Sample records for animal health diagnostic

  1. Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 607-253-3900 Web: diagcenter Testing for Possible Contamination Information for Pet Owners The first step that should be taken whenever (FDA) can be contacted at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/ReportaProblem/ucm182403.htm

  2. Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Pa containers) Protocol for Sampling Depending on the species of animal being tested, it is recommendedAnimal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 6072533100 Web: diagcenter Leptospirosis FA/Growth Testing Sample Procurement Test Name (and code): Leptospirosis FA (LeptoFA) AHDC Lab

  3. Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    by ELISA assay, and or Western Blot tests of serum. In addition, a PCR test may be used to detect of positive animals. Several tests are used, including a competitive ELISA assay referred to as the C-ELISA test. Whole blood PCR assays are only rarely positive, and may not be useful in routine diagnostic

  4. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in dogs Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi. Spirochetes are transmitted to dogs by infected ticks. Similar to humans, dogs are incidental, dead-end hosts for B

  5. Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University In Partnership the acceptability of the sample size, remove the sample buffer from the AHDC sample tubes and submit the sample in the "dry" tube. As will all tests for PI animals, this newly formatted test will occasionally detect

  6. Immunoglobulin G, Equine Chemistry Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Immunoglobulin G, Equine Chemistry Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine immunity from the ingestion of colostrum within the first few hours after birth is critical to the health of the newborn foal. Failure to suckle within the first three hours after birth may result in low or absent

  7. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Page 1 of 2 Issue Date: 5/25/2012 Document Title: Histology Laboratory Research Prices Document Code: AP-HISTO-CHT-010-V.01 Histology Laboratory Research Prices Prepared/Reviewed by: Martin Slade, Technical Service Supervisor, Histology Laboratory Tissues

  8. DL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDC website at diagcenterDL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

  9. DL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    and older * Please see either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDCDL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

  10. DL-1040 5/06 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    : 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Trichomonad Protozoa of the protozoa as P. hominis or Giardia when seen by light microscopy. Trichomonads do not form cysts techniques. If these protozoa are suspected in an animal, it is recommended the feces be preserved in SAF

  11. Helping animals, people and the planet Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Helping animals, people and the planet Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories 1644 Campus Delivery Fort System (VDL) provides diagnostic services to private veterinary practitioners; animal owners; animal of twelve Core Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratories of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network

  12. Preparation and applications of the International Aquatic Animal Health Code and Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases of the Office International des Epizooties.

    PubMed

    Hĺstein, T

    1996-06-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has recently prepared an International Aquatic Animal Health Code, based on the principles set out in the corresponding OIE International Animal Health Code for terrestrial animals. The principal aim of the Code and the companion Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases is to harmonise health guarantees for international trade in aquatic animals (fish, molluscs, crustaceans) and aquatic animal products, and to guide state Veterinary Services and/or other competent authorities in the preparation of appropriate health certificates. The Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual provide detailed information on definitions, notifications, ethics in connection with certification, import risk analysis and import/export procedures. By these means, the preparation of international health certificates can be based on a uniform approach to health control in aquatic animal populations, using the standardised methods described in the Diagnostic Manual. In general, health certification under the Aquatic Animal Health Code is required only for diseases notifiable to the OIE. In addition to such notifiable diseases, however, the Code establishes a list of other significant diseases which need consideration. The listed diseases are recognised as serious transmissible diseases of socio-economic and/or public health importance, in relation to which the international trade of aquatic animals and their products poses a significant risk of transfer between countries. The current status of the Code and Manual is described in detail. PMID:8890391

  13. Animal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853 20 Export Testing Tips The Animal Health Diagnostic with you to provide efficient export testing services. Our Laboratory performs most of the tests routinely

  14. Innovations in Companion Animal Health Introducing dynamic new treatments, developing stronger diagnostic tools, pioneering veterinary disciplines,

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    taurine, an amino acid, and feline dilated cardiomyopathy, a fatal heart ailment. Pet food companies now in 2007, can cause a lethal kidney failure in cats. The study has helped veterinarians to diagnose kidney education about how dental care affects overall health in companion animals. Remarkable achievements

  15. The Colorado State University (CSU) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (VDL) provides diagnostic services to private veterinary practitioners; animal owners; animal interests; local, state and national governmental

    E-print Network

    diagnostic services to private veterinary practitioners; animal owners; animal interests; local, state Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD). The VDL is one of twelve Core Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratories of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), designated by the United

  16. Recent applications of biotechnology to novel diagnostics for aquatic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Adams; K. D. Thompson

    Summary Improvement of the methods included in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals and addition of novel techniques are dependent on the continual development and evaluation of both new and existing methods. Although conventional isolation and characterisation techniques for the diagnosis of many diseases still remain the methods of choice there is

  17. An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin A. Gajadhar; Lorry B. Forbes

    2002-01-01

    A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.

  18. World Organisation for Animal Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1924 by a coalition of 28 countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), now composed of 167 member countries, facilitates global awareness of regional animal diseases, and also works to curtail the spread of diseases. The OIE website contains a range of information about animal health issues in three main sections: World Animal Health Situation, Official Animal Health Status, and Animal Diseases Data. The site also offers editorials and press releases, as well as information about a variety of OIE publications. In addition, site visitors will find a calendar of international meetings, job postings (when available), a solid collection of related links; and information about health standards for terrestrial and aquatic animals, OIE Reference Laboratories and Working Groups, internships, and more. This website is available in French, Spanish, and English.

  19. Integrating animal health and foodborne disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Berman, E M; Shimshony, A

    2013-08-01

    The control of foodborne diseases from an animal source has become an important part of public health policy. Since the agents that cause these diseases originate in animals, Veterinary Services, as well as Public Health Services, must be involved in their control. Control programmes should be established either through cooperation between the two Services or by the consolidation of all those involved into a single food control agency. Surveillance is an important part of these control programmes. The following questions must be addressed when planning an effective surveillance programme. What is the relative incidence, morbidity, mortality and economic cost of the foodborne disease in humans? Is the animal population the exclusive or a significant source of the human foodborne infection? What kind of surveillance is needed to identify the disease-causing agent in the animal population? Are we interested in identifying all cases of a disease in order to eradicate it or is our aim to reduce its incidence in the animal population? Do we have the ability to control the disease in the animal population? What disease detection tests are available? What are the sensitivity, specificity and cost of these diagnostic tests? Finally, does the country, region or agency involved have the legal, financial and educational resources to carry out this surveillance and follow it up with appropriate action? After these questions have been resolved,the veterinary and public health sectors must jointly decide if surveillance and control are feasible. If so, they can then begin to develop an appropriate programme. PMID:24547641

  20. Farm animal practitioners' views on their use and expectations of veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P A; Epperson, W B

    2013-05-11

    Diagnostic sampling of farm animals by private veterinary practitioners can be an important contributing factor towards the discovery of emerging and exotic diseases. This focus group study of farm animal practitioners in Northern Ireland investigated their use and expectations of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, and elicited their opinions on the role of the private practitioner in veterinary surveillance and the protection of rural public health. The veterinarians were enthusiastic users of diagnostic laboratories, and regarded their own role in surveillance as pivotal. They attached great importance to their veterinary public health duties, and called for more collaboration with their medical general practitioner counterparts. The findings of this research can be used to guide future development of veterinary diagnostic services; provide further insights into the mechanics of scanning surveillance; and measure progress towards a 'One Health' approach between veterinarians and physicians in one geographical region of the UK. PMID:23612486

  1. Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal

    E-print Network

    ://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/, then Click on Animal Health Literacy Click on Animal Health Literacy Campaign Aquaculture-specific references: A Quick Reference Guide to Approved Drugs for Use in Aquaculture Aquaculture and Aquaculture

  2. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Detection of Aquatic Animal Pathogens in a Diagnostic Laboratory Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen K. Purcell; Rodman G. Getchell; Carol A. McClure; Kyle A. Garver

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines

  3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  4. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. PMID:19967940

  5. Safeguarding Animal Health AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES &

    E-print Network

    loosestrife (lythrum salicaria) #12;Safeguarding Animal Health AIS - Invertebrates Zebra mussel (Dreissensa polymorpha) Quagga mussel (D.bugenis) Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) Spiny (Bythotrephes longimanus

  6. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well. Though they may be cute and cuddly, wild animals may carry germs, viruses, and parasites. Deer and ... mice carry ticks that cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. ...

  7. Diagnostic Levels in Dental Public Health Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amid Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This concept paper discusses the rationale for using different diagnostic criteria for dental caries in public health programs. The author contends that epidemiological data or needs assessment surveys should collect data to provide information on the epidemiology of different stages of the caries process in order to enable planners to design tailored programs to prevent dental caries. In a rapidly

  8. The role of flow cytometry in companion animal diagnostic medicine.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Jacqueline M

    2005-11-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for characterising the composition of complex cell populations. The accuracy and precision of this technology for describing and enumerating cells exceeds traditional methods. The number of diagnostic veterinary laboratories with access to a dedicated machine is increasing, and there is the potential to offer a clinical flow cytometry service. The improved availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cell markers expressed by the leukocytes of companion animals, permits the implementation of comprehensive mAb panels suitable for diagnosis of lympho- and myeloproliferative disease. Reticulated erythrocyte and platelet quantification, antiglobulin assays for immune-mediated cytopenias, lymphocyte subset analysis, and immunophenotyping of lymphoma and leukemia, have been validated for companion animal samples on the flow cytometer. It is now timely to consider the role of flow cytometry in diagnostic practice, and the requirement for quality assurance and standardization of testing procedures. PMID:16266842

  9. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Immunohistochemistry Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Peripheral Nerve Myelin Feline Herpes virus CD 79a (HM57) (K9, Feline, Equine) P53 Feline calicivirus CD 117&4 CD 45RA (K9 only) Neuron specific enolase Equine viral arteritis CD 45 B220 (K9, Feline, Equine) Po

  10. Serology APPENDIX H Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Enteric Coronavirus (FCoV) test is a kinetics ELISA (KELA) assay that detects antibodies to coronavirus assay were run on the competitive ELISA. They showed no competition, con- firming them as coronavirus, every coronavirus positive cat shed virus in the feces occasionally. The Cornell FCoV k-ELISA assay

  11. Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rönmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components. PMID:25282018

  12. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  13. 76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  14. 76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  15. USDA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The watchword of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is "protection". The APHIS is primarily considered with improving agricultural productivity and also ensuring the health and care of animals and plants. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Hot Issues" section to learn more about some of the most pressing issues that the APHIS addresses. Here they will find fact sheets and news updates on avian influenza, the pesky light brown apple moth, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moving on, visitors can also browse a list of subject headings that include animal health, biotechnology, plant health, and wildlife damage management. Finally, the site also contains an area where concerned visitors can report a pest infestation or suspected instances of agricultural smuggling.

  16. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    PubMed

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis. PMID:23472348

  17. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  18. THE ROLE OF GENETICS ON ANIMAL HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is a brief review of the challenges and approaches for selecting livestock for disease resistance. Animal health and well being have become increasingly important issues for producers and consumers. Pathogens have often evolved into strains resistant to common vaccines and antibioti...

  19. USGS-National Wildlife Health Center Diagnostic Case Submission Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Page 1 USGS-National Wildlife Health Center Diagnostic Case Submission Guidelines The National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) conducts diagnostic investigations to determine causes of wildlife morbidity Federal, State, or Tribal agency and the NWHC point of contact. The general public, rehabilitation

  20. Multi-engine Animal Disease Diagnostic Expert System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAN Wen-xue; GUO Guo-qiang; WANG Jing-ren

    2008-01-01

    ?Abstract?The traditional disease diagnostic expertsy stemonly has a single reasoning process to use knowledge,so that its knowledge utilization is inefficient. Its conclusion has low accuracyand without contrast. This paper makes example ofgoat, modelings disease diagnostic knowledge base by the use of object-oriented knowledge representation. According to the training process and diagnostic model, it proposes the ideology of multi-engine ruling based

  1. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  2. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanitŕ, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruńa, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  3. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  4. Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Yager; Thayne Edwards; Elain Fu; Kristen Helton; Kjell Nelson; Milton R. Tam; Bernhard H. Weigl

    2006-01-01

    The developing world does not have access to many of the best medical diagnostic technologies; they were designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. Microfluidic systems allow miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which could move sophisticated diagnostic tools out of

  5. Effective animal health disease surveillance using a network-enabled approach.

    PubMed

    Kloeze, H; Mukhi, S; Kitching, P; Lees, V W; Alexandersen, S

    2010-12-01

    There are many benefits that derive from real-time knowledge of the health status of the national livestock population. Effective animal disease surveillance is a requirement for countries that trade in live animals and their products in order to comply with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines. Rapid identification of introduced and emerging disease allows rapid response and mitigation of the economic consequences. Connections between animal and human disease caused by a common pathogen can be recognized and control measures implemented, thereby protecting public health and maintaining public confidence in the food supply. Production-limiting diseases can be monitored, and control programmes be evaluated with benefits accruing from decreased economic losses associated with disease as well as reducing the welfare concerns associated with diseased animals. Establishing a surveillance programme across a wide area with diverse ecosystems and political administrations as Canada is a complex challenge. When funding became available from a government programme to enable early detection of a bio-terrorist attack on livestock, the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network (CAHSN) became officially established. An existing web-based information platform that supports intelligence exchange, surveillance and response for public health issues in Canada was adapted to link the network animal health laboratories. A minimum data set was developed that facilitated sharing of results between participating laboratories and jurisdictions as the first step in creating the capacity for national disease trend analysis. In each of the network laboratories, similar quality assurance and bio-containment systems have been funded and supported, and diagnostic staff have been trained and certified on a suite of diagnostic tests for foreign animal diseases. This ensures that national standards are maintained throughout all of the diagnostic laboratories. This paper describes the genesis of CAHSN, its current capability and governance, and potential for future development. PMID:20846188

  6. High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center.

    PubMed

    Bannantine, John P; Olsen, Steven C; Kehrli, Marcus E; Stanton, Thad B; Casas, Eduardo; Whipple, Diana L; Zuelke, Kurt A

    2013-08-30

    Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself among the world's premier animal health research centers. Its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the U.S. livestock and poultry industries. Research from NADC has impacted control or management efforts on nearly every major animal disease in the United States since 1961. For example, diagnostic tests and vaccines developed by NADC scientists to detect and prevent hog cholera were integral in the ultimate eradication of this costly swine disease from the U.S. Most major veterinary vaccines for critical diseases such as brucellosis and leptospirosis in cattle, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), porcine parvovirus and influenza in swine had their research origins or were developed and tested at the NADC. Additional discoveries made by NADC scientists have also resulted in the development of a nutritional approach and feed additives to prevent milk fever in transition dairy cattle. More recently, NADC's archive of historic swine influenza viruses combined with an established critical mass of influenza research expertise enabled NADC researchers to lead an effective national research response to the pandemic associated with the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This review commemorates some of the key animal health contributions in NADC's first 50 years, recaps the newly completed modernization of the center into new facilities, and offers highlights of the ongoing research that will define NADC's mission going forward. PMID:23642415

  7. Minnesota Board of Animal Health 625 Robert Street North

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    to perform. To help ensure compliance with Minnesota CWD testing requirements, the Board of Animal Health, the Board of Animal Health will pay the laboratory fees for CWD testing under the following conditions: 1 of an animal is submitted to the laboratory for CWD testing. This gross examination fee is needed to cover

  8. A diagnostic approach to understanding entrepreneurship in health care.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Karl J; Rivers, Patrick A; Schneller, Eugene S

    2006-01-01

    Health care is quite different from other industries because of its organizational structure, service delivery, and financing of health services. Balancing costs, quality, and access presents unique challenges for each stakeholder group committed to promoting the health and healing of its citizens. Using the diagnostic approach to health care entrepreneurship, we created a framework from research in the field to understand the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors most relevant to successful entrepreneurship. PMID:16583851

  9. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

  10. Inflammatory cytokines in animal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, M P; Baarsch, M J; Zhou, Y; Scamurra, R W; Lin, G

    1996-11-01

    Inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and IL-8, are rapidly induced early in a disease or injury process. They mediate and modulate myriad healing processes but, if overexpressed, may exacerbate the severity of a disease condition. In order to test this concept and to establish a foundation for the role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of gram-negative bacterial infections in the respiratory tract of animals, the patterns of inflammatory cytokine expression were determined in experimental porcine pleuropneumonia. We observed that IL-1 and IL-6, but not TNF, were rapidly and dramatically elevated in the lavage fluid of the lung within 24 h of infection. The increased levels of IL-1 might contribute to increased severity of disease, but elevated IL-6 levels were consistent with a protective acute phase response. Additional studies were performed to examine the hypothesis that IL-4 expression later in infection might be involved in turning off the inflammatory response and promoting an antigen-specific humoral immune response. Interleukin-4 efficiently suppressed inflammatory cytokine production in alveolar macrophages. Its expression was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by TNF, IL-4, and by reexposure to a specific antigen. To obtain the maximum amount of information on the role of inflammatory cytokines in animals of veterinary significance it will be useful to perform studies in species such that evolutionary relatedness will allow widespread application of the findings. Furthermore, the variety of molecules involved in inflammatory cytokine regulation will require much more extensive investigations of the relevant enzymes, inhibitors and receptors in veterinary species. Finally, the complexity and redundancy of immune defenses in animals mean that attempts to modulate health status through manipulation of inflammatory cytokines must be performed with caution and that a multiplicity of processes will be affected. PMID:8988847

  11. Diagnostic Resolution of Cancer Screening Abnormalities at Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roetzheim, Richard G.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Calcano, Ercilia R.; Meade, Cathy D.; Fulp, William J.; Wells, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined timeliness of diagnostic evaluation of abnormal cancer screening tests in community health centers. Methods Using medical record review, timeliness of diagnosis was assessed among 317 people having either breast or colorectal-related abnormalities. Results For 241 subjects (76.0%) who reached clinical resolution, the median time to diagnostic resolution was 37 days. People with breast abnormalities had more than twice the odds (adjusted odds ratio: 2.84) of reaching diagnostic resolution within 180 days compared to patients with colorectal abnormalities. We found, however, no evidence of disparate outcomes according to patient race/ethnicity, insurance status, or spoken language. Conclusions Diagnostic evaluations are often either not completed or are delayed after a cancer-related abnormality is discovered. Further research is needed to understand the patient, provider, and health care system factors that contribute to these delays. There was no evidence of cancer disparities in the community health centers studied. PMID:24212174

  12. Microsoft Word - SOP 2 002 Animal Health Evaluation.doc

    Cancer.gov

    LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCES PROGRAM - SAIC-FREDERICK SOP NUMBER : 2.002 EFFECTIVE DATE: 7/20/2006 REVISION NUMBER: 3 PAGE 1 of 4 TITLE: Animal Health Evaluation Prepared by: Julie Bullock Veterinary Associate Reviewed By:

  13. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?

    PubMed

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

    2014-02-01

    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration. PMID:24346862

  14. Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns DEPARfMMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICFS Public Health Service

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    of Health SUBJECT: Communicating Animal Care and Use Concerns within the NIH Intramural Research Program--=--- -- - -- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - ----~ Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns DEPARf As the NIH Institutional Official (IO) for Intramural animal research this memorandum reaffirms my commitment

  15. [Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

  16. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. PMID:25431381

  17. Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies.

    PubMed

    Colby, Kathleen N; Levy, Julie K; Dunn, Kiri F; Michaud, Rachel I

    2011-03-22

    The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. Open-admission shelters, which tended to be larger and more likely to perform animal control functions, were less likely (41%) to test all adult dogs than were limited-admission shelters (80%), which tended to be smaller non-profit humane agencies, and foster programs (98%) based out of private residences. Open-admission shelters were more likely to euthanize infected dogs (27%) or to release them without treatment (39%), whereas limited-admission shelters and foster programs were more likely to provide adulticide therapy (82% and 89%, respectively). Of the 319 agencies that treated infections, 44% primarily used a standard two-dose melarsomine protocol, and 35% primarily used a three-dose split-treatment melarsomine protocol. Long-term low-dose ivermectin was the most common treatment used in 22% of agencies. Open-admission shelters were less likely (35%) to provide preventive medications for all dogs than were limited-admission shelters (82%) and foster programs (97%). More agencies used preventives labeled for monthly use in dogs (60%) than ivermectin products labeled for livestock (38%). The most common reason diagnostic testing and preventive medication was not provided was cost. These results indicate a lack of protocol uniformity among agencies and insufficient resources to identify, treat, and prevent infection. Sheltering agencies and companion animal health industries should develop guidelines that are feasible for use in sheltering agencies and provide improved access to preventive and treatment strategies for management of Dirofilaria immitis. PMID:21353743

  18. Animal health and the trade in aquatic animals within and to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Daelman, W

    1996-06-01

    The creation of a single European market has significantly extended the scope of veterinary animal and public health legislation. This extension includes aquatic animals, and a comprehensive set of directives and decisions has been developed to ensure free circulation of aquaculture animals and their products, while guaranteeing a high level of animal health. At the same time, and in the same context, other directives have been adopted which organise checks on animals and products within and to the European Union (EU), as well as accompanying financial measures. Animal health legislation for the movement of aquaculture animals is also based on a number of principles, including the following: --the definition of important pathogens and their hosts --zoning (regionalisation)--the obligation for EU Member States to move animals only from areas or farms with high health status to and between areas and farms with equal or lower health status--the prescription of a testing regime to improve animal health status in zones or farms. In addition, disease control prescriptions have been established or are being considered for adoption. These include the establishment of national and EU reference laboratories, as well as the application of contingency plans and the measures to be taken in the event of a disease outbreak. PMID:8890390

  19. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture. PMID:9366596

  20. Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

  1. 76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee. DATES: The meeting will be held July 22, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight time)....

  2. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  3. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  4. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  5. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

  6. Animal and Human Health Implications of Avian Influenza Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilaria Capua; Dennis J. Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a listed disease of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that has become a disease of great\\u000a importance both for animal and human health. Until recent times, AI was considered a disease of birds with zoonotic implications\\u000a of limited significance. The emergence and spread of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) H5N1 virus has

  7. Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Scotch; Lynda Odofin; Peter Rabinowitz

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the

  8. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    PubMed

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration. PMID:25707190

  9. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  10. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...APHIS-2012-0088] Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  11. 75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2009-0025] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  12. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  13. Climate change and animal health in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Van den Bossche; J. A. W. Coetzer

    Summary Climate change is expected to have direct and indirect impacts on African livestock. Direct impacts include increased ambient temperature, floods and droughts. Indirect impacts are the result of reduced availability of water and forage and changes in the environment that promote the spread of contagious diseases through increased contact between animals, or increased survival or availability of the agent

  14. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

  15. Food for thought: food systems, livestock futures and animal health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Global food security, livestock production and animal health are inextricably bound. However, our focus on the future tends to disaggregate food and health into largely separate domains. Indeed, much foresight work is either food systems or health-based with little overlap in terms of predictions or narratives. Work on animal health is no exception. Part of the problem is the fundamental misunderstanding of the role, nature and impact of the modern futures tool kit. Here, I outline three key issues in futures research ranging from methodological confusion over the application of scenarios to the failure to effectively integrate multiple methodologies to the gap between the need for more evidence and power and control over futures processes. At its core, however, a better understanding of the narrative and worldview framing much of the futures work in animal health is required to enhance the value and impact of such exercises. PMID:23988197

  16. A new model for companion-animal primary health care education.

    PubMed

    Stone, Elizabeth A; Conlon, Peter; Cox, Sherri; Coe, Jason B

    2012-01-01

    The majority of graduates from veterinary schools in the United States and Canada join companion-animal practices. In most schools, their clinical learning and client interaction experiences occurred primarily in referral teaching hospitals. These specialty hospitals play an essential role in the veterinary care continuum by providing advanced training, clinically-based research, and sophisticated diagnostics and procedures. However, they are not ideal as the principal setting for preparing veterinarians to bring value to the primary health care practices that they join. A new model for companion-animal primary health care education and service delivery has been developed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The nine integrated programs, which have defined learning objectives and outcome assessments, include communication, nutrition, rehabilitation, behavior, welfare, One Health (ecosystem approach to health), preventive and general medicine, good citizenship, and research. The learning experience begins with first-year student veterinarians and takes place in a practice setting with paying clients from the community. Significantly, the students are learning in an environment that emphasizes the importance of the client experience, teamwork, and practice management while ensuring quality health care for patients. The future of companion-animal primary health care and the optimal preparation of veterinarians are critical issues for the veterinary colleges and profession. Enhanced research into new models for primary health care education and service delivery is urgently needed. PMID:22951456

  17. Cloning of farm animals: impact on animal health and welfare and implications in trade.

    PubMed

    Menéndez González, S; Reist, M

    2011-02-01

    The commercial use of animal cloning for breeding food producing animals has been limited so far by biological and technical constraints such as adverse effects on the health and welfare of animals, especially high perinatal and postnatal disease and mortality of clones. However, the improvement of the technique may overcome those problems in future and contribute to the spread of cloning in agricultural production, which raises concern not only on health and welfare aspects but also on food safety and ethics. This may cause conflict in international trade. The present article reviews these topics on the basis of up-to-date scientific opinions. PMID:21274831

  18. Occupational Health and Safety Program Laboratory Animal Resources

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Campus Address Campus Phone Local phone or Cell phone # Email Birth Date Sex: M F In Case of an EmergencyOccupational Health and Safety Program Laboratory Animal Resources Binghamton University State Information** (This information is strictly for the use of the Occupational Health and Safety Program

  19. Large animal model for health hazard assessment of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Costa, D.L.; Janoff, A.; Susskind, H.; Weiss, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of large animals for the experimental assessment of human health hazards associated with inhaled pollutants are discussed. Results from studies designed to elucidate mechanisms controlling pulmonary function at the organismal, cellular and molecular level are presented. It is shown that studies in large animals permit technically sophisticated approaches not feasible in small animals and not permissible in man. Use of large animals also permits serial, non-invasive determinations of structural and functional changes which may be of temporal importance. 6 references.

  20. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that information adapted to audiences with low health literacy suits people with high health literacy as well. PMID:25586711

  1. Applying the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code to the welfare of animals exported from Australia.

    PubMed

    Schipp, M A; Sheridan, A D

    2013-12-01

    Australia has implemented a through-chain regulatory framework to address animal welfare issues in the livestock export trade. The framework places the responsibility for ensuring that the welfare of exported animals meets internationally accepted standards on those who hold the licences issued for the export of Australian livestock. It applies to all livestock (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, camels) exported from Australia, either for immediate slaughter or for feeding and eventual slaughter. The development of the framework began when the Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock were implemented in December 2004, to safeguard animal welfare from the point when the animals are selected for export up until the moment when they are offloaded in the destination country. The framework has recently been extended to incorporate animal welfare requirements through to the point of slaughter in the destination country. The requirements draw on, and are consistent with, the animal welfare chapters of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code. PMID:24761723

  2. International trade, animal health and veterinary epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Ruppanner, R

    2001-03-29

    The link between international trade, animal health and epidemiology has been recognized for a long time and has taken an additional importance in the aftermath of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and of the inception of the World Trade Organization. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization demands that sanitary and phytosanitary measures be scientifically based, placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related animal health and trade. This paper analyses the interactions between international trade of animals (and animal products) and epidemiology with discussion on the inputs of epidemiology in surveillance, risk analysis and regionalization. PMID:11259819

  3. DL-945 1/09 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    possible and discard between each horse. This includes: exam gloves, rectal gloves, vaginal speculums the genitalia of either mares or stallions. Change between horses and discard used liners in appropriate

  4. DL-950 4/09 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    personnel are not hindered in detection of the colonies by the presence of black charcoal residue for fecal culture where isolation of Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia are organisms of primary concern

  5. (continued) DL-943 8/12 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    clinical suspect samples do not require advanced scheduling. The AHDC anticipates being able to meet to positive (Ct) versus not detected. Validation of this assay included a quantitative evaluation of #12;2 DL HEY agar culture, which has been used as the gold standard for MAP detection. Since a statistically

  6. Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    with the NYS Dept of Ag & Markets US Postal Service Address: Courier Service Address: PO Box 5786 240 Farrier predicted by prior serum and CSF testing. Testing of non-neurologic horses is generally not recommended (EDS) using 66 necropsied neurologic horses with 30 diagnosed as EPM. Respectively, serum and CSF

  7. DL-1020 1/2011 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    , bring to room temperature. Plan to inoculate 1 anaerobic and 1 aerobic bottle for each blood draw. 2 preparation. o Use povidone-iodine solution or alcohol chlorhexadine as the final skin preparation. 4. Allow

  8. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Page 1 of 1

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    ° amyloid Congo Red/Potassium Permanganate argentaffin cells, melanin Fontana Masson argyrophilic granules) melanin Melanin Bleach + H&E mucins Alcian Blue and PAS muscle striations PTAH (muscle) myelin LFB

  9. Immunoglobulin G, Camelid -Chem Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    (New World) - Alpacas, Llamas Results Format Quantitative Sensitivity 81% (published) The following of assays for determination of passive transfer status in neonatal llamas and alpacas. JAVMA, Vol 216, No. 4

  10. Histopathology Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center LAB USE ONLY

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    UNFIXED UNFIXED TISSUES FIXED ON: Date: Time: Receipt Status of Unfixed Tissue: FROZEN NOT FROZEN: __________________________________________________________________________________________________ OPENED BY: _________ DHL Mail DATE AND FX Pri Mail TIME REC'D: ______________ UPS-Grnd Exp Mail

  11. Non-Veterinary Tick Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    ) and seal. · Place UN3373, Biological Substance Category B label on outside of box. · Ship to appropriate delivery service address above. AHDC USE ONLY FEDEX MAIL DATE REC'D FROZEN DRY ICE OPENED BY: FEDEX-GRND PRI MAIL TIME REC'D _ RM TEMP COLD PACK UPS-GRND EXP MAIL DATE SHIPPED COOL NONE UPS-ND OTHER

  12. (continued) DL-942 8/12 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    University In Partnership with the NYS Dept of Ag & Markets US Postal Service Address: Courier Service Medicine, Cornell University in partnership with the NYS Department of Agriculture and Markets (NYSDAM through the AHDC and through Dairy One for herds providing a veterinarian of record indicated

  13. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

  14. USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease authorization. Proposals that involve or utilize research animals, biohazards, human subjects, or Veterinary have been obtained. II. USDA Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Award In addition to research

  15. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...8301 et seq.), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...operates the National Animal Health Monitoring System...measures related to animal welfare; Estimate...weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention...prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of...

  16. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

  17. Intelligent model-based diagnostics for vehicle health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianhui; Tu, Fang; Azam, Mohammad S.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter K.; Qiao, Liu; Kawamoto, Masayuki

    2003-08-01

    The recent advances in sensor technology, remote communication and computational capabilities, and standardized hardware/software interfaces are creating a dramatic shift in the way the health of vehicles is monitored and managed. These advances facilitate remote monitoring, diagnosis and condition-based maintenance of automotive systems. With the increased sophistication of electronic control systems in vehicles, there is a concomitant increased difficulty in the identification of the malfunction phenomena. Consequently, the current rule-based diagnostic systems are difficult to develop, validate and maintain. New intelligent model-based diagnostic methodologies that exploit the advances in sensor, telecommunications, computing and software technologies are needed. In this paper, we will investigate hybrid model-based techniques that seamlessly employ quantitative (analytical) models and graph-based dependency models for intelligent diagnosis. Automotive engineers have found quantitative simulation (e.g. MATLAB/SIMULINK) to be a vital tool in the development of advanced control systems. The hybrid method exploits this capability to improve the diagnostic system's accuracy and consistency, utilizes existing validated knowledge on rule-based methods, enables remote diagnosis, and responds to the challenges of increased system complexity. The solution is generic and has the potential for application in a wide range of systems.

  18. Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

    2013-05-01

    Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009. PMID:24155436

  19. Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional model was developed and presented here to identify critical control points in associated biochemical pathways and further understand that how environmental factors impact the immune system to affect animal health.. A general comparison of the differences in cellular responses to mild v...

  20. Advances in pasture plant breeding for animal productivity and health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woodfield; HS Easton

    2004-01-01

    Plant breeding has had a substantial effect on the productivity and health of ruminant animals in New Zealand by improving the quantity, quality and reliability of grazed temperate pastures. Genetic changes have affected annual pasture productivity, seasonal growth, digestibility, protein\\/energy balance, level of rumen undegradable protein, leaf properties affecting intake, resistance to foliar diseases, and reductions in compounds that have

  1. COLLABORATION IN ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY EPIDEMIOLOGY: SWINE DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Collaboration in Animal Health & Food Safety Epidemiology (CAHFSE), a partnership among APHIS, ARS, and FSIS of USDA was established to track food borne pathogens and monitor diseases from farm through plant. Sampling began in July, 2003. By December 31, 2004, 43 farms in 5 states were participa...

  2. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  3. NON-DIAGNOSTIC SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE NEWPORT FROM THE ANIMAL ARM OF NARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increase in multiple resistance has been observed for Salmonella Newport isolates, heightening the public health concern. In 2000, the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System – Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) reported a total of 7,834 Salmonella isolates from various anima...

  4. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  5. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492

  6. Animals, Research, and Health "At the University of Toronto, animals are recognized as creatures of great intrinsic

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Animals, Research, and Health "At the University of Toronto, animals are recognized as creatures of great intrinsic value, remarkable complexity and inherent dignity. Animals are used in research only when it is essential. All researchers are obliged to ensure that the animals under their care do

  7. Malaria diagnostic capacity in health facilities in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment is one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria in Ethiopia where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are sympatric and require different treatment regimens. Microscopy is the standard for malaria diagnosis at the health centres and hospitals whereas rapid diagnostic tests are used at community-level health posts. The current study was designed to assess malaria microscopy capacity of health facilities in Oromia Regional State and Dire Dawa Administrative City, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2011 in 122 health facilities, where health professionals were interviewed using a pre-tested, standardized assessment tool and facilities’ laboratory practices were assessed by direct observation. Results Of the 122 assessed facilities, 104 (85%) were health centres and 18 (15%) were hospitals. Out of 94 health facilities reportedly performing blood films, only 34 (36%) used both thin and thick smears for malaria diagnosis. The quality of stained slides was graded in 66 health facilities as excellent, good and poor quality in 11(17%), 31 (47%) and 24 (36%) respectively. Quality assurance guidelines and malaria microscopy standard operating procedures were found in only 13 (11%) facilities and 12 (10%) had involved in external quality assessment activities, and 32 (26%) had supportive supervision within six months of the survey. Only seven (6%) facilities reported at least one staff’s participation in malaria microscopy refresher training during the previous 12 months. Although most facilities, 96 (79%), had binocular microscopes, only eight (7%) had the necessary reagents and supplies to perform malaria microscopy. Treatment guidelines for malaria were available in only 38 (31%) of the surveyed facilities. Febrile patients with negative malaria laboratory test results were managed with artemether-lumefantrine or chloroquine in 51% (53/104) of assessed health facilities. Conclusions The current study indicated that most of the health facilities had basic infrastructure and equipment to perform malaria laboratory diagnosis but with significant gaps in continuous laboratory supplies and reagents, and lack of training and supportive supervision. Overcoming these gaps will be critical to ensure that malaria laboratory diagnosis is of high-quality for better patient management. PMID:25073561

  8. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  9. CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to A new independent body for animal health: A modern

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    health research, both to directly improve animal health and to improve understanding at the human-animal on the implications of the proposals for animal research. Question 2: Comments are invited on the proposals for a new to have one locus for animal health policy responsibilities such as research and development; surveillance

  10. [Animal hoarding: a mental disorder with implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Connemann, B J; Freudenmann, R W; Kölle, M A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C J

    2014-06-01

    Animal hoarding (AH) is a mental disorder that is characterised by an excessive number of kept animals, inability to maintain minimal standards of animal care and hygiene, and deficient insight into the thereby developing failures and problems. Although AH as a disease concept is neither represented in the DSM-5 nor the ICD-10, it may be classified as a subform of the hoarding disorder (DSM-5 300.3) that was implemented in the DSM-5 as an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Due to the hygienic deficiencies of the living spaces and the insufficient keeping of animals there is an increased risk of epizootic diseases and zoonoses. Specific epidemiological studies do not exist, however, women seem to be affected more frequently. AH is diagnosed mostly in late adulthood. Besides thorough somatic and psychiatric medical diagnostics, cooperation with the veterinary offices and authorities is usually necessary. Comorbid mental disorders (particularly depressive, obsessive-compulsive and personality disorders) are frequent. Currently, no evidence-based therapies exist. Social therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic interventions as well as sufficient treatment of comorbid mental disorders are recommended. PMID:24901316

  11. Public health implications of animals in retail food outlets.

    PubMed

    Dyjack, David T; Ho, Jessica; Lynes, Rahel; Lynes, Rachel; Bliss, Jesse C

    2013-12-01

    Growing societal interest to permit animals into retail food outlets presents both risks and benefits to the dining public and consumers. This article summarizes a literature review that evaluated the associated potential public health issues related to this subject. Using the EBSCOhost research protocol and Google search engines between March 2010 and June 2011, the authors have compiled and synthesized scientific research articles, empirical scientific literature, and publicly available news media. While pets are known carriers of bacteria and parasites, among others, the relative risk associated with specific pet-human interactions in the dining public has yet to be established in a clear and consistent manner. Much of the available health-risk-factor evidence reflects pets in domestic conditions and interaction with farm animals. Special consideration is recommended for vulnerable populations such as children, asthmatics, the elderly, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised. PMID:24437046

  12. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Břnlřkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A

    2007-02-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naďve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  13. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  14. Page 1 of 5 Alison Van Eenennaam, UC Davis Applications of Animal Biotechnology in Animal Health, January 2009

    E-print Network

    Delany, Mary E.

    or the use of antibiotics. However, the use of antibiotic in animal agriculture is meeting increased associated with disease resistance. Through careful selection, they can develop populations of animals resistance genes from new sources, allowing for improved animal health. Disease resistance benefits not only

  15. Animal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    measures necessary for animal research and forward proposed experimental chemical and radioactive useAnimal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority California Code in laboratory animal facilities or have substantial animal contact. The National Institute of Health (NIH

  16. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  17. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  18. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  19. Nonculture molecular techniques for diagnosis of bacterial disease in animals: a diagnostic laboratory perspective.

    PubMed

    Cai, H Y; Caswell, J L; Prescott, J F

    2014-03-01

    The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease. PMID:24569613

  20. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. PMID:22335835

  1. 7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...151-159). (12) Conduct diagnostic and related activities necessary to prevent, detect, control or eradicate foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal diseases (21 U.S.C. 113a). (13) The Agricultural Marketing Act...

  2. Interactive computerized learning program exposes veterinary students to challenging international animal-health problems.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Patricia A; Hird, Dave; Arzt, Jonathan; Hayes, Rick H; Magliano, Dave; Kasper, Janine; Morfin, Saul; Pinney, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a computerized case-based CD-ROM (CD) on international animal health that was developed to give veterinary students an opportunity to "virtually" work alongside veterinarians and other veterinary students as they try to solve challenging disease problems relating to tuberculosis in South African wildlife, bovine abortion in Mexico, and neurologic disease in horses in Rapa Nui, Chile. Each of the three case modules presents, in a highly interactive format, a problem or mystery that must be solved by the learner. As well as acquiring information via video clips and text about the specific health problem, learners obtain information about the different countries, animal-management practices, diagnostic methods, related disease-control issues, economic factors, and the opinions of local experts. After assimilating this information, the learner must define the problem and formulate an action plan or make a recommendation or diagnosis. The computerized program invokes three principles of adult education: active learning, learner-centered education, and experiential learning. A medium that invokes these principles is a potentially efficient learning tool and template for developing other case-based problem-solving computerized programs. The program is accessible on the World Wide Web at . A broadband Internet connection is recommended, since the modules make extensive use of embedded video and audio clips. Information on how to obtain the CD is also provided. PMID:18287479

  3. SmartHEALTH: a microfluidic multisensor platform for POC cancer diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Gärtner; Holger Becker; Cornelia Carstens; Frithjof von Germar; Klaus Stefan Drese; Alex Fragoso; Rainer Gransee; Andreas Guber; Dirk Herrmann; Nadine Hlawatsch; Richard Klemm; Daniel Latta; Ciara O'Sullivan; Jesus Ruano-Lopez

    2009-01-01

    A universal microfluidic platform as a multisensor device for cancer diagnostics, developed within the framework of the EU project SmartHEALTH [1], will be presented. Based on a standardization concept, a microfluidic platform was realized that contains various functional modules in order to allow in its final setup to run a complete diagnostic assay on a chip starting with sample preparation

  4. United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    E-print Network

    United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine April 2010 1 Lacey Act Primer United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine #12;United States Department of Agriculture Animal

  5. UNCG Health and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research

    E-print Network

    Saidak, Filip

    UNCG Health and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research PREFACE working with animals in their professional activities, both on and off campus. The goal of the UNCG Health and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research (HSPUSTR) is to prevent occupational

  6. Who Monitors the Use of Animals in United States Department of Agriculture -Animal and Plant Health

    E-print Network

    by a designated committee Animal defined as "any vertebrate animal used in research, teaching or testing". #12 compounds in the laboratory prior to testing in an animal model #12;Who Monitors the Use of Animals in Research? United States Department of Agriculture -Animal

  7. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    PubMed Central

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animalshealth, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  8. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals' health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  9. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for...the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

  10. Role of import and export regulatory animal health officials in international control and surveillance for animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bokma, Bob H

    2006-10-01

    The challenges to those who regulate the import and export of animals and animal products are escalating, due to the evolving nature of animal and human disease agents. The diseases and agents of interest may include low pathogenic avian influenza, bluetongue, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and foot-and-mouth disease. Fear of an incursion of an unknown or incompletely understood threat can significantly limit risk tolerance. The fear may be that an incursion will affect export trade or tourism. An incomplete knowledge of the animal health situation in the exporting country, due to insufficient surveillance for the disease agent of concern, may limit the application of science in import decisions. In addition, the disease agent may be inappropriately considered exotic if it has not been described. As a result, excessive safeguards for disease agents that do not present any new threat may be employed. To confront these challenges, we are striving toward transparency in international reporting. Moreover, regulatory import decisions exceeding the recommendations of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code of the World Organization for Animal Health must be fair and science-based. PMID:17135497

  11. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Kessler; T. Bedirhan Üstün

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a discussion of the methodological research on which the development of the instrument was based. The WMH-CIDI includes a screening module and 40 sections that focus on diagnoses (22 sections), functioning (four sections), treatment

  12. Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Unsworth

    2005-03-31

    Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

  13. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  14. Applicability of a set of diagnostic tests in indoor air health research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Andreas Wiesmüller; Ulrich Ranft

    2004-01-01

    Following recommendations from literature, 22 diagnostic tests for the most frequent complaints of indoor air health problems were selected and assessed for their applicability in epidemiological studies. The tests were applied seven times during one year to 40 volunteers who to all appearances were not affected by indoor air health problems. Most psychophysical tests (e. g., Continuous Performance Test) turned

  15. 77 FR 50457 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Intent To Renew and Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...Committee on Animal Health (the Committee) for...advises the Secretary on strategies, policies, and programs...advises on matters of public health, conservation of national...management and traceability strategies, prioritizing...

  16. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...ACTION: Notice of solicitation for membership...Secretary is soliciting nominations for membership for this Committee to serve for...

  17. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  18. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  19. Estimating Diagnostic Test Accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Accounting for the Complexities of Population Structure in Food Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hartnack, Sonja; Nathues, Christina; Nathues, Heiko; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Lewis, Fraser Iain

    2014-01-01

    For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test (“gold standard”) is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect), robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI) and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9) and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3), respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8). For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals. PMID:24906140

  20. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  1. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  2. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  3. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level. PMID:22435182

  4. Occupational Health and Safety Program Animal Risk Questionnaire

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Department: Cost Center #: Facility: PART A: OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS I. Animal Contact for animals. I understand that my choice not to participate in this program might be referred to Human to animals, etc. in teaching or research 5 = Collect tissues or body fluid specimens, perform surgery

  5. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  6. Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy 3 Department of Agricultural food animal production systems and their asso- ciated value chains dominate in developed countries

  7. Intern'l Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health Tampa, FL USA September 5-9, 2010

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    efficacy & minimize resistance to protect public and animal health Science-based Support educational1 ® Intern'l Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health ­ Tampa, FL USA September 5-9, 2010 A. David Scarfe, FL, USA September 5-8, 2010 Increasing evidence for antimicrobial (primarily antibiotic - ABX

  8. Bridging human and animal research: A comparative approach to studies of personality and health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranjal H. Mehta; Samuel D. Gosling

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates a comparative approach to personality and health research. We (1) review evidence showing that personality exists and can be measured in animals, (2) illustrate the benefits of animal studies for human personality research, (3) illustrate the benefits of human studies for animal personality research, and (4) provide guidelines for making cross-species comparisons. We conclude that a comparative

  9. Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    a risk to human health. For example, the use of antibiotics in food animals can reduce rates of animal illness but can also select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria which can threaten human www interventions such as the continued use of antibiotics in animal agriculture can be evaluated simultaneously. We

  10. USGS National Wildlife Health Center Diagnostic Case Submission Guidelines

    E-print Network

    endangered/threatened species (including Candidates for Listing) o Marine mammals under USFWS jurisdiction-4 animals) if the case includes: o Federal or state endangered/threatened species; candidate species federal, state or Tribal agency. Species Accepted by NWHC Any free-living wildlife species (birds

  11. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  12. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

  13. Using Animation as an Information Tool to Advance Health Research Literacy among Minority Participants

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video’s cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants’ ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

  14. International and national biosecurity strategies in aquatic animal health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Oidtmann; M. A. Thrush; K. L. Denham; E. J. Peeler

    2011-01-01

    With a growing global human population and an increasing demand for food protein, aquatic animal protein has become an increasingly important resource. In several geographic areas, wild stocks have been severely overfished, increasing the demands on aquaculture. In response, aquaculture production has dramatically risen over the last 30years. Movement of live aquatic animals, within and between countries, for aquaculture and

  15. Molecular diagnostics and the public health management of legionellosis

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Tom A; Bruin, Jacob P; Harrison, Timothy G; Mannes, Trish

    2013-01-01

    In 2009–2010, we investigated four legionella cases notified over an 8-month period in two adjacent villages in South East England. Molecular techniques enabled us to conclude that three of the cases had distinct infections. The absence of an adequate respiratory sample in one case necessitated epidemiological investigations to exclude a potential common environmental source of further infections. One of the cases had spent a part of their incubation period in a country in South East Asia. DNA-sequence-based typing of their isolate showed it to be of the Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) DNA-sequence type (ST) 481. Intriguingly, the only other two ST 481 isolates in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections database were among Dutch travellers to the same country in 2003 and 2006. This case makes clear the value of molecular diagnostics and the importance of obtaining adequate clinical specimens. The potential future uses for typing data are discussed. PMID:23606383

  16. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation...Animal Studies; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration...serve as an environmental health resource to the public and regulatory and health agencies...

  17. Use of information on disease diagnoses from databases for animal health economic, welfare and food safety purposes: strengths and limitations of recordings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Houe; Ian Andrew Gardner; Liza Rosenbaum Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Many animal health, welfare and food safety databases include data on clinical and test-based disease diagnoses. However,\\u000a the circumstances and constraints for establishing the diagnoses vary considerably among databases. Therefore results based\\u000a on different databases are difficult to compare and compilation of data in order to perform meta-analysis is almost impossible.\\u000a Nevertheless, diagnostic information collected either routinely or in research

  18. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria—Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood—Revised

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen L. Egger; Robert N. Emde

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in

  19. [Angioleiomyoma utery in a female patient with damaged health condition. Diagnostic and terapeutic difficulties].

    PubMed

    Lazarov, N; Lazarov, L; Lazarov, S

    2011-01-01

    35 years old patient with many health problems, on a haemodialysis and a big abdominal tumor originating from the pelvis. The authors share their clinical approach and their diagnostic and terapeutic difficulties in this case and refer to one of their previous publications. PMID:22479899

  20. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Slizovskiy, I B; Conti, L A; Trufan, S J; Reif, J S; Lamers, V T; Stowe, M H; Dziura, J; Rabinowitz, P M

    2015-04-16

    Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities. PMID:25734823

  1. Economic and Social Impact of Science at the Institute for Animal Health

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    the sustainability of livestock farming, improve animal welfare, safeguard the supply and safety of food, and protect Programme, GREP) was launched formally in 1994 by the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) using IAH groups. IAH scientists introduced serological and diagnostic tests into Africa, the Middle East and Asia

  2. Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

  3. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    PubMed

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnčs; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians. PMID:25631884

  4. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh; Tran, Thu Thuy; Rasch, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections included: inadequate training of health staff, lack of equipment, and cultural assumptions regarding the overwhelming prevalence of reproductive tract infections in Vietnamese women, especially among those who receive abortion services. Misconceptions of reproductive tract infections led to substantial over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of reproductive tract infections in this hospital. To enhance reproductive tract infection care, providers need to be sensitized to the social and medical consequences of their own cultural perceptions and to increase their awareness of the risks associated with overuse of antibiotics. PMID:19533512

  5. EPIZOO: a computer software package of methods for animal population health analysis and programming.

    PubMed

    Kouba, V

    1994-09-01

    An animal population health and disease software package entitled 'EPIZOO' has been developed. This computer program comprises an integral and complex system of selected indicators contained in ten modules and over one hundred sub-programs, with approximately two hundred methods for use in problem solving, training and simulation. This fully user-friendly software is applicable to any animal disease, and makes analysis and programming easier and quicker. The software includes general methods for use in a number of fields: animal population health and disease situation (structure, dynamics, diagnosis, analysis and consequences) animal population characteristics of epizootiological importance animal health programme preparation, cost calculation and evaluation selected sampling other statistical procedures. EPIZOO is a relatively simple tool for field and management veterinarians, as well as veterinary students. PMID:7949341

  6. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  7. Integrating the issues of world animal health and world public health into the veterinary curriculum: a Southeast Asian perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zamri-Saad; A. Kunavongkrit; C. A. Valdez; M. Thien; Selangor Darul Ehsan

    Summary The authors analysed the curricula of five veterinary schools in Southeast Asia to determine how successfully they integrate the issues of global animal health and global public health into their programmes. Two schools offer a five-year programme while the remaining three offer a six-year programme. The core courses within the curricula range from 145 to 224 credit hours, in

  8. Discussion Guide - Units 8 - 9 - People and Animals: United for Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    The Units covered in this section are: Unit 8 - Animal Health and the Environment Unit 9 -Some Biomedical Success Stories Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.

  9. 76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...emergency response. 5. Update on the National Animal Health Laboratory Network. 6. Emergency Management and Response: Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccination Supply Challenge. 7. VS 2015: A New Perspective. Additional information, including the...

  10. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

  11. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  12. Diagnostics for piezoelectric transducers under cyclic loads deployed for structural health monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart G.; Park, Gyuhae; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Todd, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    Accurate sensor self-diagnostics are a key component of successful structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Transducer failure can be a significant source of failure in SHM systems, and neglecting to incorporate an adequate sensor diagnostics capability can lead to false positives in damage detection. Any permanently installed SHM system will thus require the ability to accurately monitor the health of the sensors themselves, so that when deviations in baseline measurements are observed, one can clearly distinguish between structural changes and sensor malfunction. This paper presents an overview of sensor diagnostics for active-sensing SHM systems employing piezoelectric transducers, and it reviews the sensor diagnostics results from an experimental case study in which a 9 m wind turbine rotor blade was dynamically loaded in a fatigue test until reaching catastrophic failure. The fatigue test for this rotor blade was unexpectedly long, requiring more than 8 million fatigue cycles before failure. Based on previous experiments, it was expected that the rotor blade would reach failure near 2 million fatigue cycles. Several sensors failed in the course of this much longer than expected test, although 48 out of 49 installed piezoelectric transducers survived beyond the anticipated 2 million fatigue cycles. Of the transducers that did fail in the course of the test, the sensor diagnostics methods presented here were effective in identifying them for replacement and/or data cleansing. Finally, while most sensor diagnostics studies have been performed in a controlled, static environment, some data in this study were collected as the rotor blade underwent cyclic loading, resulting in nonstationary structural impedance. This loading condition motivated the implementation of a new, additional data normalization step for sensor diagnostics with piezoelectric transducers in operational environments.

  13. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  14. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  15. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  16. Companion animals and human health: Benefits, challenges, and the road ahead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marguerite O'Haire

    2010-01-01

    Fossil evidence indicates an association between human beings and animals dating back at least half a million years. Today, this relationship remains strong, as evidenced by millions of visits to zoos annually, high rates of pet ownership, and the economic prosperity of the pet industry. A review of the literature indicates that human-animal interactions can remarkably enhance human physical health

  17. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Wear; J. M. Huzzey; M. A. G. von Keyserlingk

    2010-01-01

    We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evalua- tions have been based on subjective assessments of de- bilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria.

  18. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  19. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  20. Influences of Environment and Its Modification on Dairy Animal Health and Production1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Collier; D. K. Beede; W. W. Thatcher; L. A. Israel; C. J. Wilcox

    1982-01-01

    Physiological state of dairy animals is a predisposing factor in environmental influences on animal health. Critical phases of life cycle include neonatal period, postpubertal reproduction, and lactation. Primary effect of environ- ment in neonatal period is increased disease incidence associated with re- duced immunoglobulin content in plasma of calves. Cold stress has little effect on reproduction; in contrast, heat stress

  1. Vision of Dutch organic dairy farmers on animal health and welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. A. Smolders; M. W. P. Bestman; I. A. J. M. Eijck

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic dairy farmers expressed their opinions on animal health and welfare in order to be able to communicate it internally (within the dairy sector) and externally (to consumers). A healthy animal in their opinion is free of physical and psychological discomfort, survives in a herd, takes enough food and behaves naturally. Disease resistance, both innate and achieved, plays a

  2. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Kaasschieter; R. de Jong; J. B. Schiere; D. Zwart

    1992-01-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers’ welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition,

  3. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  4. [The need for research to support the emergence of alternative animal health systems].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Bonnet, P; Renard, J F

    2004-04-01

    Animal diseases remain one of the main problems for livestock production in terms of trade development, poverty reduction and public health. Animal health systems are complex because of the diversity of the parties involved and because of various changes in the delivery of veterinary services, such as the redefinition of the roles of the public and private sectors. It is, therefore, often difficult to assess the global performance of animal health systems and sub-systems in terms of their medical, economic and social effectiveness. In addition, the necessary reliability of the health information obtained leads to certification of the status of regions and countries with regard to epizootics, which requires a high degree of standardisation and conformity with international norms. An assessment therefore needs to be made of the advantages of alternative systems compared with conventional systems. An animal health system should be seen as a whole, and when assessing its overall performance several things must be taken into account, e.g. the markets for products and the sometimes contradictory interests of all the different parties involved. There are, therefore, many research needs and avenues to be pursued, including: the methods, data and tools required for assessing the effectiveness of systems, including a definition of what constitutes a reliable indicator; the factors that determine the health of a herd; having a clearer idea of what will affect herd health will make it possible to map risk indicators and animal health care needs; the design and management of realistic and harmonised animal health information systems whose indicators provide reliable measurements of health; the function, organisation and effectiveness of participative surveillance approaches; the definition and effectiveness of animal health contracts, such as health mandates between the State and private veterinarians; the function and role of livestock auxiliaries; the establishment of assessment methods and standards that take into account the specific situation of southern countries that could lead to the certification and accreditation of alternative systems. The efficiency of these systems must then be tested (direct impact, cost-benefit studies) using the above-mentioned indicators, and an implementation 'toolkit' can then be assembled, taking into account the local differences which will affect the suitability of each system for different locations. Research into the assessment of animal health systems is a long-term investment, but it ensures that quality certification is reliable and allows for the safe development of animal product markets. PMID:15200111

  5. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  6. Page 1 of 3 Animal Health Fact Sheet

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    such as camelids (llamas and alpacas). How is EEE transmitted to animals? Wild birds are the reservoir species in those birds. Horses, llamas, alpacas and emus may become infected via the bite of a mosquito that has and alpacas are generally not able to transmit EEE to humans; mammals are considered to be dead-end hosts

  7. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  8. Ecology of Disease: The Intersection of Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...

  9. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  10. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  11. Monoclonal antibodies in animal production; their use in diagnostics and passive immunization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Booman

    1989-01-01

    One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in

  12. Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

  13. Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

    1992-08-01

    The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

  14. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  15. Research on animal health and welfare in organic farming—a literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund; Bo Algers

    2003-01-01

    Organic standards aim at good livestock health and welfare. A literature search on organic animal health and welfare was performed in October–November 2001 to investigate how well these aims compare with reality, and to see what areas have been researched. The search also made it apparent that national and historical differences in organic standards and in the way organic farming

  16. Modeling the Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence with Genetic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Hitzemann, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD) using the DSM-IV-R is categorical, based on an individual’s manifestation of three or more symptoms from a list of seven. AD risk can be traced to both genetic and environmental sources. Most genetic studies of AD risk implicitly assume that an AD diagnosis represents a single underlying genetic factor. We recently found that the criteria for an AD diagnosis represent three somewhat distinct genetic paths to individual risk. Specifically, heavy use and tolerance versus withdrawal and continued use despite problems reflected separate genetic factors. However, some data suggest that genetic risk for AD is adequately described with a single underlying genetic risk factor. Rodent animal models for alcohol-related phenotypes typically target discrete aspects of the complex human AD diagnosis. Here, we review the literature derived from genetic animal models in an attempt to determine whether they support a single-factor or multiple-factor genetic structure. We conclude that there is modest support in the animal literature that alcohol tolerance and withdrawal reflect distinct genetic risk factors, in agreement with our human data. We suggest areas where more research could clarify this attempt to align the rodent and human data. PMID:21910077

  17. Developmentally sensitive diagnostic criteria for mental health disorders in early childhood: the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV, the research diagnostic criteria-preschool age, and the diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood-revised.

    PubMed

    Egger, Helen L; Emde, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children, including the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. We briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Last, we review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. PMID:21142337

  18. Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized. PMID:24060567

  19. SOCIAL STATUS AND HEALTH IN HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Sapolsky

    2004-01-01

    ! Abstract Dominance hierarchies exist in numerous social species, and rank in such hierarchies can dramatically influence the quality of an individual's life. Rank can dramatically influence also the health of an individual, particularly with respect to stress-related disease. This chapter reviews first the nature of stress, the stress- response and stress-related disease, as well as the varieties of hierarchical

  20. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. PMID:24897784

  1. Stennis Space Center's approach to liquid rocket engine health monitoring using exhaust plume diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, D. G.; Tejwani, G. D.; Bircher, F. E.; Loboda, J. A.; Van Dyke, D. B.; Chenevert, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Details are presented of the approach used in a comprehensive program to utilize exhaust plume diagnostics for rocket engine health-and-condition monitoring and assessing SSME component wear and degradation. This approach incorporates both spectral and video monitoring of the exhaust plume. Video monitoring provides qualitative data for certain types of component wear while spectral monitoring allows both quantitative and qualitative information. Consideration is given to spectral identification of SSME materials and baseline plume emissions.

  2. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee. PMID:21489237

  3. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  4. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarhos; Tabbaa, Darem

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats) creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective. PMID:24981914

  5. Mechanisms for collaboration between public and private veterinarians: the animal health accreditation mandate.

    PubMed

    Le Brun, Y

    2004-04-01

    There are several examples of national collaboration between official Veterinary Services and the private sector, in both developed and developing countries. In developed countries national veterinary systems tend to have a 'centripetal' structure: from the private to the somewhat centralised public system, whilst in developing countries there is currently the reverse, i.e. a 'centrifugal' movement. Faced with international quality requirements for national Veterinary Services, the institutional foundations for the execution of certain official activities by the private sector are provided by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), particularly in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The private sector should however be employed using clear formal procedures governed by various legally recognised systems. At this level, the animal health accreditation mandate has the advantage of combining within a single concept several legal benefits associated with each type of collaboration. Moreover, it can encourage private veterinarians to work in the field, and to continue to do so for a reasonable length of time, thus providing a de facto territorial network of competent, logistically independent professionals, acting as ad hoc public service agents for both the design and implementation of animal health related activities, all at an economic cost that does not compromise the budget of the national Veterinary Services. By making savings in terms of human and material resources, the animal health accreditation mandate appears to be particularly suitable for developing countries where means of communication and intervention often come up against unforeseen logistical difficulties. PMID:15200087

  6. Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

  7. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal samples.

    PubMed

    Ezzaty Mirhashemi, Marzieh; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances E; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2015-01-01

    While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targetedat the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection. PMID:25662435

  8. Electronic Health Record-Based Surveillance of Diagnostic Errors in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Giardina, Traber Davis; Forjuoh, Samuel N.; Reis, Michael D.; Kosmach, Steven; Khan, Myrna M.; Thomas, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnostic errors in primary care are harmful but difficult to detect. We tested an electronic health record (EHR)-based method to detect diagnostic errors in routine primary care practice. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of primary care visit records “triggered” through electronic queries for possible evidence of diagnostic errors: Trigger 1: A primary care index visit followed by unplanned hospitalization within 14 days; and Trigger 2: A primary care index visit followed by ? 1 unscheduled visit(s) within 14 days. Control visits met neither criterion. Electronic trigger queries were applied to EHR repositories at two large healthcare systems between October 1, 2006 and September 30, 2007. Blinded physician-reviewers independently determined presence or absence of diagnostic errors in selected triggered and control visits. An error was defined as a missed opportunity to make or pursue the correct diagnosis when adequate data was available at the index visit. Disagreements were resolved by an independent third reviewer. Results Queries were applied to 212,165 visits. On record review, we found diagnostic errors in 141 of 674 Trigger 1-positive records (PPV=20.9%, 95% CI, 17.9%-24.0%) and 36 of 669 Trigger 2-positive records (PPV=5.4%, 95% CI, 3.7%-7.1%). The control PPV of 2.1% (95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%) was significantly lower than that of both triggers (P ? .002). Inter-rater reliability was modest, though higher than in comparable previous studies (? = 0.37 [95% CI=0.31-0.44]). Conclusions While physician agreement on diagnostic error remains low, an EHR-facilitated surveillance methodology could be useful for gaining insight into the origin of these errors. PMID:21997348

  9. Protein A/G dependent ELISA a promising diagnostic tool in Lyme disease seroprevalence in game animals and hunting dogs.

    PubMed

    Bhide, M R; Curlik, J; Travnicek, M; Lazar, P

    2004-05-01

    One of the major problems in serodiagnosis in wild animals is unavailability of specific antiglobulin conjugate. Our study focuses on validation of Protein A/G dependent ELISA in game animals like deer and mouflons as well as in hunting dogs. Binding ability of Protein A/G-conjugate to antibodies was the highest in dogs followed by fallow deer and mouflons. Three different whole cell Borrelia antigens were used to evaluate antigen dependent variation. In new Protein A/G-ELISA the highest sensitivities (90.50%, deer; 85.37%, mouflon & 94.29%, dog) were obtained by B. garinii antigen, with no statistically significant variation (chi(2), P>0.05) among all other antigens used. Average seroprevalences observed in deer, mouflons and dogs were 44.90%, 29.41% and 30.43%, respectively. Marked influence of age on seroprevalence was noticed. Protein A/G-ELISA proved to be sensitive and promising diagnostic tool in serodiagnosis of Lyme disease in game ungulates and it can be used effectively for serosurvey in different wild mammals. PMID:15001314

  10. Policy on the Occupational Health & Safety Program in the Care and Use of Animals in Research and Instruction

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Policy on the Occupational Health & Safety Program in the Care and Use of Animals in Research animals, or animal tissues, fluids, secretions, and/or excretions, who handles caging and related equipment contaminated by animal tissues, fluids, secretions, and/or excretions, or routinely enters

  11. Veterinary medical education and veterinary involvement in aquatic-animal health and aquaculture in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega S, César

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula. PMID:22718007

  12. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-02-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (?D) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health. PMID:25691980

  13. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-01-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (?D) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health. PMID:25691980

  14. Aflatoxin Contamination Risk: Bioactive Natural Compounds for Animal Health and Healthy Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doriana Tedesco; Chiara Barbieri; Stefano Lugano; Laura Garavaglia

    Mycotoxin contamination is a worldwide problem and significant economic losses are associated with their impact on human health,\\u000a animal productivity and both domestic and international trade. The FAO has estimated that up to 25% of the world’s food crops\\u000a and a higher percentage of the world’s animal feedstuffs are significantly contaminated by mycotoxins and represent a human\\u000a safety risk. Aflatoxin

  15. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

  16. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  17. [Caries: diagnostics, monitoring and guidance in good oral health behaviour. A reorientation].

    PubMed

    van Palenstein Helderman, W H; van Amerongen, J P; Bittermann, D; van Strijp, A J P; van Amerongen, W E

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a dynamic process which can develop either progressively or regressively under the all-determining influence of oral health behaviour. Management of caries therefore involves first of all: diagnostics, monitoring and preventive care and treatment which result in good oral health behaviour. The oral care provider should recognize all phases ofprogression of the caries process, and should be able to differentiate the symptoms which indicate an active or inactive process. A well maintained patient dossier is necessary to monitor this process over time. Following this procedure, the oral care provider is in a position to guide the patient with relevant information in order to achieve the final objective, good oral health. PMID:21882503

  18. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565

  19. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human-Companion Animal Bond

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Gregg K.; Day, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  20. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette M. OConnor; Brent Auvermann; Danelle Bickett-Weddle; Steve Kirkhorn; Jan M. Sargeant; Alejandro Ramirez; Susanna G. Von Essen

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundA systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science,

  1. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

  2. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-11-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

  3. Units 8 - 9 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    The units in this section are: Unit 8 - Animal Health and The Environment Unit 9 - Some Biomedical Success Stories Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

  4. Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

    1995-01-01

    Symposium Overview: Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

  5. An Analysis of the Future Need for Certified Animal Health Technicians and Instructional Program Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Council on Occupational Education, Carson City.

    A study examined the future need for certified animal health technicians (CAHT) in Nevada and the skills/knowledge that future CAHTs will need. Questionnaires were mailed to all of Nevada's 306 licensed veterinarians; 100 (32.68%) responded. The estimated numbers of CAHTs needed by the state's veterinarians in 1, 3, and 5 years were 62, 142, and…

  6. Animal Health Technicians: A Survey of Program Graduates and of Veterinarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsaleau, Richard B.; Walters, Henry R.

    This document compiles the reports of two surveys conducted by Cosumnes River College to determine the status of graduates of its Animal Health Technician program, and to assess the acceptance and use of such paraprofessionals by area veterinarians. Information concerning type of employment, state certification, salaries, types of duties, length…

  7. Sustainability of a privatized community-based animal health worker system in Mwingi District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rubyogo, J C; Murithii, P M; Agumbah, G J O; Obhai, G

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a study on the sustainability of Community-based Animal Health Worker (CAHW) services in Mwingi District, Kenya. These services began in 1992 and were supported by the District Veterinary Authority (DVA) with assistance from the Integrated Food Security Programme-Eastern (IFSP-E). Over time and using a process of participatory reviews with multiple stakeholders, the system evolved into a network of CAHWs. The study focused on CAHWs' service sustainability and their relationships with other animal health service providers. A mutually beneficial and supportive arrangement existed between the CAHWs and Animal Health Assistants (AHAs), based on a private drug supply system, referral and backstopping support. The CAHWs derived sufficient income from their veterinary work to maintain their interest in the system. Seventy percent of CAHWs were continuing to offer adequate animal health services 3 years or more after their initial training and the withdrawal of donor support. Ninety-five percent of sampled CAHWs (n = 40) viewed their business as successful and expanding. Considering the agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions of the district, the CAHW system can be viewed as an initial stage in the process of extending quality private sector veterinary services. PMID:15934633

  8. The public health and clinical significance of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in domestic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Andrew Thompson; Carlysle S. Palmer; Ryan O’Handley

    2008-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common enteric parasites of domestic animals, particularly dogs, cats and livestock. Their occurrence is of potential significance from both clinical and public health perspectives yet, until recently, confusion over the taxonomy of these organisms prevented a clear understanding of the epidemiology of infections with both Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The recent application of molecular epidemiological tools has

  9. Public Health Consequences of Macrolide Use in Food Animals: A Deterministic Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Scott Hurd; Stephanie Doores; Dermot J. Hayes; Alan Mathew; John Maurer; Peter Silley; Randall S. Singer; Ronald N. Jones

    2004-01-01

    The potential impact on human health from antibiotic-resistant bacteria selected by use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in many reports and recommended actions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has issued Guidance Document 152, which advises veterinary drug sponsors of one potential process for conducting a qualitative risk assessment of drug use in food

  10. NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM SWINE 2000: A SURVEILLANCE STUDY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 IN SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a national surveillance system (National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000) to monitor the presence of pathogens in swine, 2526 swine fecal samples were collected from 57 sites in the top 17 swine producing states to investigate the natural occurrence of Escherichia coli 0157 in ...

  11. Financing the Delivery of Animal Health Services in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Turkson; C. F. Brownie

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate financing for the delivery of animal health services in many developing countries has been blamed for lack of efficiency and effectiveness of veterinary services. There are no reports of how the delivery of veterinary services in Ghana is financed. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the funding of veterinary services in Ghana to help in

  12. SERVAL: a new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Stärk, K D C

    2015-02-01

    Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain. PMID:23414450

  13. Nature Heals People, Plants, Animals and the (Re-)connection to Health

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    Nature Heals People, Plants, Animals and the (Re-)connection to Health Presented by the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum's Nature-Based Therapeutic Services (NBT), a shared initiative with the Center for Spirituality and Healing to further the understanding of how nature heals Thursday, March 14, 7-9 p.m. & Friday

  14. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-04-16

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations. PMID:25734821

  15. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.frazzoli@iss.i [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Orisakwe, Orish Ebere [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, College of Health Sciences Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Dragone, Roberto [Institute of Nanostructured Materials (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, at the Department of Chemistry of the 'Sapienza' University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in a major site of e-waste dumping such as West Africa. Therefore, considerations are also given on data gaps possibly fitting a systematic risk assessment of the e-waste health impacts in different subscenarios as well as possible protective factors for exposed subpopulations.

  16. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.

    PubMed

    Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. PMID:21215766

  17. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougčres (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

  18. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  19. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Carmen ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  20. Biosecurity is a process to protect the health of farm animals and the people that take care

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    , veterinarians, feed industry personnel such as delivery truck drivers and equipment repair individualsBiosecurity is a process to protect the health of farm animals and the people that take care of productive animals, and use carefully balanced rations to ensure peak efficiency. Any decline in herd health

  1. Biosecurity is a process to protect the health of farm animals and the people that take care

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    the health of both before you introduce the new animals to the main herd. 5. Do not allow outside trucks industry personnel such as delivery truck drivers and equipment repair individuals. ! All individualsBiosecurity is a process to protect the health of farm animals and the people that take care

  2. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response. PMID:23413743

  3. Section A: Project Summary Title: Urban Environmental Geography, Public Health, and Pest Animals in US Cities, 1850-Present

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    with wild and domestic animals. A closer look at the historical case of urban pests will help informSection A: Project Summary Title: Urban Environmental Geography, Public Health, and Pest Animals in US Cities, 1850-Present Although they did not know of the germs the animals might carry, residents

  4. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community. PMID:25812199

  5. Noncompliance With Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: An Exploratory Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah M. Gomez; Kathleen M. Conlee; Martin L. Stephens

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major biomedical research-funding body in the United States. Approximately 40% of NIH-funded research involves experimentation on nonhuman animals (Monastersky, 2008). Institutions that conduct animal research with NIH funds must adhere to the Public Health Service (PHS) care and use standards of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW, 2002a). Institutions deviating significantly

  6. Providing excellence in veterinary diagnostic services. FY 2010-2011 Exceptional Item

    E-print Network

    that threaten Texas livestock and public health. · Expands the current diagnostic testing and animal disease and eradication of tick-borne and other vector-borne diseases of animal and public health significance. (Agri our southern border threaten both the economic viability of the agricultural (e.g. animal production

  7. Diagnostic Work-Up of Neurological Syndromes in a Rural African Setting: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Mpanya, Alain; Boelaert, Marleen; Baloji, Sylvain; Matangila, Junior; Lubanza, Symphorien; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Chappuis, François; Lutumba, Pascal; Hendrickx, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. Results Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a “diviner” do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. Conclusion Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach. PMID:25340726

  8. Quality control on dairy farms with emphasis on public health, food safety, animal health and welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen; J. H. M. Metz

    2005-01-01

    Consumer concern about livestock production methodologies is increasing over the last decades due to various outbreaks of food-borne zoonoses and animal diseases. Quality assurance programmes in the different production chains have been installed by industry to counteract the problems occurring. The primary producers, like the dairy farms, are not formally comprised in such programmes. Yet, quality control at dairy farm

  9. Two-layer Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) with passive capillary valves for mHealth medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width???height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings. PMID:25626544

  10. Integrating animal health surveillance and food safety: the issue of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Acar, J F; Moulin, G

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in commensal, zoonotic and pathogenic bacteria from humans, animals and food is an essential source of information when formulating measures to improve food safety. International organisations (the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) have developed a complete set of standards related to resistance surveillance programmes and are calling for the establishment of integrated surveillance programmes. The most important task in establishing an integrated surveillance programme for antimicrobial resistance should be the harmonisation of laboratory testing methodology and antimicrobial-use reporting. Overthe last decade, the integration of surveillance of antimicrobial resistance has been an important step toward addressing the global concern with antimicrobial resistance. However, very few systems are in place and there is still a lot to do before harmonised surveillance systems become the norm. PMID:24547644

  11. Globalization, international trade and animal health: the new roles of OIE.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Alejandro B

    2005-02-01

    In order for countries and their stakeholders to maximize the benefits of globalization they must become familiar with, and must adhere to, the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). For the purpose of trade in animals and animal products, they must also adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Countries are also encouraged to participate in this standard setting process of the OIE. Only after implementing these requirements and after strengthening the veterinary infrastructures and their surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from these new international trade rules. PMID:15737424

  12. Biomarker Discovery in Animal Health and Disease: The Application of Post-Genomic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rowan E.; Kirwan, Jennifer; Doherty, Mary K.; Whitfield, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: The causes of many important diseases in animals are complex and multifactorial, which present unique challenges. Biomarkers indicate the presence or extent of a biological process, which is directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. Identifying biomarkers or biomarker profiles will be an important step towards disease characterization and management of disease in animals. The emergence of post-genomic technologies has led to the development of strategies aimed at identifying specific and sensitive biomarkers from the thousands of molecules present in a tissue or biological fluid. This review will summarize the current developments in biomarker discovery and will focus on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in biomarker discovery for animal health and disease. PMID:19662203

  13. Animal Origin Foods and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Report From the Shanghai Women's Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Ah Lee; Xiao Ou Shu; Gong Yang; Honglan Li; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The association of animal-origin food consumption and cooking patterns with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was evaluated in a cohort of 73,224 participants of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. After a mean follow-up time of 7.4 yr, 394 incident cases of CRC (colon = 236; rectal = 158) were diagnosed. Overall, no association was found between the risk of CRC and

  14. Lavender Foal Syndrome Sample Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center LAB USE ONLY

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    PER FORM *Owner's name ________________________________________________ Veterinarian Account number of a licensed veterinarian. The veterinarian's information is required only for those samples submitted under the account of a licensed veterinarian. It will be the veterinarian's responsibility to provide results

  15. Thursday, August 26, 2010 Page 1 of 2 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    in horses inherited in an autosomal recessive manner called Lavender Foal Syndrome. Heterozygotes not submit hair root samples from horses treated with topical insecticides or hair grooming products withinEx/UPS Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd. Ithaca, NY 14853 Laboratory Operations: Phone: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607

  16. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  17. Luminescence-Based Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coating Health and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines designed for higher temperature operation, a diagnostic capability for the health and performance of TBCs will be essential to indicate when a mitigating action needs to be taken before premature TBC failure threatens engine performance or safety. In particular, it is shown that rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers can be integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence emission that can be monitored to assess TBC erosion and delamination progression, and to map surface and subsurface temperatures as a measure of TBC performance. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers are presented.

  18. The Role of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in the Maintenance of the Subjugation of Women: Implications for the Training of Future Mental Health Professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M. Lazaroff

    Since the publication of the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1952), the diagnostic classification of mental health issues has been rooted in an individualistic view of mental disorders. Although many of the changes in subsequent editions have resulted in clearer diagnostic classification, this individualistic approach fails to take into account the

  19. DSM-5, ICD-10, ICD-11, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, and Person-Centered Integrative Diagnosis: An Overview for College Mental Health Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stewart E.

    2014-01-01

    Therapists in the field of college mental health counseling commonly voice an ambivalent orientation towards the utilization of formal psychological diagnostic systems yet often use diagnostic terms. Knowledge of the current and emerging diagnostic systems may contribute to greater syntheses of these differing approaches. This article will first…

  20. Reducing cognitive skill decay and diagnostic error: theory-based practices for continuing education in health care.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Sallie J; Newman-Toker, David E; Rosen, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective cognitive reasoning skills in the clinical education, organizational training, and human factors literatures suggest that continuing education plays a critical role in mitigating and managing diagnostic skill decay. Recent models also underscore the role of system level factors (eg, cognitive decision support tools, just-in-time training opportunities) in supporting clinical reasoning process. The purpose of this manuscript is to offer a multidisciplinary review of cognitive models of clinical decision making skills in order to provide a list of best practices for supporting continuous improvement and maintenance of cognitive diagnostic processes through continuing education. PMID:23280530

  1. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all stakeholders and a well-regulated private service in order to mitigate the constraints apparent in the government service. PMID:25685946

  2. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    PubMed

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy or meat) can only be sustainable with adequate marketing, supply of quality feed, veterinary services, labour, management and control of pollution. Animal health programmes play a keyrole in the proposed system approach. PMID:1502778

  3. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Peter M; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L

    2015-05-26

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  4. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  5. Patterns of Salivary Analytes Provide Diagnostic Capacity for Distinguishing Chronic Adult Periodontitis from Health

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Schuster, Julie L.; Stevens, Jason; Dawson, Dolph; Kryscio, Richard; Lin, Yushin; Thomas, Mark V.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1?, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6×) and levels of IFN? were consistently lower (8.7×) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1?, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1?, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential. PMID:22926406

  6. Odour influence on well-being and health with specific focus on animal production emissions.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Odour and odorants may affect the quality of life of exposed individuals. A review of the literature on olfaction and reactions to odours was carried out with the aim of reaching an understanding of their influence on well-being and health, and to suggest possible improvements in odour environment. This review has focussed specifically on the impact of animal production emissions. Factors like emission and air movements form the physical odour levels, and individual parameters involving psychological and social factors determine the human response. An odour may have positive as well as negative effects on well-being. Learning may be important for induced approach or avoidance behaviour. Common sites of irritation and injury from odorants are the respiratory organs and the nose. In most cases, the protection system triggered by the trigeminal nerve prevents severe effects. Increased frequencies of a number of respiratory and stress-related symptoms are found in the vicinity of animal production facilities. Explanations may be odour-mediated symptoms through annoyance and/or co-existing compounds like dust and gases with synergistic effects. Besides hydrogen sulphide, a number of gases related to animal production have hazardous properties and might be contributory elements despite their low concentrations. Important factors affecting mood, stress, and perceived health are odour levels, exposure time, sensitivity, unpleasantness, cognition and coping. Odour unpleasantness influences annoyance and might be interesting for regulatory purposes. PMID:15627320

  7. Animal production and wheeze in the Agricultural Health Study: interactions with atopy, asthma, and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, J; Umbach, D; London, S; Alavanja, M; Sandler, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role of animal exposures and wheeze, and to assess whether their impact differs among susceptible subgroups, including atopics, asthmatics, and smokers. Methods: Using the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in 1994–97, wheeze associated with animal production was evaluated and interactions among susceptible subgroups assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine risk factors for wheeze in the past year among 20 468 farmers. Results: Individuals raising animals requiring direct contact had the highest odds ratios (OR) for wheeze (ORdairy = 1.26; OReggs = 1.70). A significant dose response was observed for both the number of poultry and the number of livestock on the farm. Farmers who performed veterinary procedures on a daily basis had an OR of 1.51. The odds of wheeze associated with poultry production was greater among atopic than non-atopic individuals. Milking cows daily increased the odds of wheeze in all individuals, with the largest association observed among atopic asthmatic individuals. The impact of dairy, poultry, and egg production varied among smoking groups. Past smokers had the highest odds ratios, followed by never smokers, and then current smokers. The OReggs was 2.88 among past smokers but only 1.46 for never smokers. The OReggs for current smokers of 0.80 might reflect self selection of exposure among smokers. Conclusions: Results are consistent with animal production and respiratory symptoms, and suggest that subgroups may respond differently to exposure. PMID:12883030

  8. 77 FR 42255 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...Monitoring System; Layers 2013 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...to initiate the Layers 2013 Study, an information collection...collection, contact Mrs. Celeste Sickles, APHIS' Information Collection...Monitoring System; Layers 2013 Study. OMB Number:...

  9. Perspectives on Australian animal health aid projects in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2011-10-01

    Future food security poses many challenges and with increasing prosperity and demand for meat, the emerging but largely unregulated trade in livestock and their products from developing countries in South-East Asia and particularly the Mekong region, pose enormous risks of transboundary disease epidemics. However this is a challenge that should be met as substantial improvements in large ruminant production through appropriate knowledge-based interventions can potentially move the largely rural smallholder populations of Lao PDR and Cambodia from subsistence to a productivity focus, offering a new pathway for poverty alleviation. Large development projects have been implemented in the Mekong region to facilitate this process and research is needed to define problems, identify and test solutions, and then suggest the most appropriate delivery mechanisms for promulgating the interventions that are most sustainable. Animal health aid projects are needed to improve livestock productivity, minimize risk to trade and human health and enhance the capacities of countries where there are significant gaps in the provision of veterinary services. Improving large ruminant production, particularly through forages technology and infectious disease risk management including village-level biosecurity, provides a potential driver of foot and mouth disease (FMD) control and eventual eradication in the region. A perspective on issues involved in Australian aid projects addressing regional animal health research and development and a checklist of strategies to consider when designing and managing such projects is provided. PMID:21426534

  10. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, Joăo P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P???0.05), lower calf mortality (P???0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P???0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P???0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P???0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P???0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  11. Delivery of health and husbandry improvements to working animals in Africa.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R A; Krecek, R C

    2006-02-01

    Problems have been identified in the delivery of extension messages about the maintenance of healthy and well-fed working animals. The different factors that need to be considered in developing effective disease control and prevention programmes for working oxen and equids including vector-borne diseases, helminth disease, and vaccination programmes have been reported and discussed and experiences in improving husbandry including footcare, harness, and worm management reported. Most draught animals are owned by people who lack the financial means to pay for or to access the information needed on nutritional supplements, vaccinations and drug treatment. Smallholder farms are often remote from veterinary services, thereby requiring greater emphasis on preventive measures and local remedies. Several NGOs have traditionally provided static and mobile treatment teams for equines and training courses for farriers and harness makers. The effectiveness and sustainability of these services and ways in which delivery of health care and husbandry messages could be delivered to improve impact are discussed. PMID:17682593

  12. [Antibiotics and aquaculture in Chile: implications for human and animal health].

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2004-08-01

    Industrial antibiotic usage in agribusinesses and aquaculture is the force that drives the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria that produce human and animal disease in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that most of the industrial use of antibiotics is unnecessary, and that modernization and hygienic changes can reduce this use of antibiotics without negative economic impact. In Chile, industrial aquaculture of salmon has expanded rapidly in the last 20 years becoming a major export business. The exponential growth of this industry has been accompanied by an unrestricted heavy usage of antibiotics in the aquatic environments of lakes, rivers and the ocean, and its impact is being felt in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria around aquaculture sites and a decrease in the plancktonic diversity in the same areas. The passage of antibiotic resistance genes from aquatic bacteria to human and animal pathogens has been demonstrated, indicating that industrial use of antibiotics in aquaculture affects negatively the antibiotic therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. The Chilean situation triggers important concerns because it includes the use of fluoroquinolones in aquaculture, that are not biodegradable and are able to remain in the environment for years as well as being still effective in treating human infections. The use of large volumes of a wide spectrum of antibiotics in an aquatic environment heavily contaminated with human and animal pathogens also amplifies the opportunities for gene transfer among bacteria, facilitating the emergence of antibiotic resistance and more pathogenic bacterial recombinants. The detection of residual antibiotics in salmons marketed for human consumption that can modify the normal flora of the population also suggests the need for controls on this antibiotic usage and on the presence of residual antibiotics in aquaculture food products. This important problem of public health demands an active dialogue between government officials responsible for protecting public health, aquaculture industry representatives, politicians, consumers and professionals dealing with these matters. PMID:15478304

  13. Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.

    PubMed

    Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-02-01

    We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication. PMID:18952731

  14. Veterinary Toxicology Veterinary toxicologists based in the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System and the

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    animal contamination and incidents that threaten public health. Rapid response and diagnosis ­ Performing · Antibiotic residues in dairy products · Phorate pesticide contamination of animal feed · Lead in contaminated was the source of the toxin. Reopening fisheries after Gulf oil spill ­ After the Gulf of Mexico oil spill

  15. Reasons for relinquishment of companion animals in U.S. animal shelters: Selected health and personal issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M Scarlett; M D Salman; New John C. Jr; Philip Kass

    1999-01-01

    In personal interviews, people surrendering their dogs and cats to 12 animal shelters in 4 regions of the country discussed their reasons for relinquishing their companion animals and answered questions about their own characteristics and those of their pet. The interviews identified 71 reasons for relinquishment. Personal issues lead the class of reasons for relinquishment of cats and ranked 3rd

  16. The new World Organisation for Animal Health standards on avian influenza and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Alex B

    2007-03-01

    In 2002, the World Organisation for Animal Health began a review of the chapter on avian influenza by convening a group of experts to revise the most recent scientific literature. The group drafted the initial text that would provide the necessary recommendations on avian influenza control and prevention measures. The main objectives of this draft were to provide clear notification criteria, as well as commodity-specific, risk-based mitigating measures, that would provide safety when trading and encourage transparent reporting. PMID:17494578

  17. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeler, Edmund J; Taylor, Nicholas G H

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. PMID:21834990

  18. Non-Invasive Health Diagnostics using Eye as a 'Window to the Body'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    As a 'window to the body', the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and help develop preventative/therapeutic countermeasures early. The effects of space travel on human body are similar to those of normal aging. For example, radiation exposure in space could lead to formation of cataracts and cancer by damaging the DNA and causing gene mutation. Additionally, the zero-gravity environment causes fluid shifts in the upper extremities of the body and changes the way blood flows and organ system performs. Here on Earth, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are major eye diseases and are expected to double in next two decades. To detect, prevent, and treat untoward effects of prolonged space travel in real-time requires the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. We are developing fiber-optic sensors to evaluate the ocular tissues in health, aging, and disease employing the techniques of dynamic light scattering (cataract, uveitis, Alzheimer's, glaucoma, DR, radiation damage, refractive surgery outcomes), auto-fluorescence (aging, DR), laser-Doppler flowmetry (choroidal blood flow), Raman spectroscopy (AMD), polarimetry (diabetes), and retinal oximetry (occult blood loss). The non-invasive feature of these technologies integrated in a head-mounted/goggles-like device permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling evaluation of the results to therapy that may ultimately be useful in various telemedicine applications on Earth and in space.

  19. Parent-reported mental health in preschoolers: findings using a diagnostic interview.

    PubMed

    Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that many preschoolers meet criteria for psychiatric diagnoses; still, relatively little is known about preschool mental health, particularly emotional problems, in the community. This study investigated the rates of parent-reported DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Five hundred forty-one parents were interviewed with the PAPA. Of the children, 27.4% met criteria for a PAPA/DSM-IV diagnosis; 9.2% met criteria for 2 or more diagnoses. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (9.4%), specific phobia (9.1%), and separation anxiety disorder (5.4%) were the most common diagnoses; depression (1.8%), selective mutism (1.5%), and panic disorder (0.2%) were the least common. In addition, there was significant comorbidity/covariation between depression, anxiety, and ODD and between ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratios = 1.81-18.44; P < .05), and significant associations with measures of psychosocial functioning. The stability and clinical significance of diagnoses and patterns of comorbidity must be elucidated in future research. PMID:21683173

  20. Neural Network Based State of Health Diagnostics for an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2009-05-13

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSA’s complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.

  1. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vries de W; P. F. A. M. Romkens; G. Schutze

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks\\/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms\\/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The latter effect is related to the phenomenon that a chemical accumulates in species through different trophic

  2. Effects of wastewater irrigation of pastures on the health of farm animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Shuval, H I

    1991-09-01

    Wastewater recycling and reuse through agricultural irrigation can provide an economical means of preventing pollution of surface water sources, while conserving water resources and valuable nutrients for increased crop production and grazing pastures. With proper methods of wastewater treatment, health risks to farmers and farm animals as well as to the public who consume agricultural produce can be prevented. The possibility of transmission of the beef tapeworm Taenia saginata, Salmonella sp. and Mycobacteria sp. to farm animals grazing on wastewater-irrigated pasture is evaluated. While such transmission is possible when raw, untreated wastewater is used for irrigation, the risk is greatly reduced and essentially eliminated with effluent treated to meet the new World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended microbial guidelines for effluent. These guidelines call for one or less helminth eggs per litre and a mean of 1,000 faecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml. In warm climates and where land is available, one of the most economical methods of achieving this standard is the use of multi-cell stabilisation ponds designed for a 25-day detention period. In colder climates and where land is a limiting factor of wastewater treatment, conventional secondary biological treatment followed by disinfection can also be applied to meet this standard. PMID:1782432

  3. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre and surveillance of wild animal diseases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G A; Barker, I K; Daoust, P Y; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCWHC) was established in 1992 as an organization among Canada's 4 veterinary colleges, with a mandate to apply veterinary medicine to wildlife management and conservation in Canada. A major function of the CCWHC is nation-wide surveillance of wild animal diseases. Disease surveillance is conceived as consisting of 4 different activities: detection, diagnosis, information management, and use of information. In the CCWHC surveillance program, detection of disease is carried out by a wide range of professional and avocational field personnel, and much effort is expended to stimulate and support this activity. Diagnosis is done by personnel of provincial and federal veterinary laboratories and the CCWHC. Information management is achieved through a national database of wildlife disease incidents developed and maintained by the CCWHC. Use of information is enabled through established channels for distribution of information derived from the surveillance program to persons responsible for wildlife programs and policies, and to the public. There has been a high demand for the services of the CCWHC since its establishment. The CCWHC responds to approximately 2000 requests for information annually, distributes its newsletter to over 1700 recipients, examines approximately 1200 wild animal submissions each year, and has accumulated records of over 5000 disease incidents in its database. Technical information from the CCWHC has benefited federal, provincial/territorial, and nongovernment wildlife agencies; endangered species recovery programs; federal and provincial veterinary services; and federal and provincial public health programs. Images Figure 1. PMID:9167876

  4. Attitudes and concerns of Canadian animal health technologists toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1998-08-01

    Three hundred and twenty-two Canadian animal health technologists (AHTs) were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, their concerns regarding the use of opioid analgesics, and their role within veterinary practices with respect to postoperative pain control. Two hundred and sixty-four (82%) returned the questionnaire. Pain perception was defined as the average of pain rankings for dogs and cats (on a scale of 1 to 10) following abdominal surgery, or the value for dogs or cats if the AHT worked with only 1 of the 2 species. Maximum concern about the risks associated with the postoperative use of morphine or oxymorphone was defined as the highest rating assigned to any of the 6 risks evaluated in either dogs or cats. Animal health technologists reported significantly higher pain perception scores than did veterinarians who completed a similar survey 2 years previously. Higher pain perception scores were associated with decreased satisfaction with the adequacy of analgesic therapy in their practice, higher pain control goals, and attendance at continuing education within the previous 12 months. The majority of AHTs (55%) agreed that one or more risks associated with the use of morphine or oxymorphone outweighed the benefits. The 3 issues that were perceived to pose the greatest risk were respiratory depression, bradycardia, and sedation and excitement, for dogs and cats, respectively. Most AHTs (68%) considered their knowledge related to the recognition and control of pain to be adequate, compared with 24% of veterinarians who responded to a similar previous survey. As for veterinarians, experience gained while in practice was ranked as the most important source of knowledge, while the technical program attended was ranked as least important. Over 88% of the AHTs provided nursing care during the postoperative period, monitored animals for side effects of postoperative analgesic therapy, informed veterinarians when animals were in pain, recommended analgesic therapy when they believed it was warranted, reported that animals received analgesics when they believed it was warranted, administered analgesics under the instruction of a veterinarian, and believed they were part of a team working to provide adequate postoperative pain control. PMID:9711387

  5. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1...that: (1) The donor animals: (i) Are permanently...originating in regions other than Australia and New Zealand is to be...shipping containers carrying animal semen for...

  6. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1...that: (1) The donor animals: (i) Are permanently...originating in regions other than Australia and New Zealand is to be...shipping containers carrying animal semen for...

  7. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1...that: (1) The donor animals: (i) Are permanently...originating in regions other than Australia and New Zealand is to be...shipping containers carrying animal semen for...

  8. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    PubMed Central

    Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Béla

    2013-01-01

    After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of Escherichia coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development, and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence) among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these “bad genes” in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR) commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the future. PMID:24027562

  9. Evaluation of animal and public health surveillance systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Stärk, K D C

    2012-04-01

    Disease surveillance programmes ought to be evaluated regularly to ensure they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. Evaluation of human and animal health surveillance programmes around the world is currently not standardized and therefore inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review was to review surveillance system attributes and the methods used for their assessment, together with the strengths and weaknesses of existing frameworks for evaluating surveillance in animal health, public health and allied disciplines. Information from 99 articles describing the evaluation of 101 surveillance systems was examined. A wide range of approaches for assessing 23 different system attributes was identified although most evaluations addressed only one or two attributes and comprehensive evaluations were uncommon. Surveillance objectives were often not stated in the articles reviewed and so the reasons for choosing certain attributes for assessment were not always apparent. This has the potential to introduce misleading results in surveillance evaluation. Due to the wide range of system attributes that may be assessed, methods should be explored which collapse these down into a small number of grouped characteristics by focusing on the relationships between attributes and their links to the objectives of the surveillance system and the evaluation. A generic and comprehensive evaluation framework could then be developed consisting of a limited number of common attributes together with several sets of secondary attributes which could be selected depending on the disease or range of diseases under surveillance and the purpose of the surveillance. Economic evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance evaluation process. This would provide a significant benefit to decision-makers who often need to make choices based on limited or diminishing resources. PMID:22074638

  10. Improving lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA) diagnostics via biomarker enrichment for mHealth.

    PubMed

    Lai, James J; Stayton, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Optical detection technologies based on mobile devices can be utilized to enable many mHealth applications, including a reader for lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, an intrinsic challenge associated with LFIA for clinical diagnostics is the limitation in sensitivity. Therefore, rapid and simple specimen processing strategies can directly enable more sensitive LFIA by purifying and concentrating biomarkers. Here, a binary reagent system is presented for concentrating analytes from a larger volume specimen to improve the malaria LFIA's limit of detection (LOD). The biomarker enrichment process utilizes temperature-responsive gold-streptavidin conjugates, biotinylated antibodies, and temperature-responsive magnetic nanoparticles. The temperature-responsive gold colloids were synthesized by modifying the citrate-stabilized gold colloids with a diblock copolymer, containing a thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) segment and a gold-binding block composed of NIPAAm-co-N,N-dimethylaminoethylacrylamide. The gold-streptavidin conjugates were synthesized by conjugating temperature-responsive gold colloids with streptavidin via covalent linkages using carbodiimide chemistry chemistry. The gold conjugates formed half-sandwiches, gold labeled biomarker, by complexing with biotinylated antibodies that were bound to Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), a malaria antigen. When a thermal stimulus was applied in conjunction with a magnetic field, the half-sandwiches and temperature-responsive magnetic nanoparticles that were both decorated with pNIPAAm formed large aggregates that were efficiently magnetically separated from human plasma. The binary reagent system was applied to a large volume (500 ?L) specimen for concentrating biomarker 50-fold into a small volume and applied directly to an off-the-shelf malaria LFIA to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:25626532

  11. A novel diagnostic technique to determine uterine health of Holstein cows at 35 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Knauer, W A; Bicalho, M L S; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2012-03-01

    The objectives were (1) to evaluate the association of uterine lavage sample optical density (ULSOD) with uterine health, and (2) to estimate and evaluate a threshold value that will maximize the accuracy of ULSOD as a diagnostic tool for clinical endometritis. The study enrolled 1,742 cows from 3 dairy farms located near Ithaca, New York. The samples were collected at 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) by using low-volume uterine lavage. Cows with a purulent or mucopurulent secretion in the sample were diagnosed with clinical endometritis, whereas a subgroup of all studied cows was examined for cytological evidence of inflammation by endometrial cytology. Data for ULSOD measured at different wavelengths (200, 352, 620, 790, 860, and 960 nm) were available for 554 cows; all 1,742 cows had data for ULSOD measured at 620 nm (ULSOD(620)). Incidences of clinical endometritis, metritis, and retained placenta were 10, 15.2, and 5.6%, respectively. The ULSOD(620) was associated with clinical endometritis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the accuracy of optical density in the detection of clinical endometritis was conducted for ULSOD measured at different wavelengths; ULSOD(620) was selected for further analysis because it presented the best ROC curve to detect clinical endometritis. The recommended threshold for ULSOD(620) ROC was 0.058, where the sensitivity and specificity were 76.3 and 78.3%, respectively. The ROC analysis of the accuracy of optical density in the detection of endometritis defined as a percentage of neutrophils in the uterine lavage samples higher than 18% was conducted for ULSOD(620). The recommended threshold was 0.059, where the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 82.2%, respectively. Cows with ULSOD(620) ? 0.058 were 1.21 times more likely to conceive than cows with ULSOD(620) >0.058; moreover, the median calving-to-conception interval for cows that had ULSOD(620) ? 0.058 was 122 d compared with 148 d for cows that had ULSOD(620) >0.058. Cows that were positive for Arcanobacterium pyogenes, diagnosed with metritis, or had retained placenta had 4.0, 1.4, and 1.7 times higher odds of having ULSOD(620) >0.058, respectively. Cows with ULSOD(620) >0.058 had a higher percentage of neutrophils in the uterine lavage samples than cows with ULSOD(620) ? 0.058. Uterine lavage sample optical density measured at 620 nm can be used as an objective indicator of uterine health in dairy cows, principally for clinical endometritis. PMID:22365216

  12. Introduction: The University of Connecticut Health Center is actively involved in working with animals. In

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    with animals. In performing your assigned duties, you may at times come in contact with animals that animals are being housed and maintained. If you have concerns regarding the welfare of animals, please contact Alison D. Pohl in the Animal Care Committee Office, (860) 679-4129, pohl@uchc.edu, or ooacc

  13. A new medical research model: ethically and responsibly advancing health for humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Olson, Patricia N; Ganzert, Robin R

    2015-02-16

    With the increasing use of genomics, computational analytics, emerging technologies, and personalized medicine, the possibility of a new research model is emerging. Using the clues from thousands of species living on our planet, scientists from many disciplines (medicine, veterinary medicine, wildlife) must collaborate, prioritize, and strategize on how to address causes of health and disease. Such clues should guide disease prevention, as well as the development of innovative, efficacious, and gentler therapies. Geographic and language barriers must be broken down, and scientists-even within a single academic, corporate, or government research site-must be vigilant in seeking the help of nonmedical disciplines of colleagues from whence answers might come. The public will become more interested in and demanding of such a model, desiring that all family members (humans and animals) have an opportunity for a long and healthy life. Above all, such activities will be humanely conducted with outcomes having the greatest chance for success. PMID:25387116

  14. Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Talsness, Chris E.; Andrade, Anderson J. M.; Kuriyama, Sergio N.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Components used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are detected in humans. In addition to their utility in plastics, an inadvertent characteristic of these chemicals is the ability to alter the endocrine system. Phthalates function as anti-androgens while the main action attributed to BPA is oestrogen-like activity. PBDE and TBBPA have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis while PBDEs also exhibit anti-androgen action. Experimental investigations in animals indicate a wide variety of effects associated with exposure to these compounds, causing concern regarding potential risk to human health. For example, the spectrum of effects following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Concentrations of BPA in the foetal mouse within the range of unconjugated BPA levels observed in human foetal blood have produced effects in animal experiments. Finally, thyroid hormones are essential for normal neurological development and reproductive function. Human body burdens of these chemicals are detected with high prevalence, and concentrations in young children, a group particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. PMID:19528057

  15. Animals, Animals, Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Laz

    2006-12-16

    Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

  16. Veterinary World, Vol.1(9): 285-286 Nutrigenomics: Emerging face of molecular nutrition to improve animal health and production

    E-print Network

    K. B. Kore; A. K. Pathak; Y. P. Gadekar

    Traditional research related to animal nutrition is mainly deals with either deficiency or excess of the particular nutrient which leads to ill health as well as decreased animal production. But genomic

  17. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  18. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as ‘ergot alkaloid intoxication’. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  19. Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-ŕ-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology. PMID:24092400

  20. Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments’ responses, and barriers to involvement. Results Health departments’ roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health. PMID:23382947

  1. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

  2. Financing the delivery of public-sector animal health services in Jamaica: pre- and post-privatization.

    PubMed

    Turkson, P K; Brownie, C F

    1998-12-01

    Lack of adequate financing was a major reason for the privatization of veterinary services in Jamaica in 1992. The belief was that, with privatization, funding of animal health services delivery would improve, since staff numbers and clinical activities undertaken by the Veterinary Division were reduced. However, analyses of data revealed that, in most cases, privatization neither improved nor stemmed the declines, that had started before privatization, in the measures or indicators used. It was concluded that privatization of veterinary services did not result in any appreciable improvement in the financing of the delivery of public-sector animal health services in Jamaica in the short term. PMID:9974206

  3. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate change and disease emergence 13 3.4 Outbreak investigations 13 4 Surveillance and surveys 15 4.1 Investigation of disease prevalence 15 4.2 Developments in surveillance methodology 16 4.2.1 Risk-based surveillance and scenario tree modelling 16 4.2.2 Spatial and temporal analysis 16 4.3 Test validation 17 5 Spread, establishment and impact of pathogens 18 5.1 Identifying routes of spread 18 5.1.1 Ex-ante studies of disease spread 19 5.1.2 Ex-post observational studies 21 5.2 Identifying risk factors for disease establishment 23 5.3 Assessing impact at the population level 24 5.3.1 Recording mortality 24 5.3.2 Farm health and production records 26 5.3.3 Assessing the impact of disease in wild populations 27 6 Conclusions 31 7 Competing interests 32 8 Authors' contributions 32 9 Acknowledgements 33 10 References 33 PMID:21834990

  4. Development of a novel diagnostic test for detection of bovine viral diarrhea persistently infected animals using hair

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Myrna M.; Kohrt, Laura J.; Scherba, Gail; Garrett, Edgar F.; Fredrickson, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus. PMID:21897105

  5. Use and limitations of malaria rapid diagnostic testing by community health workers in war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities and personnel. This study reports on a training programme for CHWs to incorporate RDTs into their management strategy for febrile children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a tropical African setting ravaged by human conflict. Methods Prospective cohort study, satisfaction questionnaire and decision analysis. Results Twelve CHWs were trained to safely and accurately perform and interpret RDTs, then successfully implemented rapid diagnostic testing in their remote community in a cohort of 357 febrile children. CHWs were uniformly positive in evaluating RDTs for their utility and ease of use. However, high malaria prevalence in this cohort (93% by RDTs, 88% by light microscopy) limited the cost-effectiveness of RDTs compared to presumptive treatment of all febrile children, as evidenced by findings from a simplified decision analysis. Conclusions CHWs can safely and effectively use RDTs in their management of febrile children; however, cost-effectiveness of RDTs is limited in zones of high malaria prevalence. PMID:20028563

  6. 76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...science-based recommendations for the safe trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization...live birds and poultry and the products of birds and poultry. In...particular type of animal or animal product to the United States from...

  7. An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

  8. Financing the Delivery of Public-Sector Animal Health Services in Jamaica: Pre and Post-Privatization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Turkson; C. F. Brownie

    1998-01-01

    Lack of adequate financing was a major reason for the privatization of veterinary services in Jamaica in 1992. The belief was that, with privatization, funding of animal health services delivery would improve, since staff numbers and clinical activities undertaken by the Veterinary Division were reduced. However, analyses of data revealed that, in most cases, privatization neither improved nor stemmed the

  9. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Capuco; C. P. Rice; R. L. Baldwin Vi; D. D. Bannerman; M. J. Paape; W. R. Hare; A. C. W. Kauf; G. W. McCarty; C. J. Hapeman; A. M. Sadeghi; J. L. Starr; L. L. McConnell; C. P. van Tassell

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was

  10. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  11. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    PubMed

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647

  12. Feasibility and Diagnostic Accuracy of Brief Health Literacy and Numeracy Screening Instruments in an Urban Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody S.; Lin, Margaret J.; Melson, Andrew T.; Griffey, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five health literacy screening instruments in emergency department (ED) patients: the Rapid Evaluation of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Single Item Literacy Screens (SILS), health numeracy, and physician gestalt. A secondary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of these instruments as measured by administration time, time on task, and interruptions during test administration. Methods This was a prospective observational cross-sectional study of a convenience sampling of adult patients presenting during March 2011 and February 2012 to one urban university-affiliated ED. Subjects were consenting non-critically ill, English-speaking patients over the age of 18 years without aphasia, dementia, mental retardation, or inability to communicate. The diagnostic test characteristics of the REALM-R, NVS, SILS, health numeracy, and physician gestalt were quantitatively assessed by using the short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOHFLA). A score of 22 or less was the criterion standard for limited health literacy (LHL). Results Four hundred thirty-five participants were enrolled, with mean age of 45 years (SD ±15.7 years) and 18% had less than a high school education. As defined by an S-TOHFLA score of 22 or less, the prevalence of LHL was 23.9%. In contrast, the NVS, REALM-R, and physician gestalt identified 64.8%, 48.5%, and 35% of participants as LHL, respectively. A normal NVS screen was the most useful test to exclude LHL, with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.04 (95% CI = 0.01 to 0.17). When abnormal, none of the screening instruments, including physician gestalt, significantly increased the post-test probability of LHL. The NVS and REALM-R require 3 and 5 minutes less time to administer than the S-TOHFLA. Administration of the REALM-R is associated with less test interruptions. Conclusions One-quarter of these ED patients had marginal or inadequate health literacy. Among the brief screening instruments evaluated, a normal Newest Vital Sign result accurately reduced the probability of limited health literacy, although it will identify two-thirds of ED patients as high-risk for limited health literacy. None of the brief screening instruments significantly increases the probability of limited health literacy when abnormal. PMID:24673669

  13. Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolae V Ostrovschi; Martin J Prince; Cathy Zimmerman; Mihai A Hotineanu; Lilia T Gorceag; Viorel I Gorceag; Clare Flach; Melanie A Abas

    2011-01-01

    Background  Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no\\u000a studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning\\u000a to their home country.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008

  14. Integration of animal health, food pathogen and foodborne disease surveillance in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Hulebak, K; Rodricks, J; Smith DeWaal, C

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of surveillance and the attempts made in the Americas to institute truly integrated surveillance systems that bring together disease surveillance of medically treated clinical populations with disease surveillance for food-production animals. Characteristics of an ideal, integrated food safety system are described. Systematic surveillance programmes in the Americas vary widely in scope and reliability, and none is fully integrated. Estimates of foodborne disease rates, particularly in North America, are becoming increasingly accurate, and programmes such as those promoted by the Pan American Health Organization are gradually leading to improvements in estimates of the foodborne disease burden in Latin America. Linking foodborne diseases to their sources is necessary for reducing disease incidence, and the World Health Organization's Global Foodborne Infections Network is building global capacity in this area. Activities in these areas in the Americas are described in detail. There is now clear recognition that there are dynamic links between infectious diseases occurring in wildlife and livestock and those occurring in humans, and this has led to calls from organisations such as the US National Academy of Sciences and the American Veterinary Medical Association to integrate surveillance programmes for zoonotic and human diseases. Models for the development of such integrated programmes, at local, national and international levels, are described. To be effective, such models must incorporate programmes to capture information from numerous, discrete surveillance systems in a way that allows rapid analysis to identify zoonotic and human disease connections. No effective integration now exists, but there are signals that governments in the Americas are working together towards this goal. PMID:24547656

  15. Benefiting from online mental status examination system and mental health diagnostic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajar Mat Jani; Jalan Kajang-Puchong; Selangor Darul Ehsan

    2010-01-01

    In this really hectic world, quite a number of people are exposed to situations where mental stress Is unavoidable. This leads to people having all kinds of mental health problems that eventually may turn to chronic mental disorders. People with mental health problems normally have the tendency of not admitting their health problems because of the stigma attached to these

  16. Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an imag...

  17. Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M?=?4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD?=?0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD ?=?0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p?=?0·021) and depression (p?=?0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID:25419743

  18. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  19. The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,…

  20. Morris Animal Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ... Research VetNews Canine Lifetime Health Project Researchers Small Animal Studies Large Animal Studies Wildlife Studies Vet Students ...

  1. The application of economics in animal health programmes: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Morris, R S

    1999-08-01

    Economic analysis is a valuable technique in the planning and management of animal health programmes at the national policy level and at the level of individual livestock enterprises. Considerable experience has now been accumulated in the adaptation of methods of economics to address decisions on disease control issues. Different methods are appropriate for endemic diseases, for diseases which occur intermittently as local outbreaks, and for diseases which have the potential to cause an epidemic. A guide to the selection of the most suitable method is provided. The information required for analysis at individual herd level is much simpler than that required for national policy decisions and funding decisions by international agencies; an outline of the requirements for each level of analysis is provided. Issues surrounding the degree of risk of different choices are examined, and the application of decision analysis to higher-risk choices is introduced. Ways in which difficulties and hazards can be overcome are suggested for those unfamiliar with the techniques. Finally, procedures to provide confidence in the results of evaluations through sensitivity analysis are explained. PMID:10472670

  2. Financing the delivery of animal health services in developing countries: a case study of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Turkson, P K; Brownie, C F

    1999-02-01

    Inadequate financing for the delivery of animal health services in many developing countries has been blamed for lack of efficiency and effectiveness of veterinary services. There are no reports of how the delivery of veterinary services in Ghana is financed. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the funding of veterinary services in Ghana to help in decision making on resource allocation. Various indicators and measures were used in assessing the adequacy of financing and resource allocation from 1990 to 1995. These measures were the veterinary budget as proportions of the national budget, GDP and AGDP; the proportions of the veterinary budget allocated to salaries; the ratios of salaries to non-staff expenditure and of non-staff expenditure to veterinary livestock units and technical staff; coefficient of efficacy; and R-ratio. These generally declined or worsened over the period, deviating from recommended norms where such norms exist. This confirmed the paucity of financing and resource allocation for the delivery of veterinary services. Revenue generation from cost recovery over the 1993-95 period was a potential source of funding, exceeding 100% of non-staff expenditure for 1993 and 1994. However, the revenue generated was not channelled back to veterinary services but went to the national coffers. This served as a disincentive. There is an urgent need to review how veterinary services are financed in Ghana, if the delivery of services is to improve in efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:10399815

  3. Diagnostic Agreement Predicts Treatment Process and Outcomes in Youth Mental Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Weisz, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have documented low rates of agreement between clinician- and researcher-generated diagnoses. However, little is known about whether this lack of agreement has implications for the processes and outcomes of subsequent treatment. To study this possibility, the authors used diagnostic agreement to predict therapy engagement and…

  4. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY RAMAPO COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY ANIMAL WASTE

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    designed to convey domestic sewage for proper treatment and disposal. h. College - Ramapo College. i: A regulation to establish requirements for the proper disposal of animal solid waste at Ramapo College, so. Animal solid waste ­ waste matter expelled from the bowels of the animal; excrement. g. Proper disposal

  6. Rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis and drug resistance in the industrialized world: clinical and public health benefits and barriers to implementation.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, Francis; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Maxeiner, Horst; Balabanova, Yanina; Casali, Nicola; Kontsevaya, Irina; Ignatyeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we give an overview of new technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and drug resistance, consider their advantages over existing methodologies, broad issues of cost, cost-effectiveness and programmatic implementation, and their clinical as well as public health impact, focusing on the industrialized world. Molecular nucleic-acid amplification diagnostic systems have high specificity for TB diagnosis (and rifampicin resistance) but sensitivity for TB detection is more variable. Nevertheless, it is possible to diagnose TB and rifampicin resistance within a day and commercial automated systems make this possible with minimal training. Although studies are limited, these systems appear to be cost-effective. Most of these tools are of value clinically and for public health use. For example, whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis offers a powerful new approach to the identification of drug resistance and to map transmission at a community and population level. PMID:23987891

  7. Health facility-based malaria surveillance: The effects of age, area of residence and diagnostics on test positivity rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The malaria test positivity rate (TPR) is increasingly used as an indicator of malaria morbidity because TPR is based on laboratory-confirmed cases and is simple to incorporate into existing surveillance systems. However, temporal trends in TPR may reflect changes in factors associated with malaria rather than true changes in malaria morbidity. This study examines the effects of age, area of residence and diagnostic test on TPR at two health facilities in regions of Uganda with differing malaria endemicity. Methods The analysis included data from diagnostic blood smears performed at health facilities in Walukuba and Aduku between January 2009 and December 2010. The associations between age and time and between age and TPR were evaluated independently to determine the potential for age to confound temporal trends in TPR. Subsequently, differences between observed TPR and TPR adjusted for age were compared to determine if confounding was present. A similar analysis was performed for area of residence. Temporal trends in observed TPR were compared to trends in TPR expected using rapid diagnostic tests, which were modelled based upon sensitivity and specificity in prior studies. Results Age was independently associated with both TPR and time at both sites. At Aduku, age-adjusted TPR increased relative to observed TPR due to the association between younger age and TPR and the gradual increase in age distribution. At Walukuba, there were no clear differences between observed and age-adjusted TPR. Area of residence was independently associated with both TPR and time at both sites, though there were no clear differences in temporal trends in area of residence-adjusted TPR and observed TPR at either site. Expected TPR with pLDH- and HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was higher than observed TPR at all time points at both sites. Conclusions Adjusting for potential confounders such as age and area of residence can ensure that temporal trends in TPR due to confounding are not mistakenly ascribed to true changes in malaria morbidity. The potentially large effect of diagnostic test on TPR can be accounted for by calculating and adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the test used. PMID:22770511

  8. Pond Dynamics and the Health of the Aquatic Residents The water quality is constantly changing in a pond. The animals, such as fish, living in the pond are

    E-print Network

    in a pond. The animals, such as fish, living in the pond are able to acclimate to some of these changes be monitored in order to maintain the health of the aquatic animals living in a pond include measurement, the oxygen levels decline because photosynthesis has stopped. Since plant and animal respiration occurs

  9. UBC's researchers contribute to a global effort to save lives, fight disease and address critical health issues concerning humans and animals.

    E-print Network

    Michelson, David G.

    health issues concerning humans and animals. Our dedicated researchers have helped to improve heart, lung and kidney failure. Some have even made breakthroughs in animal-borne diseases that can (SARS). At most universities, scientific research involving animals plays an essential role in saving

  10. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. PMID:22769234

  11. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  12. Lead (Pb) in sheep exposed to mining pollution: implications for animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Carrera, Jennifer; Mateo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime

    2014-10-01

    Livestock from the ancient mining area of Sierra Madrona and Alcudia Valley (Spain) is exposed to elevated levels of lead (Pb), as previous studies based on blood monitoring have revealed. Here we have studied blood, liver and muscle Pb levels in sheep in order to know if Pb exposure could represent a risk for human consumers of the meat and offal of these animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted with ?4 years old (adults) ewes from the mining area (n=46) and a control area (n=21). Blood samples were taken before the sacrifice at the slaughterhouse, and liver and muscle samples were taken thereafter. At the same time, 2-3 year old rams (subadults, n=17) were blood sampled in the mining area. Blood, liver and muscle Pb levels were higher in the mining than in the control area. Blood Pb concentration in the mining area (n= 44, mean: 6.7?g/dl in ewes and 10.9?g/dl in rams) was above background levels (>6?g/dl) in 73.3 percent of animals. Liver Pb concentration in 68 percent of sheep from the mining area (n=32, mean: 6.16?g/g dry weight, d.w.) exceeded the minimum level associated with toxic exposure (5µg/g d.w.) and 87.5 percent of liver samples were above European Union Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) established for offal destined for human consumption (0.5µg/g w.w.~1.4µg/g d.w.). On the contrary, none of the muscle samples in ewes exceeded the EU MRL (0.1µg/g w.w.~0.34µg/g d.w.) established for meat, which may be related to the decline of blood Pb levels with age observed in the present study. These results suggest a potential health effect for sheep exposed to Pb pollution in this area and implications for food safety, but further research with lamb meat may be necessary to refine the risk assessment for human consumers. PMID:25086824

  13. Recommended aerobic fitness level for metabolic health in children and adolescents: a study of diagnostic accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda RA Adegboye; Sigmund A Anderssen; Karsten Froberg; Luis B Sardinha; Berit L Heitmann; Jostein Steene-Johannessen; Elin Kolle; Lars B Andersen

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo define the optimal cut-off for low aerobic fitness and to evaluate its accuracy to predict clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents.DesignStudy of diagnostic accuracy using a cross-sectional database.SettingEuropean Youth Heart Study including Denmark, Portugal, Estonia and Norway.Participants4500 schoolchildren aged 9 or 15 years.Main Outcome MeasureAerobic fitness was expressed as peak oxygen consumption relative to

  14. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2009: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, many human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks reported during the previous decade have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such infections have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important prevention step for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other critical recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas, venues include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2009 guidelines also emphasize risks associated with baby poultry, reptiles, and rodents in public settings, and information about aquatic animal zoonoses has been incorporated. PMID:19407740

  15. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2011: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, feed stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such outbreaks have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education. PMID:21546893

  16. The association between proximity to animal-feeding operations and community health: a protocol for updating a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlots to house 50,000 cattle, and poultry houses to house 250,000 hens. There is primary research that suggests livestock facilities that confine animals indoors for feeding can represent a health hazard for surrounding communities. In this protocol, we describe a review about the association between proximity to animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals in nearby communities. A systematic review of the topic was published by some members of our group in 2010. The purpose of this review is to update that review. Methods/Design The populations of interest are people living in communities near livestock production facilities. Outcomes of interest are any health outcome measured in humans such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, and mental health. Measures of antibiotic resistance in people from the communities compared to measures of resistance found in animals and the environment on animal-feeding operations will also be summarized. The exposure of interest will be exposure to livestock production using a variety of metrics such as distance from facilities, endotoxin levels, and measures of odor. Electronic searches will be conducted using MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process (via OvidSP), CAB Abstracts (via Web of Knowledge), and Science Citation Index (via Web of Knowledge). No language or date restriction will be applied. We will access the risk of bias using a pilot version of a tool developed by the Methods Groups of the Cochrane Collaboration for non-randomized interventions. We propose to conduct a meta-analysis for each health metric (e.g., combining all respiratory disease outcomes, combining all gastrointestinal outcomes). A planned subgroup analysis will be based on the domains of the risk of bias. Discussion This systematic review will provide synthesis of current evidence reporting the association between living near an animal-feeding operation and human health. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010521 PMID:25200608

  17. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP): a new diagnostic tool lights the world of diagnosis of animal and human pathogens: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, K; Chakraborty, Sandip; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kapoor, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Thomas, Prasad

    2014-01-15

    Diagnosis is an important part in case of animal husbandry as treatment of a disease depends on it. Advancement in molecular biology has generated various sophisticated tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), its versions along with pen-side diagnostic techniques. Every diagnostic test however has both advantages and disadvantages; PCR is not an exception to this statement. To ease the odds faced by PCR several non-PCR techniques which can amplify DNA at a constant temperature has become the need of hour, thus generating a variety of isothermal amplification techniques including Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) along with Self-Sustained Sequence Replication (3SR) and Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) and Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test. LAMP stands out to be a good and effective diagnostic test for empowering in developing countries as it does not require sophisticated equipments and skilled personnel and proves to be cost-effective. Performance of LAMP mainly relies on crafting of six primers (including 2 loop primers) ultimately accelerating the reaction. LAMP amplifies DNA in the process pyrophosphates are formed causing turbidity that facilitates visualisation in a more effective way than PCR. The Bst and Bsm polymerase are the required enzymes for LAMP that does not possess 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Results can be visualized by adding DNA binding dye, SYBR green. LAMP is more stable than PCR and real-time PCR. Non-involvement of template DNA preparation and ability to generate 10(9) copies of DNA are added benefits that make it more effective than NASBA or 3SR and SDA. Thus, it fetches researcher's interest in developing various versions of LAMP viz., its combination with lateral flow assay or micro LAMP and more recently lyophilized and electric (e) LAMP. Availability of ready to use LAMP kits has helped diagnosis of almost all pathogens. LAMP associated technologies however needs to be developed as a part of LAMP platform rather than developing them as separate entities. This review deals with all these salient features of this newly developed tool that has enlightened the world of diagnosis. PMID:24783797

  18. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I — Nonparasitic zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. S.; Peregrine, A. S.; Armstrong, J.

    2002-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene. PMID:12170843

  19. Use of animal products in traditional Chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Still

    2003-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly practised in many countries of the world. Some recent textbooks of TCM still recommend formulas containing various animal tissues such as tiger bones, antelope, buffalo or rhino horns, deer antlers, testicles and os penis of the dog, bear or snake bile. Usually, animal tissues are combined with medical herbs. In most of the

  20. Animal health: harmonisation and distribution of pathogen detection and differentiation tools.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, J S; Oliva, A G; Seitzer, U

    2008-08-01

    Quality and safe meat production and livestock husbandry are important foci for addressing the wider underlying economic and political challenges. In the last few years, an intense focus of the scientific community has been placed on breakouts of livestock diseases especially in Asia, which have spread into neighbouring countries including Europe. These outbreaks had a serious impact on the livelihood of the farmers as well as the economy of the affected countries. Given this, the establishment of a network of diagnostic facilities is a great demand both at the national and regional levels. In most of the cases, diagnostic assays are either not available or they are not validated. The aim of this collaborative network was to: 1 Distribute and harmonize diagnostic tools required for pathogen detection and differentiation. 2 Build the capacity to ensure the conduction of integrated disease control measures. PMID:18666960

  1. A Vision for Better Health: Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Gemperline, Erin; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules from small molecules to large proteins by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. Its usefulness in biomarker discovery towards clinical applications has obtained success by correlating the molecular expression of tissues acquired from MSI with well-established histology. Results To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in clinical applications, such as biomarker diagnostics of different diseases, prognostics of disease severities and metabolic response to drug treatment, etc. These studies have provided significant insight in clinical studies over the years and current technical advances are further facilitating the improvement of this field. Although the underlying concept is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis must be taken into account for successful applications of MSI. Herein, we briefly reviewed these key elements yet focused on the clinical applications of MSI that cannot be addressed by other means. Conclusions Challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed to conclude that the ever-growing applications with continuous development of this powerful analytical tool will lead to a better understanding of the biology of diseases and improvements in clinical diagnostics. PMID:23078851

  2. Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

    2008-07-01

    Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

  3. How can malaria rapid diagnostic tests achieve their potential? A qualitative study of a trial at health facilities in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are at the early stages of introduction across malaria endemic countries. This is central to efforts to decrease malaria overdiagnosis and the consequent overuse of valuable anti-malarials and underdiagnosis of alternative causes of fever. Evidence of the effect of introducing RDTs on the overprescription of anti-malarials is mixed. A recent trial in rural health facilities in Ghana reduced overprescription of anti-malarials, but found that 45.5% patients who tested negative with RDTs were still prescribed an anti-malarial. Methods A qualitative study of this trial was conducted, using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of health workers involved in the trial, ranging from those who continued to prescribe anti-malarials to most patients with negative RDT results to those who largely restricted anti-malarials to patients with positive RDT results. Interviews explored the experiences of using RDTs and their results amongst trial participants. Results Meanings of RDTs were constructed by health workers through participation with the tests themselves as well as through interactions with colleagues, patients and the research team. These different modes of participation with the tests and their results led to a change in practice for some health workers, and reinforced existing practice for others. Many of the characteristics of RDTs were found to be inherently conducive to change, but the limited support from purveyors, lack of system antecedents for change and limited system readiness for change were apparent in the analysis. Conclusions When introduced with a limited supporting package, RDTs were variously interpreted and used, reflecting how health workers had learnt how to use RDT results through participation. To build confidence of health workers in the face of negative RDT results, a supporting package should include local preparation for the innovation; unambiguous guidelines; training in alternative causes of disease; regular support for health workers to meet as communities of practice; interventions that address negotiation of health worker-patient relationships and encourage self-reflection of practice; feedback systems for results of quality control of RDTs; feedback systems of the results of their practice with RDTs; and RDT augmentation such as a technical and/or clinical troubleshooting resource. PMID:20398262

  4. Development of the Spanish-language version of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule.

    PubMed

    Karno, M; Burnam, A; Escobar, J I; Hough, R L; Eaton, W W

    1983-11-01

    The use of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) to elicit DSM-III-defined mental disorders among Hispanic respondents in the Los Angeles site of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project required development of a Spanish translation of the instrument that would be understood readily by persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origin. The translation was carried out using back translation, bilingual test respondents, a bilingual translation staff, an extensive committee of experienced bilingual clinicians as translation consultants, and revision following clinical evaluation. A study of its reliability and comparison with clinical diagnoses obtained with Spanish-speaking psychiatric outpatients indicated satisfactory equivalence of the Spanish DIS to the English version. Early international use of the Spanish DIS promises new data on the cross-cultural validity and prevalence rates of DSM-III-diagnosed disorders. PMID:6639287

  5. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01BM1.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01BM1 - B6;129S-Blm/Nci Results

  6. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XN2.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XN2 - FVB;129S6-Stk11/Nci

  7. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XG7.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XG7 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

  8. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XG2.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 103 Strain: 01XG2 - FVB-Tg(MMTV-Myc)141-3Led/Nci

  9. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XC8.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 101 Strain: 01XC8 - STOCK Brca1/Nci Results

  10. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XD5.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XD5 - B6.D2-Tg(RIP1-Tag2)2Dh/Nci Results

  11. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01X66.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01X66 - B6.Cg-Tg(CD207-cre)1Dhka/Nci

  12. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBT.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XBT - B6.Cg-Cdkn2a Tyr/Nci

  13. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XT4.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 103 Strain: 01XT4 - FVB.Cg-Tg(Dct-rtTA2S*M2)#MrlnTg(tetO-HIST1H2BJ/GFP)47Efu/Nci

  14. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XGB.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 112 Strain: 01XGB - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc3)12740Njen/Nci

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    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01XEA - B6;CBA-Tg(tetO-EGFR*L858R)56Hev/Nci

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    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01BM3 - B6.129S-Kras/Nci Results

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    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XGC - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc3)12775Njen/Nci

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    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 103 Strain: 01XGL - B6.Cg-Tg(ED-L2-cre)267Jkat/Nci

  19. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XJ6.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XJ6 - B6.129-Kras/Nci Results

  20. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XM2.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 114 Strain: 01XM2 - 129S4-Trp53/Nci Results

  1. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAC.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XAC - B6.129-Gt(ROSA)26Sor

  2. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAB.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XAB - B6;129-Gt(ROSA)26Sor

  3. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XL5.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 106 Strain: 01XL5 - B6.FVB-Tg(Ipfl-cre)1Tuv/Nci

  4. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XN3.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 107 Strain: 01XN3 - B6.Cg-Tg(GFAP-cre)8Gtm/Nci Results

  5. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBR.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 117 Strain: 01XBR - B6;129-Ptch1/Nci Results

  6. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XB1.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 101 Strain: 01XB1 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

  7. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XH3.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 108 Strain: 01XH3 - B6.129-Pten/Nci Results

  8. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XC1.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 106 Strain: 01XC1 - FVB;129-Rb1/Nci Results

  9. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XNA.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XNA - FVB-Tg(Sprr2f-cre)1Dcas/Nci

  10. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAF.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XAF - B6.129S4-Trp53/Nci Results

  11. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBP.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XBP - B6;129S-Nkx3-1/Nci

  12. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XB9.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XB9 - STOCK Brca2/Nci Results

  13. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XK8.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01XK8 - FVB-Tg(ARR2/Pbsn-MYC)7Key/Nci

  14. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBQ.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 109 Strain: 01XBQ - B6;129S-Nkx3-1/Nci

  15. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XD8.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 114 Strain: 01XD8 - FVB/N-Tg(Fabp1-Cre)1Jig/Nci

  16. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBL.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 108 Strain: 01XBL - B6;129-Myf6/Nci

  17. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAA.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XAA - B6.Cg-Apc/Nci Results

  18. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XB2.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 117 Strain: 01XB2 - FVB.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

  19. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XF5.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01XF5 - B6.Cg-Tg(Pbsn-cre)4Prb/Nci Results

  20. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XT5.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01XT5 - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc2)6070Njen/Nci

  1. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01X62.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01X62 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

  2. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XC2.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XC2 - FVB.129P2-Trp53/Nci Results

  3. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAD.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XAD - B6;129-Gadd45a/Nci Results

  4. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XE4.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01XE4 - FVB.129-Cdkn2a/Nci

  5. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XGA.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XGA - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc2)6113Njen/Nci

  6. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XT3.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 107 Strain: 01XT3 - FVB.Cg-Tg(KRT14-HPV16)wt1Dh/Nci

  7. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XA6.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 111 Strain: 01XA6 - STOCK Tgfb1 Rag2/Nci

  8. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XN5.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 109 Strain: 01XN5 - B6.129S6-Tgfbr2/Nci

  9. X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XM8.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 112 Strain: 01XM8 - FVB/N-Tg(KRT5-tTA)1216Glk/Nci

  10. The Right Ventricle in Health and Disease: Insights into Physiology, Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Management.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Stavros; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2012-05-22

    Until recently, the right ventricle (RV) received little attention in adult patients with congenital heart disease and even less attention in the setting of acquired heart failure. However, in the last two decades, our perspective towards the right side of the heart has begun to change. Advances in imaging modalities have permitted the accurate study of RV physiology and made it apparent that RV function is an important determinant of prognosis in heart failure irrespective of the underlying etiology. This article summarizes the existing data on the unique anatomical and physiological features of the RV. The hemodynamic conditions and cellular and biochemical pathways that lead to right heart failure are presented. Moreover, the imaging modalities that aid in the assessment of RV structure and function are described and the importance of the diagnostic and prognostic information they provide is discussed. PMID:22626882

  11. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  12. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply.

    PubMed

    Capuco, A V; Rice, C P; Baldwin, R L; Bannerman, D D; Paape, M J; Hare, W R; Kauf, A C W; McCarty, G W; Hapeman, C J; Sadeghi, A M; Starr, J L; McConnell, L L; Van Tassell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  13. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  14. The Role of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in the Maintenance of the Subjugation of Women: Implications for the Training of Future Mental Health Professionals

    E-print Network

    Ann M. Lazaroff

    Since the publication of the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1952), the diagnostic classification of mental health issues has been rooted in an individualistic view of mental disorders. Although many of the changes in subsequent editions have resulted in clearer diagnostic classification, this individualistic approach fails to take into account the context within which many of the symptoms of mental disorders emerge. While the codes of ethics of the mental health professions require a consideration of clients ’ socioeconomic and cultural experiences when diagnosing mental disorders, the research that contributed to the classification system often failed to take these experiences into account. This paper provides a look at the impact of social and political pressures on the diagnostic decisions made by mental health professionals, while also exploring the ways in which psychiatry’s classification system has contributed to maintaining the oppression of women. The historical minimization of the effects of violence against women and the insidious trauma of sexism will be explored. Finally, the importance of teaching a contextual understanding of the DSM, as well as the impact of socially embedded cultural values and biases in regards to gender will be explored. Much has been written about the history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Feminist critiques are abundant. However, it appears that despite

  15. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula. PMID:20701843

  16. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  17. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  18. 75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  19. Animal-related injuries in a resource-limited setting: experiences from a Tertiary health institution in northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal related injuries are a major but neglected emerging public health problem and contribute significantly to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. No prospective studies have been done on animal related injuries in our setting. This study was conducted to determine the management patterns and outcome of animal related injuries and their social impact on public health policy in the region. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study of animal related injury patients that presented to Bugando Medical Centre between September 2007 and August 2011. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 452 (8.3%) animal-related injury patients were studied. The modal age group was 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. Dog-bites (61.1%) were the most common injuries. Musculoskeletal (71.7%) region was the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (92.5%) and fractures (49.1%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Only 140 (31.0%) patients were hospitalized and most of them (97.1%) were treated surgically. Wound debridement was the most common procedure performed in 91.2% of patients. Postoperative complication rate was 15.9%, the commonest being surgical site infections (SSI) in 55.1% of patients. SSI was significantly associated with late presentation and open fractures (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. Patients who had severe injuries, long bone fractures and those with hemiplegia stayed longer in the hospital (P < 0.001). Mortality rate was 10.2% and was significantly high in patients with severe injuries, severe head injury, tetanus and admission SBP < 90 mmHg (P < 0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Conclusion Animal related injuries constitute a major public health problem in our setting and commonly affect the young adult male in their economically productive age-group. Measures towards prevention and proper treatment and follow up are important in order to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from this form of trauma PMID:23374146

  20. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills. PMID:21777495

  1. The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention). Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71%) and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%). Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03) and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19) were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening. PMID:22646664

  2. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial inhibition of Mycoplasma bovis isolates submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory using flow cytometry and a broth microdilution method.

    PubMed

    Soehnlen, Marty K; Kunze, M Elaine; Karunathilake, K Eranda; Henwood, Brittnee M; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Wolfgang, David R; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2011-05-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen of cattle, causing mastitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, otitis, and arthritis. Currently there are only a few reports of sensitivity levels for M. bovis isolates from the United States. Mycoplasma bovis isolates submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory between December 2007 and December 2008 (n = 192) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, spectinomycin, ceftiofur, tetracycline, and oxytetracycline using a broth microdilution method. The most effective antimicrobials against M. bovis determined by using the broth microdilution method were florfenicol, enrofloxacin, and tetracycline with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 2-32 µg/ml, 0.1-3.2 µg/ml, and 0.05 to >12.8 µg/ml, respectively. Spectinomycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline showed a wide-ranging level of efficacy in isolate inhibition with broth microdilution with MIC ranges of 4 to >256 µg/ml, 0.05 to >12.8 µg/ml, and 0.05 to >12.8 µg/ml, respectively. A significant difference in the susceptibility levels between quarter milk and lung isolates was found for spectinomycin. When MIC values of a subset of the M. bovis isolates (n=12) were tested using a flow cytometric technique, the MIC ranges of enrofloxacin, spectinomycin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and florfenicol ranges were 0.1-0.4 µg/ml, 4 to >256 µg/ml, >125 µg/ml, >3.2 µg/ml, <0.025 to >6.4 µg/ml, 0.8 to >12.8 µg/ml, and <2-4 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry offers potential in clinical applications due to high-throughput capability, quick turnaround time, and the objective nature of interpreting results. PMID:21908288

  4. Units 11 - 12 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    This section contains two Units plus the Glossary and Index: Unit 11 - What Is MSMR? Unit 12 - Careers in Health and Health Research Glossary of Terms Used Index Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

  5. Pollution and contamination of the domestic environment leading to detrimental, long run and possible irreversible effects upon human and animal health and longevity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animal health and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.

  6. Transcription profiling in environmental diagnostics: health assessments in Columbia River basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Connon, Richard E; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Hostetter, Nathan J; Javidmehr, Alireza; Roby, Daniel D; Evans, Allen F; Loge, Frank J; Werner, Inge

    2012-06-01

    The health condition of out-migrating juvenile salmonids can influence migration success. Physical damage, pathogenic infection, contaminant exposure, and immune system status can affect survival probability. The present study is part of a wider investigation of out-migration success in juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and focuses on the application of molecular profiling to assess sublethal effects of environmental stressors in field-collected fish. We used a suite of genes in O. mykiss to specifically assess responses that could be directly related to steelhead health condition during out-migration. These biomarkers were used on juvenile steelhead captured in the Snake River, a tributary of the Columbia River, in Washington, USA, and were applied on gill and anterior head kidney tissue to assess immune system responses, pathogen-defense (NRAMP, Mx, CXC), general stress (HSP70), metal-binding (metallothionein-A), and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1) utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Upon capture, fish were ranked according to visual external physical conditions into good, fair, poor, and bad categories; gills and kidney tissues were then dissected and preserved for gene analyses. Transcription responses were tissue-specific for gill and anterior head kidney with less significant responses in gill tissue than in kidney. Significant differences between the condition ranks were attributed to NRAMP, MX, CXC, and Cyp1a1 responses. Gene profiling correlated gene expression with pathogen presence, and results indicated that gene profiling can be a useful tool for identifying specific pathogen types responsible for disease. Principal component analysis (PCA) further correlated these responses with specific health condition categories, strongly differentiating good, poor, and bad condition ranks. We conclude that molecular profiling is an informative and useful tool that could be applied to indicate and monitor numerous population-level parameters of management interest. PMID:22587496

  7. Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Impacts on plant and animal populations.

    PubMed

    Whicker, F W

    1997-01-01

    Historical experiments and observations in radioactively contaminated environments have documented radiation impacts on natural plant communities and animal populations. General findings from these studies are reviewed. Despite much information on the response of individual organisms to radiation in the laboratory, the database is more limited and the interpretations more complex for natural populations and communities exposed to radionuclides. These complications are discussed as they pertain to plants and animals in natural environments. Paradigms concerning the recovery of radiation-damaged communities and ecosystems, and areas of needed research are discussed. PMID:9339311

  8. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture & emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones: Need to assess the impact on public health

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, P.L.; Bhalla, P.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics in human, veterinary medicine and agricultural settings has played a significant role in the emergence of resistant MRSA clones due to selection pressure. MRSA has now become established in human population as well as in various animal species. An animal associated clone, MRSA ST 398 has been reported from animal foods and also from human infections in the community as well as from the health care associated infections. Clonal relationship between strains of animal and human origins are indicators of interspecies transmission of clones. Spread of these organisms may pose a great impact on public health if animal associated strains enter into the community and health care settings. Surveillance is important to correlate the genetic changes associated with their epidemiological shift and expansion to predict its impact on public health. Strict regulations on the use of antibiotics in humans as well as in animal food production are required to control the emergence of drug resistant clones. This article reviews the information available on the role of antibiotics in emergence of MRSA strains, their epidemiological shift between humans and animals and its impact on the public health. PMID:25366200

  9. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 8.00 /sample (blood, fluid) Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT** Samples Container Coolant Comments Caprine Tests Caprine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days sterile container; 2) slide mailer 1) Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. 2

  10. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 8.00 /sample (blood, fluid) Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT** Samples Container Coolant Comments Feline Tests Feline Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 container; 2) slide mailer 1) Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. 2) Not required *May

  11. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    plain glass or plastic tube Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 8** Samples Container Coolant Comments Bovine Tests Bovine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 container; 2) slide mailer 1) Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. 2) Not required *May

  12. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 8.00 /sample (blood, fluid) Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 8.00 /sample Last Updated: January 13, 2014 Printed: 5** Samples Container Coolant Comments Camelid Tests Camelid Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days

  13. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    glass or plastic tube Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 8 or plastic tubes Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 16.00 Last** Samples Container Coolant Comments Canine Tests Canine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1

  14. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    plain glass or plastic tube Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. Clinical Pathology 8** Samples Container Coolant Comments Ovine Tests Ovine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 container; 2) slide mailer 1) Refrigerate. Ship in insulated container with ice pack. 2) Not required *May

  15. In partnership with the New York State Department of Agriculture & Markets' Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Program Animal Health

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    -Payment Plan . . . . . . . 8 Understanding Your Monthly Invoice . . . . . . 10 Test Results and Referrals (Send Special Testing Programs Vax (Vaccination) Testing Program . . . . . . . 20 Export Testing Tips 253-3935 Export testing 253-3938 Referral testing 253-3333 FAX for AHDC 253-3943 FAX for Export

  16. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  17. Units 5 - 7 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    The units in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

  18. Center for Animal Health and Food Safety www.cahfs.umn.edu 612-625-8709

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Medicine www.cvm.umn.edu 612-626-8387 How has anthrax affected Minnesota? Anthrax has been reported. In Minnesota, anthrax has been diagnosed over 200 times on 192 farms since 1909. More recent anthrax outbreaks that have had animals diagnosed with anthrax are in southwestern Minnesota, near the Minnesota River. Heavy

  19. Discussion Guide - Units 5 - 7 - People and Animals: United for Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    The Units covered in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.

  20. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals and in the environment: Progress on research to safeguard human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases of humans and many animals caused by protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium has become a very important pathogen in drinking water, detected in over 90% of the surface waters tested in the United States and found in surface waters worldwi...

  1. The implications of naturally occurring levels of fumonisins in corn for human and animal health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter G. Thiel; Walter F. O. Marasas; Eric W. Sydenham; Gordon S. Shephard; Wentzel C. A. Gelderblom

    1992-01-01

    Contamination of corn with the fungus Fusarium moniliforme and its secondary metabolites, the fumonisins, has been associated with several human and animal diseases. This paper summarizes present knowledge and presents new data on the levels of fumonisins present in foods and feeds associated with these diseases as well as in commercial corn and corn-based products. The doses of fumonisins to

  2. IMMUNOTOXICITY - BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ANIMAL RESEARCH AND HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...

  3. INVESTIGATIONS OF REPORTED PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN THE THREE MILE ISLAND AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the ...

  4. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305

  5. Center for Animal Health and Food Safety www.cahfs.umn.edu 612-625-8709

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Medicine www.cvm.umn.edu 612-626-8387 Can dogs become infected with Ebola? Very little is known about how dogs or other animals respond to Ebola virus. Studies on dogs in West Africa have shown that dogs develop antibodies when exposed to Ebola, suggesting that they may develop mild infections without

  6. Aspergillus flavus Genomics: Gateway to Human and Animal Health, Food Safety, and Crop Resistance to Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that has existed in nature for thousands of years. A. flavus is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It is also an allergen causing allergic reaction in humans. A. flavus in...

  7. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) http://olaw.nih.gov National Institutes of Health

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    , Suite 360, MSC 7982 6705 Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-7982 zip code for US Mail; 20817 zip code.V.M. Director wolffa@od.nih.gov 301-594-2061 301-915-9466 Brent Morse, D.V.M. Animal Welfare Program Specialist

  8. Quantifying Potential Human Health Impacts of Animal Antibiotic Use: Enrofloxacin and Macrolides in Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Popken

    2006-01-01

    Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some

  9. Biologics industry challenges for developing diagnostic tests for the National Veterinary Stockpile.

    PubMed

    Hardham, J M; Lamichhane, C M

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases. Because of the need to deliver a return on the investment, research and development dollars continue to be focused on infectious diseases that have a negative impact on current domestic herd health, production systems, or companion animal health. Overcoming the administrative, legal, fiscal, and technological barriers to provide veterinary diagnostic products for the National Veterinary Stockpile will reduce the threat of natural or intentional spread of foreign diseases and increase the security of the food supply in the US. PMID:23689882

  10. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...Health Monitoring Feedlot 2011 Study. DATES: We will consider all...information on the Feedlot 2011 Study, contact Mr. Chris Quatrano...collection, contact Mrs. Celeste Sickles, APHIS' Information Collection...Monitoring System; Feedlot 2011 Study. OMB Number:...

  11. Advanced sensing, degradation detection, diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for structural health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Douglas; Darr, Duane; Morse, Jeffrey; Betti, Raimondo; Laskowski, Bernard

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a micro-sized Linear Polarization Resistance (?LPR) corrosion sensor for Structural Health Management (SHM) applications. The ?LPR sensor is based on conventional macro-sized Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) sensors with the additional benefit of a reduced form factor making it a viable and economical candidate for remote corrosion monitoring of high value structures, such as buildings, bridges, or aircraft. An experiment was conducted with eight ?LPR sensors and four test coupons to validate the performance of the sensor. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the sensor as an efficient means to measure corrosion. The paper concludes with a brief description of a typical application where the ?LPR is used in a bridge cable.

  12. Rapid Bacterial Whole-Genome Sequencing to Enhance Diagnostic and Public Health Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Sandra; Ellington, Matthew J.; Cartwright, Edward J. P.; Köser, Claudio U.; Török, M. Estée; Gouliouris, Theodore; Harris, Simon R.; Brown, Nicholas M.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Quail, Mike; Parkhill, Julian; Smith, Geoffrey P.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The latest generation of benchtop DNA sequencing platforms can provide an accurate whole-genome sequence (WGS) for a broad range of bacteria in less than a day. These could be used to more effectively contain the spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. OBJECTIVE To compare WGS with standard clinical microbiology practice for the investigation of nosocomial outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, the identification of genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance, and typing of other clinically important pathogens. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A laboratory-based study of hospital inpatients with a range of bacterial infections at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, a secondary and tertiary referral center in England, comparing WGS with standard diagnostic microbiology using stored bacterial isolates and clinical information. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Specimens were taken and processed as part of routine clinical care, and cultured isolates stored and referred for additional reference laboratory testing as necessary. Isolates underwent DNA extraction and library preparation prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Bioinformatic analyses were performed by persons blinded to the clinical, epidemiologic, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. RESULTS We investigated 2 putative nosocomial outbreaks, one caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and the other by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae; WGS accurately discriminated between outbreak and nonoutbreak isolates and was superior to conventional typing methods. We compared WGS with standard methods for the identification of the mechanism of carbapenem resistance in a range of gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, E cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae). This demonstrated concordance between phenotypic and genotypic results, and the ability to determine whether resistance was attributable to the presence of carbapenemases or other resistance mechanisms. Whole-genome sequencing was used to recapitulate reference laboratory typing of clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and to provide extended phylogenetic analyses of these. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The speed, accuracy, and depth of information provided by WGS platforms to confirm or refute outbreaks in hospitals and the community, and to accurately define transmission of multidrug-resistant and other organisms, represents an important advance. PMID:23857503

  13. Comparison of milk yield and animal health in Turkish farms with differing stall types and resting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-02-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  14. Comparison of Milk Yield and Animal Health in Turkish Farms with Differing Stall Types and Resting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  15. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  19. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  20. Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health

    PubMed Central

    Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

  1. The effects of nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds on animal health.

    PubMed

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Kaneene, J B

    1993-06-01

    The clinical signs of acute nitrate toxicity vary according to species. In general, ruminant animals develop methemoglobinemia while monogastric animals exhibit severe gastritis. Nitrate ingestion has also been linked to impairment of thyroid function, decreased feed consumption, and interference with vitamin A and E metabolism. Hematologic changes seen with chronic high nitrate exposure include both compensatory increases in red blood cells and anemia, along with increased neutrophils and eosinophils. Unlike nitrate, nitrite is capable of inducing methemoglobinemia in a wide range of species, ie cattle, sheep, swine, dogs, guinea pigs, rats, chickens and turkeys. In rats, chronic nitrite exposure causes pathologic changes in a variety of tissues, alterations in motor activity and brain electrical activity, and alters gastric mucosal absorption. Nitrite affects the metabolism of sulfonamide drugs in animals such as the pig, guinea pig, and rat. The N-nitroso compound dimethylnitrosamine causes toxic hepatosis in cattle, sheep, mink, and fox. Nitrosamines have been reported in cows milk and been found to pass into the milk of goats under experimental conditions. PMID:8351799

  2. Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

  3. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: a case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H K; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  4. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  5. Early Exposure to Soy Isoflavones and Effects on Reproductive Health: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dinsdale, Elsa C.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2010-01-01

    Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potential hormonal activity due to their similar chemical structure to 17-?-estradiol. The increasing availability of soy isoflavones throughout the food supply and through use of supplements has prompted extensive research on biological benefits to humans in chronic disease prevention and health maintenance. While much of this research has focused on adult populations, infants fed soy protein based infant formulas are exposed to substantial levels of soy isoflavones, even when compared to adult populations that consume a higher quantity of soy-based foods. Infant exposure, through soy formula, primarily occurs from birth to one year of life, a stage of development that is particularly sensitive to dietary and environmental compounds. This has led investigators to study the potential hormonal effects of soy isoflavones on later reproductive health outcomes. Such studies have included minimal human data with the large majority of studies using animal models. This review discusses key aspects of the current human and animal studies and identifies critical areas to be investigated as there is no clear consensus in this research field. PMID:22254003

  6. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

  9. Human health issues for plutonium inhalation: Perspectives from laboratory animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Since the first production of plutonium in the 1940s, potential health effects from plutonium have been a concern for humans. The few people exposed to plutonium and the relatively small intakes that have occurred, at least in the Western world, have resulted in very little direct information from human population studies. The Manhattan Project workers have been followed for decades, and few health effects have been observed. The situation is similar for the population of workers at the Rocky Flats facility. Some information is now being released from the former Soviet Union on selected worker populations who show biological effects, primarily pulmonary fibrosis and some increase in lung cancers.

  10. Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

    2001-06-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

  11. College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    studies spans multiple biological levels: from research into molecules and cells, to research health and food security, and infectious disease biology. Applicants whose research reaches across two of ecology, evolution or organismal biology. To undertake administration as requested by the Director

  12. Downloaded: 14 Nov 2008journals.cambridge.org How will public and animal health interventions drive

    E-print Network

    Read, Andrew

    , such as chemotherapy and vaccination, alter parasite survival and repro- duction, the main selective pressures shaping maturity to gain the fecundity benefits of large size. However, when chances of survival are low, worms, health interventions, maturation time, vaccination, chemotherapy, anthelminthic. INTRODUCTION Infections

  13. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S K

    2012-07-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny. PMID:23440448

  14. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny. PMID:23440448

  15. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

  16. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

  17. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

  19. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  20. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  2. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  4. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  5. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  6. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  7. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

  8. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  9. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES,...

  11. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  12. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  13. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

  14. ImmunoTrack: the novel antibody-based technology for tracing in animal health.

    PubMed

    Ruehland, Claus; Reichel, Christoph; Neugebauer, Markus; Strich, Sandra; Bertling, Wolf M; Reiser, Christian O A; Hess, Juergen

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes a novel antibody-based livestock movement control tool and method of meat allocation, both in livestock husbandry as well as during the meat-processing chain. Immuno Track fulfills diverse prerequisites and meets regulatory demands which are substantial for a successful monitoring technology: (i) the induction of long-lasting antibody responses detectable onsite throughout the whole mast period of pigs, (ii) a single immunization injection with protein derivatives is sufficient to evoke a strong epitope-specific antibody response, and (iii) the complete degradation of the protein markers after the antibody response has been triggered in meatproducing animals such as cattle or pigs. There are diverse fields of application for the Immuno-Track marker technology, such as in quality meat programs, as compliance markers for animal vaccines or as a tool for verification of origin. Combination of this monitoring technology with the husbandry and identification databases for cattle and pigs within the European Community will lead to greater transparency in meat production, thereby regaining consumers' trust in concomitant structures of the meat-producing industry. PMID:16892310

  15. Assessing the Public Health Risk of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Use of a Rapid Diagnostic Screening Algorithm.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Richard F; Ferdous, Mithila; Ott, Alewijn; Scheper, Henk R; Wisselink, Guido J; Heck, Max E; Rossen, John W; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an enteropathogen of public health concern because of its ability to cause serious illness and outbreaks. In this prospective study, a diagnostic screening algorithm to categorize STEC infections into risk groups was evaluated. The algorithm consists of prescreening stool specimens with real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of stx genes. The qPCR-positive stool samples were cultured in enrichment broth and again screened for stx genes and additional virulence factors (escV, aggR, aat, bfpA) and O serogroups (O26, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157). Also, PCR-guided culture was performed with sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC) and CHROMagar STEC medium. The presence of virulence factors and O serogroups was used for presumptive pathotype (PT) categorization in four PT groups. The potential risk for severe disease was categorized from high risk for PT group I to low risk for PT group III, whereas PT group IV consists of unconfirmed stx qPCR-positive samples. In total, 5,022 stool samples of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were included. The qPCR detected stx genes in 1.8% of samples. Extensive screening for virulence factors and O serogroups was performed on 73 samples. After enrichment, the presence of stx genes was confirmed in 65 samples (89%). By culture on selective media, STEC was isolated in 36% (26/73 samples). Threshold cycle (CT) values for stx genes were significantly lower after enrichment compared to direct qPCR (P < 0.001). In total, 11 (15%), 19 (26%), 35 (48%), and 8 (11%) samples were categorized into PT groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Several virulence factors (stx2, stx2a, stx2f, toxB, eae, efa1, cif, espA, tccP, espP, nleA and/or nleB, tir cluster) were associated with PT groups I and II, while others (stx1, eaaA, mch cluster, ireA) were associated with PT group III. Furthermore, the number of virulence factors differed between PT groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, a diagnostic algorithm enables fast discrimination of STEC infections associated with a high to moderate risk for severe disease (PT groups I and II) from less-virulent STEC (PT group III). PMID:25740764

  16. The diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) may be present in 10%–20% of patients in medical settings. Routine depression screening is sometimes recommended to improve depression management. However, studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools have typically used data-driven, exploratory methods to select optimal cutoffs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cutoff points around whatever cutoff score is most accurate in that given study. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cutoff points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each possible cutoff point. As a result, traditional meta-analyses may generate exaggerated estimates of accuracy. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by synthesizing data from all studies for each cutoff score to obtain diagnostic accuracy estimates. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the shorter PHQ-2 and PHQ-8 are commonly recommended for depression screening. Thus, the primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2 to detect MDD among adults across all potentially relevant cutoff scores. Secondary analyses involve assessing accuracy accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, sex, medical comorbidity). Methods/design Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will include studies that included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of MDD based on a validated structured or semi-structured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of the administration of the PHQ. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, perform full article review, and extract study data. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cutoff values. Discussion The proposed IPD meta-analyses will allow us to obtain estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010673 PMID:25348422

  17. Humans as animal sentinels for forecasting asthma events: helping health services become more responsive.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    The concept of forecasting asthma using humans as animal sentinels is uncommon. This study explores the plausibility of predicting future asthma daily admissions using retrospective data in London (2005-2006). Negative binomial regressions were used in modeling; allowing the non-contiguous autoregressive components. Selected lags were based on partial autocorrelation function (PACF) plot with a maximum lag of 7 days. The model was contrasted with naďve historical and seasonal models. All models were cross validated. Mean daily asthma admission in 2005 was 27.9 and in 2006 it was 28.9. The lags 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were independently associated with daily asthma admissions based on their PACF plots. The lag model prediction of peak admissions were often slightly out of synchronization with the actual data, but the days of greater admissions were better matched than the days of lower admissions. A further investigation across various populations is necessary. PMID:23118897

  18. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  19. Animal-free paralytic shellfish toxin testing--the Canadian perspective to improved health protection.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Wade A; Murphy, Cory J

    2014-01-01

    The performance characteristics of AOAC Official Method 2011.02 (the PCOX method) as a replacement for the AOAC mouse bioassay procedure have been well defined by validation studies, but these data do not communicate the complete story. The context provided by analyzing 9000 regulatory monitoring samples over 3 years demonstrates not only the reduction in animal use but also the increase in food safety that has been realized using a chemistry-based method. Detection of lower toxin levels provided early warning to enable directed sampling as toxin levels increased. The toxin profile information generated by a chemistry-based method was used to detect potential interferences qualitatively and can be used to assess the impact of changes recommended to monitoring programs. Such changes might include which toxins should be included in an action limit or the toxic equivalence factors used for these toxins. PMID:24830144

  20. Cyanobacterial toxins in Portugal: effects on aquatic animals and risk for human health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, V M

    1999-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria are common in Portuguese freshwaters and the most common toxins are microcystins. The occurrence of microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) has been reported since 1990 and a significant number of water reservoirs that are used for drinking water attain high levels of this toxin. Aquatic animals that live in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems may be killed by microcystins but in many cases the toxicity is sublethal and so the animals can survive long enough to accumulate the toxins and transfer them along the food chain. Among these, edible mollusks, fish and crayfish are especially important because they are harvested and sold for human consumption. Mussels that live in estuarine waters and rivers where toxic blooms occur may accumulate toxins without many significant acute toxic effects. In this study data are presented in order to understand the dynamics of the accumulation and depuration of MCYST-LR in mussels. The toxin is readily accumulated and persists in the shellfish for several days after contact. In the crayfish the toxin is accumulated mainly in the gut but is also cleared very slowly. In carps, although the levels of the toxins found in naturally caught specimens were not very high, some toxin was found in the muscle and not only in the viscera. This raises the problem of the toxin accumulation by fish and possible transfer through the food chain. The data gathered from these experiments and from naturally caught specimens are analyzed in terms of risk for human consumption. The occurrence of microcystins in tap water and the incidence of toxic cyanobacteria in fresh water beaches in Portugal are reported. The Portuguese National Monitoring Program of cyanobacteria is mentioned and its implications are discussed. PMID:10347780

  1. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

  2. Potential Health Risks Associated to ICSI: Insights from Animal Models and Strategies for a Safe Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Calabuig, María Jesús; López-Cardona, Angela Patricia; Fernández-González, Raúl; Ramos-Ibeas, Priscila; Fonseca Balvís, Noelia; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Bermejo-Álvarez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Artificial reproductive techniques are currently responsible for 1.7–4% of the births in developed countries and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most commonly used, accounting for 70–80% of the cycles performed. Despite being an invaluable tool for infertile couples, the technique bypasses several biological barriers that naturally select the gametes to achieve an optimal embryonic and fetal development. In this perspective, ICSI has been associated with an increased risk for diverse health problems, ranging from premature births and diverse metabolic disorders in the offspring to more severe complications such as abortions, congenital malformations, and imprinting disorders. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of the technique per se on these adverse outcomes and highlight the importance of several experiments using mammalian models to truthfully test these implications and to uncover the molecular base that origins these health problems. We also dissect the specific hazards associated to ICSI and describe some strategies that have been developed to mimic the gamete selection occurring in natural conception in order to improve the safety of the procedure. PMID:25478554

  3. Decision Making for Animal Health and Welfare: Integrating Risk-Benefit Analysis with Prospect Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers’ choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers’ assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers’ management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

  4. Diagnostic performance of body mass index using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standards for body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Lull; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Kyung Mi; Noh, Hye Mi; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-02-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and health risks differ between Asian and European populations. BMI is commonly used to diagnose obesity; however, its accuracy in detecting adiposity in Koreans is unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the accuracy of BMI in determining BF%-defined obesity in 6,017 subjects (age 20-69 yr, 43.6% men) from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We assessed the diagnostic performance of BMI using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standard for BF%-defined obesity by sex and age and identified the optimal BMI cut-off for BF%-defined obesity using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. BMI-defined obesity (?25 kg/m(2)) was observed in 38.7% of men and 28.1% of women, with a high specificity (89%, men; 84%, women) but poor sensitivity (56%, men; 72% women) for BF%-defined obesity (25.2%, men; 31.1%, women). The optimal BMI cut-off (24.2 kg/m(2)) had 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity. BMI demonstrated limited diagnostic accuracy for adiposity in Korea. There was a -1.3 kg/m(2) difference in optimal BMI cut-offs between Korea and America, smaller than the 5-unit difference between the Western Pacific Regional Office and global World Health Organization obesity criteria. PMID:25653487

  5. A macro-ergonomic work system analysis of the diagnostic testing process in an outpatient health care facility for process improvement and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Hallock, M L; Alper, S J; Karsh, B

    The diagnosis of illness is important for quality patient care and patient safety and is greatly aided by diagnostic testing. For diagnostic tests, such as pathology and radiology, to positively impact patient care, the tests must be processed and the physician and patient must be notified of the results in a timely fashion. There are many steps in the diagnostic testing process, from ordering to result dissemination, where the process can break down and therefore delay patient care and reduce patient safety. This study was carried out to examine the diagnostic testing process (i.e. from ordering to result notification) and used a macro-ergonomic work system analysis to uncover system design flaws that contributed to delayed physician and patient notification of results. The study was carried out in a large urban outpatient health-care facility made up of 30 outpatient clinics. Results indicated a number of variances that contributed to delays, the majority of which occurred across the boundaries of different systems and were related to poor or absent feedback structures. Recommendations for improvements are discussed. PMID:16723328

  6. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    next class #12;Traditional Cel Animation · Film runs at 24 frames per second (fps) ­ That's 1440 stand - Transfer onto film by taking a photograph of the stack #12;Principles of Traditional AnimationAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  7. An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

    2014-07-16

    Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread. PMID:24629777

  8. Antibiotic resistance in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary D Barton; Rachael Pratt; Wendy S Hart

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal

  9. Integrating databases for research on health and performance in small animals and horses in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In a world of limited resources, using existing databases in research is a potentially cost-effective way to increase knowledge, given that correct and meaningful results are gained. Nordic examples of the use of secondary small animal and equine databases include studies based on data from tumour registries, breeding registries, young horse quality contest results, competition data, insurance databases, clinic data, prescription data and hunting ability tests. In spite of this extensive use of secondary databases, integration between databases is less common. The aim of this presentation is to briefly review key papers that exemplify different ways of utilizing data from multiple sources, to highlight the benefits and limitations of the approaches, to discuss key issues/challenges that must be addressed when integrating data and to suggest future directions. Data from pedigree databases have been individually merged with competition data and young horse quality contest data, and true integration has also been done with canine insurance data and with equine clinical data. Data have also been merged on postal code level; i.e. insurance data were merged to a digitized map of Sweden and additional meteorological information added. In addition to all the data quality and validity issues inherent in the use of a single database, additional obstacles arise when combining information from several databases. Loss of individuals due to incorrect or mismatched identifying information can be considerable. If there are any possible biases affecting whether or not individuals can be properly linked, misinformation may result in a further reduction in power. Issues of confidentiality may be more difficult to address across multiple databases. For example, human identity information must be protected, but may be required to ensure valid merging of data. There is a great potential to better address complex issues of health and disease in companion animals and horses by integrating information across existing databases. The challenges outlined in this article should not preclude the ongoing pursuit of this approach. PMID:21999438

  10. Adjusting Our Lens: Can Developmental Differences in Diagnostic Reasoning Be Harnessed to Improve Health Professional and Trainee Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Ilgen, Jonathan S.; Bowen, Judith L.; Yarris, Lalena M.; Fu, Rongwei; Lowe, Robert A.; Eva, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Research in cognition has yielded considerable understanding of the diagnostic reasoning process and its evolution during clinical training. This study sought to determine whether or not this literature could be used to improve the assessment of trainees’ diagnostic skill by manipulating testing conditions that encourage different modes of reasoning. Methods The authors developed an online, vignette-based instrument with two sets of testing instructions. The “first impression” condition encouraged non-analytic responses while the “directed search” condition prompted structured analytic responses. Subjects encountered six cases under the first impression condition, then six cases under the directed search condition. Each condition had three straightforward (simple), and three ambiguous (complex) cases. Subjects were stratified by clinical experience: novice (third and fourth year medical students), intermediate (post graduate year [PGY] 1 and 2 residents), and experienced (PGY 3 residents and faculty). Two investigators scored the exams independently. Mean diagnostic accuracies were calculated for each group. Differences in diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the examination as a function of the predictor variables were assessed. Results The exam was completed by 115 subjects. Diagnostic accuracy was significantly associated with the independent variables of case complexity, clinical experience, and testing condition. Overall, mean diagnostic accuracy and the extent to which the test consistently discriminated between subjects (i.e., yielded reliable scores) was higher when participants were given directed search instructions than when they were given first impression instructions. In addition, the pattern of reliability was found to depend on experience: simple cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between novices, complex cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between intermediate residents, and neither type of case discriminated well between experienced practitioners. Conclusions These results yield concrete guidance regarding test construction for the purpose of diagnostic skill assessment. The instruction strategy and complexity of cases selected should depend on the experience level and breadth of experience of the subjects one is attempting to assess. PMID:21999563

  11. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  12. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  13. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  14. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  15. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  16. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  17. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  18. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  19. Animal Cell Mitosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

  20. SYNOPSIS OF FUNGI LISTED AS REGULATED PLANT PESTS BY THE USDA ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE: NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE, DISEASE, PLANT HOSTS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To combat the entry of exotic fungal pathogens, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture has compiled a list of Regulated Plant Pests of concern to the United States, including more than 50 species of fungi that might cause serious economic or envi...