Sample records for animal health diagnostic

  1. Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    applications. Babesia caballi and Theileria equi (formerly Babesia equi)are considered foreign animal disease for Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia and Other Similar Agents at the Animal Health Diagnostic Center and our, Ehrlichia, Babesia, Bartonella, and Rickettsia Equine Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the new name

  2. DL-940 1/08 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    DL-940 1/08 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 607-253-3900 Web: diagcenter foetus culture (Vibrio & Trich) for testing by the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC). Equipment of protective guard 3. Apply negative pressure with the bulb while scraping the glans and shaft to draw

  3. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in dogs Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi. Spirochetes are transmitted to dogs by infected ticks. Similar to humans, dogs are incidental, dead-end hosts for B

  4. DL-1020 1/2011 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    DL-1020 1/2011 Animal Health Diagnostic Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University. Aerobic culture and anaerobic culture each require separate bottles with different media. If the animal is currently being treated with antibiotics, draw blood immediately prior to next administration of antibiotic

  5. DL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    and older * Please see either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDCDL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

  6. DL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDC website at diagcenterDL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

  7. Animal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853 20 Export Testing Tips The Animal Health Diagnostic with you to provide efficient export testing services. Our Laboratory performs most of the tests routinely

  8. An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin A. Gajadhar; Lorry B. Forbes

    2002-01-01

    A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.

  9. Animal health pharmaceutical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Carnevale; Thomas R. Shryock

    2006-01-01

    The animal health pharmaceutical industry has proactively reported on the volumes of member company antimicrobial active ingredients sold in the U.S. At the individual company level, reporting of finished product distribution data to the FDA is a regulatory requirement, with applications to surveillance and pharmacovigilance. An accounting of product manufactured is done for purposes of good business practices, as well

  10. World Organisation for Animal Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1924 by a coalition of 28 countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), now composed of 167 member countries, facilitates global awareness of regional animal diseases, and also works to curtail the spread of diseases. The OIE website contains a range of information about animal health issues in three main sections: World Animal Health Situation, Official Animal Health Status, and Animal Diseases Data. The site also offers editorials and press releases, as well as information about a variety of OIE publications. In addition, site visitors will find a calendar of international meetings, job postings (when available), a solid collection of related links; and information about health standards for terrestrial and aquatic animals, OIE Reference Laboratories and Working Groups, internships, and more. This website is available in French, Spanish, and English.

  11. Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services Swine Enteric Coronavirus Disease on the USDA Web site at www.aphis.usda.gov/animal-health/secd. The Web site provides additional SECD TESTED NURSERY WEAN TO FINISH FARROW TO FINISH FINISHER SOW/BREEDING UNKNOWN Jun 2014 17 / 9 29 / 15 14

  12. Health & National Animal Identification System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. McClanahan

    The health of cattle is most vulnerable during the period after arrival in a new environment. It is at this time that a combination of animal husbandry and animal science bring the greatest success. The Oklahoma fact sheet on stocker cattle referenced in this lesson and Lesson 3 of the \\

  13. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  14. Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal

    E-print Network

    ://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/, then Click on Animal Health Literacy Click on Animal Health Literacy Campaign Aquaculture-specific references: A Quick Reference Guide to Approved Drugs for Use in Aquaculture Aquaculture and Aquaculture

  15. Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has isolated Salmonella Group C2 from cultures submitted from 4 different horse farms in either to most antibiotics. A Salmonella newport strain (Group C2) was recently associated with the closing

  16. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  17. Animal health and food safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M Johnston

    2000-01-01

    Foods of animal origin have an important role in a balanced diet and must be safe for human consumption. Equally important is the need for the food to be perceived as safe by the consumer. Safe food of animal origin must be free from animal pathogens that infect man and from contamination by residues. While intensive farming practices have been

  18. Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rönmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components. PMID:25282018

  19. Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    .vet.cornell.edu Fax: 607-253-3943 E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu AHDC FACT SHEET DL-931 11/07 Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) RT-PCR Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) is a common viral infection in cats. It generally causes rise to mutants that lead to the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Most cats infected

  20. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Immunohistochemistry Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    -amyloid precursor protein MAC387 CK20 Bovine coronavirus BLA-36 (K9, Feline, Equine) Melan A CK19 Bovine respiratory HepPAR 1 Chlamydia CD 3 (K9, Feline, Equine) Myogenin Canine distemper virus - CDV CD 18 (ß2 integrin) (K9 & Feline) Myoglobin Eastern equine encephalitis - EEE Neurofilament Equine Herpes virus - EHV 1

  1. Serology APPENDIX H Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    (SEROLOGY) page 1 of 1 APPENDIX H (SEROLOGY) 05/11 FCoV (Feline Enteric Coronavirus) Cornell's Feline. The AHDC at Cornell is now offering a feline coronavirus PCR for use on abdominal and pleural effusions

  2. STANFORD UNIVERSITY LABORATORY ANIMAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    3.16.05 STANFORD UNIVERSITY LABORATORY ANIMAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM Tuberculosis Symptom Questionnaire For use by personnel that have previously had a positive PPD skin test. Name (Print told by a health practitioner that your immune system is suppressed or compromised? No Yes Don't Know

  3. USDA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The watchword of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is "protection". The APHIS is primarily considered with improving agricultural productivity and also ensuring the health and care of animals and plants. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Hot Issues" section to learn more about some of the most pressing issues that the APHIS addresses. Here they will find fact sheets and news updates on avian influenza, the pesky light brown apple moth, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moving on, visitors can also browse a list of subject headings that include animal health, biotechnology, plant health, and wildlife damage management. Finally, the site also contains an area where concerned visitors can report a pest infestation or suspected instances of agricultural smuggling.

  4. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  5. [Vaccination of animals and human health].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    1985-02-01

    Prophylactic immunization of animals against obligat and nonobligat pathogenic zoonoses benefit human health in many ways both directly and indirectly. Typical examples of a direct protective effect are the vaccinations of dogs, cats and foxes against rabies as well as the vaccinations against respiratory diseases in cows, horses, dogs and cats to which the most varied species of pathogens of noncompulsory zoonoses contribute. A considerable contribution to the protection of human health is made by the vaccination against salmonellosis and leptospirosis, against vesicular stomatitis, American equine encephalitis and against other zoonoses spread by arthropods, against ecthyma and stomatitis papulosa as well as against brucellosis, anthrax, Q-fever, Newcastle disease and foot-and-mouth disease. The indirect effects of prophylactic vaccination of animals on human health are very complex and still need investigation. An example of this are the vaccinations of animals against human and animal influenza A viruses which can inhibit hybridisation and recombination between human and animal influenza viruses in an ecological system. Occasionally prophylactic vaccinations of animals can do harm to human health. This is invariably a rare incidence in immuno-suppressed persons caused by live vaccines i.e. prophylactic vaccination against Newcastle disease in fowl or against orthopox in animals by the use of the common vaccinia strains, after compulsory vaccination for humans had been cancelled. Prophylactic vaccinations of animals must be constantly followed up and their action on human health must be checked. In the case of positive results prophylactic vaccinations must be carried out selectively and in a wide range. PMID:2986381

  6. Nutrition-based health in animal production.

    PubMed

    Adams, Clifford A

    2006-06-01

    Events such as BSE, foot and mouth disease and avian influenza illustrate the importance of animal health on a global basis. The only practical solution to deal with such problems has usually been mass culling of millions of animals at great effort and expense. Serious consideration needs to be given to nutrition as a practical solution for health maintenance and disease avoidance of animals raised for food. Health or disease derives from a triad of interacting factors; diet-disease agent, diet-host and disease agent-host. Various nutrients and other bioactive feed ingredients, nutricines, directly influence health by inhibiting growth of pathogens or by modulating pathogen virulence. It is possible to transform plant-based feed ingredients to produce vaccines against important diseases and these could be fed directly to animals. Nutrients and nutricines contribute to three major factors important in the diet-host interaction; maintenance of gastrointestinal integrity, support of the immune system and the modulation of oxidative stress. Nutrition-based health is the next challenge in modern animal production and will be important to maintain economic viability and also to satisfy consumer demands in terms of food quality, safety and price. This must be accomplished largely through nutritional strategies making optimum use of both nutrients and nutricines. PMID:19079877

  7. Scripts, animal health and biosecurity: The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Enticott; Frank Vanclay

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are conflated resulting in an overly cognitive and asocial understanding of health behaviour with the potential

  8. CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY ANIMAL RESOURCE CENTER Animal Transfer & Health Verification Form

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    MMPC procedure maintenance: Animal(s) to be returned to breeding colony? Y N MMPC CENTER: HEALTH STATUSCASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY ANIMAL RESOURCE CENTER Animal Transfer & Health Verification Form: This document must be submitted to the Animal Resource Center and approved PRIOR to arranging for the Transfer

  9. Multi-engine Animal Disease Diagnostic Expert System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAN Wen-xue; GUO Guo-qiang; WANG Jing-ren

    2008-01-01

    ?Abstract?The traditional disease diagnostic expertsy stemonly has a single reasoning process to use knowledge,so that its knowledge utilization is inefficient. Its conclusion has low accuracyand without contrast. This paper makes example ofgoat, modelings disease diagnostic knowledge base by the use of object-oriented knowledge representation. According to the training process and diagnostic model, it proposes the ideology of multi-engine ruling based

  10. Effective animal health disease surveillance using a network-enabled approach.

    PubMed

    Kloeze, H; Mukhi, S; Kitching, P; Lees, V W; Alexandersen, S

    2010-12-01

    There are many benefits that derive from real-time knowledge of the health status of the national livestock population. Effective animal disease surveillance is a requirement for countries that trade in live animals and their products in order to comply with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines. Rapid identification of introduced and emerging disease allows rapid response and mitigation of the economic consequences. Connections between animal and human disease caused by a common pathogen can be recognized and control measures implemented, thereby protecting public health and maintaining public confidence in the food supply. Production-limiting diseases can be monitored, and control programmes be evaluated with benefits accruing from decreased economic losses associated with disease as well as reducing the welfare concerns associated with diseased animals. Establishing a surveillance programme across a wide area with diverse ecosystems and political administrations as Canada is a complex challenge. When funding became available from a government programme to enable early detection of a bio-terrorist attack on livestock, the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network (CAHSN) became officially established. An existing web-based information platform that supports intelligence exchange, surveillance and response for public health issues in Canada was adapted to link the network animal health laboratories. A minimum data set was developed that facilitated sharing of results between participating laboratories and jurisdictions as the first step in creating the capacity for national disease trend analysis. In each of the network laboratories, similar quality assurance and bio-containment systems have been funded and supported, and diagnostic staff have been trained and certified on a suite of diagnostic tests for foreign animal diseases. This ensures that national standards are maintained throughout all of the diagnostic laboratories. This paper describes the genesis of CAHSN, its current capability and governance, and potential for future development. PMID:20846188

  11. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  12. Minnesota Board of Animal Health 625 Robert Street North

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    to perform. To help ensure compliance with Minnesota CWD testing requirements, the Board of Animal Health, the Board of Animal Health will pay the laboratory fees for CWD testing under the following conditions: 1 of an animal is submitted to the laboratory for CWD testing. This gross examination fee is needed to cover

  13. Occupational Health and Safety Program Laboratory Animal Resources

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Occupational Health and Safety Program Laboratory Animal Resources Binghamton University State of Allergies to Animals Bloodborne Pathogens Safe and Humane Care and Handling of Animals Safe use of Chemicals in writing) Zoonotic diseases (relevant to the animal species you plan to work with while at Binghamton

  14. Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Yager; Thayne Edwards; Elain Fu; Kristen Helton; Kjell Nelson; Milton R. Tam; Bernhard H. Weigl

    2006-01-01

    The developing world does not have access to many of the best medical diagnostic technologies; they were designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. Microfluidic systems allow miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which could move sophisticated diagnostic tools out of

  15. Stratospheric ozone depletion and animal health.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S J

    1992-08-01

    There is an increasing concern over ozone depletion and its effects on the environment and human health. However, the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) that would result from significant losses of ozone is also potentially harmful to animals. Any increase in disease in domestic species would not only have serious animal welfare implications but may also be economically important. The diseases which are likely to increase if ozone depletion continues include the squamous cell carcinomas of the exposed, non-pigmented areas of cats, cattle, sheep and horses. Uberreiter's syndrome in dogs is also associated with exposure to UV-B and may be expected to increase, as may the severity of conditions such as infectious keratoconjunctivitis (New Forest eye) in cattle. Aquaculture systems in which fish often have little or no protection by shading may also be at risk. Cataracts and skin lesions have been associated with the exposure of farmed fish to ultraviolet radiation and have resulted in significant losses. PMID:1529513

  16. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

  17. ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10

    E-print Network

    ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10 AERO Aerospace Science Laboratory C11 AGAD Agricultural Administration Building G8 AHF Animal Holding Facility G10 AQUA Boilermaker Aquatic Center D6 AR Armory G6 ARMS Armstrong (Neil) Hall of Engineering G5 ASTL

  18. A diagnostic approach to understanding entrepreneurship in health care.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Karl J; Rivers, Patrick A; Schneller, Eugene S

    2006-01-01

    Health care is quite different from other industries because of its organizational structure, service delivery, and financing of health services. Balancing costs, quality, and access presents unique challenges for each stakeholder group committed to promoting the health and healing of its citizens. Using the diagnostic approach to health care entrepreneurship, we created a framework from research in the field to understand the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors most relevant to successful entrepreneurship. PMID:16583851

  19. Implication of clinical pathology in assessment of animal health and in animal production and meat inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. M. Toussaint; A. M. van Ederen; E. Gruys

    1995-01-01

    Clinical, zootechnical and industrial developments of the last decades have led to new ideas on monitoring systems for animal production and meat inspection. Quality assessment systems, integrated monitoring, risk assessment concerning consumer's health and monitoring for infectious animal diseases, are more relevant today than pathomorphological control of individual subjects. Published papers on investigations to assess slaughtered animals by blood variables

  20. Decomposing health: tolerance and resistance to parasites in animals

    E-print Network

    Graham, Andrea L.

    , but that the rather profound logical con- sequences of this decoupling for biomedicine and animal evolutionary ecologyReview Decomposing health: tolerance and resistance to parasites in animals Lars Ra°berg1,*, Andrea L. Graham2 and Andrew F. Read3,4 1 Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building

  1. Human health impact from antimicrobial use in food animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Tollefson; Beth E. Karp

    2004-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has adverse human health consequences. The use of antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant pathogens and resistance genes that may be transferred to humans through the consumption or handling of foods of animal origin. Recent studies have demonstrated that antimicrobial-resistance among foodborne bacteria may cause excess cases

  2. Desirable characteristics of animal products from a human health perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John MacRae; Leona O'Reilly; Peter Morgan

    2005-01-01

    Animal products, mainly meat and milk, contribute a significant proportion to the food intake of Western societies, providing good sources of essential nutrients for health. Over the past three decades, animal fat has been a hot discussion topic in terms of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, evidence now exists for the potential health benefits of certain

  3. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials. PMID:26119294

  4. [Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

  5. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  6. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  7. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  8. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  9. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal...

  10. The perspective of USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Emergency Management and Diagnostics in preparing and responding to Foreign Animal Diseases - plans, strategies, and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Díez, J R; Styles, D K

    2013-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) is charged with monitoring, controlling, and responding to select reportable diseases and all foreign animal diseases. Emergency Management and Diagnostics (EM&D) oversees Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) preparedness and response. In order to effectively prepare for and respond to FADs, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease, VS develops plans, strategies, and policies to effectively combat an intrusion. USDA APHIS VS has made significant gains in preparedness and response planning. However, much remains to be done especially in surveillance, diagnostic tools, and vaccines. There are significant needs for novel medical technologies to improve diagnostic capabilities and offer additional approaches for FAD response. PMID:23689880

  11. Page 1 of 5 Alison Van Eenennaam, UC Davis Applications of Animal Biotechnology in Animal Health, January 2009

    E-print Network

    Delany, Mary E.

    Page 1 of 5 Alison Van Eenennaam, UC Davis Applications of Animal Biotechnology in Animal Health, January 2009 POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING Written by Bill Pohlmeier treatments Animal biotechnology offers a number of approaches to fight disease in animals. Firstly, through

  12. Robust ground-based Diagnostics, Prognostics and Health Management information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Karchnak; Robert L. Shipman

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, (1998, 1999), Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F-100 engine seeded fault testing was conducted at Pratt & Whitney, Florida, in support of Diagnostics, Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system design. Multiple sensor approaches were invited to monitor the seeded fault testing, including an Independent Research and Development (IR&D) system termed the robust laser interferometer (RLI). The \\

  13. Transgenic plants for animal health: plant-made vaccine antigens for animal infectious disease control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Joensuu; V. Niklander-Teeri; J. E. Brandle

    2008-01-01

    A variety of plant species have been genetically modified to accumulate vaccine antigens for human and animal health and the\\u000a first vaccine candidates are approaching the market. The regulatory burden for animal vaccines is less than that for human\\u000a use and this has attracted the attention of researchers and companies, and investment in plant-made vaccines for animal infectious\\u000a disease control

  14. 76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee. DATES: The meeting will be held July 22, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight time)....

  15. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral characterization, and for streamlining the process to update poultry vaccines for avian influenza. PMID:20521664

  16. What Price Animal Health - And Whose Problem is it Anyway?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Malcolm

    The existence of diseases of agricultural animals impose costs on communities, either as costs of the disease or as costs of avoiding the costs of the disease. In this paper, the focus is on economic ways of thinking about the health of agricultural animals. In part one, the essence of economic approaches to analysis of problems is outlined. Then in

  17. Health aspects of recycling animal wastes by feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Fontenot; K. E. Jr. Webb

    1975-01-01

    Approximately 1.6 billion tons of animal wastes are produced annually in the US. Since a large portion of the wastes is from animals managed under intensive systems, the wastes must be handled in a manner which will cause minimum risk to human health and comfort. The wastes possess substantial nutritional value. Satisfactory performance was obtained when these were fed to

  18. Managing animal health from an aquaculture perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the production of aquatic animals for food. The aquaculture industry is a rapidly expanding segment of U. S. agriculture and NOAA estimated the industry was worth $1.2 billion in 2011. Disease related losses in aquaculture either by decreased performance and/or mortality is estimate...

  19. Saliva diagnostics: utilizing oral fluids to determine health status.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Christopher A; Schafer, Jason J; Yakob, Maha; Lima, Patricia; Camargo, Paulo; Wong, David T W

    2014-01-01

    Imagine a time where your health status could be available to you without the pain, discomfort and inconvenience of a physical examination. Distant vision of an inconceivable future or impending reality with potentially immeasurable impact? Recent advancements in the field of molecular diagnostics indicate this is not only possible, but closer than we think. Novel discoveries and substantial advancements have revealed that saliva may contain real-time information describing our overall physiological condition. Researchers are now reporting that, like blood and tissue biopsies, oral fluids could be a source of biochemical data capable of detecting certain diseases. What is even more intriguing is that this phenomenon not only applies to local disorders like oral cancer and Sjögren's syndrome, but distant pathologies like autoimmune, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as viral/bacterial infections and even some cancers. These revelations have provided a foundation for the burgeoning field of salivary diagnostics and hence spurred the onset of investigations poised at deciphering the salivary milieu. This paper overviews salivary diagnostics from biomarker development to the multitude of techniques utilized in identifying saliva-based molecular indicators of disease. In doing so, we present oral fluids as an easily accessible noninvasive alternative to traditional diagnostic avenues and not just an essential component of the digestive process. Determining saliva as a credible means of evaluating health status represents a considerable leap forward in health care, one that could lead to enormous translational advantages and significant clinical opportunities. PMID:24862597

  20. Mental Health Promotion with Animated Characters: Exploring Issues and Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Lisetti; Eric Wagner

    In this article, we explore the possibility of using animated characters as personal social companions for supporting interventions for promoting health behaviors. We explore how supportive feedback could be provided to users of such artificial companion systems, by coupling both personalized intervention content from a mental health perspective with personalized affective social agents such as graphical facial avatars or Embodied

  1. Oral diagnostics: an integral component to geriatric health care.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Choudhary, Ananda; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur; Alok, Abhijeet

    2013-12-01

    Aging is inevitable, every day we live we age. The mouth is referred to as a mirror of overall health, reinforcing that oral health is an integral part of general health. Oral health reflects overall well being for the elderly population. Compromised oral health may be a risk factor for systemic diseases commonly occurring in age. Diagnosis and proper treatment is essential for healthy aging. Timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and regular follow-up of both oral and systemic diseases are a prerequisite for active aging. Oral diagnostics is a revolutionary development with high potential to replace other investigative modalities. Changing demographics, including the increase in life expectancy and the growing numbers of elderly, has focused attention on the need for dental research activities to be expanded for geriatric dentistry. This paper is aimed to shed light on the growing elderly population and their ailments. It also aims to create awareness among health care providers about oral diagnostics and their application in geriatrics. PMID:23617577

  2. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations. PMID:17097725

  3. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health (SACAH or the Committee...control, or eradicate animal diseases. The Committee...economies, livestock disease management and traceability strategies, prioritizing animal health imperatives,...

  4. DL-945 1/09 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Recommendations for Horse Handlers Related to Contagious Equine Metritis or Other Reproductive System Infections possible and discard between each horse. This includes: exam gloves, rectal gloves, vaginal speculums

  5. DL-950 4/09 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    . Fecal Campylobacter organisms survive well in Amies medium. This medium is appropriate for Fungal medium for fecal Campylobacter isolation. Fresh UNFROZEN fecal samples should be submitted overnight

  6. Immunoglobulin G, Camelid -Chem Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    (New World) - Alpacas, Llamas Results Format Quantitative Sensitivity 81% (published) The following of assays for determination of passive transfer status in neonatal llamas and alpacas. JAVMA, Vol 216, No. 4

  7. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    signs such as depression, dysphagia, head tilt and encephalitis were reported in chronic cases 2 in response to tick feeding and again after infection of a warm-blooded host, such as dogs, horses, or humans

  8. Pneumovirus N RT-qPCR Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    . Specificity Product Identified Canine pneumovirus, feline pneumovirus, and murine pneumovirus Contact Phone, kennel cough, feline acute respiratory disease Validation Validation documentation approved No Equine No Ferret No Fish No Feline Yes Mammal Yes Ovine No Porcine No Reptile No Other Yes Primate

  9. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Cockburn; Gianfranco Brambilla; Maria-Luisa Fernández; Davide Arcella; Luisa R. Bordajandi; Bruce Cottrill; Carlos van Peteghem; Jean-Lou Dorne

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have

  10. Toward One Health: are public health stakeholders aware of the field of animal health?

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Dupuy, Céline; Vial, Flavie; Reynolds, Tera L.; Akkina, Judy E.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS). Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time) and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed. PMID:24765252

  11. The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Peeler; A. G. Murray; A. Thebault; E. Brun; A. Giovaninni; M. A. Thrush

    2007-01-01

    Risk analysis has only been regularly used in the management of aquatic animal health in recent years. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) stimulated the application of risk analysis to investigate disease risks associated with international trade (import risk analysis—IRA). A majority (9 of 17) of the risk analyses reviewed were IRA. The other major

  12. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  13. Biotechnology, animal health and animal welfare within the framework of European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    De Simone, F I; Serratosa, J

    2005-04-01

    Experimental and farm animals are used in biomedical research and in biotechnology studies that are designed to improve agricultural productivity. European legislation governing such research, which is modelled on existing National Laws regarding animal health and welfare, is agreed after several preliminary sessions in which contributions and opinions from large sections of European society are sought. Special attention is paid to opinions expressed by ethical and animal rights associations, which emphasise that animals should be considered as 'sentient beings' and not mere 'goods' or 'property'. A statement to this effect is included in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which was signed in Rome in 2004 by the 25 European Union member states. PMID:16110879

  14. [Foods of animal origin and public health (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hermus, R J; Kroes, R

    1981-03-01

    Modern society adopts a highly ambiguous attitude towards foods of animal origin in human nutrition. Animal protein is of great biological value. However, the wealthy part of the world already consumes more than sufficient protein, which renders this value superfluous. On the other hand, a rich diet including a large share of animal products is suspect from the point of view of cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and nephrolithiasis. The role of fat, protein, cholesterol, salt, calcium and a number of minor components is discussed. It is concluded that as far as fats are concerned, reduction is indicated. There is a large individual variability in response to salt and cholesterol as well as interactions with other components of the diet. A role of animal protein in affecting calcium metabolism is plausible, though not definitely established. Public health hazards due to contaminants are probably small compared with those caused by the major components. PMID:7222003

  15. Application of DIVA vaccines and their companion diagnostic tests to foreign animal disease eradication.

    PubMed

    Pasick, John

    2004-12-01

    The risk of foreign animal disease introduction continues to exist despite Canada's strict regulations concerning the importation of animals and animal products. Given the rapidity with which these diseases can spread, especially in areas with dense livestock populations, eradication efforts which rely solely on quarantine and stamping-out measures can present a formidable undertaking. This, combined with growing economic and ethical considerations, has led to renewed interest in the use of vaccination as a tool in controlling foreign animal disease outbreaks. Vaccination has effects at the individual and population levels. Efficacious vaccines reduce or prevent clinical signs without necessarily preventing virus replication. They may also increase the dose of virus needed to establish an infection and/or reduce the level and duration of virus shedding following infection. Vaccine effectiveness within a population is a function of its ability to reduce virus transmission. Transmission is best described by the reproductive ratio, R, which is defined as the average number of new infections caused by one infectious individual. By helping to reduce the R-value below 1, vaccination can be an effective adjunct in abbreviating an outbreak. Nevertheless, vaccination can also complicate serological surveillance activities that follow eradication, if the antibody response induced by vaccination is indistinguishable from that which follows infection. This disadvantage can be overcome by the use of DIVA vaccines and their companion diagnostic tests. The term DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated individuals) was coined in 1999 by J. T. van Oirschot of the Central Veterinary Institute, in The Netherlands. It is now generally used as an acronym for 'differentiating infected from vaccinated animals'. The term was originally applied to the use of marker vaccines, which are based on deletion mutants of wild-type microbes, in conjunction with a differentiating diagnostic test. The DIVA strategy has been extended to include subunit and killed whole-virus vaccines. This system makes possible the mass vaccination of a susceptible animal population without compromising the serological identification of convalescent individuals. The DIVA approach has been applied successfully to pseudorabies and avian influenza eradication, and has been proposed for use in foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever eradication campaigns. This paper will survey current vaccine technology, the host immune response, and companion diagnostic tests that are available for pseudorabies, foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza. PMID:15984335

  16. Animal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Animal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority California Code in laboratory animal facilities or have substantial animal contact. The National Institute of Health (NIH) Public Health Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (September 1986) and 9 Code of Federal

  17. [Eco-pathologies: effect on public health and animal health].

    PubMed

    Pérez Pérez, F

    2001-01-01

    This study emphasizes on pathologies which rates are increasing due to human activities that alter the environment such as industries, deforestación, etc.... This ecopathologies are different from those caused by occasional natural agents. On the contrary, the agents responsible for these pathologies include gases such as CO2, NO and SO, released to the atmosphere, metals such as mercury, cupper, plumb, cadmium and chrome, contaminating soil and water, and pathogens of protein nature, i.e. prions, extended through the utilisation of feed of animal origin in intensive farming. PMID:11455755

  18. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  19. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    PubMed

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides a sound working platform not only for dealing with immediate questions when new or emerging disease situations arise, but also for more long-term activities, such as policy development, contingency planning and trade negotiations. Animal health issues, which emerged during my eight years as a CVO in Denmark from 1999 to 2007, will be used as examples, including BSE, FMD, HPAI and Trichinella testing. Emphasis will be placed on how science-based surveillance methodology and tools were developed, applied and documented. PMID:22305878

  20. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  1. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  2. Sustaining animal health and food safety in European organic livestock farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Vaarst; Susanne Padel; Malla Hovi; David Younie; Albert Sundrum

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, organic livestock production has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade, which has produced many challenges for the animal food production system. Whilst emphasising the importance of a systems approach to animal health and welfare protection, organic livestock production standards place considerable restrictions on the use of many animal health inputs that are routinely used in conventional

  3. United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    E-print Network

    United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine April 2010 1 Lacey Act Primer United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine #12;United States Department of Agriculture Animal

  4. Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although oftenModeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness Randall S. Singer overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals

  5. June 14, 2013Animal Health Diagnostic Center Department of Population Medicine & Diagnostic Sciences

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Veterinary Support Services (VSS) Receiving Jeffrey Talcott Medical Records Linda Homer Regulatory Affairs Dr. Patrick McDonough (Acting Director) Parasitology Vacant Infectious Disease Research Program Dr

  6. Who Monitors the Use of Animals in United States Department of Agriculture -Animal and Plant Health

    E-print Network

    , veterinary medical care for animals Guide also defines how animal care and use protocols must be reviewed or anesthetic events) REPLACE- Replace animals with other models or techniques e.g.. Screening pharmaceutical

  7. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for...the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

  8. The Colorado State University (CSU) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (VDL) provides diagnostic services to private veterinary practitioners; animal owners; animal interests; local, state and national governmental

    E-print Network

    , investigation, prevention and through education of professional veterinary medical, graduate and post to work at the Veterinary Diagnostic. The primary responsibility of this position will be to assist will also be responsible in assisting the additional Laboratory Tech positions in continuity of the quality

  9. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  10. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Kessler; T. Bedirhan Üstün

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a discussion of the methodological research on which the development of the instrument was based. The WMH-CIDI includes a screening module and 40 sections that focus on diagnoses (22 sections), functioning (four sections), treatment

  11. Food Animal Health and Food Safety The School of Veterinary Medicine has advanced food animal health and food safety since initiating the first

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    each year while reducing mastitis outbreaks in dairy cows. National recognition­Foodborne illnesses, producers, university researchers and others to prevent food-borne illnesses at all points in the foodFood Animal Health and Food Safety The School of Veterinary Medicine has advanced food animal

  12. Estimating Diagnostic Test Accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Accounting for the Complexities of Population Structure in Food Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hartnack, Sonja; Nathues, Christina; Nathues, Heiko; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Lewis, Fraser Iain

    2014-01-01

    For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test (“gold standard”) is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect), robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI) and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9) and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3), respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8). For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals. PMID:24906140

  13. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level. PMID:22435182

  14. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  15. COMMUNITY-BASED ANIMAL HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEMS: IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF VETERINARY SERVICE DELIVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Leyland; Andy Catley

    This paper aims to give a brief introduction to community-based animal health workers (CAHW). It will refer the reader to sources of more detailed information not only on the modalities of establishing quality community-based animal health worker delivery systems but also on those CAHW issues that veterinary policy makers should appreciate in order to make rational decisions on improving the

  16. Seropositivity to Toxoplasma infection in sheep samples submitted to Animal and Plant Health Agency laboratories between 2005 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J P; Smith, R P

    2015-05-30

    Ovine serum samples submitted to Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) (formerly the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency) - Weybridge regional laboratories in England and Wales for diagnostic and monitoring purposes between 2005 and 2012 were investigated for possible spatial and temporal variations in seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Of the 4354 samples tested by latex agglutination, 2361 (54.2 per cent) were seropositive. No correlation between seropositivity and climatic conditions was identified by mixed-effects modelling using meteorological data summaries. The proportion of seropositive samples collected during November was found to be significantly lower than those collected during other months and samples from the North West England and North Wales Regions had significantly lower odds of being positive. Spatial cluster analysis identified a significantly higher proportion of seropositive animals in East Anglia and the South, East and Midlands of England. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis detected a single significant cluster of seropositive animals dating from January 2006 to January 2011, which covered a large proportion of the farm locations. As well as confirming high overall levels of infection within the national flock, these findings also indicate possible temporal and regional variations in exposure of sheep to T. gondii. PMID:25888604

  17. Public health response to a rabid dog in an animal shelter --- North Dakota and Minnesota, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    On March 31, 2010, the North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) was notified by a local public health department that a stray dog found in rural Minnesota and housed during March 9-20 in a North Dakota animal shelter had been found to have rabies. NDDoH, along with the local public health department, the North Dakota Board of Animal Health (BOAH), the Minnesota Board of Animal Health, and the Minnesota Department of Health, immediately began an investigation to identify persons requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and to prevent further rabies transmission. This report summarizes the public health investigation, which used animal shelter records and public notification to identify possible human and animal contacts of the rabid dog. Among 32 persons who might have been exposed to the rabid dog at the shelter, 21 persons, including nine shelter employees and one volunteer, received PEP. In accordance with 2009 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control guidance, the 25 dogs in the shelter with the rabid dog were euthanized. Among 25 other dogs without an up-to-date rabies vaccination that were adopted or claimed from the shelter and might have been exposed, 11 were euthanized, 13 were isolated for 6 months in their owners' homes, and one was unintentionally killed. No additional cases of rabies in dogs or humans had been identified as of December 2010. This event supports consideration of preexposure vaccination of animal shelter employees and highlights the continued importance of routine rabies vaccination of domestic animals. PMID:21209608

  18. USGS-National Wildlife Health Center Diagnostic Case Submission Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Federal, State, or Tribal agency and the NWHC point of contact. The general public, rehabilitation in rehabilitation. Exceptions may include: o Federally protected species o Animals that died within 72 hours of admission and no drug therapies were administered (supportive care only) o An unusual increase in morbidity

  19. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation...Animal Studies; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration...serve as an environmental health resource to the public and regulatory and health agencies...

  20. Animal Health and Management and Their Impact on Economic Efficiency1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Young; V. R. Eidman; J. K. Reneau

    1985-01-01

    Relationships between animal health and economic efficiency were examined using data from genetic investigations and management studies. Genetic investiga- tions have indicated that cows bred for high production do require more health care, but that increased costs for health care negate only a small fraction of the greater returns from cows that are genet- ically superior for yield traits. These

  1. Laser based diagnostics - from cultural heritage to human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    2008-09-01

    An overview of applied laser-based diagnostics as pursued at the Division of Atomic Physics, Lund University, is given. The fields of application range from environmental monitoring including cultural heritage assessment, to biomedical applications. General aspects of laser-based methods are non-intrusiveness, high spectral- and spatial resolution, and data production in real-time. Different applications are frequently generically very similar irrespective of the particular context, which, however, decides the spatial and temporal scales as well as the size of the optics employed. Thus, volcanic plume mapping by lidar, and optical mammography are two manifestations of the same principle, as is fluorescence imaging of a human bronchus by an endoscope, and the scanning of a cathedral using a fluorescence lidar system. Recent applications include remote laser-induced break-down spectroscopy (LIBS) and gas monitoring in scattering media (GASMAS). In particular, a powerful method for diagnostics of human sinus cavities was developed, where free oxygen and water molecules are monitored simultaneously.

  2. [Update - health risks induced by ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Knüsli, Claudio; Walter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate. PMID:24297861

  3. Synergies Between Human and Animal Health Syndromic Surveillance: Triple-S Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Céline; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Bronner, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Fouillet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study, based on the Triple-S project outputs, was to present the existing synergies between human and animal health syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems in Europe and a proposal to enhance this kind of collaboration. Introduction The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe, www.syndromicsurveillance.eu), co-financed by the European Commission and involving twenty four organizations from fourteen countries was launched in September 2010 with the following objectives 1) performing an inventory of existing or planned SyS systems in Europe both in animal and public health, 2) building a network of experts involved in SyS 3) producing guidelines to implement SyS systems, 4) developing synergies between human and animal health SyS systems. The project is based on a cooperation between human and animal health experts, as supported by the One Health initiative [1]. Methods A network of European experts involved in SyS was identified through the Triple-S inventory of SyS systems. A meeting of human health experts was organized back to back with a similar meeting with animal health experts in Paris, September 12–14, 2011. A joint session human/animal health allowed experts to discuss the interest of synergies between both sides. The objectives were to 1) encourage experience and knowledge transfer, 2) discuss what and how information should be shared between both sides to improve respective performances. Results The results of the inventory of veterinary SyS systems showed that 40% of identified systems already shared or had planned to share information with human health sector. For these systems the collaboration between human and animal health sectors consisted in meetings on a regular basis to discuss the surveillance results. Discussions during the Triple-S meeting highlighted two reasons for enhancing synergies between both sides. First human health and animal health epidemiologists face common statistical and epidemiological issues when dealing with SyS, i.e. use of data collected for other purpose than surveillance; standardization of clinical observations; syndrome definition; anomaly detection; interpretation of unspecific signals; response to alerts. Both sides have thus interest in sharing their experiences and knowledge to improve their respective systems. Second, systems on both sides have similar objectives and target health events potentially threatening both animal and human populations: zoonoses, extreme weather events, environmental / food contamination, bioterrorist attack... For those events, animal population can play the role of sentinel for human population. Regular information flow between human and animal SyS could thus enhance the timeliness and sensitivity of SyS systems for detecting unexpected health events. Moreover, sharing information could help animal and human health experts to interpret and confirm unspecific signals, and confirm the impact of common health threats. All participants of the meeting agreed on the idea to routinely share outputs of the systems but were sceptical about sharing raw data to perform global analysis. Conclusions Each aspect of the Triple-S project includes both human and animal health and will thus contribute to build natural collaboration between both sides. Such a project has demonstrated that scientific community is more and more willing to collaborate beyond the boundaries of these two health fields. Synergies between human and animal health seem as necessary for syndromic surveillance as it is for traditional surveillance, if not more. They seem especially important for the detection of emerging zoonotic threats but not only. Sharing surveillance outputs from both sides would be the first step of collaboration but deeper synergy, e.g. sharing data and analyse them globally, could also be considered. Triple-S guidelines for implementation of SyS systems in Europe will take into account and promote synergies between human and animal health.

  4. Application of Microbial Genomics to Improve Aquatic Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis have greatly increased our understanding of microorganism gene content, pathogenesis, taxonomy, and evolution. Currently, there are over three hundred completed, publicly-available microbial genomes. To date, no genome of an aquatic animal pathogen...

  5. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria—Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood—Revised

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen L. Egger; Robert N. Emde

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in

  6. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

  7. PROJECT DIAGNOSTICS ASSESSING THE CONDITIONS OF PROJECTS AND IDENTIFYING POOR HEALTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mian; J. Tsoukas

    This paper discusses the development and operation of this tool. The tool uses performance indicators that have been benchmarked on the basis of industry standards and historical data. The robustness of these indicators to assess the health of a project has been validated using Australian and international case studies. The software based assessment tool, Project Diagnostics has been developed to

  8. Integrated Diagnostic/Prognostic Experimental Setup for Capacitor Degradation and Health

    E-print Network

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Integrated Diagnostic/Prognostic Experimental Setup for Capacitor Degradation and Health Monitoring the experiments and setups for studying diagnosis and prognosis of electrolytic capacitors in DC- DC power converters. Electrolytic capacitors and power MOS- FET's have higher failure rates than other components

  9. When dogs are man's best friend — the health benefits of companion animals in the modern society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Wilks

    1999-01-01

    Modern Australian society, like many Western societies, has evolved into a highly urbanised, somewhat hectic community where animal contact for its members is becoming limited. Research in the last few decades has indicated that association with companion animals can have far reaching benefits on the health of the owners of pets. The effects include those of a physical nature, such

  10. The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits of sexually selected colourants?

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    REVIEW The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits February 2005; MS. number: ARV-29) Several classes of pigments impart flamboyant colours on animals for studying the honesty-reinforcing mechanisms underlying sexually selected traits, because the very pigments

  11. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  12. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  13. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  14. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  15. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  16. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  17. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  18. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  19. Page 1 of 3 Animal Health Fact Sheet

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    such as camelids (llamas and alpacas). How is EEE transmitted to animals? Wild birds are the reservoir species in those birds. Horses, llamas, alpacas and emus may become infected via the bite of a mosquito that has and alpacas are generally not able to transmit EEE to humans; mammals are considered to be dead-end hosts

  20. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  1. Development of a diagnostic model for inhaled promethium-147 oxide: animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Shipler; J. E. Ballou; B. I. Griffin; I. C. Nelson

    1975-01-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol containing ; stable SmO tagged with ¹SmO and $sup ; 143$PmO. The animals were sacrificed at 0, 14 and 30 days post-; exposure to compare the kinetics and translocation of ¹Sm and ¹³Pm. ; Quantitative analysis for ¹Sm and ¹³Pm in several tissues and ; excreta indicate that the

  2. Monoclonal antibodies in animal production; their use in diagnostics and passive immunization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Booman

    1989-01-01

    One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in

  3. Economic analysis and costing of animal health: a literature review of methods and importance.

    PubMed

    Dehove, A; Commault, J; Petitclerc, M; Teissier, M; Macé, J

    2012-08-01

    Myriads of data, a host of methods, but no single universal indicator. The Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Gap Analysis helps to quantify the needs of national Veterinary Services. In a world of scarce public financial resources and heightened transparency and accountability, official Veterinary Services (national Veterinary Authorities) must be able to justify their needs in economic and budgetary terms to their line minister, national parliament and the public at large, or in negotiations with donors. Animal health and Veterinary Service activities are a global public good. It is the responsibility of governments to maintain animal health systems, including networks for the surveillance and control of animal diseases to ensure the early detection of suspected animal disease outbreaks, a rapid response and, where possible, eradication of animal disease outbreaks 'at source'. The establishment of animal health systems is a core responsibility of the State, and it requires the use of public funds, although it does not preclude public-private partnerships and strategies for ensuring complementarity between the partners concerned. The PVS Gap Analysis mission of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a method for analysing and quantifying disparities between a baseline situation (determined by PVS Evaluation using the OIE PVS Tool) and the target levels set by the country itself in accordance with its priorities. An added advantage is that the method can be used for training and awareness raising. PMID:23413736

  4. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  5. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  6. Modeling the Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence with Genetic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Hitzemann, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD) using the DSM-IV-R is categorical, based on an individual’s manifestation of three or more symptoms from a list of seven. AD risk can be traced to both genetic and environmental sources. Most genetic studies of AD risk implicitly assume that an AD diagnosis represents a single underlying genetic factor. We recently found that the criteria for an AD diagnosis represent three somewhat distinct genetic paths to individual risk. Specifically, heavy use and tolerance versus withdrawal and continued use despite problems reflected separate genetic factors. However, some data suggest that genetic risk for AD is adequately described with a single underlying genetic risk factor. Rodent animal models for alcohol-related phenotypes typically target discrete aspects of the complex human AD diagnosis. Here, we review the literature derived from genetic animal models in an attempt to determine whether they support a single-factor or multiple-factor genetic structure. We conclude that there is modest support in the animal literature that alcohol tolerance and withdrawal reflect distinct genetic risk factors, in agreement with our human data. We suggest areas where more research could clarify this attempt to align the rodent and human data. PMID:21910077

  7. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarhos; Tabbaa, Darem

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats) creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective. PMID:24981914

  8. Fumonisins: their implications for human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Marasas, W F

    1995-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme is one of the predominant fungi associated with corn intended for human and animal consumption world-wide. Fumonisins, food-borne carcinogens that occur naturally in corn, were first isolated and chemically characterized in South Africa in 1988. The major metabolite, fumonisin B1 (FB1), was subsequently shown to cause leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) in horses, pulmonary edema syndrome (PES) in pigs, and liver cancer in rats. FB1 is also a cancer promoter and initiator in rat liver; hepatotoxic to horses, pigs, rats, and vervet monkeys; cytotoxic to mammalian cell cultures; and phytotoxic to several plants. Fumonisins in home-grown corn have been associated with an elevated risk for human esophageal cancer in Transkei and China. There is a close structural similarity between fumonisin and sphingosine, and fumonisins are the first known naturally occurring inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The natural occurrence of FB1, together with FB2 and FB3, has been reported in commercial corn and/or corn-based feeds and foods from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Botswana, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Hungary, Nepal, Peru, South Africa, Switzerland, United States, and Zimbabwe. It is imperative that safe levels of fumonisins in human foods and animal feeds should be determined and realistic tolerance levels established as soon as possible. PMID:7582616

  9. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annette Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations' veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare. PMID:21999393

  10. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal samples.

    PubMed

    Ezzaty Mirhashemi, Marzieh; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances E; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2015-01-01

    While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targetedat the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection. PMID:25662435

  11. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level. PMID:24547646

  12. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-01-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (?D) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health. PMID:25691980

  13. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-02-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (?D) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health. PMID:25691980

  14. Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

  15. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  16. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees' performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  17. Health effects of ownership of and attachment to companion animals in an older population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen R. Winefield; Anne Black; Anna Chur-Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Two reasons for the inconclusiveness of the literature on the health effects of pet ownership are (1) failure to control\\u000a for other known influences on health, and (2) inadequate consideration of the nature of the emotional relationship between\\u000a owners and their companion animals.Purpose: The main aims were to develop a measure of pet attachment that reflects psychologists’ use of

  18. SERVAL: a new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Stärk, K D C

    2015-02-01

    Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain. PMID:23414450

  19. Global Antimicrobial Resistance: Where Is the Connection between Animal and Human Public Health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public and animal health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upwar...

  20. Improvements in animal productivity and health with a total aerobic manure management system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management using second generation technology on air and water quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health. The technology is a lower cost, second generation treatment system develop...

  1. Public Health Consequences of Macrolide Use in Food Animals: A Deterministic Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Scott Hurd; Stephanie Doores; Dermot J. Hayes; Alan Mathew; John Maurer; Peter Silley; Randall S. Singer; Ronald N. Jones

    2004-01-01

    The potential impact on human health from antibiotic-resistant bacteria selected by use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in many reports and recommended actions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has issued Guidance Document 152, which advises veterinary drug sponsors of one potential process for conducting a qualitative risk assessment of drug use in food

  2. Review—Animal Waste Used as Livestock Feed: Dangers to Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Haapapuro; Neal D. Barnard; Michele Simon

    1997-01-01

    Foodborne illness remains a common and serious problem, despite efforts to improve slaughterhouse inspection and food preparation practices. A potential contributor to this problem that has heretofore escaped serious public health scrutiny is the feeding of animal excrement to livestock, a common practice in some parts of the United States. In 1994, 18% of poultry producers in Arkansas collectively fed

  3. College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    LECTURER College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health, Veterinary and Life Sciences (MVLS; http://www.gla.ac.uk/colleges/mvls/). The College was created in 2010), at the veterinary sciences base on the Garscube estate and at the Scottish Centre for Ecology and the Natural

  4. Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

    1995-01-01

    Symposium Overview: Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

  5. Intern'l Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health Tampa, FL USA September 5-9, 2010

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    1 ® Intern'l Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health ­ Tampa, FL USA September 5-9, 2010 A. David Scarfe ® ISAAH ­ Tampa, FL, USA September 5-8, 2010 Next Steps Producer & service provider training workshops 1-line recognition Producers actively implementing a V-ABC program (& ABC Level) Service providers credentialed

  6. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

  7. Perspectives on One Health: a survey of national Delegates to the World Organisation for Animal Health, 2012.

    PubMed

    Glynn, M K; Brink, N

    2014-08-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) surveyed all 178 national Delegates to better understand the perceptions and priorities of Veterinary Services with respect to One Health efforts and to guide future work in that area. For the purposes of this survey, the concept or practice of One Health was defined as 'the intersectoral collaborative approach to preventing, detecting, and controlling diseases among animals and humans, including the collaboration among the institutions and systems that support their prevention, detection and control'. A total of 120 OlE Delegates, representing countries from all five OIE regions, responded to the survey. Delegates identified zoonoses, rabies and influenza as high-priority disease areas and disease reporting and food safety as high-priority programme areas for One Health approaches. Veterinary Services participated in joint programmes, involving these priority disease and programme areas, with national intersectoral partners. Delegates reported barriers to implementing One Health approaches, including a lack of resources, the complexity of collaboration, inadequate capacity within their Veterinary Services, and a lack of adequate legislation, policy, guidance and political will for One Health activities. Delegates supported OIE efforts to enhance One Health activities, and requested that the OIE and partners provide technical information and advice and conduct training and capacity-building seminars for One Health. Veterinary Services cannot effectively apply One Health approaches at the national level without effective partnerships across sectors. The OlE can serve as a model for countries by continuing its commitment to these intersectoral partnerships at the international level. PMID:25707174

  8. Decentralized molecular diagnostic testing plan for pandemic influenza in the Ontario Public Health Laboratory system.

    PubMed

    Drews, Steven J; Majury, Anna; Jamieson, Frances; Riley, Garth; Mazzulli, Tony; Low, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Public Health Laboratories system (OPHL) is in the midst of a six-year plan to implement molecular tools for pandemic influenza diagnostics in one central and three regional public health laboratories. This plan has been formulated as a consequence of: (1) experiences gained through severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and comments of the members of the Expert Panel on SARS and Infectious Disease Control (i.e., the Walker report); (2) a review of pandemic preparedness literature; (3) historical and epidemiologic discussions about previous pandemics; and (4) suggestions made by various pandemic working committees. The OPHL plan includes: (1) an aggressive restructuring of the overall molecular microbiology testing capacity of the OPHL; (2) the ability to shift influenza testing of samples between designated OPHL laboratories; and (3) the development of screening tools for pandemic influenza diagnostic tests. The authors believe that investing in increased molecular testing capacity for regional laboratories outside the greater Toronto area will be beneficial to the OPHL system whether or not an influenza pandemic occurs. Well-trained technologists and microbiologists, and the introduction of new technologies, will facilitate the development of a wide variety of molecular tests for other infectious diseases at public health laboratories geographically distant from Toronto, thus enhancing overall laboratory testing capacity in the province of Ontario. PMID:19009922

  9. Coherence of animal health, welfare and carcass quality in pork production chains.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Thorsten N; Piñeiro, Matilde; Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia; Plattes, Susanne; Selhorst, Thomas; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the potential impact of animal health and welfare on the carcass quality. 99 pigs under equal housing and feeding conditions were involved in the study. Effects of the immune system on carcass composition, meat quality and performance data of slaughter pigs became measureable by quantification of acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). The results were not significantly affected by gender or breed. The calculated correlations between chosen animal health indicators and carcass quality parameters prove an influence of health and welfare on performance, carcass composition and meat quality traits. The acute phase proteins could also be valuable as a predictive indicator for risk assessment in meat inspection, as increased Hp concentrations in slaughter blood indicate a 16 times higher risk for organ abnormalities and Pig-MAP concentrations above 0.7mg/ml a 10 times higher risk. PMID:23602397

  10. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Vaarst; Susanne Padel; David Younie; Malla Hovi; Albert Sundrum; Caroline Rymer

    2008-01-01

    From 2003-2006, an EU network project 'Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming' (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent:

  11. Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, T. L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K.

    1993-01-01

    The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy and in addition produced a viable test stand vehicle health monitor. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data.

  12. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.frazzoli@iss.i [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Orisakwe, Orish Ebere [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, College of Health Sciences Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Dragone, Roberto [Institute of Nanostructured Materials (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, at the Department of Chemistry of the 'Sapienza' University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in a major site of e-waste dumping such as West Africa. Therefore, considerations are also given on data gaps possibly fitting a systematic risk assessment of the e-waste health impacts in different subscenarios as well as possible protective factors for exposed subpopulations.

  13. Personalized health care beyond oncology: new indications for immunoassay-based companion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Batrla, Richard; Jordan, Bruce W M

    2015-06-01

    Personalized health care (PHC) is an evolving field of medicine aimed at providing the right therapy to the right patient at the right time. This approach often incorporates the use of companion diagnostics (CDx) assays that provide information essential for the safe and effective use of the corresponding drug. In addition to oncology, many other therapy areas, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and infectious and inflammatory diseases, may benefit from PHC, owing to disease complexity and heterogeneity. Furthermore, although most U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved CDx are based on molecular-based technologies, immunoassays can provide a significant contribution to the evolution of CDx in patient management. In this review we discuss how the incorporation of biomarker immunoassays into routine diagnostic testing may allow early and definitive detection of Alzheimer's disease and enable population enrichment in clinical trials. In addition, we will describe how biomarker-based CDx immunoassays have potential utility for stratifying patients with asthma based on their potential response to therapy and for selecting treatment according to phenotypic profile. Continued research into the underlying disease pathology and development of accurate and reliable diagnostic assays may ensure that PHC becomes the future standard for many indications. PMID:25866164

  14. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Carmen ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  15. New frontiers for diagnostic testing: taking advantage of forces changing health care.

    PubMed

    Allawi, S J; Hill, B T; Shah, N R

    1998-01-01

    The transformation of the health-care industry holds great economic potential for laboratory diagnostic testing providers who understand the five market forces driving change and who are shaping their own roles in the emerging market. Because of these trends, provider-based laboratories (PBLs) are competing with independent laboratories (ILs) for the latter's traditional client base--outpatients and nonpatients. PBLs will continue to service acute care patients while becoming more IL-like in logistics, sales, customer service, and marketing. Forced to compete on price, ILs have engaged in mega-mergers and will try to break into acute care via joint ventures. The ILs will need to choose their markets carefully, solidly integrate with parent organizations, and find ways to be profit centers. Consumers' demands also are forcing change. Consumers want accurate, legible bills and simplified eligibility determination and registration. They want an emphasis on prevention and wellness, which means that diagnostic testing must address early identification and monitoring of high-risk groups. To realize cost-efficiencies under whole-life capitation, laboratory networks must be part of a completely integrated health-care system. The laboratory of the future will be multicentered, without walls, and with quick access to information through technology. PMID:10178702

  16. Use of animal products in traditional Chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards.

    PubMed

    Still, J

    2003-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly practised in many countries of the world. Some recent textbooks of TCM still recommend formulas containing various animal tissues such as tiger bones, antelope, buffalo or rhino horns, deer antlers, testicles and os penis of the dog, bear or snake bile. Usually, animal tissues are combined with medical herbs. In most of the cases, the medical use of the preparations is justified in terms of the rules of TCM. So far, little research has been done to prove the claimed clinical efficacy of TCM animal products. This paper discusses some related ecological, ethico-legal and health concerns such as hunting, breeding and trade with endangered species, risks of transmission of zoonoses, quality of the products, and alternatives to preparations from endangered species. PMID:12801499

  17. Biomarker Discovery in Animal Health and Disease: The Application of Post-Genomic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rowan E.; Kirwan, Jennifer; Doherty, Mary K.; Whitfield, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: The causes of many important diseases in animals are complex and multifactorial, which present unique challenges. Biomarkers indicate the presence or extent of a biological process, which is directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. Identifying biomarkers or biomarker profiles will be an important step towards disease characterization and management of disease in animals. The emergence of post-genomic technologies has led to the development of strategies aimed at identifying specific and sensitive biomarkers from the thousands of molecules present in a tissue or biological fluid. This review will summarize the current developments in biomarker discovery and will focus on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in biomarker discovery for animal health and disease. PMID:19662203

  18. Animal health studies using participatory epidemiology in the Mandrare Valley, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Elise L; Thrusfield, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Pastoral herders in Madagascar have limited access to animal health workers and veterinary medicines, and more information on their livestock diseases is needed, so that effective animal health programmes can be implemented. In this study, participatory epidemiology methods were used to gather such information in the Mandrare Valley. These included pair-wise ranking and matrix scoring. Eleven diseases were deemed to be priorities by pair-wise ranking. Matrix scoring and characterisation showed that the informant groups associated many disease syndromes with the same diseases, indicating agreement and understanding of the key diseases. The Malagasy-named syndromes, Soko, Besorko and Mamany lio, which are gastrointestinal parasitism, clostridial disease and babesiosis, respectively, were identified by every informant group. A greater sample size may be needed to characterise the diseases precisely with matrix scoring because, in this study, the matrices' scores had wide confidence intervals. PMID:23999777

  19. Bracken-associated human and animal health hazards: chemical, biological and pathological evidence.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, R M; Bastos, M M S M; Oliveira, P A; Lopes, C

    2012-02-15

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is a widely distributed carcinogenic fern, to whose toxins human populations are exposed through multiple routes. Animals are also affected by bracken toxins, leading to serious production losses yearly. Accordingly, several governmental reports regarding the safeguard of public health against bracken carcinogens have been recently issued. This review describes the main bioactive compounds identified in bracken and their biological effects at the molecular, cellular, pathological and populational levels, with particular emphasis on ptaquiloside, the main bracken carcinogen. Recent biopathological studies shedding further light on the genotoxicity immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity of ptaquiloside are discussed. Key steps on the long effort to understand bracken toxicology are also reviewed, along with the latest findings on new bracken toxins and human exposures routes. The presence of ptaquiloside and related terpene glycosides in milk, meat and water are of particular concern from the viewpoints of both human and animal health. PMID:22226718

  20. International Disease Surveillance. International animal health, disease surveillance and trade, January to May 2003.

    PubMed

    2003-08-23

    A report in The Veterinary Record of April 26 (pp 520-524) outlined the role of DEFRA's International Animal Health Division (IAHD) in international disease surveillance and management of legislative controls on trade in relation to diseases which could impact on Great Britain, summarising information gathered in 2002. This report reflects information received from January to May 31, 2003 (unless otherwise stated), and focuses on diseases in the EU and major trading partners PMID:12967144

  1. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) http://olaw.nih.gov National Institutes of Health

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) http://olaw.nih.gov National Institutes of Health RKL 1.A. olaw@od.nih.gov 301-496-7163 301-915-9481 Patricia A. Brown, V.M.D., M.S. Director brownp@od.nih.gov 301-496-7163 301-915-9481 Joan Ward Program Assistant (c) wardjoa@od.nih.gov 301-594-2506 301

  2. Animal Protein, Animal Fat, and Cholesterol Intakes and Risk of Cerebral Infarction Mortality in the Adult Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Sauvaget; Jun Nagano; Mikiko Hayashi; Michiko Yamada

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—A traditional diet that is poor in animal products is thought to explain the high rate of stroke in Asian populations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a diet rich in animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol on the risk of cerebral infarction mortality in a Japanese population. Methods—A prospective study of

  3. Two-layer Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) with passive capillary valves for mHealth medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width???height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings. PMID:25626544

  4. [Performance-related health disorders in farm animals--the ethical dimension].

    PubMed

    Luy, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The term "performance-related health disorders" has been defined by Bergmann (1992) as catabolic phenomena and pathological processes that are related to or caused by high productivity levels. In the past few years, a cause and effect relationship has been determined between numerous health disorders found in farm animals and their increased productivity. In contrast to the classic hereditary diseases, the performance-related health disorders are anthropogenic diseases. The severity of these disorders is, as a rule, determined by anthropogenic environmental factors. Breeding and keeping animals in such a way that they suffer from performance-related health disorders therefore is an ethical problem. Furthermore, it has also been a legal problem since the implementation of Section 11b of the German Protection of Animals Act (TierSchG) in 1986. However, this ban has not been enforced; the federal ministry responsible argues that this is because there is still a "very controversial discussion" on the question of when the "line that separates breeding from 'problem' or 'agony breeding' (Qualzucht)" has been reached or overstepped. The following article takes a close look at the almost 20-year-old debate on the lack of enforcement. There is a large amount of circumstantial evidence that indicates that the problems that arise in determining whether specific animals fall under Section 11b TierSchG do not arise from a veterinary dispute but rather from the difficulty of identifying responsibilities. The traditional ethical model used to appeal to the feelings of responsibility in a layperson is the so-called Golden Rule ("do unto others as you would have them do unto you") which so far has not been applied to the area of animal breeding. The following article presents a model on how to create an awareness for ethical malpractice. The model makes it possible to use the change of perspective demanded by the Golden Rule and apply it to the area of animal breeding. This provides what could potentially be a useful aid in understanding ones own responsibility. While looking at possible solutions, two aspects are differentiated: the chronic non-enforcement of Section 11b TierSchG and the complete abolition of the problem. Possible solutions are presented for both areas and put up for discussion. PMID:17007464

  5. SORT BY TEST Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    . Bacteriology6.50 /sample or contract* Acid Fast Stain for Cryptosporidium spp M-F 1-3 days 10g fresh fecal sample wide mouth leak-proof Refrigerate For Cryptosporidium spp Parasitology16.50 or contract* Acidic

  6. Innovations in Companion Animal Health Introducing dynamic new treatments, developing stronger diagnostic tools, pioneering veterinary disciplines,

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    that school faculty members have achieved. The vital role of taurine in the feline diet ­ Veterinary taurine, an amino acid, and feline dilated cardiomyopathy, a fatal heart ailment. Pet food companies now disaster response. Other advances in feline nutrition ­ Veterinary scientists have identified essential

  7. Lavender Foal Syndrome Sample Submission Form Animal Health Diagnostic Center LAB USE ONLY

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    herecontaininghairtaped toahairsamplesheet Lab Use Only Hair color: Black Brown Grey Mixed Red Other _________ #12; Gelding Breed Color Dam Sire Name change will require resubmission of sample and new test I, Agent Owner: ________________________________________________________________ Please attach each hair sample to a hair sample sheet Hair samples must be placed in individual sealed

  8. Thursday, August 26, 2010 Page 1 of 2 Animal Health Diagnostic Center

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    identified in Arabians only. Sample Required Hair follicles, mane or tail only; EDTA blood or non placental will inform decisions about breeding selection. To identify the presence or absence of the mutation the target Lag Time Minimal Volume Hair taped to paper collection card, blood tube (EDTA blood) or secure leak

  9. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. PMID:22958252

  10. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  11. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  12. Rapporteur report: Cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Leszczynski

    2005-01-01

    Three talks were presented in the session on “Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health”. The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from

  13. Animal health policy principles for highly pathogenic avian influenza: shared experience from China and Canada.

    PubMed

    Stephen, C; Ninghui, L; Yeh, F; Zhang, L

    2011-08-01

    Animal health policy for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) must, for the time being, be based on expert opinion and shared international experience. We used the intellectual capital and knowledge of experienced Chinese and Canadian practitioners and policy makers to inform policy options for China and find shared policy elements applicable to both countries. No peer-reviewed comprehensive evaluations or systematic regulatory impact assessments of animal health policies were found. Sixteen guiding policy principles emerged from our thematic analysis of Chinese and Canadian policies. We provide a list of shared policy goals, targets and elements for HPAI preparedness, response and recovery. Policy elements clustered in a manner consistent with core public health competencies. Complex situations like HPAI require complex and adaptive policies, yet policies that cross jurisdictions and are fully integrated across agencies are rare. We encourage countries to develop or deploy capacity to undertake and publish regulatory impact assessments and policy evaluation to identify policy needs and provide a basis for evidence-based policy development. PMID:20819200

  14. Hoarding of animals: an under-recognized public health problem in a difficult-to-study population.

    PubMed Central

    Patronek, G J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to better characterize the problem of hoarding, or pathological collecting, of animals. METHODS: The author summarized data from a convenience sample of 54 case reports from 10 animal control agencies and humane societies across the country. RESULTS: The majority (76%) of hoarders were female, and 46% were 60 years of age or older. About half of the hoarders lived in single-person households. The animals most frequently involved were cats, dogs, farm animals, and birds. The median number of animals per case was 39, but there were four cases of more than 100 animals in a household. In 80% of cases animals were reportedly found dead or in poor condition. Prevalence estimates extrapolated from these data range from 700 to 2000 U.S. cases annually. CONCLUSIONS: Public health authorities should recognize that animal hoarding may be a sentinel for mental health problems or dementia, which merit serious assessment and prompt intervention. Improved cooperation between humane societies and public health authorities could facilitate the resolution of animal hoarding cases. PMID:9925176

  15. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Håstein; M. Binde; M. Hine; S. Johnsen; A. Lillehaug; N. J. Olesen; N. Purvis; A. D. Scarfe; B. Wright

    Summary The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few

  16. Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in human and animal health: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, B S; Bosire, R V; Deckelbaum, R J

    2014-12-01

    Lipids are essential for plant and animal development, growth and nutrition and play critical roles in health and reproduction. The dramatic increase in the human population has put increasing pressure on human food sources, especially of those sources of food which contain adequate levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and more importantly, sources of food which have favorable ratios of the n-3 (18-carbon, ?-linolenic acid, ALA) to n-6 (18-carbon linoleic acid, LA) PUFAs. Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of the n-3 PUFAs in diets as well as potentially negative effects of excessive levels of n-6 PUFAs in diets. This review discusses these human health issues relating to changes in diets based on environmental and industrial changes as well as strategies in East Africa for improving lipid composition of food using indigenous sources. PMID:25458696

  17. [Contemporary animal nutrition and its potential hazards to human health (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Somogyi, A; Malick, L E; Langenbach, R; Sallach, K

    1976-01-01

    The growing challenge to secure wholesome food of animal origin in quantities sufficient to feed the ever increasing world population leads to the compelling need of search for new means to enhance animal production. Such an endeavor often involves the use of pharmacologically active agents. As new substances are continuously introduced into agriculture, the necessity clearly arises to reassess the requirements for the approval of compounds likely to appear in the food of man via the edible tissues of animals. Since a number of animal drugs and feed additives have been recently found to show carcinogenic potency, using examples from their own research, the authors discuss problems encountered while planning animal studies for the safety evaluation of chemicals. Among the most important factors to be reckoned with is the metabolism of the test substance. Most carcinogens require metabolic transformation in order to react with macromolecules and, thus, exert their biological action. Similarly, residues of many drugs in animal tissues appear to be various metabolites rather than the parent compounds themselves. At present, it is not known whether many chemical residues are simply stored in different compartments of the carcass as a result of their physico-chemical properties or whether they are covalently bound to vital macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids). Hence, their biological significance is not quite clear. The enzyme system which metabolizes numerous drugs, pesticides, as well as other endogenous and exogenous substrates is responsible for both the activation and detoxification of carcinogenic chemicals. The delicate balance between these two processes of opposing toxicological consequence is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Depending upon the metabolic profile of chemicals, certain compounds are carcinogenic in one animal species while not in others. The manipulation of their metabolism by physiological (e.g., stress) or pharmacological (e.g., inducers or inhibitors of microsomal enzymes) means can result in a profound change of various biological actions of chemicals (e.g., cytotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity). To ascertain that potential toxicological hazards to human health by animal drugs and feed additives will be recognized during the phase of testing, appropriate test animals have to be selected with great care. It is indispensible that the metabolic break-down of the investigational substance proceeds via similar pathways in both test animals and the target species. This will assure that the same metabolites which, in the form of residues in food, man might be exposed to will have ample opportunity to exert their possible adverse effects to the experimental animals during a life-long feeding of the test substance. Therefore, it can, with a reasonable certainty, be assumed that, in experiments performed under such precautionary measures, toxico-pharmacological properties relevant to human safety evaluation will not remain undetected. PMID:827880

  18. Robust diagnostics for Bayesian compressive sensing with applications to structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Beck, James L.; Li, Hui; Wu, Stephen

    2011-04-01

    In structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for civil structures, signal compression is often important to reduce the cost of data transfer and storage because of the large volumes of data generated from the monitoring system. Compressive sensing is a novel data compressing method whereby one does not measure the entire signal directly but rather a set of related ("projected") measurements. The length of the required compressive-sensing measurements is typically much smaller than the original signal, therefore increasing the efficiency of data transfer and storage. Recently, a Bayesian formalism has also been employed for optimal compressive sensing, which adopts the ideas in the relevance vector machine (RVM) as a decompression tool, such as the automatic relevance determination prior (ARD). Recently publications illustrate the benefits of using the Bayesian compressive sensing (BCS) method. However, none of these publications have investigated the robustness of the BCS method. We show that the usual RVM optimization algorithm lacks robustness when the number of measurements is a lot less than the length of the signals because it can produce sub-optimal signal representations; as a result, BCS is not robust when high compression efficiency is required. This induces a tradeoff between efficiently compressing data and accurately decompressing it. Based on a study of the robustness of the BCS method, diagnostic tools are proposed to investigate whether the compressed representation of the signal is optimal. With reliable diagnostics, the performance of the BCS method can be monitored effectively. The numerical results show that it is a powerful tool to examine the correctness of reconstruction results without knowing the original signal.

  19. The role of the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Colby, M; Coats, M; Brake, D; Fine, J

    2013-01-01

    The development of countermeasures to support an effective response to Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD) poses a challenge on a global scale and necessitates the coordinated involvement of scientists from government, industry and academia, as well as regulatory entities. The Agricultural Defense Branch under the Chemical and Biological Defense Division (CBD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) supports this important mission within the United States. This article provides an overview of the Agricultural Defense Branch's vaccine and diagnostic TAD project. PMID:23689879

  20. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre and surveillance of wild animal diseases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G A; Barker, I K; Daoust, P Y; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCWHC) was established in 1992 as an organization among Canada's 4 veterinary colleges, with a mandate to apply veterinary medicine to wildlife management and conservation in Canada. A major function of the CCWHC is nation-wide surveillance of wild animal diseases. Disease surveillance is conceived as consisting of 4 different activities: detection, diagnosis, information management, and use of information. In the CCWHC surveillance program, detection of disease is carried out by a wide range of professional and avocational field personnel, and much effort is expended to stimulate and support this activity. Diagnosis is done by personnel of provincial and federal veterinary laboratories and the CCWHC. Information management is achieved through a national database of wildlife disease incidents developed and maintained by the CCWHC. Use of information is enabled through established channels for distribution of information derived from the surveillance program to persons responsible for wildlife programs and policies, and to the public. There has been a high demand for the services of the CCWHC since its establishment. The CCWHC responds to approximately 2000 requests for information annually, distributes its newsletter to over 1700 recipients, examines approximately 1200 wild animal submissions each year, and has accumulated records of over 5000 disease incidents in its database. Technical information from the CCWHC has benefited federal, provincial/territorial, and nongovernment wildlife agencies; endangered species recovery programs; federal and provincial veterinary services; and federal and provincial public health programs. Images Figure 1. PMID:9167876

  1. e-Surveillance in animal health: use and evaluation of mobile tools.

    PubMed

    Madder, M; Walker, J G; Van Rooyen, J; Knobel, D; Vandamme, E; Berkvens, D; Vanwambeke, S O; De Clercq, E M

    2012-12-01

    In the last decade, mobile technology offered new opportunities and challenges in animal health surveillance. It began with the use of basic mobile phones and short message service (SMS) for disease reporting, and the development of smartphones and other mobile tools has expanded the possibilities for data collection. These tools assist in the collection of data as well as geo-referenced mapping of diseases, and mapping, visualization and identification of vectors such as ticks. In this article we share our findings about new technologies in the domain of animal health surveillance, based on several projects using a wide range of mobile tools, each with their specific applicability and limitations. For each of the tools used, a comprehensive overview is given about its applicability, limitations, technical requirements, cost and also the perception of the users.The evaluation of the tools clearly shows the importance of selecting the appropriate tool depending on the envisaged data to be collected. Accessibility, visualization and cost related to data collection differ significantly among the tools tested. This paper can thus be seen as a practical guide to the currently available tools. PMID:22717001

  2. Dietary animal and plant protein and human bone health: a whole foods approach.

    PubMed

    Massey, Linda K

    2003-03-01

    Urinary calcium excretion is strongly related to net renal acid excretion. The catabolism of dietary protein generates ammonium ion and sulfates from sulfur-containing amino acids. Bone citrate and carbonate are mobilized to neutralize these acids, so urinary calcium increases when dietary protein increases. Common plant proteins such as soy, corn, wheat and rice have similar total S per g of protein as eggs, milk and muscle from meat, poultry and fish. Therefore increasing intake of purified proteins from either animal or plant sources similarly increases urinary calcium. The effects of a protein on urinary calcium and bone metabolism are modified by other nutrients found in that protein food source. For example, the high amount of calcium in milk compensates for urinary calcium losses generated by milk protein. Similarly, the high potassium levels of plant protein foods, such as legumes and grains, will decrease urinary calcium. The hypocalciuric effect of the high phosphate associated with the amino acids of meat at least partially offsets the hypercalciuric effect of the protein. Other food and dietary constituents such as vitamin D, isoflavones in soy, caffeine and added salt also have effects on bone health. Many of these other components are considered in the potential renal acid load of a food or diet, which predicts its effect on urinary acid and thus calcium. "Excess" dietary protein from either animal or plant proteins may be detrimental to bone health, but its effect will be modified by other nutrients in the food and total diet. PMID:12612170

  3. PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SWINE FECES BASED ON THE NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM'S SWINE 2000 STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) comprise a serologically diverse group of organisms that have caused disease in humans and animals. In 2000, the USDA's National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted a study carried out by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service with the col...

  4. Use of information on disease diagnoses from databases for animal health economic, welfare and food safety purposes: strengths and limitations of recordings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many animal health, welfare and food safety databases include data on clinical and test-based disease diagnoses. However, the circumstances and constraints for establishing the diagnoses vary considerably among databases. Therefore results based on different databases are difficult to compare and compilation of data in order to perform meta-analysis is almost impossible. Nevertheless, diagnostic information collected either routinely or in research projects is valuable in cross comparisons between databases, but there is a need for improved transparency and documentation of the data and the performance characteristics of tests used to establish diagnoses. The objective of this paper is to outline the circumstances and constraints for recording of disease diagnoses in different types of databases, and to discuss these in the context of disease diagnoses when using them for additional purposes, including research. Finally some limitations and recommendations for use of data and for recording of diagnostic information in the future are given. It is concluded that many research questions have such a specific objective that investigators need to collect their own data. However, there are also examples, where a minimal amount of extra information or continued validation could make sufficient improvement of secondary data to be used for other purposes. Regardless, researchers should always carefully evaluate the opportunities and constraints when they decide to use secondary data. If the data in the existing databases are not sufficiently valid, researchers may have to collect their own data, but improved recording of diagnostic data may improve the usefulness of secondary diagnostic data in the future. PMID:21999520

  5. Animal health surveillance: navigation amidst the flotsam of human frailty and fiscal inertia.

    PubMed

    Kellar, J A

    2012-07-01

    National veterinary services monitor endemic, emerging and exotic disease situations. They intervene when epidemic tendencies demand. They unravel complex disease situations. They do so as monopolies, in environments of political influence and budgetary restraint. When human, animal health and trade protection dictate, they design import or domestic disease control programs. As much as 80% of program expenditures are on surveillance. Their initiatives are scrutinized by treasuries from which they seek funding, industries from which they seek collaboration and trading partners from whom they seek recognition. In democracies, surveillance and control programs are often the products of a complicated consultative process. It involves individuals who have both a commitment to improving an existing animal health situation and access to the required resources. The generations that designed traditionally risk-averse national surveillance and control programs have given way to a new one which is more epidemiologically informed. Their successors design programs bearing epidemiologically based improvements. The transition, however, has not been overwhelmingly welcomed. Expenditures on surveillance are tolerated out of fear during outbreaks of foreign or re-emergence of indigenous disease. Between epidemics, they decline at the hands of producers' unwillingness and budgetary restraint. Human nature responds to the high cost of surveillance in forms ranging from naïveté through to conspiracy. While legislation cannot subdue such human frailty, several other opportunities exist. Education can remove the majority of problems caused by ignorance, leaving the minority that arise intentionally. Technology decreases the high cost of testing which tempts individuals to cut corners. International standards assist National Veterinary Services to overcome domestic resistance. PMID:22310236

  6. Hemoglobin A1c as a Diagnostic Tool: Public Health Implications From an Actor–Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Public health arguments for collecting hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) data, particularly in clinical settings, should be reframed to place more emphasis on nonmedical determinants of population health. We compare individual- with population-level interpretations of HbA1c titers. This comparison reveals that public health researchers need to pay close attention to diagnostic tests and their uses, including rhetorical uses. We also synthesize historical and current evidence to map out 2 possible scenarios for the future. In the first scenario, prevention efforts emphasize primary care and focus almost entirely downstream. The second scenario anticipates downstream interventions but also upstream interventions targeting environments. Our analysis adapts actor–network theory to strategic planning and forecasting in public health. PMID:22095361

  7. Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology. PMID:24092400

  8. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as ‘ergot alkaloid intoxication’. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  9. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  10. The Awareness of Health Professionals in Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Parasites in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, AI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of intestinal parasites still depends on conventional methods in Gaza strip hospitals and private laboratories. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the opinion and the practice of physicians and medical laboratories technologists towards the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out during the period from August 2006 to December 2006. All the subjects during this period were eligible for the interview. The sample size included 371 individuals out of them 270 physicians and 101 medical laboratory technologists (MLTs). Simple random sampling was used to select the physicians and MLTs from eight hospitals and eleven primary health-care centers. Results: It was found that (57.8%) 156/270 of physicians depend on the direct smear microscopy in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza, compared to (31.7% (32/101) of MLT. Knowledge about the possible correlation of occult blood with reasons other than the presence of intestinal parasites was evident among both physicians and MLTs, reaching over 80% (P = 0.08). It was found that (54.4%, 147/270) of physicians and (73.3%. 74/101) of MLTs depend on wet mount result for of Entamoeba histolytica diagnosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Low awareness was found among both physicians and MLT regarding the diagnostic techniques used in the examination of intestinal parasites in Gaza Strip. Prescription of medicine by physicians sometimes depends on the clinical picture without laboratory confirmation. Advanced techniques were less used in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. PMID:24669336

  11. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

  12. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    PubMed

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance. PMID:25798491

  13. The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change.

    PubMed

    Sutherst, R W

    2001-07-01

    The term 'global change' is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A subset of land use issues relates to the management of protective technologies in relation to residues in food and the environment and the emergence of resistance. Another is the question of changing biodiversity of both parasites and their associated natural enemies, and the effects on the host--parasite relationship and on parasite management. A framework for studying impacts of global change is proposed and illustrated with field data, and CLIMEX and simulation modelling of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Parasitology suffers from the perception that the key impacts of global change will be driven by changes at lower trophic levels, with parasitic interactions being treated as secondary effects. This is incorrect because the environment mediates host-parasite interactions as much as it affects parasites directly. Parasitologists need to strive for holistic solutions to the management of animal and human health, within a wider context of overall management of those systems, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to global efforts aimed at coping with global change. PMID:11406142

  14. Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments’ responses, and barriers to involvement. Results Health departments’ roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health. PMID:23382947

  15. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer for Mission Critical Health Monitoring of Aircraft and Spacecraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John; Tokars, Roger; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, M. Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A self diagnostic accelerometer system has been shown to be sensitive to multiple failure modes of charge mode accelerometers. These failures include sensor structural damage, an electrical open circuit and most importantly sensor detachment. In this paper, experimental work that was performed to determine the capabilities of a self diagnostic accelerometer system while operating in the presence of various levels of mechanical noise, emulating real world conditions, is presented. The results show that the system can successfully conduct a self diagnostic routine under these conditions.

  16. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16–December 28, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010–July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial collaboration are crucial to achieve the goal of rabies-free status in Taiwan. PMID:26162074

  17. FATE OF DIETARY PERCHLORATE IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS: RELEVANCE TO ANIMAL HEALTH AND LEVELS IN THE MILK SUPPLY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for fiv...

  18. An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

  19. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  20. From mice to men: What can animal models tell us about the relationship between mental health and physical activity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Remington

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity has been associated with numerous benefits that extend to mental health, although how these benefits are accrued is not clear. The notion that animal research can prove useful in this regard may initially seem irrelevant and even inapplicable. However, there is a growing body of evidence, focusing in particular on exercise, to suggest that the biochemical changes induced

  1. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  2. Addressing the problems of using the polymerase chain reaction technique as a stand-alone test for detecting pathogens in aquatic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. East

    Summary The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is increasingly being used as the diagnostic tool of choice and with pathogens of aquatic animals, particularly molluscs and crustaceans, a PCR test is often the only laboratory diagnostic test available. When a diagnostic decision is required in the absence of clinical disease (e.g. health certification or a survey for disease freedom) limitations

  3. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions I gave my dog ...

  4. The incidence of dementia and intake of animal products: preliminary findings from the Adventist Health Study.

    PubMed

    Giem, P; Beeson, W L; Fraser, G E

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between animal product consumption and evidence of dementia in two cohort substudies. The first enrolled 272 California residents matched for age, sex, and zip code (1 vegan, 1 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and 2 'heavy' meat eaters in each of 68 quartets). This design ensured a wide range of dietary exposure. The second included 2,984 unmatched subjects who resided within the Loma Linda, California area. All subjects were enrolled in the Adventist Health Study. The matched subjects who ate meat (including poultry and fish) were more than twice as likely to become demented as their vegetarian counterparts (relative risk 2.18, p = 0.065) and the discrepancy was further widened (relative risk 2.99, p = 0.048) when past meat consumption was taken into account. There was no significant difference in the incidence of dementia in the vegetarian versus meat-eating unmatched subjects. There was no obvious explanation for the difference between the two substudies, although the power of the unmatched sub-study to detect an effect of 'heavy' meat consumption was unexpectedly limited. There was a trend towards delayed onset of dementia in vegetarians in both substudies. PMID:8327020

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY RAMAPO COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY ANIMAL WASTE

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    designed to convey domestic sewage for proper treatment and disposal. h. College - Ramapo College. i: A regulation to establish requirements for the proper disposal of animal solid waste at Ramapo College, so. Animal solid waste ­ waste matter expelled from the bowels of the animal; excrement. g. Proper disposal

  6. Improving human and animal health using genetically engineered goats expressing lysozyme in their milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Murray; E. A. Maga

    The application of genetic engineering should not be undertaken lightly as it requires extensive infrastructure and inputs before the genetically engineered animal enters a breeding and selection scheme; it does not provide a mechanism for bypassing good animal breeding and selection practices. However, there are instances where GE can provide an opportunity to address a problem in animal agriculture for

  7. Feasibility and Diagnostic Accuracy of Brief Health Literacy and Numeracy Screening Instruments in an Urban Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody S.; Lin, Margaret J.; Melson, Andrew T.; Griffey, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five health literacy screening instruments in emergency department (ED) patients: the Rapid Evaluation of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Single Item Literacy Screens (SILS), health numeracy, and physician gestalt. A secondary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of these instruments as measured by administration time, time on task, and interruptions during test administration. Methods This was a prospective observational cross-sectional study of a convenience sampling of adult patients presenting during March 2011 and February 2012 to one urban university-affiliated ED. Subjects were consenting non-critically ill, English-speaking patients over the age of 18 years without aphasia, dementia, mental retardation, or inability to communicate. The diagnostic test characteristics of the REALM-R, NVS, SILS, health numeracy, and physician gestalt were quantitatively assessed by using the short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOHFLA). A score of 22 or less was the criterion standard for limited health literacy (LHL). Results Four hundred thirty-five participants were enrolled, with mean age of 45 years (SD ±15.7 years) and 18% had less than a high school education. As defined by an S-TOHFLA score of 22 or less, the prevalence of LHL was 23.9%. In contrast, the NVS, REALM-R, and physician gestalt identified 64.8%, 48.5%, and 35% of participants as LHL, respectively. A normal NVS screen was the most useful test to exclude LHL, with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.04 (95% CI = 0.01 to 0.17). When abnormal, none of the screening instruments, including physician gestalt, significantly increased the post-test probability of LHL. The NVS and REALM-R require 3 and 5 minutes less time to administer than the S-TOHFLA. Administration of the REALM-R is associated with less test interruptions. Conclusions One-quarter of these ED patients had marginal or inadequate health literacy. Among the brief screening instruments evaluated, a normal Newest Vital Sign result accurately reduced the probability of limited health literacy, although it will identify two-thirds of ED patients as high-risk for limited health literacy. None of the brief screening instruments significantly increases the probability of limited health literacy when abnormal. PMID:24673669

  8. The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,…

  9. Benefiting from online mental status examination system and mental health diagnostic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajar Mat Jani; Jalan Kajang-Puchong; Selangor Darul Ehsan

    2010-01-01

    In this really hectic world, quite a number of people are exposed to situations where mental stress Is unavoidable. This leads to people having all kinds of mental health problems that eventually may turn to chronic mental disorders. People with mental health problems normally have the tendency of not admitting their health problems because of the stigma attached to these

  10. Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an imag...

  11. Lead (Pb) in sheep exposed to mining pollution: implications for animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Carrera, Jennifer; Mateo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime

    2014-10-01

    Livestock from the ancient mining area of Sierra Madrona and Alcudia Valley (Spain) is exposed to elevated levels of lead (Pb), as previous studies based on blood monitoring have revealed. Here we have studied blood, liver and muscle Pb levels in sheep in order to know if Pb exposure could represent a risk for human consumers of the meat and offal of these animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted with ?4 years old (adults) ewes from the mining area (n=46) and a control area (n=21). Blood samples were taken before the sacrifice at the slaughterhouse, and liver and muscle samples were taken thereafter. At the same time, 2-3 year old rams (subadults, n=17) were blood sampled in the mining area. Blood, liver and muscle Pb levels were higher in the mining than in the control area. Blood Pb concentration in the mining area (n= 44, mean: 6.7?g/dl in ewes and 10.9?g/dl in rams) was above background levels (>6?g/dl) in 73.3 percent of animals. Liver Pb concentration in 68 percent of sheep from the mining area (n=32, mean: 6.16?g/g dry weight, d.w.) exceeded the minimum level associated with toxic exposure (5µg/g d.w.) and 87.5 percent of liver samples were above European Union Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) established for offal destined for human consumption (0.5µg/g w.w.~1.4µg/g d.w.). On the contrary, none of the muscle samples in ewes exceeded the EU MRL (0.1µg/g w.w.~0.34µg/g d.w.) established for meat, which may be related to the decline of blood Pb levels with age observed in the present study. These results suggest a potential health effect for sheep exposed to Pb pollution in this area and implications for food safety, but further research with lamb meat may be necessary to refine the risk assessment for human consumers. PMID:25086824

  12. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  13. [Radiculopathy and the organization of health services: applicability verification of a technic for analyzing time factors in diagnostic procedures].

    PubMed

    Marinelli, G; Cerone, G; Pajewski, L A; Porto, C; Fabiani, L; Aloisi, P

    1989-01-01

    The PERT is a SPR (Reticular Programation System) based on statistic-mathematic models. Since some years they are applied to productive processes to increase the efficiency and effectiveness. They all have a same base structure which is the net that is composed by the logical succession of the event and the activity which has the part of the project. Determining the minimum time (to), the maximum one (tp) and the more frequent time (tm) of each activity and applying the statistic method PERT, one gets the probable duration (te) of every activity and the critical path of the net is placed in evidence. This is formed by the chain of those activities whose duration determines the total duration of the project. The Authors have desired to verify the applicability of SPR even to the "medical industry" and, more precisely, to the diagnostic process for the verification of radiculoneuropathy. Such pathology affects a large part of the active population. The diagnostic process in this case comprises besides an accurate neurological and clinical examination of the patient, also the x-ray exam, the electromyography, the Computed Tomography (CT) and the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR) exam. These last two investigations gives an increase of diagnostic accuracy. With the collaboration of the physicians of the diagnostic Service, the Authors have measured in every step of the diagnostic procedure the waiting time of 48 patients with low back pain. Applying the PERT method, it has been possible to put in evidence in the net the critical activities. They are such that their duration time determines the probable duration of the whole diagnostic process. Such duration in this case it corresponds to 91 days with a standard deviation of 33 days. The delay of any critical activity causes a lealy of the whole route. This delay influences negatively on the patient's health. Besides it determines an economic damage to the system because a relation cost/time exists. The systems of reticular programmation have as objective not only the one of improving the programmation and the control of the processes, but also the attainment of an optimum cost/time ratio, varying in a way that the total cost of the realization of the process is minimum. They represent a useful criterion to direct Quality Assurance (Q.A) in the local political sanitary context, within the bounds of organization of technical - scientific quality. An accurate application of the Q.A. should modify besides the duration of the critical activities. PMID:2483632

  14. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I — Nonparasitic zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. S.; Peregrine, A. S.; Armstrong, J.

    2002-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene. PMID:12170843

  15. An animal model to study health effects during continuous low-dose exposure to the nerve agent VX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rocksén; Daniel Elfsmark; Victoria Heldestad; Karin Wallgren; Gudrun Cassel; Ann Göransson Nyberg

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we have developed an animal model to study long-term health effects of continuous exposure of toxic chemical agents, in awake, freely moving rats. The aim was to evaluate the effect of low-dose exposure of the nerve agent VX, and to find specific biomarkers for intoxication. To exclude the influence of stress, we used an implanted radio-telemetric

  16. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions.

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, R O

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. PMID:6186479

  17. Evolution of the cooperation between the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    PubMed

    Berlingieri, F; Bruno, A; Njeumi, F; Cavirani, S

    2007-12-01

    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization recognises the international standards adopted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in matters of animal health and zoonoses and those adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the Commission) in matters of food safety. The importance of the production phase in ensuring food safety has been acknowledged and the OIE and the Commission have been working to strengthen their cooperation since 2001, with the intent of promoting a holistic approach to the food chain. Procedures for exchanging information are in place, communication has improved and there is cross-referencing between the respective international standards of the two organisations. Good examples of collaboration in the development of standards include the texts produced by the two organisations regarding meat inspection and animal/product identification and traceability. At the same time, there is still room for improving cooperation and the legal services of the OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization are expected to work together to find options for closer collaboration between the OIE and the Commission. PMID:18293609

  18. [Impact on public health of quinolone resistance in animal-origin bacteria].

    PubMed

    Orden Gutiérrez, J A; de la Fuente López, R

    2001-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most useful classes of antimicrobial agents used in human and animal medicine today, both because of their spectrum and their physicochemical properties. The use of quinolones in animals is a matter of special concern because it could contribute to the acquisition of resistance in foodborn bacteria (such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and this, in turn, could lead to a reduction in the efficacy of such compounds in treating infections in humans. However, the causal relationship between the use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine and the isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in humans has not been generally proven and, moreover, the use of fluoroquinolones in animals is only one of the many factors implicated in the resistance to these antimicrobials. Even so, the surveillance of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and foods and the prudent use of these antimicrobials in animals should have the highest priority. PMID:11693069

  19. The environmental and public health risks associated with arsenical use in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Nachman, Keeve

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic exposures contribute significantly to the burden of preventable disease worldwide, specifically related to increased risks of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Most exposures are associated with natural contamination of groundwater, which is difficult to mitigate when these sources are used for drinking water. An anthropogenic source of arsenic exposure stems from the widespread use of arsenical drugs in food-animal production in the United States and China, among many countries. This use results in residual contamination of food products from animals raised with the drugs, as well as environmental contamination associated with disposal of wastes from these animals. Land disposal of these wastes can contaminate surface and ground water, and the conversion of animal wastes into fertilizer pellets for home use as well as the introduction of animal waste incinerators may increase opportunities for exposure. As an intentional additive to animal feed, use of arsenical drugs is a preventable source of human exposure. The domestic practice of using these drugs in poultry production has been the subject of media attention and limited research, though the use of these drugs in domestic swine production and in the rapidly growing foreign animal production industry remains largely uncharacterized. This continued expansion of arsenical drug use may likely increase the burden of global human arsenic exposure and risk. PMID:18991934

  20. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  1. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  2. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  3. Does use of an electronic health record with dental diagnostic system terminology promote dental students' critical thinking?

    PubMed

    Reed, Susan G; Adibi, Shawn S; Coover, Mullen; Gellin, Robert G; Wahlquist, Amy E; AbdulRahiman, Anitha; Hamil, Lindsey H; Walji, Muhammad F; O'Neill, Paula; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2015-06-01

    The Consortium for Oral Health Research and Informatics (COHRI) is leading the way in use of the Dental Diagnostic System (DDS) terminology in the axiUm electronic health record (EHR). This collaborative pilot study had two aims: 1) to investigate whether use of the DDS terms positively impacted predoctoral dental students' critical thinking skills measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and 2) to refine study protocols. The study design was a natural experiment with cross-sectional data collection using the HSRT for 15 classes (2013-17) of students at three dental schools. Characteristics of students who had been exposed to the DDS terms were compared with students who had not, and the differences were tested by t-tests or chi-square tests. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome on the overall critical thinking score. The results showed that exposure was significantly related to overall score (p=0.01), with not-exposed students having lower mean overall scores. This study thus demonstrated a positive impact of using the DDS terminology in an EHR on the critical thinking skills of predoctoral dental students in three COHRI schools as measured by their overall score on the HSRT. These preliminary findings support future research to further evaluate a proposed model of critical thinking in clinical dentistry. PMID:26034034

  4. A Vision for Better Health: Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Gemperline, Erin; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules from small molecules to large proteins by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. Its usefulness in biomarker discovery towards clinical applications has obtained success by correlating the molecular expression of tissues acquired from MSI with well-established histology. Results To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in clinical applications, such as biomarker diagnostics of different diseases, prognostics of disease severities and metabolic response to drug treatment, etc. These studies have provided significant insight in clinical studies over the years and current technical advances are further facilitating the improvement of this field. Although the underlying concept is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis must be taken into account for successful applications of MSI. Herein, we briefly reviewed these key elements yet focused on the clinical applications of MSI that cannot be addressed by other means. Conclusions Challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed to conclude that the ever-growing applications with continuous development of this powerful analytical tool will lead to a better understanding of the biology of diseases and improvements in clinical diagnostics. PMID:23078851

  5. How can malaria rapid diagnostic tests achieve their potential? A qualitative study of a trial at health facilities in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are at the early stages of introduction across malaria endemic countries. This is central to efforts to decrease malaria overdiagnosis and the consequent overuse of valuable anti-malarials and underdiagnosis of alternative causes of fever. Evidence of the effect of introducing RDTs on the overprescription of anti-malarials is mixed. A recent trial in rural health facilities in Ghana reduced overprescription of anti-malarials, but found that 45.5% patients who tested negative with RDTs were still prescribed an anti-malarial. Methods A qualitative study of this trial was conducted, using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of health workers involved in the trial, ranging from those who continued to prescribe anti-malarials to most patients with negative RDT results to those who largely restricted anti-malarials to patients with positive RDT results. Interviews explored the experiences of using RDTs and their results amongst trial participants. Results Meanings of RDTs were constructed by health workers through participation with the tests themselves as well as through interactions with colleagues, patients and the research team. These different modes of participation with the tests and their results led to a change in practice for some health workers, and reinforced existing practice for others. Many of the characteristics of RDTs were found to be inherently conducive to change, but the limited support from purveyors, lack of system antecedents for change and limited system readiness for change were apparent in the analysis. Conclusions When introduced with a limited supporting package, RDTs were variously interpreted and used, reflecting how health workers had learnt how to use RDT results through participation. To build confidence of health workers in the face of negative RDT results, a supporting package should include local preparation for the innovation; unambiguous guidelines; training in alternative causes of disease; regular support for health workers to meet as communities of practice; interventions that address negotiation of health worker-patient relationships and encourage self-reflection of practice; feedback systems for results of quality control of RDTs; feedback systems of the results of their practice with RDTs; and RDT augmentation such as a technical and/or clinical troubleshooting resource. PMID:20398262

  6. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills. PMID:21777495

  7. Pollution and contamination of the domestic environment leading to detrimental, long run and possible irreversible effects upon human and animal health and longevity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animal health and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.

  8. Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2006-07-01

    The accelerated growth of finfish aquaculture has resulted in a series of developments detrimental to the environment and human health. The latter is illustrated by the widespread and unrestricted use of prophylactic antibiotics in this industry, especially in developing countries, to forestall bacterial infections resulting from sanitary shortcomings in fish rearing. The use of a wide variety of antibiotics in large amounts, including non-biodegradable antibiotics useful in human medicine, ensures that they remain in the aquatic environment, exerting their selective pressure for long periods of time. This process has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquaculture environments, in the increase of antibiotic resistance in fish pathogens, in the transfer of these resistance determinants to bacteria of land animals and to human pathogens, and in alterations of the bacterial flora both in sediments and in the water column. The use of large amounts of antibiotics that have to be mixed with fish food also creates problems for industrial health and increases the opportunities for the presence of residual antibiotics in fish meat and fish products. Thus, it appears that global efforts are needed to promote more judicious use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture as accumulating evidence indicates that unrestricted use is detrimental to fish, terrestrial animals, and human health and the environment. PMID:16817922

  9. Use of the Child Behavior Checklist as a Diagnostic Screening Tool in Community Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Greeno, Catherine; Marcus, Steven C.; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) can be used as an accurate psychiatric screening tool for children in community mental health settings. Method: Associations, logistic regression models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to test the predictive relationship between the CBCL and…

  10. Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Joshua; Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an image stacking algorithm to decrease the image noise and enhance weak signals, and (2) an optical signal amplifier utilizing a capillary tube array. These approaches were used in a detection system which includes a multi-wavelength LEDs capable of exciting many fluorophores in multiple wavelengths, a mobile phone or a webcam as a detector, and capillary tube array configured with 36 capillary tubes for signal enhancement. The capillary array enables a ~100X increase in signal sensitivity for fluorescein, reducing the limit of detection (LOD) for mobile phones and webcams from 1000 nM to 10 nM. Computational image stacking enables another ~10X increase in signal sensitivity, further reducing the LOD for webcam from 10 nM to 1 nM. To demonstrate the feasibility of the device for the detection of disease-related biomarkers, Adenovirus DNA labeled with SYBR Green or fluorescein was analyzed by both our capillary array and a commercial plate reader. The LOD for the capillary array was 5ug/mL, and that of the plate reader was 1 ug/mL. Similar results were obtained using DNA stained with fluorescein. The combination of the two signal amplification approaches enables a ~1000X increase in LOD for the webcam platform. This brings it into the range of a conventional plate reader while using a smaller sample volume (10ul) than the plate reader requires (100 ul). This suggests that such a device could be suitable for biosensing applications where up to 10 fold smaller sample sizes are needed. The simple optical configuration for mHealth described in this paper employing the combined capillary and image processing signal amplification is capable of measuring weak fluorescent signals without the need of dedicated laboratories. It has the potential to be used to increase sensitivity of other optically based mHealth technologies, and may increase mHealth’s clinical utility, especially for telemedicine and for resource-poor settings and global health applications. PMID:23928092

  11. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ?5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg?1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  12. Units 11 - 12 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    This section contains two Units plus the Glossary and Index: Unit 11 - What Is MSMR? Unit 12 - Careers in Health and Health Research Glossary of Terms Used Index Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

  13. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. Investigations of reported plant and animal health effects in the Three Mile Island area. Regulatory report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Gears; G. LaRoche; J. Cable; B. Jaroslow; D. Smith

    1980-01-01

    The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the release of radioactive gases and drift from cooling tower plumes) are discussed. Specific case

  15. Fusarium mycotoxins: a review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. F. D’Mello; C. M. Placinta; A. M. C. Macdonald

    1999-01-01

    Trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisins are the major Fusarium mycotoxins occurring on a worldwide basis in cereal grains, animal feeds and forages. Other important Fusarium mycotoxins include moniliformin and fusaric acid. Spontaneous outbreaks of Fusarium mycotoxicoses have been recorded in Europe, Asia, New Zealand and South America and, in addition, chronic exposure occurs on a regular and more widespread scale.

  16. IMMUNOTOXICITY - BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ANIMAL RESEARCH AND HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...

  17. Units 5 - 7 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    The units in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

  18. Center for Animal Health and Food Safety www.cahfs.umn.edu 612-625-8709

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    form (acute or subacute anthrax) may result in fever, depression, convulsions and dyspnea (difficulty in horses and dogs. How do people become infected? Anthrax is a disease of humans as well as animals-626-8387 mistaken for an insect bite. Later, a blister forms that becomes a depressed, black lesion (eschar

  19. Trends in the organization and financing of livestock and animal health services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjaart W. Schillhorn van Veen; Cees de Haan

    1995-01-01

    The world wide avalanche of change related to new political and economic paradigms has also affected animal agriculture. Changing views and objectives with respect to government support for agriculture in OECD countries, economic changes in Latin American and Africa countries, the GATT process and outcome, and interest in an ecosystems approach towards agriculture, are leading to a rethinking of the

  20. The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from

  1. Center for Animal Health and Food Safety www.cahfs.umn.edu 612-625-8709

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Medicine www.cvm.umn.edu 612-626-8387 Can dogs become infected with Ebola? Very little is known about how dogs or other animals respond to Ebola virus. Studies on dogs in West Africa have shown that dogs develop antibodies when exposed to Ebola, suggesting that they may develop mild infections without

  2. DRAFT NOTES ON RESEARCH STRATEGY Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health, and Comparative

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    amphibians, fish, or reptiles such as crocodilians. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.158101 PACS numbers: 87.19.Bb amphibians and fish. It is used to detect water movements along the animal's body for navigation and catching amphibians such as Xenopus [5] possess about 180 lateral-line organs distributed in various lines along

  3. Comparison of milk yield and animal health in Turkish farms with differing stall types and resting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-02-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  4. Comparison of Milk Yield and Animal Health in Turkish Farms with Differing Stall Types and Resting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  5. Health economic evaluation of treatments for Alzheimer's disease: impact of new diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Wimo, A; Ballard, C; Brayne, C; Gauthier, S; Handels, R; Jones, R W; Jonsson, L; Khachaturian, A S; Kramberger, M

    2014-03-01

    The socio-economic impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias is enormous, and the potential economic challenges ahead are clear given the projected future numbers of individuals with these conditions. Because of the high prevalence and cost of dementia, it is very important to assess any intervention from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. The diagnostic criteria for preclinical AD suggested by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association workgroups in combination with the goal of effective disease-modifying treatment (DMT) are, however, a challenge for clinical practice and for the design of clinical trials. Key issues for future cost-effectiveness studies include the following: (i) the consequences for patients if diagnosis is shifted from AD-dementia to predementia states, (ii) bridging the gap between clinical trial populations and patients treated in clinical practice, (iii) translation of clinical trial end-points into measures that are meaningful to patients and policymakers/payers and (iv) how to measure long-term effects. To improve cost-effectiveness studies, long-term population-based data on disease progression, costs and outcomes in clinical practice are needed not only in dementia but also in predementia states. Reliable surrogate end-points in clinical trials that are sensitive to detect effects even in predementia states are also essential as well as robust and validated modelling methods from predementia states that also take into account comorbidities and age. Finally, the ethical consequences of early diagnosis should be considered. PMID:24605810

  6. Credentialing of diagnostic x-ray technologists: a question of public health impact.

    PubMed Central

    Audet, M F; Johnson, D W

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the number of diagnostic x-ray examinations performed in the United States, the population dose delivered, the percentage of that dose contributed by credentialed and noncredentialed operators, and one measure of performance: collimation of the x-ray beam. An estimated 82 per cent of medical x-ray examinations are performed by voluntarily certified (ARRT or ARCRT) operators. These procedures contribute 90 per cent of the radiation dose to the population. Data from the Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends (NEXT) program indicate that certified operators collimate the x-ray beam somewhat better than noncertified for chest examinations. They also indicate that differences in collimation practices may be attributed to the type of facility as well as to the credentials of the operators. One-third of the medical x-ray machines are in states presently requiring licensure of operators. It appears from these estimates that instituting operator licensure in the remaining states may reduce population dose by a maximum of one or two per cent. PMID:3976952

  7. Using Animal Models To Study Human Diseases Animal models are required for our understanding of human anatomy, physiology, health and life in

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Using Animal Models To Study Human Diseases Animal models are required for our understanding the use of animal models, many advances in medicine and the overall scientific knowledge we have would observations. How many differently sized worms do you see? Draw each in the provided space. Do you see

  8. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Cushing's Tests and Equine Metabolic Syndrome Tests. Endocrinology62.00 ACTH: TRH Response, Equine, three** Samples Container Coolant Comments Equine Tests Equine Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 4 hours for equine. For more information, see Equine Cushing's Tests or AppendixC. For Equine only

  9. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    -Extracted Drugs STAT+25 2 days 1) 4 mL heparinized plasma transferred to red top; 2) 10 mL heparinized whole blood.00 per sample Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) M-Sa 1-2 days 1) 1 mL separated serum or heparinized plasma Pathology 16.00 Albumin M-Sa 1-2 days 1) 1 mL separated serum or heparinized plasma; 2) fluid; 3) 2 mL urine

  10. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    -Extracted Drugs STAT+25 2 days 1) 4 mL heparinized plasma transferred to red top; 2) 10 mL heparinized whole blood Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) M-Sa 1-2 days 1) 1 mL separated serum or heparinized plasma; 2) fluid plain; 3) 50 mL urine 1) red top blood collection tube; 2) green top blood collection tube; 3) sterile

  11. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Test and Fee Schedule Test Name Test Fee Discipline Test Days Lag** Samples Container Coolant Comments

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    ** Samples Container Coolant Comments Feline Tests Feline Tests Acid Fast Stain (for bacteria) M-F 1-2 days 1 Tests, Equine Cushings Tests , Feline Adrenal Function Tests, or Appendix C. Endocrinology22.00 ACTH Tests , Feline Adrenal Function Tests, or Appendix C. Endocrinology30.00 Aerobic Bacterial Culture M-F 2

  12. 7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator...Health Inspection Service. 2.80 Section 2.80 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF...

  13. The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

  14. Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health

    PubMed Central

    Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

  15. Reverse iontophoresis of urea in health and chronic kidney disease: a potential diagnostic and monitoring tool?

    PubMed Central

    Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 ?A was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P < 0·0001), to 3·5 h current application (r = 0·89, P = 0·007). The linear equations y = 0·24x + 1 and y = 0·21x + 4·63 predicted plasma urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P < 0·0001), with the separation between the two groups becoming more apparent with longer application (P = 0·003). A cathodal urea cut-off of 30 ?M gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring. PMID:22409780

  16. Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

  17. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  18. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a)...

  1. Subsyndromal depression and anxiety in older adults: health related, functional, cognitive and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Kasckow, J W; Karp, J F; Whyte, E; Butters, M; Brown, C; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F

    2013-05-01

    Subsyndromal depression in later life is common in primary care. Comorbid anxiety disorders could exacerbate the negative effect of subsyndromal depression on functioning, health-related quality of life, comorbidity and/or cognition. We examined anxiety disorders co-existing with subsyndromal depression in participants ? age 50 in an NIH trial of Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care for indicated prevention of major depression. There were 247 participants, with Centers for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scores ? 11. Participants could have multiple psychiatric diagnoses: 22% of the sample had no DSM IV diagnosis; 39% of the sample had only 1 DSM IV diagnosis; 28% had 2 diagnoses; 6% had 3 DSM IV diagnoses; 4% had 4 DSM IV diagnoses; and 1% had 5 diagnoses. Furthermore, 34% of participants had a current comorbid DSM IV diagnosis of a syndromal anxiety disorder. We hypothesized that those with subsyndromal depression, alone relative to those with co-existing anxiety disorders, would report better health-related quality of life, less disability, less medical comorbidity and less cognitive impairment. However, there were no differences in quality of life based on the SF 12 nor in disability based on Late Life Function and Disability Instrument scores. There were no differences in medical comorbidity based on the Cumulative Illness Scale-Geriatrics scale scores nor in cognitive function based on the Executive Interview (EXIT), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Mini-Mental Status Exam. Our findings suggest that about one third of participants 50 years and older with subsyndromal depression have comorbid anxiety disorders; however, this does not appear to be associated with worse quality of life, functioning, disability, cognitive function or medical comorbidity. PMID:23414701

  2. Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of Avian Influenza Jessica H. Leibler,1 Joachim Otte,2 David Roland-Holst,3 Dirk U. Pfeiffer,4 Ricardo with public health interests. Keywords: influenza A virus, avian, poultry, zoonoses, agriculture, biosecurity infection in 1999, SARS in 2002, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from This article

  3. Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

    2001-06-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

  4. United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS 8135008 January 2004

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    with entry, establishment, or spread of an invasive species such as the giant African snail. The Giant species of this snail family are capable of becoming agricultural pests here and can pose a serious health a trip to Hawaii. His grandmother eventually released the snails into her garden. Seven years later, more

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella sp. in domestic cats in an animal shelter and the comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques as diagnostic tools 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Melinda J.

    2004-11-15

    Previous studies on the prevalence of Salmonella in cats have used a variety of culture methods producing a variety of results, but none have been compared to PCR. Using a double enrichment protocol developed at Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic...

  6. Graphical display of diagnostic test results in electronic health Records: a comparison of 8 systems.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Murphy, Daniel R; Smith, Michael W; Russo, Elise; Wright, Adam; Singh, Hardeep

    2015-07-01

    Accurate display and interpretation of clinical laboratory test results is essential for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. In an attempt to ascertain how well current electronic health records (EHRs) facilitated these processes, we evaluated the graphical displays of laboratory test results in eight EHRs using objective criteria for optimal graphs based on literature and expert opinion. None of the EHRs met all 11 criteria; the magnitude of deficiency ranged from one EHR meeting 10 of 11 criteria to three EHRs meeting only 5 of 11 criteria. One criterion (i.e., the EHR has a graph with y-axis labels that display both the name of the measured variable and the units of measure) was absent from all EHRs. One EHR system graphed results in reverse chronological order. One EHR system plotted data collected at unequally-spaced points in time using equally-spaced data points, which had the effect of erroneously depicting the visual slope perception between data points. This deficiency could have a significant, negative impact on patient safety. Only two EHR systems allowed users to see, hover-over, or click on a data point to see the precise values of the x-y coordinates. Our study suggests that many current EHR-generated graphs do not meet evidence-based criteria aimed at improving laboratory data comprehension. PMID:25792704

  7. Community Health Workers Use Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) Safely and Accurately: Results of a Longitudinal Study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Counihan, Helen; Harvey, Steven A.; Sekeseke-Chinyama, Masela; Hamainza, Busiku; Banda, Rose; Malambo, Thindo; Masaninga, Freddie; Bell, David

    2012-01-01

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could radically improve febrile illness management in remote and low-resource populations. However, reliance upon community health workers (CHWs) remains controversial because of concerns about blood safety and appropriate use of artemisinin combination therapy. This study assessed CHW ability to use RDTs safely and accurately up to 12 months post-training. We trained 65 Zambian CHWs, and then provided RDTs, job-aids, and other necessary supplies for village use. Observers assessed CHW performance at 3, 6, and 12 months post-training. Critical steps performed correctly increased from 87.5% at 3 months to 100% subsequently. However, a few CHWs incorrectly read faint positive or invalid results as negative. Although most indicators improved or remained stable over time, interpretation of faint positives fell to 76.7% correct at 12 months. We conclude that appropriately trained and supervised CHWs can use RDTs safely and accurately in community practice for up to 12 months post-training. PMID:22764292

  8. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  9. Evaluation and delivery of domestic animal health services in remote communities in the Northwest Territories: A case study of status and needs

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Ryan K.; Kutz, Susan J.; Millins, Caroline; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.; Leighton, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Domestic animal health services are supplied to communities in Canada’s Northwest Territories (NT) in diverse ways, including private veterinary practices in 2 of 33 communities, and by mail-order, fly-in, free clinics, and a government-coordinated lay vaccinator program in some of the other 31 communities. We evaluated delivery, needs, and potential uptake of domestic animal health services in the Sahtu Settlement Area, NT by offering free clinics for 225 dogs in 2008 and 2009; and administered questionnaires to 42 dog owners and 67 students in 2008. Owners indicated that 20% of dogs were neutered, 37% had had rabies vaccinations, and 29% had been dewormed. Physical examination of dogs demonstrated that 54% were “thin” and 4% were “emaciated.” Owners and youth showed a range of attitudes toward dogs and supported improved domestic animal health services. Future services need to build on existing programs and collaborate with communities to ensure relevance, ownership, and sustainability. PMID:21197203

  10. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

  11. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

  12. Decision making for animal health and welfare: integrating risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2014-06-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers' choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers' assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers' management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

  13. Animal and public health implications of gastric colonization of cats by Helicobacter-like organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Otto, G; Hazell, S H; Fox, J G; Howlett, C R; Murphy, J C; O'Rourke, J L; Lee, A

    1994-01-01

    The bacterial genus Helicobacter contains a number of species which colonize the gastric mucosa of mammals. Natural and/or experimental gastric pathology has been correlated with colonization in humans and a wide variety of animal species. Historical reports in the literature suggest that a high percentage of cats are colonized by large, spiral, gastric helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs). One of these bacteria (Helicobacter felis) has been isolated on artificial media and has experimentally caused gastritis in gnotobiotic dogs. This study surveyed the prevalence of helicobacter colonization in random-source cats by using the urease assay. Histologic examination was performed to determine the degree of associated pathology present. GHLOs associated with chronic gastritis were present in 70% of the juvenile and 97% of the adult cats studied. Although further study is needed to determine specifically what role GHLOs play in feline gastrointestinal disease, these results indicate that helicobacter colonization should be considered in the pathogenesis of feline gastroenteropathy. Furthermore, the high prevalence of feline infection is interesting because cats have recently been implicated as a potential reservoir for human infection by helicobacter-like organisms. Images PMID:8027308

  14. Evaluation of individually ventilated cage systems for laboratory rodents: cage environment and animal health aspects.

    PubMed

    Höglund, A U; Renström, A

    2001-01-01

    The use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become an attractive housing regime of laboratory rodents. The benefits of IVC systems are, reportedly, a high degree of containment combined with relative ease of handling, and a high degree of protection from allergenes. In the present study we tested whether two IVC systems (BioZone VentiRack, IVC1 and Techniplast SealSafe, IVC2S), in which we held mature male NMRI mice, were constructed to maintain a constant differential pressure, positive or negative, during a prolonged period of time. We also measured ammonia (NH3) concentrations after about 2 weeks of use, and CO2 build-up during a 60 min simulated power failure situation. In addition, animal weight development and bite-wound frequency were recorded (Renström et al. 2000). From the present study it is concluded that the IVC1 air handling system provides a more uniform and balanced differential pressure than the IVC2S. Both systems effectively scavenge NH3 when bedding material is not soaked by urine. Although the IVCs are dependent on the continual function of the fans to work properly, it seems unlikely that CO2 concentrations increase to hazardous levels, as a result of a one hour power failure, with the type of cages used in this study. Differences in weight development and bite-wound occurrence were noted between the two IVC systems. Causes for these differences could not be established and need more investigation. PMID:11201288

  15. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare National Institutes of Health PublicHealthService PolicyonHumane Care and Use of LaboratoryAnimals #12;Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Revised August, 2002 #12;Preface This 2002 reprint of the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Animal Bite Victims Attending an Anti-rabies Health Center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P.; Mor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings Between July 2012 and March 2013 a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 384 bite victims or their guardians in the case of minors (aged <15 years). Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using generalized linear models. Almost all participants (99%) were aware that rabies was transmitted by the bite or lick of a rabid dog, however only 20.1% identified “germs” as the cause of disease. A majority of participants stated rabies could be prevented by avoiding dog bites (64.6%) and confining dogs (53.9%); fewer (41.7%) recognized vaccination of dogs/cats as an important preventive strategy. Regarding attitudes, most (91.1%) agreed that medical evaluation should be sought as soon as possible. However, most (75.0%) also believed that traditional healers could cure rabies. Rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p = 0.015) and Protestant religion (OR = 2.4, p = 0.041) were independently associated with this belief. Among 186 participants who owned dogs, only 9 (4.8%) had ever vaccinated their dog and more than 90% of respondents indicated that their dog was free-roaming or cohabitated with the family. Only 7.0% of participants applied correct first aid following exposure, and the majority (47.7%) reported that the animal was killed by the community following the incident. Female sex and Muslim religion were independently associated with higher and lower practices scores, respectively, due largely to differences in animal management practices following the incident. Conclusions/Significance Although respondents demonstrated reasonably sound knowledge of rabies and its transmission, attitudes and practices were inconsistent with rabies prevention. Culturally- and gender-sensitive activities that promote proper first aid and healthcare seeking behavior as well as appropriate animal management, particularly in rural areas, are needed to prevent deaths associated with rabies in this setting. PMID:26114573

  17. A USN development strategy and demonstration results for propulsion and mechanical systems diagnostics, prognostics and health management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Hardman; Andrew Hess; David Blunt

    2001-01-01

    A US Navy strategy was generated and is still evolving to develop and demonstrate diagnostics and prognostics for helicopter drive trains. The SH-60 program was initiated as a proof-of-concept effort to develop, demonstrate, and integrate available and advanced mechanical diagnostic technologies for propulsion and power drive system monitoring. Included in these technologies were various rule based and model based analysis

  18. Early experiences on the feasibility, acceptability, and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests at peripheral health centres in Uganda-insights into some barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While feasibility of new health technologies in well-resourced healthcare settings is extensively documented, it is largely unknown in low-resourced settings. Uganda's decision to deploy and scale up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) in public health facilities and at the community level provides a useful entry point for documenting field experience, acceptance, and predictive variables for technology acceptance and use. These findings are important in informing implementation of new health technologies, plans, and budgets in low-resourced national disease control programmes. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study at 21 health centres in Uganda was undertaken in 2007 to elucidate the barriers and facilitators in the introduction of mRDTs as a new diagnostic technology at lower-level health facilities. Pre-tested interview questionnaires were administered through pre-structured patient exit interviews and semi-structured health worker interviews to gain an understanding of the response to this implementation. A conceptual framework on technology acceptance and use was adapted for this study and used to prepare the questionnaires. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes from the data. Results A total of 52 of 57 health workers (92%) reported a belief that a positive mRDT result was true, although only 41 of 57 (64%) believed that treatment with anti-malarials was justified for every positive mRDT case. Of the same health workers, only 49% believed that a negative mRDT result was truly negative. Factors linked to these findings were related to mRDT acceptance and use, including the design and characteristics of the device, availability and quality of mRDT ancillary supplies, health worker capacity to investigate febrile cases testing negative with the device and provide appropriate treatment, availability of effective malaria treatments, reliability of the health commodity supply chain, existing national policy recommendations, individual health worker dynamism, and vitality of supervision. Conclusions mRDTs were found to be acceptable to and used by the target users, provided clear policy guidelines exist, ancillary tools are easy to use and health supplies beyond the diagnostic tools are met. Based on our results, health workers' needs for comprehensive case management should be met, and specific guidance for managing febrile patients with negative test outcomes should be provided alongside the new health technology. The extent, to which the implementation process of mRDT-led, parasite-based diagnosis accommodates end user beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and satisfaction, as well as technology learnability and suitability, influences the level of acceptance and use of mRDTs. The effectiveness of the health system in providing the enabling environment and the integration of the diagnostic tool into routine service delivery is critical. PMID:22269037

  19. Animal Cell Mitosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

  20. Animal Health Problems Attributed to Environmental Contamination in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya: A Case Study on Heavy Metal Poisoning in the Waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa (Ruppel 1835)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Jumba; S. M. Kisia; R. Kock

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted in which samples of soil, forage, as well as serum, bone, kidney, and liver of waterbuck were collected\\u000a from Lake Nakuru National Park. The objective was to determine the ecosystem health status in order to establish the causes\\u000a of animal health problems previously recorded in some sections of the Park. Trace element analysis in serum indicated

  1. Getting antimalarials on target: impact of national roll-out of malaria rapid diagnostic tests on health facility treatment in three regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Nchimbi, Happy; Festo, Charles; Taylor, Mark; Thomson, Rebecca; Cairns, Matthew; Thwing, Julie; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment is recommended for patients of all ages, with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) an important tool to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to patients with malaria. To evaluate the impact on case management practices of routine government implementation of mRDTs, we conducted large-scale health facility surveys in three regions of Tanzania before and after mRDT roll-out. Methods Febrile patients at randomly selected health facilities were interviewed about care received at the facility, and blood samples were collected for reference blood smears. Health facility staff were interviewed about their qualifications and availability of malaria diagnostics and drugs. Results The percentage of febrile patients tested for malaria at the facility increased from 15.8% in 2010 to 54.9% in 2012. ACTs were obtained by 65.8% of patients positive by reference blood smear in 2010 and by 50.2% in 2012 (P = 0.0675); no antimalarial was obtained by 57.8% of malaria-negative patients in 2010 and by 82.3% in 2012 (P < 0.0001). Overall, ACT use decreased (39.9–21.3%, P < 0.0001) and antibiotic use increased (31.2–48.5%, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Roll-out of mRDTs in Tanzania dramatically improved diagnostic testing for malaria and reduced overuse of ACTs for patients without parasitemia. However, post–roll-out almost 50% of febrile patients did not receive a diagnostic test, and almost 50% of patients testing positive did not receive ACTs. Stock-outs of ACTs and mRDTs were important problems. Further investigation is needed to determine reasons for not providing ACTs to patients with malaria and potential for inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:23937722

  2. An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

    2014-07-16

    Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread. PMID:24629777

  3. Integrating databases for research on health and performance in small animals and horses in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane; Roepstorff, Lars; Bonnett, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In a world of limited resources, using existing databases in research is a potentially cost-effective way to increase knowledge, given that correct and meaningful results are gained.Nordic examples of the use of secondary small animal and equine databases include studies based on data from tumour registries, breeding registries, young horse quality contest results, competition data, insurance databases, clinic data, prescription data and hunting ability tests. In spite of this extensive use of secondary databases, integration between databases is less common. The aim of this presentation is to briefly review key papers that exemplify different ways of utilizing data from multiple sources, to highlight the benefits and limitations of the approaches, to discuss key issues/challenges that must be addressed when integrating data and to suggest future directions. Data from pedigree databases have been individually merged with competition data and young horse quality contest data, and true integration has also been done with canine insurance data and with equine clinical data. Data have also been merged on postal code level; i.e. insurance data were merged to a digitized map of Sweden and additional meteorological information added. In addition to all the data quality and validity issues inherent in the use of a single database, additional obstacles arise when combining information from several databases. Loss of individuals due to incorrect or mismatched identifying information can be considerable. If there are any possible biases affecting whether or not individuals can be properly linked, misinformation may result in a further reduction in power. Issues of confidentiality may be more difficult to address across multiple databases. For example, human identity information must be protected, but may be required to ensure valid merging of data. There is a great potential to better address complex issues of health and disease in companion animals and horses by integrating information across existing databases. The challenges outlined in this article should not preclude the ongoing pursuit of this approach. PMID:21999438

  4. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  5. CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: ?Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health? sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

  6. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Vol. 2 (4) pp. xxx-xxx, July, 2010 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JVMAH

    E-print Network

    Girondot, Marc

    Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Vol. 2 (4) pp. xxx-xxx, July, 2010 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JVMAH ISSN 2141-2529 © 2010 Academic Journals Review paper Sex. Owners or breeders of turtles generally know that temperature-dependent sex determination occurs

  7. The human and animal health impacts of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of West Nile virus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Roche, Sharon; Ward, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    Vector-borne diseases can have substantial impacts on human and animal health, including major epidemics. West Nile virus (WNV) is of particular international importance due to its recent emergence and impact in the Western Hemisphere. Despite the presence of a sub-type of WNV (Kunjin virus, KUN) in Australia, a potential ecological niche could be occupied by an exotic strain of WNV of the North American type. This study assesses the probability an exotic strain of WNV enters Australia via an infected mosquito in an aircraft from the United States (U.S.) landing at Sydney airport, the probability it spreads to susceptible species and the impact of the resulting outbreak on human and animal health. A release, exposure and consequence assessment were conducted using expert opinion and scientific literature to parameterise the inputs for the models (OIE, 2009). Following establishment of WNV in Australia, the spatio-temporal spread of WNV was predicted over a six year period based on the Australian human and equine populations at-risk, the known distribution of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses in Australia, climatic factors, and the spread of WNV in the U.S. following it's incursion in New York City in 1999. The impact of this spread was measured as a multiplier of human and equine demographics using the U.S. incidence and case fatality rates as a reference. For an 8 month period from September to April (considering seasonal impact on mosquito activity during the coldest months in Australia and the U.S.), and assuming WNV is endemic in the U.S., the median probability an infected mosquito is introduced is 0.17, and the median number of infected mosquitoes introduced is predicted to be zero, with a 95th percentile range of one. The overall probability of a WNV outbreak (WNV released into Australia, susceptible hosts exposed and the virus spread) occurring in the human and the horse population during this time period is estimated to be 7.0×10(-6) and 3.9×10(-6), respectively. These values are largely influenced by the presence of mosquitoes in aircrafts and whether the introduced infected mosquito contacts wild birds. Results of this study suggest there is a low risk of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of WNV from the U.S via aircraft, and provides an insight into the magnitude and impact of the spread among human and horse populations. The generic framework presented could be applied to assess the potential introduction of other mosquito-borne diseases (which involve a wild bird transmission cycle) via international aircraft movements. PMID:23098914

  8. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Wim; Römkens, Paul F A M; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the risk of elevated soil metal concentrations requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil in view of ecological and human toxicological risks. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies to derive critical total metal concentrations in soils for Cd, Pb, and Hg as relevant to health effects on animals and humans, taking into account the effect of soil properties. The approach is based on the use of nonlinear relationships for metals in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates, including soil properties that affect metal availability in soil. Results indicate that the impact of soil properties on critical soil metal concentrations is mainly relevant for Cd because of significant soil-plant, soil-solution, and soil-worm relationships. Critical Cd levels in soil thus derived are sometimes lower than those related to ecotoxicological impacts on soil organisms/processes and plants, which is especially true for critical soil Cd concentrations in view of food quality criteria for wheat, drinking water quality, and acceptable daily intakes of worm-eating birds and mammals. There are, however, large uncertainties involved in the derivation from assumptions made in the calculation and uncertainties in acceptable daily intakes and in relationships for Cd in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates. Despite these uncertainties, the analyses indicate that present Cd concentrations in parts of the rural areas are in excess of the critical levels at which effects in both agricultural and nonagricultural systems can occur. PMID:17708073

  9. Animal origin foods and colorectal cancer risk: A report from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Shu, Xiao Ou; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The association of animal-origin food consumption and cooking patterns with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was evaluated in a cohort of 73,224 participants of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. After a mean follow-up time of 7.4 years, 394 incident cases of CRC (colon=236; rectal=158) were diagnosed. Overall, no association was found between the risk of CRC and intake of total meat and total fish. Eel (P trend =0.01), shrimp (P trend =0.06), and shellfish (P trend =0.04) consumption were positively associated with CRC risk. High egg intake and high intake of total cholesterol were also related to risk of CRC (RR for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0) for eggs and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.3) for cholesterol). Milk intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon cancer (P trend =0.05). Common Chinese cooking practices except the ‘smoked’ method of cooking were related to CRC risk. The latter was positively associated with colon cancer (RR =1.4 for ever versus never, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). A possible role of cholesterol and environmental pollution in the etiology of CRC was suggested. PMID:19235035

  10. Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program Approved by AACUC May 2003 Goals The goals of the Agricultural Animal Care Training Program are to ensure animal well-being, the validity and effectiveness of research and teaching activities, and the health and safety of animal care

  11. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. A review of RT-PCR technologies used in veterinary virology and disease control: Sensitive and specific diagnosis of five livestock diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Hoffmann; Martin Beer; Scott M. Reid; Peter Mertens; Chris A. L. Oura; Piet A. van Rijn; Marek J. Slomka; Jill Banks; Ian H. Brown; Dennis J. Alexander; Donald P. King

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods in the field of molecular diagnostics and research. The potential of this format to provide sensitive, specific and swift detection and quantification of viral RNAs has made it an indispensable tool for state-of-the-art diagnostics of important human and animal viral pathogens. Integration of these

  20. Diagnostic History and Treatment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs On This Page Key findings One-half ... identified as having ASD by a range of health care providers. School-aged CSHCN identified as having ASD ...

  1. Aquatic Animal Health Service

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    State Aquarium; research scientist and head veterinarian at the New England Aquarium; committee member Association of Zoos and Aquariums. In 2007, Dr.Weber joined the UC Davis School ofVeterinary Medicine

  2. Purdue extension Animal Sciences

    E-print Network

    of the breeding season. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) indicates that less than 20% of beefPurdue extension AS-586-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West Lemenager, and Mr. Matt Claeys, Purdue Beef Team, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University A major

  3. From a genetic innovation to mass health programmes: The diffusion of Down's Syndrome prenatal screening and diagnostic techniques in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carine Vassy

    2006-01-01

    Down's Syndrome prenatal diagnostic and screening techniques have spread widely in France over the last 30 years and are now part of the routine clinical practice of prenatal care. These techniques, which originated in the field of genetics, ultrasonography and biochemistry, were the first to provide the possibility of choosing the features of the foetus, or at least to reject

  4. Marketing Animal Facilitated Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine Howell-Newman; Robert L. Goldman

    1994-01-01

    Animal Facilitated Therapy (AFT) is the therapeutic use of the human-animal bond to improve a patient's physical and emotional health. It is an emerging treatment modality that is gaining acceptance among medical practitioners and healthcare administrators. Medical care has traditionally focused on the clinical well-being of the patient. But it is now widely recognized that emotional health is an integral

  5. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    animals. We create self-animating, autonomous agents which emulate the realistic appearance, movementArtificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior ¡ Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics

  6. The effect of a community-based animal health service programme on livestock mortality, off-take and selected husbandry applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Hüttner; K Leidl; D. U Pfeiffer; D Kasambara; F. B. D Jere

    2001-01-01

    Mortality, off-take and husbandry measures of 96 randomly selected users of a community-based animal health (BAHS) programme were compared with 96 matched part-users and 96 non-users, respectively. More than 5000 farm visits were conducted between July 1997 and February 1999, of which 3724 visits were used for this evaluation. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare farm characteristics and

  7. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

  8. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a)...

  15. Access, acceptability and utilization of community health workers using diagnostics for case management of fever in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of diagnostics in integrated community case management (iCCM) of fever is recognized as an important step in improving rational use of drugs and quality of care for febrile under-five children. This study assessed household access, acceptability and utilization of community health workers (CHWs) trained and provided with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and respiratory rate timers (RRTs) to practice iCCM. Methods A total of 423 households with under-five children were enrolled into the study in Iganga district, Uganda. Households were selected from seven villages in Namungalwe sub-county using probability proportionate to size sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers in selected households. Data were entered into Epidata statistical software, and analysed using SPSS Statistics 17.0, and STATA version 10. Results Most (86%, 365/423) households resided within a kilometre of a CHW’s home, compared to 26% (111/423) residing within 1 km of a health facility (p?health facility were 72% (AOR 1.72; 95% CI 1.11–2.68) more likely to utilize CHW services compared to households within 1 km of a health facility. Households located 1–3 km from a CHW were 81% (AOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.10–0.36) less likely to utilize CHW services compared to those households residing within 1 km of a CHW. A majority (79%, 336/423) of respondents thought CHWs services were better with RDTs, and 89% (375/423) approved CHWs’ continued use of RDTs. Eighty-six percent (209/243) of respondents who visited a CHW thought RRTs were useful. Conclusion ICCM with diagnostics is acceptable, increases access, and is the first choice for caregivers of febrile children. More than half of caregivers of febrile children utilized CHW services over a three-month period. However, one-third of caregivers used drug shops in spite of the presence of CHWs. PMID:22521034

  16. Nonparametric predictive inference for binary diagnostic tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahani Coolen-Maturi; Pauline Coolen-Schrijner; Frank P. A. Coolen

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic tests is crucial in many application areas including medicine, health care and data mining. Good methods for determining diagnostic accuracy provide useful guidance on selection of patient treatment, and the ability to compare different diagnostic tests has a direct impact on quality of care. In this paper nonparametric predictive inference (NPI) for accuracy of diagnostic

  17. A Novel NanoPipetting Solution for the Development of High Quality BioChip Arrays for Diagnostic Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas J. Schuetz; Lothar Prix; Michael Giesing; Hans-Joerg Grill; Werner J. Haelg; Nik Ingenhoven; Johanna Neumayer; Regula Stoerrlein

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic progress in the analysis of human, animal and plant genomes as well as parallel developments such as the human cancer gene anatomy project have created an enormous demand for low-cost high throughput technologies for DNA and RNA analysis. Chip-based molecular techniques- if available in satisfactory quality for diagnostic applications- will enable major analytical issues in health care such

  18. An Integrated Health-Economic Analysis of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Pietzsch, Jan B.; Garner, Abigail; Cipriano, Lauren E.; Linehan, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with substantially increased cardiovascular risks, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of motor vehicle collisions due to daytime sleepiness. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of three commonly used diagnostic strategies (full-night polysomnography, split-night polysomnography, unattended portable home-monitoring) in conjunction with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. Design: A Markov model was created to compare costs and effectiveness of different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies over a 10-year interval and the expected lifetime of the patient. The primary measure of cost-effectiveness was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients or Participants: Baseline computations were performed for a hypothetical average cohort of 50-year-old males with a 50% pretest probability of having moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] ? 15 events per hour). Measurements and Results: For a patient with moderate-to-severe OSA, CPAP therapy has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $15,915 per QALY gained for the lifetime horizon. Over the lifetime horizon in a population with 50% prevalence of OSA, full-night polysomnography in conjunction with CPAP therapy is the most economically efficient strategy at any willingness-to-pay greater than $17,131 per-QALY gained because it dominates all other strategies in comparative analysis. Conclusions: Full-night polysomnography (PSG) is cost-effective and is the preferred diagnostic strategy for adults suspected to have moderate-to-severe OSA when all diagnostic options are available. Split-night PSG and unattended home monitoring can be considered cost-effective alternatives when full-night PSG is not available. Citation: Pietzsch JB; Garner A; Cipriano LE; Linehan JH. An integrated health-economic analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the treatment of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2011;34(6):695-709. PMID:21629357

  19. Understanding Animal Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

    2009-01-01

    The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

  20. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The supplemental...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health, Inc., 8857...

  1. Diagnostic interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ileana Calinoiu; Jon McClellan

    2004-01-01

    This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents.\\u000a Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating\\u000a biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based)\\u000a measures use a set script and record subject’s responses without

  2. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  3. This form must be submitted to the Graduate College prior to any activity that involves human or animal subjects, intellectual property issues, or environmental health and safety training. This form must include

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    or animal subjects, intellectual property issues, or environmental health and safety training. This form of the need to fully comply with the requirements that I must follow concerning the rights and welfare of human or animal subjects while pursuing the research f r my thesis or dissertation. I further certify

  4. Applications of the thermography in the animal production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeiro, Carlos; Vizcaino, Elena; Morales, Joaquín.; Manso, Alberto; Díaz, Immaculada; Montalvo, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography is a working technology for over decades, which have been applied mainly in the buildings. We want to move this use to the animal production in order to help us to detect problems of energy efficiency in the facilities preventing, for example, the animal's welfare. In animal production it is necessary to provide a suitable microclimate according to age and production stage of the animals. This microclimate is achieved in the facilities through the environment modification artificially, providing an appropriate comfort for the animals. Many of the problems detected in farms are related to a poor environmental management and control. This is where infrared thermography becomes an essential diagnostic tool to detect failures in the facilities that will be related with health and performance of the animals. The use of this technology in energy audits for buildings, facilities, etc. is becoming more frequent, enabling the technician to easily detect and assess the temperature and energy losses, and it can be used as a support to draft reports and to transmit the situation to the owner in a visual format. In this way, both will be able to decide what improvements are required. Until now, there was not an appropriate technology with affordable prices and easy to manage enough in order to allow the use of the thermography like a routine tool for the diagnostic of these problems, but currently there are some solutions which are starting to appear on the market to meet the requirements needed by the industry.

  5. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOPROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF CARCINOGEN-TREATED ANIMAL TISSUES AND HUMAN CELLS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  6. Direct analysis of carbohydrates in animal plasma by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and pulsed amperometric detection for use as a non-invasive diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Darja; Smidovnik, Andrej; Jazbec-Križman, Petra; Križman, Mitja; Prošek, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    The present paper demonstrates that electrochemical detection (ECD) coupled to ion chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ECD-ESI/MS/MS) can be used to rapidly estimate some indications of the health status of organisms. The lactulose to mannitol ratio (L/M) is used as a non-invasive assay to investigate small intestinal absorption pathways and mucosal integrity. In the present study, an evaluation of the negative effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam perorally administrated to a group of dogs was carried out by determining the lactulose/mannitol index using the IC-ECD-ESI/MS/MS hyphenated technique. According to the results of the study, meloxicam altered gastrointestinal permeability. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) was tested to determine if it could prevent meloxicam induced gastrointestinal damage and it was found that CoQ(10) could be an effective preventive treatment. Furthermore, plasma glucose concentration level was determined to be an indirect indicator of the oxidative state in the blood. To find out the beneficial effects of a double antioxidant combination (?-lipoic acid (ALA) and CoQ(10)) on the total glucose level in chickens, ALA and CoQ(10) were provided as food additives in factory farm raised chicken. The results of the pilot study indicate that the glucose level in the plasma of chickens group fed with CoQ(10) and ALA was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Ion chromatography (IC) utilizing pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was compared to ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as an analytical tool for monitoring the carbohydrate level in biological fluids. In electrochemical detection, the newly developed two-pulse waveform successfully withstands matrix effects in biological samples. Continuous on-line desalting of the high salt concentrations used as the eluent for carbohydrate separation from the anion-exchange column allows coupling of IC and MS techniques. A make-up solution (0.5mM LiCl) was delivered prior to MS detection for efficient ionization of eluted carbohydrates. Method validation showed that both used techniques are practically comparable and some advantages of each are presented. PMID:22041089

  7. Onco-epidemiology of domestic animals and targeted therapeutic attempts: perspectives on human oncology.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; De Vico, Gionata; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2014-11-01

    The spontaneous tumor biology has been investigated with the support of animalists using animals as a preclinical model allowing translation of results in clinical practice. This review provides an insight into the field of comparative oncology. Evidence shows that companion animal health care is impressively growing in terms of development of new therapies and diagnostic tools, nutrition and disease prevention. However, even if most animal tumors might be a reliable model to study human carcinomas, many open questions, related to the opportunities to select and recruit new models in oncology, along with their legal and ethical implications, remain unanswered. PMID:24816783

  8. Availability and potential value of high-frequency vibration information for aviation diagnostics, prognostics, and health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenow, Theodore C.; Karchnak, Marty F.

    2001-07-01

    In recent years, a series of aviation component health projects have employed a Robust Laser Interferometer. These projects have included turbine engine seeded fault testing at Pratt and Whitney, rotorcraft gearbox measurements in Sikorsky test cells, and rotorcraft gearbox and hanger bearing measurements in U.S. Navy test facilities such as those at Patuxent River, Maryland. Augmenting investigations have also been undertaken.

  9. Interdisciplinary diagnostics in environmental medicine – findings and follow-up in patients with chronic medically unexplained health complaints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline E. W. Herr; Ines Kopka; Jens Mach; Bettina Runkel; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Uwe Gieler; Thomas F. Eikmann

    2004-01-01

    Problem: In patients attributing their chronic, medically unexplained complaints to environmental factors the greatest challenge is to overcome their disabling belief in toxicogenic explanations.Method: Patients presenting with health complaints that they attributed to environmental causes in an environmental outpatient department (EOPD) within a university medical center in Germany were studied. An interdisciplinary review of previously diagnosed medical conditions, current clinical

  10. Diagnostic interviews.

    PubMed

    Calinoiu, Ileana; McClellan, Jon

    2004-04-01

    This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based) measures use a set script and record subject's responses without interpretation. Thus, they are useful for epidemiologic surveys or other settings in which nonclinical interviewers are used. Semistructured (or interviewer-based) tools allow clinical interpretation of responses as well as the incorporation of other sources of information, thereby making them more relevant for clinicians. Structured diagnostic instruments are currently most often used in research settings, but potentially are useful for clinical settings as well. This review also addresses challenges in psychiatric diagnosis, a brief history of diagnostic standards, and the potential limitations/advantages of using structured diagnostic interviews. PMID:15038910

  11. The mitochondrial genomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Bunostomum phlebotomum – two hookworms of animal health and zoonotic importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron R Jex; Andrea Waeschenbach; Min Hu; Jan A van Wyk; Ian Beveridge; D Timothy J Littlewood; Robin B Gasser

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hookworms are blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize the small intestines of many mammals, including humans and cattle. These nematodes are of major socioeconomic importance and cause disease, mainly as a consequence of anaemia (particularly in children or young animals), resulting in impaired development and sometimes deaths. Studying genetic variability within and among hookworm populations is central to addressing epidemiological and

  12. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah J. Pain; Ruth L. Cromie; Julia Newth; Martin J. Brown; Eric Crutcher; Pippa Hardman; Louise Hurst; Rafael Mateo; Andrew A. Meharg; Annette C. Moran; Andrea Raab; Mark A. Taggart; Rhys E. Green

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact,

  13. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah J. Pain; Ruth L. Cromie; Julia Newth; Martin J. Brown; Eric Crutcher; Pippa Hardman; Louise Hurst; Rafael Mateo; Andrew A. Meharg; Annette C. Moran; Andrea Raab; Mark A. Taggart; Rhys E. Green; Andrew Iwaniuk

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundLead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and

  14. Dermatophytoses in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Chermette; Laerte Ferreiro; Jacques Guillot

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities,\\u000a high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their\\u000a great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible\\u000a for the majority of the cases,

  15. Animal Cloning 101

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  16. Saliva, diagnostics, and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Urdea, M S; Neuwald, P D; Greenberg, B L; Glick, M; Galloway, J; Williams, D; Wong, D T W

    2011-10-01

    Saliva, a scientific and clinical entity familiar to every oral health researcher and dental practitioner, has emerged as a translational and clinical commodity that has reached national visibility at the National Institutes of Health and the President's Office of Science and Technology. "Detecting dozens of diseases in a sample of saliva" was issued by President Obama as one of the 14 Grand Challenges for biomedical research in the 21(st) Century (National Economic Council, 2010). In addition, NIH's 2011 Government Performance Report Act (GPRA) listed 10 initiatives in the high-risk long-term category (Collins, 2011). The mandate is to determine the efficacy of using salivary diagnostics to monitor health and diagnose at least one systemic disease by 2013. The stage is set for the scientific community to capture these national and global opportunities to advance and substantiate the scientific foundation of salivary diagnostics to meet these goals. A specific calling is to the oral, dental, and craniofacial health community. Three areas will be highlighted in this paper: the concept of high-impact diagnostics, the role of dentists in diagnostics, and, finally, an infrastructure currently being developed in the United Kingdom--The UK Biobank--which will have an impact on the translational and clinical utilizations of saliva. PMID:21917745

  17. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Meghzifene; David R. Dance; Donald McLean; Hans-Michael Kramer

    2010-01-01

    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as

  18. [Role of economic studies in animal health decisions: Example of the cost-benefit ratio of eradication of bovine viral diarrhea in France].

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; Repiquet, D; Touratier, A

    1999-08-01

    To help livestock production groups to rationalise health decisions, and at the request of the Association for the certification of livestock health (Association pour la certification de la santé animale en élevage: ACERSA), an economic study was conducted to assess the possible cost-effectiveness of the eradication of bovine virus diarrhoea in France. The study was performed using a fictitious average region comprising 235,000 cattle belonging to 3,300 farms, which corresponds to one-eighty-fifth of the total cattle population of France. In the first phase of the study, the cost of the disease in this region was estimated to be approximately six million French francs (US$989,937) per year. Subsequently, the cost of an eradication strategy based on the inspection of all animals when introduced into a herd, the screening of permanently-infected immunotolerant animals (IPI) and the elimination of these animals, was evaluated at nearly eleven million francs (US$1,814,884) during the first year. Theories were then formulated regarding the time required to achieve eradication (twenty years) and to reduce the epidemiological parameters (development curve of the eradication of IPI animals and of animals which had given positive results to serological tests). The reduction in the cost of the disease as a result of the eradication policy was then simulated in accordance with the evolution of the epidemiological parameters. Finally, the cost of controlling the disease, together with the residual cost of the disease, were compared with the cost of the disease without control measures. This demonstrated that such an eradication policy would, in theory, only begin to become cost-effective after approximately fifteen years. In view of the long period required to achieve cost-effectiveness, the considerable complexity of implementing an eradication programme and imponderables (particularly concerning virus spread), the recommendation of such a course of action to cattle-breeder groups is questionable. This research demonstrates that a relatively simple economic approach can serve as a useful decision-making aid. PMID:10472683

  19. A Vision for Investigating the Microbiology of Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, W Ian

    2015-07-15

    The fields of microbial surveillance, discovery, and pathogenesis are evolving rapidly with introduction of cultivation-independent molecular diagnostic assays and highly multiplexed serologic analyses, as well as the development of animal models and prospective birth cohorts that can provide insights into host and microbial determinants of health and disease. Here, past, present, and future perspectives on these fields are provided. PMID:26116727

  20. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

  1. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

  2. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

  3. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  4. Animal Diagnostic Laboratory Penn State University

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Type(s) No. of Specimens Milk ­ Quarter _ Milk - Composite Bulk Tank ___________ Referral Plate Swab/Treatments: Individual Sample: Herd Survey: Dry Cow Pre-dip type/name: ____________________ Fresh Cow Post-dip type/name:___________________ Mid Lactation Cow Dry treatment type/name: ________________________ Teat End Injury Date of last

  5. AQUACULTURE SUBMISSION FORM Animal Diagnostic Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Method: E-mail FAX E-mail_ FAX US Mail US Mail Do Not Send Report Do Not Send Report VET/FIELD AGENT Distribution Method: Report Distribution Method: E-mail FAX E-mail_ FAX US Mail US Mail Do Not Send Report Do Submitted Case Tracking # Reference Lab FOR LABORATORY USE ONLY OWNER: Business Name: Complete Address

  6. A Culture-Proven Case of Community-Acquired Legionella Pneumonia Apparently Classified as Nosocomial: Diagnostic and Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Marchegiano, Patrizia; Richeldi, Luca; Cagarelli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a 78-year-old patient affected by cerebellar haemangioblastoma continuously hospitalised for 24 days prior to the onset of overt symptoms. According to the established case definition, this woman should have been definitely classified as a nosocomial case (patient spending all of the ten days in hospital before onset of symptoms). Water samples from the oncology ward were negative, notably the patient's room and the oxygen bubbler, and the revision of the case history induced us to verify possible contamination in water samples collected at home. We found that the clinical strain had identical rep-PCR fingerprint of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated at home. The description of this culture-proven case of Legionnaires' disease has major clinical, legal, and public health consequences as the complexity of hospitalised patients poses limitations to the rule-of-thumb surveillance definition of nosocomial pneumonia based on 2–10-day incubation period. PMID:23476661

  7. Canine serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): a pilot study to evaluate the use of animal sentinels in environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, R.J.; Steele, G.K.; Harris, A.E.; Donahue, J.F.; Ing, R.T.

    1988-05-01

    To evaluate the potential for using domestic animals in the surveillance of environmental exposures, we collected serum samples for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis from nine dogs in Monroe County, Indiana, where people had been shown to have been exposed to PCBs. Nine dogs in Atlanta, Georgia, served as comparisons. Results indicated that canine serum PCB levels in contaminated areas (median = 3.0 ppb) tend to be greater than those in uncontaminated areas (median = 1.7 ppb (p = .06, Mann-Whitney U test)). This finding suggests that pet dogs may serve as sentinels of human exposure to environmental PCB contamination.

  8. New Approaches to Improved Animal Health: Systems Biology and Modeling of Real Interactions of Pathogens and their Hosts

    E-print Network

    , · Reduce transmission of disease, · Decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, · Improve the health approach to veterinary vaccine, diag- nostics, and drug design based upon a deeper understandingLife Research L. Garry Adams, Veterinary Pathobiology, CVM, TAMU Ph: 979.845.2908 | E-mail: bavant@tamu.edu Ph

  9. Animal Cloning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

  10. Animal Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

  11. Exploring Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2009-03-02

    Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

  12. Mass culture and characterization of tumor cells from a naturally occurring invertebrate cancer model: applications for human and animal disease and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles; Böttger, S Anne; Mulkern, Joseph; Jerszyk, Emily; Litvaitis, Marianne; Lesser, Michael

    2009-02-01

    On the northeastern coast of the United States and Canada, Mya arenaria, the soft shell clam, develops a diffuse, hemopoetic tumor (a fatal leukemia-like cancer) resulting from inactivation of p53-like family member proteins.These malignant cells provide a model for an unrelated set of human cancer cells that are also characterized by mortalin-based cytoplasmic sequestration of wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein (mortalin is the mitochondrial Hsp70 protein). Here we describe methods for mass culture and long-term storage of tumor cells from this cancer. These are the first successful efforts at maintaining malignant cells from any marine invertebrate in vitro. Following passage (subculture), these cultures undergo transition from primary cultures to non-immortalized cell lines that continue to proliferate and do not re-differentiate the normal hemocyte phenotype. We also characterize normal clam hemocytes and the pathology of cancerous clam hemocytes in vitro and in vivo using light and electron microscopy, cyto- and immunocytochemistry, molecular biology, and a phagocytosis assay. Our protocols provide biomedical and environmental researchers with ready access to this naturally occurring cancer model. We discuss the clam cancer model regarding (a) human health and disease; (b) animal health, disease, and aquaculture; (c) environmental health monitoring; and (d) future research directions. PMID:19218489

  13. 9 CFR 151.8 - Eligibility of an animal for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility of an animal for certification. 151.8 Section 151.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 9 CFR 91.2 - Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations. 91.2 Section 91.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  15. 9 CFR 151.8 - Eligibility of an animal for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility of an animal for certification. 151.8 Section 151.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 9 CFR 96.6 - Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port. 96.6 Section 96.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  17. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when plant reference databases become better established. PMID:22511890

  18. Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

  19. Test-retest repeatability of the National Animal Health monitoring system dairy heifer health report in New York and Pennsylvania, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Erb; A. J. Heinrichs; R. E. Woods; W. M. Sischo

    1996-01-01

    We did a test-retest study on 21 farms to assess the repeatability of the Dairy Heifer Health Report of the National Dairy Heifer Evaluation Project. The median retest interval was 42 days (range 14–63 days), retest interviewers were blinded as to responses on the first visits, and all date-specific questions were anchored to the dates of the first tests. The

  20. Promoting transboundary animal disease risk management via a multiple health and husbandry intervention strategies in upland Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Rast, Luzia; Windsor, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    Surveys of smallholder farmer knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and income were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in five northern provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR; n = 200 farmers). Participating villages were classified as either from a livelihood development project (LV; n = 80 farmers) or a livestock research project that contained both 'high-intervention' (HI; n = 60 farmers) or 'low-intervention' (LI; n = 60 farmers) villages. Farmer training plus a suite of health and productivity interventions were implemented in HI sites; only vaccination was implemented in LI sites, whilst various interventions and limited vaccination were introduced to LV sites. Farmer interviews were conducted with survey questions on socioeconomic variables and KAP of large ruminant health and disease risk management, enabling determination of quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits and comparison of results from HI, LI and LV villages. The average farmer income from sales of large ruminants in HI was USD 621, in LI was USD 547 and in LV was USD 225 (p < 0.001). The predicted mean of total knowledge scores (/42) in the 2012 survey in HI was 28, in LI was 22 and in LV was 17 (p < 0.001). We conclude that improved KAP of large ruminant health and production can be achieved by intensive training, although with some farmers yet to apply their knowledge on husbandry and biosecurity practices, continued learning support and closed linkage of research and development projects to improve extension capacity is recommended. This multiple participatory approach promoting biosecurity in addition to vaccination may provide a more sustainable pathway for the advancement of Lao PDR on the Progressive Control Pathway for foot and mouth disease control. PMID:24310441

  1. Character Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  2. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2004-02-05

    This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

  3. Animal-Derived Pharmaceutical Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EL-Rashdy M. Redwan

    2009-01-01

    Livestock animals have made a significant contribution to human health and well-being throughout humankind's history. A significant contribution of farm animals to human health are the longstanding use of bovine and porcine for production of insulin (for treatment of diabetes), gelatin (for pharmaceutical and other purposes), as well as horse and sheep antibody against natural venoms, toxins, drugs and microbial

  4. Leydig cell number and sperm production decrease induced by chronic ametryn exposure: a negative impact on animal reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Dantas, T A; Cancian, G; Neodini, D N R; Mano, D R S; Capucho, C; Predes, F S; Pulz, R Barbieri; Pigoso, A A; Dolder, H; Severi-Aguiar, G D C

    2015-06-01

    Ametryn is an herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass weeds and its acute and chronic toxicity is expected to be low. Since toxicological data on ametryn is scarce, the aim of this study was to evaluate rat reproductive toxicity. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats (90 days) were divided into three groups: Co (control) and T1 and T2 exposed to 15 and 30 mg/kg/day of ametryn, respectively, for 56 days. Testicular analysis demonstrated that ametryn decreased sperm number per testis, daily sperm production, and Leydig cell number in both treated groups, although little perceptible morphological change has been observed in seminiferous tubule structure. Lipid peroxidation was higher in group T2, catalase activity decreased in T1 group, superoxide dismutase activity diminished, and a smaller number of sulphydryl groups of total proteins were verified in both exposed groups, suggesting oxidative stress. These results showed negative ametryn influence on the testes and can compromise animal reproductive performance and survival. PMID:25561257

  5. Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L M; Diwan, B A; Fear, N T; Roman, E

    2000-01-01

    In humans, cancer may be caused by genetics and environmental exposures; however, in the majority of instances the identification of the critical time window of exposure is problematic. The evidence for exposures occurring during the preconceptional period that have an association with childhood or adulthood cancers is equivocal. Agents definitely related to cancer in children, and adulthood if exposure occurs in utero, include: maternal exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy and childhood leukemia and certain other cancers, and maternal use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina of their daughters. The list of environmental exposures that occur during the perinatal/postnatal period with potential to increase the risk of cancer is lengthening, but evidence available to date is inconsistent and inconclusive. In animal models, preconceptional carcinogenesis has been demonstrated for a variety of types of radiation and chemicals, with demonstrated sensitivity for all stages from fetal gonocytes to postmeiotic germ cells. Transplacental and neonatal carcinogenesis show marked ontogenetic stage specificity in some cases. Mechanistic factors include the number of cells at risk, the rate of cell division, the development of differentiated characteristics including the ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens, the presence of stem cells, and possibly others. Usefulness for human risk estimation would be strengthened by the study of these factors in more than one species, and by a focus on specific human risk issues. Images Figure 1 PMID:10852857

  6. EFSA scientific risk assessment on animal health and welfare aspects of avian influenza (EFSA-Q-2004-075).

    PubMed

    Serratosa, J; Ribó, O; Correia, S; Pittman, M

    2007-03-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) (2000-2003) resulted in 50 million EU birds culled or dead. The circulation of H5N1 in Asia could represent the origin of a human pandemic. Questions have been raised to combat the ongoing AI crisis. HPAI H5N1 has spilled over to resident and migratory wild bird populations which could represent a means of the virus reaching the EU, but lack of data make any forecast imprudent. Poultry holdings located close to migratory bird breeding and resting sites are considered at greater risk of exposure and methods to prevent exposure should be implemented. Legal safeguards for importation of poultry commodities currently only apply to HPAI and rely on detection of clinical signs that may not be observable during incubation period. Illegal imports represent an additional risk. Insufficient data on the effectiveness of commodity processing are available and few indications can be deducted. Biosecurity is the primary tool to prevent AI introduction and secondary spread. Massive spread was observed in densely populated poultry areas resulting in vaccination programs. Vaccination should be used to support eradication together with enhanced biosecurity and restriction measures, which shall also be implemented in case of prophylactic vaccination. Animal welfare aspects of AI include use of appropriate culling methods, correct vaccine application, and availability of trained staff. EFSA has recently set up a new scientific work group to further assess the risk of HPAI introduction and spread posed in particular by wild, migratory birds, as well as further follow-up of recent AI developments. PMID:17494619

  7. Airflow and Particle Deposition Simulations in Health and Emphysema: From In-Vivo to In-Silico Animal Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Jessica M.; Marsden, Alison L.; Grandmont, Celine; Shadden, Shawn C.; Darquenne, Chantal; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.

    2014-01-01

    Image-based in-silico modeling tools provide detailed velocity and particle deposition data. However, care must be taken when prescribing boundary conditions to model lung physiology in health or disease, such as in emphysema. In this study, the respiratory resistance and compliance were obtained by solving an inverse problem; a 0D global model based on healthy and emphysematous rat experimental data. Multi-scale CFD simulations were performed by solving the 3D Navier Stokes equations in an MRI-derived rat geometry coupled to a 0D model. Particles with 0.95 ?m diameter were tracked and their distribution in the lung was assessed. Seven 3D-0D simulations were performed: healthy, homogeneous, and five heterogeneous emphysema cases. Compliance (C) was significantly higher (p = 0.04) in the emphysematous rats (C=0.37±0.14cm3cmH2O) compared to the healthy rats (C=0.25±0.04cm3cmH2O), while the resistance remained unchanged (p=0.83). There were increases in airflow, particle deposition in the 3D model, and particle delivery to the diseased regions for the heterogeneous cases compared to the homogeneous cases. The results highlight the importance of multi-scale numerical simulations to study airflow and particle distribution in healthy and diseased lungs. The effect of particle size and gravity were studied. Once available, these in-silico predictions may be compared to experimental deposition data. PMID:24318192

  8. Human Embryology Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.

  9. Flash Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

  10. Salivary diagnostics: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

  11. Computer Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  12. Logical animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Costa; R. J. Cunningham; J. Booth

    1990-01-01

    When a formal specification of requirements is presented as a logical theory, symbolic animation of the theory can assist with validation. An animator displays a logical model of the formal specification. We show how minimal models can be derived from a tableau proof system. Examples illustrate the use of animation with a simple data base andfor validating specifications in the

  13. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keveney, Matt

    This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

  14. Animal Scent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

  15. Use of high resolution LC–MS n analysis in conjunction with mechanism-based stress studies: Identification of asarinin, an impurity from sesame oil in an animal health product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Wang; Yanan Peng; Min Li; Abu M. Rustum

    2009-01-01

    During analysis of certain stability batches of an animal health product, an unknown peak was found at a level above the identification thresholds set by VICH. This unknown species is extremely labile in the gas phase under normal electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometric condition. Multiple ions were detected with no clear indication of which one is the molecular ion. To

  16. Complete this one-time questionnaire form if you wear PAPR hood-type respirators for health care or animal care activities, and do not use any other type of respirator.

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Complete this one-time questionnaire form if you wear PAPR hood-type respirators for health care or animal care activities, and do not use any other type of respirator. Name: UFID #: Date of Birth: Height of Claustrophobia (Sensation of Smothering) 9. Skin Problems / Abnormalities 10. Heat Exhaustion / Heat Stroke 11

  17. Detection of Candida species resistant to azoles in the microbiota of rheas (Rhea americana): possible implications for human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; Macedo, Ramila de Brito; Lima, Daniel Teixeira; Paiva, Manoel de Araújo Neto; Monteiro, André Jalles; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rodrigues, Terezinha de Jesus Santos

    2013-06-01

    There is growing interest in breeding rheas (Rhea americana) in Brazil. However, there are no data on the yeast microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of this avian species, and the phenotypic characteristics of these yeasts are not known. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate Candida species from the digestive tract of rheas and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and secretion of phospholipases of the recovered isolates. For this purpose, 58 rheas from breeding operations in the cities of Fortaleza and Mossoró, north-eastern Brazil, were used. Samples were gathered from the oropharynx and cloaca of the animals using sterile swabs. Stool samples were collected from their pens by scraping with a scalpel blade. For the primary isolation, the material was seeded onto 2?% Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.5 g l(-1)). The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical features. After identification, all the strains were submitted to antifungal susceptibility testing for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole. The phospholipase activity of the Candida species isolates was also tested by culturing on egg yolk agar. Candida species were isolated from at least one anatomical site in 36/58 birds (14/17 juveniles and 22/41 adults) and in 6/10 faecal samples. Mostly, only a single species was isolated from each collection site (36/56 positive sites), with up to three species being observed only in four cases (4/56). A total of 77 isolates were obtained, belonging to the species Candida parapsilosis sensu lato (19), Candida albicans (18), Candida tropicalis (13), Candida guilliermondii (12), Candida krusei (10) and Candida famata (5). C. albicans was more prevalent in the oropharynx of the juvenile rheas when compared with adult ones (P<0.001). All tested isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, but 16 isolates were simultaneously resistant to the two azole derivatives (11/18 C. albicans, 1/10 C. krusei, 2/19 C. parapsilosis sensu lato and 2/13 C. tropicalis). C. albicans presented a particularly high resistance rate to fluconazole (15/18) and itraconazole (13/18). Finally, 23/77 strains secreted phospholipases. In summary, healthy rheas carry potentially pathogenic Candida species in their gastrointestinal tract, including azole-resistant strains that secrete phospholipases, and are prone to disseminating them in the environment. Thus, breeding and handling these animals may have some implications for human and animal health. PMID:23493027

  18. Effects of nationwide addition of selenium to fertilizers on foods, and animal and human health in Finland: From deficiency to optimal selenium status of the population.

    PubMed

    Alfthan, Georg; Eurola, Merja; Ekholm, Päivi; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Root, Tarja; Korkalainen, Katja; Hartikainen, Helinä; Salminen, Pirjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Aspila, Pentti; Aro, Antti

    2015-07-01

    Despite different geological features the Nordic countries are generally selenium-poor areas. In each country various factors such as food importation and life-style determine the selenium (Se) intake. Due to an extremely low Se intake in the 1970s in Finland, 0.025 mg/day, an official decision was made in 1984 to supplement multinutrient fertilizers with Se in the chemical form of sodium selenate. Almost all fertilizers used in Finland since 1985 have contained Se. Currently all crop fertilizers contain 15 mg Se/kg. Finland is still the only country to take this country-wide measure. In a national monitoring programme, sampling of cereals, basic foodstuffs, feeds, fertilizers, soils, and human tissues has been carried out annually since 1985 by four governmental research organizations. Sampling of foods has been done four times per year and human blood has been obtained annually from the same (n=60) adults. The accuracy of analyses has been verified by annual interlaboratory quality control. During this programme the selenium concentration of spring cereals has increased on average 15-fold compared with the level before the Se fertilization. The mean increase in the Se concentration in beef, pork and milk was 6-, 2- and 3-fold. In terms of Se, organically grown foods of plant origin are generally comparable to products produced before the Se supplementation of fertilizers. Milk from organically fed cows is 50% lower in Se than the usual milk. The average dietary human intake increased from 0.04 mg Se/day/10 MJ in 1985 to a present plateau of 0.08 mg Se/day/10 MJ, which is well above the current nutrition recommendations. Foods of animal origin contribute over 70% of the total daily Se intake. The mean human plasma Se concentration increased from 0.89 ?mol/L to a general level of 1.40 ?mol/L that can be considered to be an optimal status. The absence of Se deficiency diseases and a reference population have made conclusions on the impact on human health difficult. However, the rates of cardiovascular diseases and cancers have remained similar during the pre- and post-supplementation indicating medical and life-style factors to be much stronger determinants than Se. The nationwide supplementation of fertilizers with sodium selenate is shown to be effective and safe in increasing the Se intake of the whole population. Also, the health of animals has improved. PMID:24908353

  19. Animal Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site from Animal Planet offers visitors the very latest news about animals around the globe. Scroll along the map of the world, and then click on an icon. A pop-up window will appear with a synopsis of a news story, a link to the full story, and a list of related features on the Animal Planet Web site. A key to the map icons is provided. The full news story page also provides general information and trivia about each animal. This is a great resource for anyone wishing to keep informed about animal-related current events without having to register for an email newsletter.

  20. diagnostics Cataglyphis

    E-print Network

    Baddeley, Adrian

    Residuals and diagnostics for spatial point processes Adrian Baddeley Joint work with Martin arkk a (1993). #12; #12; Copper deposits (Ã?) and lineaments (|) in a geological survey . Berman) #17; #21; inhomogeneous Poisson, intensity function #21;(u): #21;(u; x) = #21;(u) Strauss process

  1. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion. PMID:21981968

  2. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae from animals and the environment: an emerging public health risk of our own making?

    PubMed

    Woodford, Neil; Wareham, David W; Guerra, Beatriz; Teale, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Acquired carbapenemases pose one of the most pressing public health threats relating to antibiotic resistance. In most countries, the number of carbapenemase-producing bacteria from human clinical specimens is rising, and the epidemiological status of these multiresistant bacteria is progressively worsening. Furthermore, there is a growing number of reports of carbapenemases found either in bacteria isolated from non-human sources or in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, a zoonotic species. However, carbapenemases are not yet systematically sought in bacteria from non-human sources, reports of them are largely observational, and there is limited investigation of carbapenemase-positive bacteria in animals and possible links with people who may have acted as potential sources. Active surveillance and monitoring for carbapenem-resistant bacteria in the food chain and other non-human sources is urgently needed, with an enhanced and rigorous follow-up of all positive results. The carbapenems are currently our last good defence against multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria. Our ability to limit the rise and spread of carbapenemase producers, which occur only at basal levels in many countries at present, should serve as a key performance indicator for the success or failure of the efforts that have been called for by international organizations and governments to reduce the impact of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24092657

  3. Association between HRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test band positivity and malaria-related anemia at a peripheral health facility in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ross; Reyes, Raquel; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Matte, Michael; Boum, Yap; Siedner, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    The detection of severe malaria in resource-constrained settings is often difficult because of requirements for laboratory infrastructure and/or clinical expertise. The aim of this study, therefore, was to explore the utility of a multiple antigen (HRP-2/pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) as a low-cost, surrogate marker of patients at high risk for complications of severe malaria. We reviewed programmatic data at a peripheral health center in Western Uganda. Available demographic and clinical data on all individuals presenting to the center who underwent an RDT for suspected malaria infection were reviewed. We fit logistic regression models to identify correlates of two outcomes of interest: 1) severe malaria-related anemia, defined here as hemoglobin ?7g/dL and 2) receipt of parenteral quinine. 1509 patients underwent malaria testing with an SD FK60 RDT during the observation period. A total of 637 (42%) RDTs were positive for at least one species of malaria, of which 326 (51%) exhibited a single HRP-2 band and 307 (48%) exhibited both HRP-2 and pLDH bands, while 4 exhibited only a single pLDH band. There was a trend towards more severe anemia in patients with a HRP-2/pLDH positive RDT compared to a HRP-2 only RDT (??=?-0.99 g/dl, 95% CI -1.99 to 0.02, P?=?0.055). A HRP-2/pLDH positive RDT was associated with an increased risk of severe malaria-related anemia compared to a negative RDT (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 18.8, 95% CI 4.32 to 82.0, P?

  4. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Hegelund, L; Sørensen, J T

    2007-08-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg production were included in the expert panel. In a series of four questionnaires, the expert panel first scored 34 health and welfare problems seen in Danish organic egg production. Based on scorings of severity and occurrence, 10 problems were selected for further analysis. The experts subsequently suggested and scored risk factors for those problems and finally suggested control points, alarm values indicating the need for corrective actions in order to control the risk factors and monitoring frequencies of these. The 10 selected problems were hunger, thirst, piling, crop impaction, blackhead, pasteurellosis, bone fractures, cannibalism, predators and red mites. A total of 154 different risk factors were suggested for these problems. The 41 risk factors which rated highest in a combined scoring of importance and occurrence were selected for further analysis. There was a high degree of consensus between experts when scoring both problems and risk factors. The level of consensus, as defined by an interquartile range 1, was 79% to 100% when scoring the health and welfare problems (scale 1-5) and 77% to 95% when scoring the risk factors (scale 1-4). On average, 5.8 control points were suggested for every risk factor. Alarm values were often not detailed enough to be of practical significance and further analysis is needed in order to define these. The experts were highly diverse in their suggested monitoring frequencies and establishment of monitoring schemes should be part of developing the farm specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure that the panel fully covers the field of interest throughout the study. A further development of the hazard analysis into a farm-specific HACCP system would include assembling an on-farm HACCP team consisting of farmers and advisors for the practical application of control points, alarm values and monitoring schemes. The results from the fourth questionnaire would be useful as input for this work. PMID:22444804

  5. 76 FR 49491 - Medicare Program; Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Demonstration; Extension of...Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Demonstration. The deadline...Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Demonstration. The...

  6. Paper Diagnostics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, focuses on diagnostic methods of investigation looking at the issue of HIV/AIDS. In this activity, students will explore "the societal impacts of engineering and science, specifically as it relates to the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. A series of videos and accompanying questions help students explore how engineers and scientists can contribute to various solutions related to diagnosing and preventing the spread of disease. The activity highlights the development of low-cost paper diagnostics for rapid and private diagnosis of AIDS and diseases  related to AIDS (TB, other sexually transmitted diseases, etc.)." This activity will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Next Generation Science Standards for this lesson, and a link to George Whitesides video used in lesson video from the NY Times are included.

  7. Water Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Kyrk

    This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

  8. NMR Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

  9. Astronomy Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

  10. [Appropriateness of animal rights in housing conditions in animal husbandry of domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Sundrum, A

    1998-02-01

    Along with a general redirection of values in agriculture, the need for action arises for veterinary medicine and other life sciences to establish suitable tools for the objective assessment of housing conditions with regard to their appropriateness concerning animal welfare. First communication between the disciplines involved demands a uniform use of terms. Assessment can be carried out generally either directly by using pathological, physiological and ethological reactions of the animals as criteria or indirectly by the means of technical criteria. Both approaches can indicate poor or good conditions with regard to animal welfare and are generally agreed upon. However using these measures in practise often yields problems referring to the methodology and to the results that are hard to interpret. Criteria referring to the state of the animals have a reduced meaningfulness due to the following aspects: A lot of criteria are lacking sensibility and specificity, which leads to a small diagnostic selectivity. A large number of sources for variance aggravate the use of reference values in order to distinguish between normal or abnormal levels. In many cases there is a lack of firm evidence that the level of changes correlates with the health and welfare of the animals. Due to contradictions caused by the differing properties of the variables being measured the measures do not always co-vary. Results and conclusions of the assessments are closely connected to the specific experimental design and cannot easily be transferred to the housing conditions in practice showing a large variance. Therefore criteria referring to the animals can be used primarily for the assessment of standardized or serial produced housing systems, where a direct comparison between systems is permissible. In order to find out the weak points of the housing conditions concerning animal welfare, on-farm assessment can be carried out more advantageous by using design criteria. Those criteria can be divided into structural and technical elements on the one hand and management born factors like hygiene, climate and feeding on the other. The use of structural and technical elements as criteria ensures a high level or repeatability of the results and practicability in the application. However, a confinement to structural and technical elements went along with a marked reduction in the meaningfulness of the assessment. The use of management born factors is governed by the specific situation. The variation of results depend to a high degree on the time of evaluation. Statements of the real situation within a longer period of time therefore require great efforts. Due to the complex phenomenon there is justified concern that a comprehensive assessment and conclusion referring to the appropriateness of housing conditions concerning animal welfare is not possible. Few criteria cannot be equated with the whole. However, partial statements can be achieved under a scientific point of view using a mixture of different criteria. In order to integrate and weigh the varied results reached by different criteria, a systemic approach and an integrative way of diagnosis is needed. Up to now there is a lack in matured concepts that put the integrative approach of assessment into practice. PMID:9528211

  11. Neurobiology: Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Blackwell Publishing, this entertaining series of animations is part of a companion website for _Neurobiology: Molecules, Cells and Systems_, a textbook by Gary G. Matthews. The ten instructive and easy-to-understand animations are worth a visit by anyone who has a curiosity about neurobiology. Animation titles include: Mechanosensory Transduction in Hair Cells, Granule Cell Migration Along Radial Glial Cells, Photo isomerization of Rhodopsin, and Propagation of the Action Potential, and more. For visitors lacking Macromedia Flash Player, which is necessary to view these animations, the site provides a link to a free Player download.

  12. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  13. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePLUS

    Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for genetic conditions Diagnostic testing Testing for genetic conditions Carrier ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...

  14. Diagnostic Tools for Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses Applicable to North American Veterinary Diagnosticians.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William C; Daniels, Peter; Ostlund, Eileen N; Johnson, Donna E; Oberst, Richard D; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Mediger, Jessica; McIntosh, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    This review provides an overview of current and potential new diagnostic tests for bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses compiled from international participants of the Orbivirus Gap Analysis Workshop, Diagnostic Group. The emphasis of this review is on diagnostic tools available to North American veterinary diagnosticians. Standard diagnostic tests are readily available for BT/EHD viruses, and there are described tests that are published in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual. There is however considerable variation in the diagnostic approach to these viruses. Serological assays are well established, and many laboratories are experienced in running these assays. Numerous nucleic acid amplification assays are also available for BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus (EHDV). Although there is considerable experience with BTV reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), there are no standards or comparisons of the protocols used by various state and federal veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Methods for genotyping BTV and EHDV isolates are available and are valuable tools for monitoring and analyzing circulating viruses. These methods include RT-PCR panels or arrays, RT-PCR and sequencing of specific genome segments, or the use of next-generation sequencing. In addition to enabling virus characterization, use of advanced molecular detection methods, including DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing, significantly enhance the ability to detect unique virus strains that may arise through genetic drift, recombination, or viral genome segment reassortment, as well as incursions of new virus strains from other geographical areas. PMID:26086557

  15. World Organisation for Animal Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Highlights Joining forces to gain strength in Global Biological Security OIE Videos Editorial The OIE alongside WHO ... on foot and mouth disease control - Bangkok (Recommendations) Biological threat reduction Veterinary Education Core Curriculum Competencies of ...

  16. Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral, tritrophic interactions, deception and others). o Furthermore, applied aspects of animal-plant interactions

  17. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Knapp; G. Byrns; O. Suleiman

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program

  18. GPS Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

  19. Excelsior Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkamp, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  20. Immunoassay Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Kyn Wai

    This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Bone­specific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

  1. Collision Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment

    This series of interactive Flash animation explores all aspects of the India-Eurasian continental collision. Animations show the motion of the two continents, the growth of the Himalayas, earthquakes resulting from their collision, and the incredible rate of erosion of the newly formed mountains.

  2. Science Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by Ant�³nio Cidad�£o.

  3. Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of Animal Biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel J. Mintzes

    2007-01-01

    This study explored and documented Taiwanese students’ alternative conceptions of animal classification. We examined the understanding of the animal, vertebrate and invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal concepts among elementary, junior high school and senior high school, and university students in a sample population of close to 2,000 students. Using clinical interviews, sorting tasks, and a two?tiered diagnostic instrument,

  4. Animal toxins and the kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Visith Sitprija

    2008-01-01

    Envenomation or poisoning by toxins from animals poses an important health hazard in the tropics. Animal toxins are complex mixtures of proteins, peptides, enzymes and chemicals. These toxins exert their effects through modulation of ion channels and receptors, and via direct enzyme action. Depolarization or hyperpolarization of ion channels—caused by most marine toxins, and some snake and insect venoms—results in

  5. COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    3.F.3 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for Occupational Health Monitoring Program 1. Purpose: a. This SOP details the process and testing requirements at UB who have contact with lab animals or their tissues/fluids for the purpose of teaching or research

  6. Mechanical Diagnostics System Engineering in IMD HUMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Bechhoefer; Eric Mayhew

    2006-01-01

    The Goodrich Integrated Mechanical Diagnostics Health and Usage System (IMD-HUMS) mechanical diagnostics functionality is the integration of disparate subsystems. When the aircraft is in the appropriate capture window, the primary processing unit (PPU), commands the vibration processing unit (VPU) to capture vibration data and a tachometer reference. This time domain data is processed by standard and proprietary algorithms to generate

  7. Missing data and health inequalities? Reply to "A 2-h diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest pain symptoms in the Asia-Pacific

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with chest pain symptoms in the Asia-Pacific region (ASPECT)" DESCATHA Alexis 1,2,3 , DERIAN Sarah 3 by Than and al. about accelerated diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest symptoms (1). Based to assess patients with chest pain symptoms in the Asia-Pacific region (ASPECT): a prospective observational

  8. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) ... ?????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Animal Bites and Scratches ???? ???? ??? ...

  9. Animal Presentations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kelly Godwin

    2009-10-05

    Students will pick an animal and create a presentation for the class about that animal. They will learn about research and PowerPoint while learning about animals. Also, students will build presentation skills. Kelly Godwin Instructional Architect 09/19/09 ASSURE Lesson Plan Analyze the learner The students are all in 4th grade so they are approximately 10 years old. Their academic abilities are that of a 10-year-old give or take 1 or 1.5 years. The students are mostly from the middle class suburbs. They have more than ...

  10. Western Canada Study of Animal Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Emissions From Oil and Natural Gas Field Facilities. Study Design and Data Collection III. Methods of Assessing Animal Exposure to Contaminants From the Oil and Gas Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. Waldner

    2008-01-01

    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30,

  11. Comparing Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-12-05

    As you complete this WebQuest I would like you to think about the story that you are going to be writing. You may choose to write a true animal story. This would be like the news article about the cat and the dog that we read in class. Or you may chose to write a pretend story about a pretend animal. This will be like the folktale we read about the frogs finding their music. Look for ideas and stories that you may want to write your story on. It is okay to change your mind, but you must write a story about an animal. Webquest Introduction: Think about something that you may want to write your story about. Ask yourself: -Do I want to write a true story? -Do I want to write a pretend story? -What kinds of animals ...

  12. Camera Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

  13. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  14. Screen Animals

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Laura

    2014-01-01

    of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), Jonathan Burt, Animals in Film (London: Reaktion, 2002), Cynthia Chris, Watching Wildlife (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), Raymond Bellour, Le Corps du cinéma: hypnoses, émotions, animalités (Paris: P.O.L., 2009...

  15. INTEGRATION OF SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND DOSIMETRY DATA IN THE EXTRAPOLATION OF OZONE AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE HEALTH DATA FROM ANIMAL TO MAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimations of regional pulmonary doses of O3 and NO2 need to be combined with an understanding of the sensitivity of several animal species and man to equivalent tissue doses before animal to man quantitative extrapolations can be performed. Because of potential species differen...

  16. Evidence of an Association Between Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Food Animals and Antimicrobial Resistance Among Bacteria Isolated from Humans and the Human Health Consequences of Such Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Angulo; V. N. Nargund; T. C. Chiller

    2004-01-01

    Summary Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of anti- microbial agents in food animals is associated with anti- microbial resistance among bacteria isolated from humans. The use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is most clearly associated with anti-microbial resistance among Sal- monella and Campylobacter isolated from humans, but also appears likely among enterococci, Escherichia coli and other

  17. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

  18. Animal Tracks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

  19. Development of a framework for international certification by the OIE of diagnostic tests validated as fit for purpose.

    PubMed

    Wright, P; Edwards, S; Diallo, A; Jacobson, R

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the OIE has focussed on test methods applicable to trade and the international movement of animals and animal products. With its expanding role as the World Organisation for Animal Health, the OIE has recognised the need to evaluate test methods relative to specific diagnostic applications other than trade. In collaboration with its international partners, the OIE solicited input from experts through consultants meetings on the development of guidelines for validation and certification of diagnostic assays for infectious animal diseases. Recommendations from the first meeting were formally adopted and have subsequently been acted upon by the OIE. A validation template has been developed that specifically requires a test to be fit or suited for its intended purpose (e.g. as a screening or a confirmatory test). This is a key criterion for validation. The template incorporates four distinct stages of validation, each of which has bearing on the evaluation of fitness for purpose. The OIE has just recently created a registry for diagnostic tests that fulfil these validation requirements. Assay developers are invited to submit validation dossiers to the OIE for evaluation by a panel of experts. Recognising that validation is an incremental process, tests methods achieving at least the first stages of validation may be provisionally accepted. To provide additional confidence in assay performance, the OIE, through its network of Reference Laboratories, has embarked on the development of evaluation panels. These panels would contain specially selected test samples that would assist in verifying fitness for purpose. PMID:18084924

  20. Development of a framework for international certification by OIE of diagnostic tests validated as fit for purpose.

    PubMed

    Wright, P; Edwards, S; Diallo, A; Jacobson, R

    2006-01-01

    Historically, the OIE has focused on test methods applicable to trade and the international movement of animals and animal products. With its expanding role as the World Organisation for Animal Health, the OIE has recognised the need to evaluate test methods relative to specific diagnostic applications other than trade. In collaboration with its international partners, the OIE solicited input from experts through consultants' meetings on the development of guidelines for validation and certification of diagnostic assays for infectious animal diseases. Recommendations from the first meeting were formally adopted and have subsequently been acted upon by the OIE. A validation template has been developed that specifically requires a test to be fit or suited for its intended purpose (e.g. as a screening or a confirmatory test). This is a key criterion for validation. The template incorporates four distinct stages of validation, each of which has bearing on the evaluation of fitness for purpose. The OIE has just recently created a registry for diagnostic tests that fulfil these validation requirements. Assay developers are invited to submit validation dossiers to the OIE for evaluation by a panel of experts. Recognising that validation is an incremental process, tests methods achieving at least the first stages of validation may be provisionally accepted. To provide additional confidence in assay performance, the OIE, through its network of Reference Laboratories, has embarked on the development of evaluation panels. These panels would contain specially selected test samples that would assist in verifying fitness for purpose. PMID:17058480

  1. The World Health Assembly resolution on antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, Laura J; Davies, Sally C

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem that can only be tackled successfully through strengthened international partnerships. A concerted political, scientific and media campaign has garnered support for the recent World Health Assembly resolution on antimicrobial resistance, mandating the WHO to develop a global action plan. This resolution has the 'One Health' approach at its core, emphasizing collaboration across human and animal health sectors at the international, national and regional levels, coupled with strong leadership and the political will to act. Key themes are communication, prevention of infection, using knowledge to guide action, sustainability and optimizing the use of antimicrobial medicines and diagnostic devices. Implementation of the global action plan will require member states to make a commitment to developing national action plans and strengthening capacity, building on collaborations between the WHO, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the World Bank, Codex Alimentarius and the Transatlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance. PMID:25204342

  2. Applications of penetrating radiation for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Wu, Max C.; Iwata, Koji; Hwang, Andrew B.; Wong, Kenneth H.; Barber, William C.; Dae, Michael W.; Sakdinawat, Anne E.

    2002-11-01

    Researchers long have relied on research involving small animals to unravel scientific mysteries in the biological sciences, and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the medical and health sciences. Within the past 2 decades, new techniques have been developed to manipulate the genome of the mouse, allowing the development of transgenic and knockout models of mammalian and human disease, development, and physiology. Traditionally, much biological research involving small animals has relied on the use of invasive methods such as organ harvesting, tissue sampling, and autoradiography during which the animal was sacrificed to perform a single measurement. More recently, imaging techniques have been developed that assess anatomy and physiology in the intact animal, in a way that allows the investigator to follow the progression of disease, or to monitor the response to therapeutic interventions. Imaging techniques that use penetrating radiation at millimeter or submillimeter levels to image small animals include x-ray computed tomography (microCT), single-photon emission computed tomography (microSPECT), and imaging positron emission computed tomography (microPET). MicroCT generates cross-sectional slices which reveal the structure of the object with spatial resolution in the range of 50 to 100 microns. MicroSPECT and microPET are radionuclide imaging techniques in which a radiopharmaceutical is injected into the animal that is accumulated to metabolism, blood flow, bone remodeling, tumor growth, or other biological processes. Both microSPECT and microPET offer spatial resolutions in the range of 1-2 millimeters. However, microPET records annihilation photons produced by a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical using electronic coincidence, and has a sensitivity approximately two orders of magnitude better than microSPECT, while microSPECT is compatible with gamma-ray emitting radiopharmaceuticals that are less expensive and more readily available than those used with microPET. High-resolution dual-modality imaging systems now are being developed that combine microPET or microSPECT with microCT in a way that facilitates more direct correlation of anatomy and physiology in the same animal. Small animal imaging allows researchers to perform experiments that are not possible with conventional invasive techniques, and thereby are becoming increasingly important tools for discovery of fundamental biological information, and development of new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the biomedical sciences.

  3. Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sarah H.; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morse, Stephen S.; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

  4. Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana State the pattern of disease problem in the turf ____________________ County ___________________ #12;Pesticides used Please check: Yes or No (give name and rate if possible

  5. Bartonellosis: one health perspectives for an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of Bartonella species have been identified as zoonotic pathogens, transmitted by animal bites, scratches, arthropods and even by needle sticks. Considering the diversity of newly discovered Bartonella species and subspecies and the large number and ecologically diverse animal reservoir hosts and the evolving spectrum of arthropod vectors that can transmit these bacteria among animals and humans, the clinical and diagnostic challenges posed by Bartonella transmission in nature are presumably much more complex than is currently appreciated by diagnosticians, vector biologists, ecologists, physicians, or veterinarians. Historically the term "bartonellosis" was attributed to infections with Bartonella bacilliformis, transmitted by sandflies in the Peruvian Andes. Currently, however, bartonellosis now includes infections caused by any Bartonella sp. anywhere in the world. Potentially, because Bartonella spp. can infect erythrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, CD34(+) progenitor cells, and various macrophage-type cells, including microglial cells, dendritic cells, and circulating monocytes in vitro, the clinical and pathological manifestations of bartonellosis appear to be very diverse in both sick animals and human patients. Because 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, many of which are vector-transmitted by an arthropod, a One Health approach to bartonellosis and other zoonotic infections is needed to properly address animal health, public health, and environmental factors that influence the distribution and transmission of these bacteria. The One Health concept encourages a spirit of cooperation among animal, environmental, and human health professionals and promotes developing integrated solutions for complex problems that impact the health of animals, humans, and the planet. Importantly, substantial research is needed to define the medical importance of this genus as a cause of animal and human illnesses. PMID:24936029

  6. Animal models.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

  7. ANIMAL SUBJECTS RESEARCH UMBC believes the responsible use of laboratory

    E-print Network

    Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

    RC Digest ANIMAL SUBJECTS RESEARCH Overview UMBC believes the responsible use of laboratory animals is essential for research into the understanding, prevention and treatment of human and animal disease. The benefits of animal research to human and animal health are virtually unchallengeable and are substantiated

  8. Thermal biology of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Collier, Robert J; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment is the most important ecological factor determining the growth, development, and productivity of domestic animals. Routes of energy exchange (sensible heat and latent heat) between animals and their environment are greatly influenced by body weight, fat deposition, hair-coat properties, functional activity, and number of sweat glands, as well as the presence or absence of anatomical respiratory countercurrent heat exchange capability. Differences in these anatomical features across species have led to specialization of heat exchange. Thermal plasticity and degree of acclimation are critical factors determining the ability of animals to respond to environmental change. Increases in productive capability of domestic animals can compromise thermal acclimation and plasticity, requiring greater investments in housing systems that reduce variability of the thermal environment. The combination of steadily increasing metabolic heat production as domestic animal productivity increases and a rising world temperature poses ongoing and future challenges to maintaining health and well-being of domestic animals. PMID:25387108

  9. Spectrum of Diseases and Diagnostic Values of Ultrasound in Adult Patients with Nontraumatic Acute Abdomen in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Facility

    PubMed Central

    Ashaolu, Bimbo Ayoola; Asaleye, Mopelola Christianah; Adetiloye, Adebayo Victor; Alatise, Isaac Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of disease on abdominal ultrasound (US) and the diagnostic efficacy of US in adult patients with nontraumatic acute abdomen at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Materials and Methods: The study population included consecutive 150 adult patients aged 15 years and above presenting with nontraumatic acute abdomen via the adult emergency unit or as inpatients referred to the Radiology Department of OAUTHC, Ile-Ife for abdominal US. MINDRAY D.C-6 real-time US scanner with 3.5, 5.0, and 7.5 MHz probes and Doppler facilities were used to assess the intra-abdominal organs and the findings were compared with the clinical and surgical findings in those cases that were operated. Results: The common spectrum of diseases encountered on US in this study included appendicitis (66 [44%]), ectopic pregnancy (34 [22%]), intestinal obstruction (13 [8.7%]) while the least finding was renal abscess 1 (0.7%). The correlation of US findings with surgical findings in this study showed sensitivity, specificity, and kappa agreement for appendicitis of 83.3%, 100.0%, and 0.808; ectopic pregnancy of 100.0%, 97.8%, and 0.958; acute cholecystitis of 100.0%, 100.0%, and 1.0. However, perforated viscus showed the least sensitivity (60.0%), specificity (99.2%), and kappa agreement 0.654. All the disease entities showed good kappa agreement beyond chance, and they were all statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study has shown a relatively high sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of US in cases of nontraumatic acute abdomen in a careful hand. We, therefore, recommended that these advantages of US should be capitalized upon in settings where other advanced diagnostic modalities are not available. PMID:25838758

  10. Experimental animal urine collection: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biji T. Kurien; Nancy E. Everds; R. Hal Scofield

    2004-01-01

    Summary Animal urine collection is a vital part of veterinary practice for ascertaining animal health and in scientific investigations for assessing the results of experimental manipulations. Untainted animal urine collection is very challenging, especially with small rodents, and is an almost impossible task under conditions of microgravity. The fundamental aspects of urine collection are: (1) ease of collection, (2) quality

  11. UCSD INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    UCSD INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE POLICY MANUAL Transportation of Rodents to animal safety, health and compliance with applicable regulations. II. Who Should Read This Policy All Cage in which rodents are routinely housed Vivarium An IACUC approved animal housing facility Primary

  12. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  13. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  14. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  15. Animation aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

    1991-01-01

    Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

  16. Animal Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Pearson

    1884-01-01

    THE following instance of animal intelligence may interest some of your readers. While walking through the forest here the other day, I found a young jay upon the ground scarcely able to fly. As I stooped down to examine it I was somewhat startled by a swoop made at my head by the old birds, their wings actually touching my

  17. The validity of military screening for mental health problems: diagnostic accuracy of the PCL, K10 and AUDIT scales in an entire military population.

    PubMed

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander C; Davies, Christopher E; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Hodson, Stephanie E; Benassi, Helen; Steele, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Depression, alcohol use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are serious issues among military personnel due to their impact on operational capability and individual well-being. Several military forces screen for these disorders using scales including the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL). However, it is unknown whether established cutoffs apply to military populations. This study is the first to test the diagnostic accuracy of these three scales in a population-based military cohort. A large sample of currently-serving Australian Defence Force (ADF) Navy, Army and Air Force personnel (n = 24,481) completed the K10, AUDIT and PCL-C (civilian version). Then, a stratified sub-sample (n = 1798) completed a structured diagnostic interview detecting 30-day disorder. Data were weighted to represent the ADF population (n = 50,049). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses suggested all three scales had acceptable sensitivity and specificity, with areas under the curve from 0.75 to 0.93. AUDIT and K10 screening cutoffs closely paralleled established cutoffs, whereas the PCL-C screening cutoff resembled that recommended for US military personnel. These self-report scales represent a cost-effective and clinically-useful means of screening personnel for disorder. Military populations may need lower cutoffs than civilians to screen for PTSD. PMID:25511518

  18. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  19. Animated Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

  20. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  1. Aquatic animal nutrition for the exotic animal practitioner.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike; Roberts-Sweeney, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fish are the most popular pets in the United States based on numbers and high-quality medical care is coming to be expected by owners. Increasing numbers of veterinarians are responding to this need and providing veterinary care for aquatic animals. Part of good medical care for exotic animals is advice on husbandry, including nutrition. However, there are numerous missing areas of research for the nutritional needs of many ornamental fish species. What is known for food species can be combined with what is known for ornamental species to give nutritional advice to owners to maximize health in these animals. PMID:25155660

  2. Epidemiologic issues in the validation of veterinary diagnostic tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Greiner; I. A. Gardner

    2000-01-01

    In this review, we critically discuss the objectives, methods and limitations of different approaches for the validation of diagnostic tests. We show (based on published data and our own experiences) that estimates for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity may vary among populations and\\/or subpopulations of animals, conditional on the distribution of influential covariates. Additional variability in those parameter estimates may

  3. 78 FR 32234 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection: Public Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...Approved Information Collection: Public Health Information System--Animal...and rabbit slaughter for the Public Health Information System--Animal...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Public Health Information System--...

  4. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification. PMID:25390047

  5. Animal models of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

  6. Health.

    PubMed Central

    Hare, R M

    1986-01-01

    Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment is then suggested, and used to shed light on some problems about mental illness and to compare and contrast it with physical illness and with political and other deviancies which are not illnesses. PMID:3806628

  7. Logic Animation and Logic Animation Platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Chen; Qiang Ge; Qingtang Liu; Zhiguo Si

    2009-01-01

    Logic animation, a new style of animation, was first proposed in the application of dynamic geometry software. The concept, features, and possible application prospects of logic animation are further introduced in details in this paper, compared with the traditional style of animation-time-sequential animation. Based on the design ideas of dynamic geometry software, Flash and game engine, the design of a

  8. Character Animation Animation is a big topic

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Ben

    Character Animation 1 #12;Overview · Animation is a big topic · We will concentrate on character animation as is used in many games today ­ humans, animals, monsters, robots, etc. #12;Character is called a pose ­ the state of a skeleton at a particular time of animation #12;Regular layout 2 (no arcade

  9. The Beck Depression Inventory and General Health Questionnaire as measures of depression in the general population: a validation study using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Uutela, Antti; Pirkola, Sami

    2012-05-15

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) are commonly used in population studies as measures of depression. We examined in a population sample the validity of four scales for depressive symptoms, the GHQ-12, the 21- and 13-item versions of the BDI, and a new 6-item version of the BDI developed for this study. A total of 5561 participants in the "Health 2000" survey (30-79 years) completed the four scales and were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which was used as the validation criterion. We selected items for the BDI-6 through an exploratory factor analysis for the BDI-21. The accuracy of the scales, including the BDI-6, was satisfactory (c-statistics 0.88-0.92 for depression within the past 2 weeks and 0.80-0.83 within the past 12 months) and slightly better for men (0.92-0.96 and 0.85-0.87) than for women (0.86-0.88 and 0.78-0.79). Higher scores in all the scales were associated with more severe depression and more recent depressive episodes. This study suggests that various versions of the BDI and the GHQ-12 are useful in detecting depressive disorders in the general population. Even the 6-item version of the BDI showed acceptable criterion validity, although replication in an independent dataset is needed to confirm its validity. PMID:22365275

  10. Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) Predicts Health-Related Quality of Life (HrQoL) Over Time Among Men Treated for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean G. Cruess; Catherine Benedict; Emily G. Lattie; Ivan Molton; Dave Kinsinger; Bruce Kava; Murugesan Manoharan; Mark Soloway; Frank J. Penedo

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment presents multiple challenges that can negatively affect health-related quality of life (HrQoL), and that can be further compromised by maladaptive personality styles and psychological adjustment difficulties. This study examined the utility of a comprehensive psychosocial screening tool to identify psychosocial traits that prospectively predict HrQoL status among men treated for localized prostate cancer. The Millon Behavioral Medicine

  11. Experimental Animal Models for Studying Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Liu; Michael R. Johnston

    \\u000a Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality for both men and women worldwide. The use of animal models of\\u000a lung cancer is necessary to improve our understanding of lung tumor biology and facilitate novel therapies and diagnostics.\\u000a To this end, animal models should mimic both the genetic alterations found in human lung tumors and their histological characteristics.\\u000a Currently,

  12. Wildlife health investigations: needs, challenges and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In a fast changing world with growing concerns about biodiversity loss and an increasing number of animal and human diseases emerging from wildlife, the need for effective wildlife health investigations including both surveillance and research is now widely recognized. However, procedures applicable to and knowledge acquired from studies related to domestic animal and human health can be on partly extrapolated to wildlife. This article identifies requirements and challenges inherent in wildlife health investigations, reviews important definitions and novel health investigation methods, and proposes tools and strategies for effective wildlife health surveillance programs. Impediments to wildlife health investigations are largely related to zoological, behavioral and ecological characteristics of wildlife populations and to limited access to investigation materials. These concerns should not be viewed as insurmountable but it is imperative that they are considered in study design, data analysis and result interpretation. It is particularly crucial to remember that health surveillance does not begin in the laboratory but in the fields. In this context, participatory approaches and mutual respect are essential. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity and open minds are necessary because a wide range of tools and knowledge from different fields need to be integrated in wildlife health surveillance and research. The identification of factors contributing to disease emergence requires the comparison of health and ecological data over time and among geographical regions. Finally, there is a need for the development and validation of diagnostic tests for wildlife species and for data on free-ranging population densities. Training of health professionals in wildlife diseases should also be improved. Overall, the article particularly emphasizes five needs of wildlife health investigations: communication and collaboration; use of synergies and triangulation approaches; investments for the long term; systematic collection of metadata; and harmonization of definitions and methods. PMID:24188616

  13. A Dynamic RFID-Based Mobile Monitoring System in Animal Care Management Over a Wireless Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky S. L. Ting; S. K. Kwok; W. B. Lee; Albert H. C. Tsang; Benny C. F. Cheung

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing integration of animals into family lifestyles, animal care management becomes an important issue as animals have a direct impact on human psychological and physical health. Even though there are a lot of solutions, maltreatment of animals and risks in animal health are increasing as indicated in the newspapers and statistics. In addition, many identification methods are

  14. INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) AND INSTITUTIONAL

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    welfare and human health and safety regulations, all research protocols for animals or human subjects into animals or humans subjects must be in compliance with the National Institutes of Health Guidelines of radiation in animals requires submission of an Appendix G vii. Use of radiation in human subjects requires

  15. A validation study of a new classification algorithm to identify rheumatoid arthritis using administrative health databases: case–control and cohort diagnostic accuracy studies. Results from the RECord linkage On Rheumatic Diseases study of the Italian Society for Rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Greta; Scirè, Carlo A; Zambon, Antonella; Cimmino, Marco A; Cerra, Carlo; Caprioli, Marta; Cagnotto, Giovanni; Nicotra, Federica; Arfè, Andrea; Migliazza, Simona; Corrao, Giovanni; Minisola, Giovanni; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a new algorithm to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and estimate disease prevalence using administrative health databases (AHDs) of the Italian Lombardy region. Design Case–control and cohort diagnostic accuracy study. Methods In a randomly selected sample of 827 patients drawn from a tertiary rheumatology centre (training set), clinically validated diagnoses were linked to administrative data including diagnostic codes and drug prescriptions. An algorithm in steps of decreasing specificity was developed and its accuracy assessed calculating sensitivity/specificity, positive predictive value (PPV)/negative predictive value, with corresponding CIs. The algorithm was applied to two validating sets: 106 patients from a secondary rheumatology centre and 6087 participants from the primary care. Alternative algorithms were developed to increase PPV at population level. Crude and adjusted prevalence estimates taking into account algorithm misclassification rates were obtained for the Lombardy region. Results The algorithms included: RA certification by a rheumatologist, certification for other autoimmune diseases by specialists, RA code in the hospital discharge form, prescription of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and oral glucocorticoids. In the training set, a four-step algorithm identified clinically diagnosed RA cases with a sensitivity of 96.3 (95% CI 93.6 to 98.2) and a specificity of 90.3 (87.4 to 92.7). Both external validations showed highly consistent results. More specific algorithms achieved >80% PPV at the population level. The crude RA prevalence in Lombardy was 0.52%, and estimates adjusted for misclassification ranged from 0.31% (95% CI 0.14% to 0.42%) to 0.37% (0.25% to 0.47%). Conclusions AHDs are valuable tools for the identification of RA cases at the population level, and allow estimation of disease prevalence and to select retrospective cohorts. PMID:25631308

  16. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers. PMID:16085991

  17. Regulatory considerations for marker vaccines and diagnostic tests in the U.S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Foley; Richard E. Hill

    2005-01-01

    Marker vaccines and diagnostic tests can prove to be invaluable in disease eradication and control programs, as was found in the pseudorabies (Aujeszky's Disease) virus eradication program in the U.S. During that campaign, numerous gene-deleted vaccines and companion diagnostic test kits were used to differentiate infected animals from vaccinated animals, in a strategy that ultimately led to eradication of the

  18. Stepping and kicking behaviour during milking in relation to response in human–animal interaction test and clinical health in loose housed dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tine Rousing; Marianne Bonde; Jens Henrik Badsberg; Jan Tind Sørensen

    2004-01-01

    Associations between kicking and stepping behaviour during milking and response to humans, getting up behaviour as well as clinical health status in loose housed dairy cows were investigated. During a 12-month period behavioural and clinical data from 10 commercial Danish dairy herds were collected including in total 1196 individual cows. Hierarchical log-linear models for contingency tables were applied for an

  19. Animal Welfare—Scientific Approaches to the Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne T. Millman

    2009-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is of significant public interest, globally and within the United States. Value-based judgments are intrinsic to animal welfare assessment, according to the relative weighting of factors associated with animal performance, health, affective states, and natural living. The concept of animal welfare is consistent with the scientific method because questions are open to deductive reasoning, formation of hypotheses

  20. GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training (US Government Principles), the ASP1 GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) Regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

  1. Proteomics paves the way for Q fever diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The disease most frequently manifests clinically as a self-limited febrile illness, as pneumonia (acute Q fever) or as a chronic illness that presents mainly as infective endocarditis. The extreme infectivity of the bacterium results in large outbreaks, and the recent outbreak in the Netherlands underlines its impact on public health. Recent studies on the bacterium have included genome sequencing, the investigation of host-bacterium interactions, the development of cellular and animal models of infection, and the comprehensive analysis of different clinical isolates by whole genome and proteomic approaches. Current approaches for diagnosing Q fever are based on serological methods and PCR techniques, but the diagnosis of early stage disease lacks specificity and sensitivity. Consequently, different platforms have been created to explore Q fever biomarkers. Several studies using a combination of proteomics and recombinant protein screening approaches have been undertaken for the development of diagnostics and vaccines. In this review, we highlight advances in the field of C. burnetii proteomics, focusing mainly on the contribution of these technologies to the development and improvement of Q fever diagnostics. PMID:21801463

  2. Development and Evaluation of Sensor Concepts for Ageless Aerospace Vehicles: Report 6 - Development and Demonstration of a Self-Organizing Diagnostic System for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, Adam; Edwards, Graeme; Gerasimov, Vadim; Hoschke, Nigel; Isaacs, Peter; Lewis, Chris; Moore, Richard; Oppolzer, Florien; Price, Don; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Scott, Andrew; Wang, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a significant advance in the capability of the CSIRO/NASA structural health monitoring Concept Demonstrator (CD). The main thrust of the work has been the development of a mobile robotic agent, and the hardware and software modifications and developments required to enable the demonstrator to operate as a single, self-organizing, multi-agent system. This single-robot system is seen as the forerunner of a system in which larger numbers of small robots perform inspection and repair tasks cooperatively, by self-organization. While the goal of demonstrating self-organized damage diagnosis was not fully achieved in the time available, much of the work required for the final element that enables the robot to point the video camera and transmit an image has been completed. A demonstration video of the CD and robotic systems operating will be made and forwarded to NASA.

  3. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814

  4. Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814

  5. Animal Tails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

  6. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. Hutchinson

    1987-01-01

    Principles of Plasma Diagnostics provides a detailed derivation and discussion of the plasma physics principles on which diagnostics are base, including magnetic measurements, electric probes, refractive index, radiation emission and scattering, and ionic processes. The text is based on first-principles development of the required concepts and includes examples of diagnostics in action taken from fusion research.

  7. Human and animal health on three continents-a biography of the early life of Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974).

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Karl Friedrich Meyer (KF) was born and educated as a veterinarian in Europe; he researched infectious diseases in Europe, South Africa and the United States. He is one of the true forefathers of the 'one health-one medicine' concept. The broad scope of his research covered botulism, leptospirosis, brucellosis, plague, ornithosis, Western equine encephalitis, mussel poisoning and clostridia. This manuscript adds some more details of his early biography. PMID:26032783

  8. A feasibility study for the establishment of a national wildlife health centre in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Valeix, S; Lokugalappatti, L G S; Abeynayake, P; Prasad, T; Chandrasiri, A D N; Daniel, S L A; Stephen, C; Leighton, F A

    2011-12-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical nation within a zoogeographic zone that is at high risk for infectious disease emergence. In 2010, a study was conducted on the feasibility of enhancing capacity in Sri Lanka to manage wildlife diseases through the establishment of a national wildlife health centre. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre was assessed as a potential model for adaptation in Sri Lanka. Interviews and group meetings were conducted with potential key participants from the Sri Lankan Departments of Wildlife Conservation and Animal Production and Health, and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of Peradeniya. In addition, site visits were made to potentially participating facilities and the literature on best practices in building scientific capacity was consulted. With strategic enhancements in education and training, additional personnel, improvements in transportation and diagnostic facilities, and central coordination, Sri Lanka appears very well positioned to establish a sustainable wildlife health centre and programme. PMID:22435187

  9. 77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0889] Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered in or on...

  10. Diagnostic reliability of an immunochromatographic test for Chagas disease screening at a primary health care centre in a rural endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Mendicino, Diego; Stafuza, Mariana; Colussi, Carlina; del Barco, Mónica; Streiger, Mirtha; Moretti, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with Chagas disease live in remote communities that lack both equipment and trained personnel to perform a diagnosis by conventional serology (CS). Thus, reliable tests suitable for use under difficult conditions are required. In this study, we evaluated the ability of personnel with and without laboratory skills to perform immunochromatographic (IC) tests to detect Chagas disease at a primary health care centre (PHCC). We examined whole blood samples from 241 patients and serum samples from 238 patients. Then, we calculated the percentage of overall agreement (POA) between the two groups of operators for the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp) and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of IC tests compared to CS tests. We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) tests. The readings of the IC test results showed 100% agreement (POA = 1). The IC test on whole blood showed the following values: S = 87.3%; Sp = 98.8%; PPV = 96.9% and NPV = 95.9%. Additionally, the IC test on serum displayed the following results: S = 95.7%; Sp = 100%; PPV = 100% and NPV = 98.2%. Using whole blood, the agreement with ELISA was 96.3% and the agreement with IHA was 94.1%. Using serum, the agreement with ELISA was 97.8% and the agreement with IHA was 96.6%. The IC test performance with serum samples was excellent and demonstrated its usefulness in a PHCC with minimal equipment. If the IC test S value and NPV with whole blood are improved, then this test could also be used in areas lacking laboratories or specialised personnel. PMID:25466624

  11. Public health and environmental response to the first case of naturally acquired inhalational anthrax in the United States in 30 years: infection of a new york city resident who worked with dried animal hides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quyen; Clark, Nancy; Karpati, Adam; Goldberg, Allan; Paykin, Andrea; Tucker, Andrew; Baker, Angela; Almiroudis, Anna; Fine, Annie; Tsoi, Ben; Aston, Christopher; Berg, Debra; Weiss, Don; Connelly, Ed; Beaudry, Gary; Weisfuse, Isaac; Durrah, James C; Prudhomme, Jeanine; Leighton, Jessica; Ackelsberg, Joel; Mahoney, Kevin; Van Vynck, Laurie; Lee, Lillian; Moskin, Linda; Layton, Marci; Wong, Marie; Raphael, Marisa; Robinson, Martha; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mickey; Jeffery, Nancy; Nieves, Ray; Slavinski, Sally; Mullin, Sandra; Beatrice, Sara T; Balter, Sharon; Blank, Sue; Frieden, Thomas; Keifer, Max; Rosenstein, Nancy; Diaz, Pamela; Clark, Thomas; Compton, Harry; Daloia, James; Cardarelli, John; Norrell, Neil; Horn, Ed; Jackling, Sam; Bacon, Connie; Glasgow, Erich; Gomez, Tom; Baltzersen, Richard A; Kammerdener, Charles; Margo-Zavazky, Dani; Colgan, John; Pulaski, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    In Pennsylvania on February 16, 2006, a New York City resident collapsed with rigors and was hospitalized. On February 21, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene were notified that Bacillus anthracis had been identified in the patient's blood. Although the patient's history of working with dried animal hides to make African drums indicated the likelihood of a natural exposure to aerosolized anthrax spores, bioterrorism had to be ruled out first. Ultimately, this case proved to be the first case of naturally occurring inhalational anthrax in 30 years. This article describes the epidemiologic and environmental investigation to identify other cases and persons at risk and to determine the source of exposure and scope of contamination. Because stricter regulation of the importation of animal hides from areas where anthrax is enzootic is difficult, public healthcare officials should consider the possibility of future naturally occurring anthrax cases caused by contaminated hides. Federal protocols are needed to assist in the local response, which should be tempered by our growing understanding of the epidemiology of naturally acquired anthrax. These protocols should include recommended methods for reliable and efficient environmental sample collection and laboratory testing, and environmental risk assessments and remediation. PMID:20357604

  12. A Framework to Debug Diagnostic Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodal, Anuradha; Robinson, Peter; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics is an important concept in system health and monitoring of space operations. Many of the existing diagnostic algorithms utilize system knowledge in the form of diagnostic matrix (D-matrix, also popularly known as diagnostic dictionary, fault signature matrix or reachability matrix) gleaned from physical models. But, sometimes, this may not be coherent to obtain high diagnostic performance. In such a case, it is important to modify this D-matrix based on knowledge obtained from other sources such as time-series data stream (simulated or maintenance data) within the context of a framework that includes the diagnostic/inference algorithm. A systematic and sequential update procedure, diagnostic modeling evaluator (DME) is proposed to modify D-matrix and wrapper logic considering least expensive solution first. This iterative procedure includes conditions ranging from modifying 0s and 1s in the matrix, or adding/removing the rows (failure sources) columns (tests). We will experiment this framework on datasets from DX challenge 2009.

  13. Applications of Smart Materials to Diagnostics and Vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Inman

    Examples of smart materials used for diagnostics and vibration reduction are presented. The diagnostics method, referred to as the impedance-based health monitoring technique, utilizes electromechanical coupling property of piezoelectric materials. An overview and recent advances in the impedance method are presented. This paper also introduces experimental investigations of vibration testing and control of an inflatable space structure using smart materials.

  14. DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS IN 132 GREAT HORNED OWLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. CHRISTtAN FRANSON

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N  10), and Wisconsin (N -- 9). Forty-two

  15. A pivotal year for lab animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Holden, C

    1986-04-11

    Developments in the U.S. during 1985 related to laboratory animal welfare are discussed. The enactment of amendments to the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and revisions to the Public Health Service's animal care guidelines are described as major federal moves to tighten standards and to locate responsibility for proper animal care at the institutional level. These regulatory changes will have a significant economic impact on the cost of doing research, but are generally accepted by the scientific community as necessary. Although moderate animal welfare groups see signs of progress, there is a growing number of activists who see recent policy developments as only a step toward the real goal of total elimination of the use of animals in research. It is apparent that the combination of political pressure, financial stringency, and better experimental methodologies will result in a continued reduction in laboratory animal use. PMID:3952503

  16. 21 CFR 501.1 - Principal display panel of package form animal food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Principal display panel of package form animal food. 501.1 Section 501.1 Food and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

  17. 21 CFR 501.2 - Information panel of package for animal food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Information panel of package for animal food. 501.2 Section 501.2 Food and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

  18. A malaria diagnostic system based on electric impedance spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Ha, Sungjae

    2011-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection is one of the major threats to world health and especially to the community without proper medical care. New approach to cost-efficient, portable, miniaturized diagnostic ...

  19. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Hilberg, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine.

  20. 78 FR 73697 - New Animal Drugs; Hyaluronate Sodium; Hydrogen Peroxide; Imidacloprid and Moxidectin; Change of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...Hyaluronate Sodium; Hydrogen Peroxide; Imidacloprid and Moxidectin; Change of Sponsor...CE.1 3 LLC, Animal Health Dogs (imidacloprid approval for the Division, P.O...CE.1 3 LLC, Animal Health Cats (imidacloprid approval for the Division,...

  1. The beast within : measuring the minds of zoo animals

    E-print Network

    Duke, Julia Jane

    2014-01-01

    Though zoos have come far from their early days of concrete boxes in caring for their residents' physical health, zoo animals' mental health-the feelings and thoughts beneath the furry and scaly exteriors-has only recently ...

  2. Game Animals of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

  3. Animal Industries - 10 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2006-06-02

    Three-dimensional computer character animation is becoming more and more prevalent in the entertainment industry. As the demand grows, so does the need for tools that allow animators to create animations quickly. In this thesis, we present a...

  4. Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johns Hopkins School for Public Health established the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) in 1981. Although the concept of devising alternatives to animal testing is controversial, the CAAT website dispels the myths about the efficacy of using animals in testing everything from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics to medical procedures. Visitors interested in listening to or watching presentations about alternatives to animal testing should check out the "Media Center" for the link to the "CAAT Youtube Channel". Visitors interested in taking a free online course offered by CAAT entitled "Humane Science Course", should check out the "Resources" tab. The course consists of 12 audio lectures, slides, resource lists, and study questions presented by Johns Hopkins School for Public Health faculty. The course addresses experimental design, pain management, post-surgical care, environmental enrichment, and the impact of animals' stress levels on the quality of data.

  5. Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist

    E-print Network

    Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Wayne Singleton, Extension Reproductive Physiologist Photo Credits: Wayne Singleton AS-559-W Estrus Detection in Farm Animals Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Farm Animal Management @Purdue Farm Animal Management

  6. Bridge Rectifier Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an animation of a bridge rectifier circuit or diode bridge. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations. A link provides an optional Quicktime version of this same animation.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

  7. 9 CFR 98.5 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.5 Health certificate....

  8. 9 CFR 98.5 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.5 Health certificate....

  9. 9 CFR 98.14 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth...Health certificate. (a) Ruminant and swine embryos shall not be imported into the...

  10. 9 CFR 98.14 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth...Health certificate. (a) Ruminant and swine embryos shall not be imported into the...

  11. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 93.913 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...demonstrate freedom from VHS through negative testing results by a pathogen detection laboratory approved for VHS viral assays by the...

  12. Gas turbine diagnostic system

    E-print Network

    Talgat, Shuvatov

    2011-01-01

    In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

  13. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Hutchinson

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reprint of the 1987 edition (44.003.073). Contents: 1. Plasma diagnostics. 2. Magnetic diagnostics. 3. Plasma particle flux. 4. Refractive-index measurements. 5. Electromagnetic emission by free electrons. 6. Electromagnetic radiation from bound electrons. 7. Scattering of electromagnetic radiation. 8. Ion processes.

  14. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. Cohen; B. B. Afeyan; J. C. Garrison; T. B. Kaiser; N. C. Jr. Luhmann; C. W. Domier; A. E. Chou; S. Baang

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its

  15. In vitro diagnostic prospects of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H

    2009-05-01

    There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. The use of nanoparticles promises to help promote in vitro diagnostics to the next level of performance. Quantum dots (QDs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and superparamagnetic nanoparticles are the most promising nanostructures for in vitro diagnostic applications. These nanoparticles can be conjugated to recognition moieties such as antibodies or oligonucleotides for detection of target biomolecules. Nanoparticles have been utilized in immunoassays, immunohistochemistry, DNA diagnostics, bioseparation of specific cell populations, and cellular imaging. Nanoparticle-based diagnostics may open new frontiers for detection of tumours, infectious diseases, bio-terrorism agents, and neurological diseases, to name a few. More work is necessary to fully optimize use of nanoparticles for clinical diagnosis and to resolve some concerns regarding potential health and environmental risks related to their use. However, we envision further developments of nanoparticle-based diagnostics will yield unique assays with enhanced sensitivity and multiplexing capability for the modern clinical laboratory. PMID:19361470

  16. National Wildlife Health Center Wildlife Health Bulletin 2013-05

    E-print Network

    National Wildlife Health Center Wildlife Health Bulletin 2013-05 USGS National Wildlife Health Center Wildlife Diagnostic Services To: Natural Resource/Conservation Managers From: Dr. Jonathan Sleeman, Center Director, USGS National Wildlife Health Center Date: September 19, 2013 Wildlife diseases

  17. Animals May Ease Social Anxiety in Children with Autism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the presence of companion animals, children with autism spectrum disorders function better socially," James Griffin, of the NICHD's ... HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News on: Autism Spectrum Disorder Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Autism ...

  18. Bioaerosols associated with animal production operations.

    PubMed

    Millner, Patricia D

    2009-11-01

    Air emissions from animal housing and manure management operations include a complex mixture of biological, microbial, and inorganic particulates along with odorous volatile compounds. This report highlights the state of current issues, technical knowledge, and remaining challenges to be addressed in evaluating the impacts of airborne microorganisms, dusts, and odorants on animals and workers at animal production facilities and nearby communities. Reports documenting bioaerosol measurements illustrate some of the technical issues related to sample collection, analysis, as well as dispersion and transport to off-farm locations. Approaches to analysis, mitigation and modeling transport are discussed in the context of the risk reduction and management of airborne spread of bioaerosols from animal operations. The need for standardization and validation of bioaerosol collection and analytical techniques for indoor as well as outdoor animal agriculture settings is critical to evaluation of health effects from modern animal production systems that are increasingly situated near communities. PMID:19395257

  19. 77 FR 72254 - New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 500, 520, 522...FDA-2012-N-1067] RIN 0910-AG17 New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  20. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.