the human and nonhuman mammalian evidence as “moderate” quality and “sufficient” strength. Integration of these evidence ratings produced a final strength of evidence rating in which review authors concluded that PFOA is “known to be toxic” to human reproduction and development based on sufficient evidence of decreased fetal growth in both human and nonhuman mammalian species. Conclusion: We concluded that developmental exposure to PFOA adversely affects human health based on sufficient evidence of decreased fetal growth in both human and nonhuman mammalian species. The results of this case study demonstrate the application of a systematic and transparent methodology, via the Navigation Guide, for reaching strength of evidence conclusions in environmental health. Citation: Lam J, Koustas E, Sutton P, Johnson PI, Atchley DS, Sen S, Robinson KA, Axelrad DA, Woodruff TJ. 2014. The Navigation Guide—evidence-based medicine meets environmental health: integration of animal and human evidence for PFOA effects on fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect 122:1040–1051;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307923 PMID:24968389

Koustas, Erica; Sutton, Patrice; Johnson, Paula I.; Atchley, Dylan S.; Sen, Saunak; Robinson, Karen A.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2014-01-01

474

Pollution and Public Health in a Shrinking World: Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations as a Paradigm for Emergent Needs in Environmental and Public Health Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental factors play a major part in human health. Environmental pollutants are often as poisonous to humans as the environment. Presently, much time and energy is dedicated to keeping pollution apart from human society, with varying success. But as global population densities rise, current levels of pollution will become inviable due to public health concerns. An emergent example of this

Leland Stillman

2010-01-01

475

An Integrated Health-Economic Analysis of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with substantially increased cardiovascular risks, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of motor vehicle collisions due to daytime sleepiness. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of three commonly used diagnostic strategies (full-night polysomnography, split-night polysomnography, unattended portable home-monitoring) in conjunction with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. Design: A Markov model was created to compare costs and effectiveness of different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies over a 10-year interval and the expected lifetime of the patient. The primary measure of cost-effectiveness was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients or Participants: Baseline computations were performed for a hypothetical average cohort of 50-year-old males with a 50% pretest probability of having moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] ? 15 events per hour). Measurements and Results: For a patient with moderate-to-severe OSA, CPAP therapy has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $15,915 per QALY gained for the lifetime horizon. Over the lifetime horizon in a population with 50% prevalence of OSA, full-night polysomnography in conjunction with CPAP therapy is the most economically efficient strategy at any willingness-to-pay greater than $17,131 per-QALY gained because it dominates all other strategies in comparative analysis. Conclusions: Full-night polysomnography (PSG) is cost-effective and is the preferred diagnostic strategy for adults suspected to have moderate-to-severe OSA when all diagnostic options are available. Split-night PSG and unattended home monitoring can be considered cost-effective alternatives when full-night PSG is not available. Citation: Pietzsch JB; Garner A; Cipriano LE; Linehan JH. An integrated health-economic analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the treatment of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2011;34(6):695-709. PMID:21629357

Pietzsch, Jan B.; Garner, Abigail; Cipriano, Lauren E.; Linehan, John H.

2011-01-01

476

ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study  

E-print Network

ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study Research Facilities Applying The M.S. degree in Animal Sciences may be earned for a program of study in reproductive physiology, animal health, nutrition to assistantships in the Animal and Veterinary Sciences field devote half time to work as directed by their major

Thomas, Andrew

477

21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

478

21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

479

21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

480

Animal Cloning 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-06

481

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

482

Juvenile animal abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal abuse has long been recognized as a sign of family violence and a warning sign of future aggression in children and adolescents. As leaders in youth violence prevention, pediatric nurse practitioners need to be aware of the prevalence and types of juvenile animal cruelty and its relationship to human violence. In doing so, they can champion for health care

Mary Muscari

2004-01-01

483

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

484

Managing animal disease risk in Australia: the impact of climate change.  

PubMed

Climate change is one of a number of factors that are likely to affect the future of Australian agriculture, animal production and animal health, particularly when associated with other factors such as environmental degradation, intensive animal production, an increasing human population, and expanding urbanisation. Notwithstanding the harshness and variability of Australia's climate, s