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1

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Immunohistochemistry Laboratory  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology ­ Immunohistochemistry Laboratory Page 1 of 1 Document Antibodies Prepared/Reviewed by: Martin Slade, Technical Service Supervisor, Histology Laboratory Joy Cramer

Pawlowski, Wojtek

2

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 607-253-3900 Web: diagcenter Testing for Possible Contamination Information for Pet Owners The first step that should be taken whenever (FDA) can be contacted at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/ReportaProblem/ucm182403.htm

Keinan, Alon

3

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts  

E-print Network

Pa containers) Protocol for Sampling Depending on the species of animal being tested, it is recommendedAnimal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts Phone: 6072533100 Web: diagcenter Leptospirosis FA/Growth Testing Sample Procurement Test Name (and code): Leptospirosis FA (LeptoFA) AHDC Lab

Keinan, Alon

4

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in dogs Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi. Spirochetes, clinical signs of Lyme disease were estimated to occur in 5-10% of seropositive animals 5 . This percentage

Keinan, Alon

5

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in horses Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi-end hosts for B. burgdorferi 1 . Not all infected horses develop clinical signs of Lyme disease. If clinical

Keinan, Alon

6

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Page 1 of 2 Issue Date: 5/25/2012 Document Title: Histology Laboratory Research Prices Document Code: AP-HISTO-CHT-010-V.01 Histology Laboratory Research Prices Prepared/Reviewed by: Martin Slade, Technical Service Supervisor, Histology Laboratory Tissues

Pawlowski, Wojtek

7

ANIMAL HEALTH DIAGNOSTIC LAB-LASP Prices 2013 & 2014  

Cancer.gov

09/18/14 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research ANIMAL HEALTH DIAGNOSTIC LAB-LASP Services without a price for a given year: may not be available, the price is pending or it hasn't been selected to be displayed on the web. Service Code

8

DL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET  

E-print Network

and older * Please see either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDCDL-981 2/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

Keinan, Alon

9

DL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET  

E-print Network

either the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) Test and Fee Manual or the AHDC website at diagcenterDL-980 5/10 Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC FACT SHEET College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell: 607-253-3900 Fax: 607-253-3943 Web: diagcenter.vet.cornell.edu E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu Testing

Keinan, Alon

10

Animal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853  

E-print Network

Service Address: 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853 20 Export Testing Tips The Animal Health DiagnosticAnimal Health Diagnostic Center P.O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 Test & Fee Schedule Courier are routinely involved in international animal shipments. General tips: 1. Please keep in mind the time frame

Keinan, Alon

11

Innovations in Companion Animal Health Introducing dynamic new treatments, developing stronger diagnostic tools, pioneering veterinary disciplines,  

E-print Network

that school faculty members have achieved. The vital role of taurine in the feline diet ­ Veterinary and enable the pet to breathe more easily. #12;The first disaster preparedness plans for animals preparedness plans. As a result, many communities have employed established veterinary protocols for the rescue

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

12

Recent applications of biotechnology to novel diagnostics for aquatic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Improvement of the methods included in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals and addition of novel techniques are dependent on the continual development and evaluation of both new and existing methods. Although conventional isolation and characterisation techniques for the diagnosis of many diseases still remain the methods of choice there is

A. Adams; K. D. Thompson

13

World Organisation for Animal Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1924 by a coalition of 28 countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), now composed of 167 member countries, facilitates global awareness of regional animal diseases, and also works to curtail the spread of diseases. The OIE website contains a range of information about animal health issues in three main sections: World Animal Health Situation, Official Animal Health Status, and Animal Diseases Data. The site also offers editorials and press releases, as well as information about a variety of OIE publications. In addition, site visitors will find a calendar of international meetings, job postings (when available), a solid collection of related links; and information about health standards for terrestrial and aquatic animals, OIE Reference Laboratories and Working Groups, internships, and more. This website is available in French, Spanish, and English.

14

Phenobarbital Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

level of the drug is essential in order to achieve maximal seizure control while maintaining minimal to Test List Test Method KIMS Testing Strategy Phenobarbital is one of the most commonly used drugs. As with other anticonvulsant drugs, it is imperative that each patient's dosage be individualized. Collection

Keinan, Alon

15

Animal and Plant Health Inspection  

E-print Network

to USDA since the Federal Order was initiated on June 5, 2014. USDA-APHIS-VS veterinary officials confirm on the USDA Web site at www.aphis.usda.gov/animal-health/secd. The Web site provides additional SECD

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

16

The animal health foresight project.  

PubMed

The Animal Health Foresight Project was co-sponsored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This study is the most recent of a series of four international workshops of the International Working Group on Animal Disposal Alternatives (IWADA), created to determine alternative options for effective disease control without mass animal destruction. The study employed foresight technology to stimulate new thinking using the future perspective tools of challenge questions and scenario development. A total of 43 Canadian and American participants from industry, academia, the public and government made their contributions over the duration of four meetings. The group developed and analysed eight pictures of possible futures. Ten conclusions were formulated. Fundamental to these conclusions was the recognition of a need for a conceptual change to the management of animal health, a new paradigm. This paradigm was a policy change to the management of risks rather than disease elimination, a change in the roles for the establishment of policy and a convergence of animal health and public health. The new paradigm was incorporated into a hierarchy of decision-making options, out of which five principles for alternatives to mass animal destruction were identified. PMID:20411514

Willis, Norman G

2007-01-01

17

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has isolated Salmonella Group C2 from cultures submitted from 4 different horse farms in either to most antibiotics. A Salmonella newport strain (Group C2) was recently associated with the closing

Keinan, Alon

18

The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.  

PubMed

The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. PMID:19967940

Brckner, G K

2009-03-01

19

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

2011-01-01

20

ANIMAL MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS LAB-LASP Prices 2013 & 2014  

Cancer.gov

09/18/14 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research ANIMAL MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS LAB-LASP Services without a price for a given year: may not be available, the price is pending or it hasn't been selected to be displayed on the web. Service Code

21

Animal Health Diagnostic Center AHDC Contacts  

E-print Network

.vet.cornell.edu Fax: 607-253-3943 E-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu AHDC FACT SHEET DL-931 11/07 Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) RT-PCR Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) is a common viral infection in cats. It generally causes rise to mutants that lead to the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Most cats infected

Keinan, Alon

22

Serology APPENDIX H Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

in serum, plasma, thoracic or peritoneal exudates of cats, but can not differentiate between anti- bodies at a standard dilution on multiple wells on antigen and control antigen (to detect non-specific activity.) Five to >2000. In one study we found that cats with clinical signs of FIP or histopath confirmed FIP had a range

Keinan, Alon

23

Balancing Human and Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteria and antibiotics have likely co-existed since the beginning of time; one seeks only to survive (bacteria) while the other (antibiotics) serves multiple functions. The discovery of antimicrobials began a golden age in medicine as previously untreatable diseases were cured. Animals benefite...

24

Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.  

PubMed

The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. Aworkshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components. PMID:25282018

Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jrg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rnmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Tom

2014-10-01

25

Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.  

PubMed

The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. PMID:21840795

Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

2010-03-01

26

Health and welfare in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

Nordenfelt, Lennart

2011-06-01

27

Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

Reif, John S.

2011-01-01

28

Nutrition-based health in animal production.  

PubMed

Events such as BSE, foot and mouth disease and avian influenza illustrate the importance of animal health on a global basis. The only practical solution to deal with such problems has usually been mass culling of millions of animals at great effort and expense. Serious consideration needs to be given to nutrition as a practical solution for health maintenance and disease avoidance of animals raised for food. Health or disease derives from a triad of interacting factors; diet-disease agent, diet-host and disease agent-host. Various nutrients and other bioactive feed ingredients, nutricines, directly influence health by inhibiting growth of pathogens or by modulating pathogen virulence. It is possible to transform plant-based feed ingredients to produce vaccines against important diseases and these could be fed directly to animals. Nutrients and nutricines contribute to three major factors important in the diet-host interaction; maintenance of gastrointestinal integrity, support of the immune system and the modulation of oxidative stress. Nutrition-based health is the next challenge in modern animal production and will be important to maintain economic viability and also to satisfy consumer demands in terms of food quality, safety and price. This must be accomplished largely through nutritional strategies making optimum use of both nutrients and nutricines. PMID:19079877

Adams, Clifford A

2006-06-01

29

Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal  

E-print Network

directly (by calling 1-888-FDA-VETS) (An adverse drug event is an undesired side effect or lack/Center for Biologics: animal vaccines EPA: pesticides, algicides #12;#12;#12;#12;What can you do to help? Report of effectiveness.) #12;Animal Health Literacy Campaign Go to the CVM page, http

30

Animal Health Policy and Practice: Scaling-up Community-based Animal Health Systems, Lessons from Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extensive literature review, the author develops policy recommendations to facilitate scaling up community-based animal health systems to the national level. Noting that human and animal health services in rural areas have much in common, and that an extensive literature studies policy regarding primary healthcare for humans exists, she surveys that literature for observations and conclusions applicable to policy

Ana Riviere-Cinnamond

2005-01-01

31

The need to include animal protection in public health policies.  

PubMed

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-11-01

32

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanit, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernndez, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigacin y Tecnologa Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacin, Carretera de la Corua, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

2013-08-01

33

A framework for the animal health risk analysis of biotechnology-derived animals: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed

This paper describes the framework used by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to assess the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals and their products. In Canada the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals are one consideration among several other regulatory concerns (e.g. human health, the environment). The risk analysis process begins with hazard identification, includes a risk assessment for each hazard, and concludes with risk management and risk communication. PMID:16110876

Moreau, P I; Jordan, L T

2005-04-01

34

Minnesota Board of Animal Health 625 Robert Street North  

E-print Network

to perform. To help ensure compliance with Minnesota CWD testing requirements, the Board of Animal Health, the Board of Animal Health will pay the laboratory fees for CWD testing under the following conditions: 1 of an animal is submitted to the laboratory for CWD testing. This gross examination fee is needed to cover

Thomas, David D.

35

Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.  

PubMed Central

Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

Dawe, C J

1990-01-01

36

ON THE MOVE! The New Jersey Department of Agriculture Division of Animal Health and Animal Health Di-  

E-print Network

ON THE MOVE! The New Jersey Department of Agriculture Division of Animal Health and Animal Health of livestock in New Jersey. The division tracks information about emerging diseases around the world that may of livestock, poultry, fish, and wildlife. The laboratory serves New Jersey's companion animal owners

Delgado, Mauricio

37

Microsoft Word - SOP 2 002 Animal Health Evaluation.doc  

Cancer.gov

LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCES PROGRAM - SAIC-FREDERICK SOP NUMBER : 2.002 EFFECTIVE DATE: 7/20/2006 REVISION NUMBER: 3 PAGE 1 of 4 TITLE: Animal Health Evaluation Prepared by: Julie Bullock Veterinary Associate Reviewed By:

38

Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns DEPARfMMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICFS Public Health Service  

E-print Network

--=--- -- - -- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - ----~ Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns DEPARf of Health SUBJECT: Communicating Animal Care and Use Concerns within the NIH Intramural Research Program As the NIH Institutional Official (IO) for Intramural animal research this memorandum reaffirms my commitment

Bandettini, Peter A.

39

Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... addition, animals can transmit zoonotic infections such as rabies. Of the estimated 35,00055,000 rabies deaths every year worldwide, >95% occur as a ... SCRATCH WOUNDS Animal bites present a risk for rabies, tetanus, and other bacterial infections. Animals saliva can ...

40

Forages for Grazing Animal Health AGRICULTURE IN 2008  

E-print Network

for the enhancement of animal health through natural and ge- netically modified (GM) compounds produced by forage; and isoflavones to mimic estrogenic activity. Genetic transformation of forage plants to express novel bio-active proteins also has potential to impact animal health issues. One exciting possibility is the genetic

41

Occupational Health and Safety Program Animal Risk Questionnaire  

E-print Network

. Environmental Allergies, Asthma, Skin Problems, and General Health Status. Yes No Don't Know 1. Are you allergic to any animals? If yes, list the animals: If yes, have you been seen by a physician for animal allergies, describe: 3. Do you have any other known allergies? If yes, list cause(s) of allergies: List symptoms

Farritor, Shane

42

[Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

2014-04-01

43

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. Open-admission shelters, which tended to be larger and more likely to perform animal control functions, were less likely (41%) to test all adult dogs than were limited-admission shelters (80%), which tended to be smaller non-profit humane agencies, and foster programs (98%) based out of private residences. Open-admission shelters were more likely to euthanize infected dogs (27%) or to release them without treatment (39%), whereas limited-admission shelters and foster programs were more likely to provide adulticide therapy (82% and 89%, respectively). Of the 319 agencies that treated infections, 44% primarily used a standard two-dose melarsomine protocol, and 35% primarily used a three-dose split-treatment melarsomine protocol. Long-term low-dose ivermectin was the most common treatment used in 22% of agencies. Open-admission shelters were less likely (35%) to provide preventive medications for all dogs than were limited-admission shelters (82%) and foster programs (97%). More agencies used preventives labeled for monthly use in dogs (60%) than ivermectin products labeled for livestock (38%). The most common reason diagnostic testing and preventive medication was not provided was cost. These results indicate a lack of protocol uniformity among agencies and insufficient resources to identify, treat, and prevent infection. Sheltering agencies and companion animal health industries should develop guidelines that are feasible for use in sheltering agencies and provide improved access to preventive and treatment strategies for management of Dirofilaria immitis. PMID:21353743

Colby, Kathleen N; Levy, Julie K; Dunn, Kiri F; Michaud, Rachel I

2011-03-22

44

Use of health information technology to reduce diagnostic errors  

PubMed Central

Background Health information technology (HIT) systems have the potential to reduce delayed, missed or incorrect diagnoses. We describe and classify the current state of diagnostic HIT and identify future research directions. Methods A multi-pronged literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, backwards and forwards reference searches and contributions from domain experts. We included HIT systems evaluated in clinical and experimental settings as well as previous reviews, and excluded radiology computer-aided diagnosis, monitor alerts and alarms, and studies focused on disease staging and prognosis. Articles were organised within a conceptual framework of the diagnostic process and areas requiring further investigation were identified. Results HIT approaches, tools and algorithms were identified and organised into 10 categories related to those assisting: (1) information gathering; (2) information organisation and display; (3) differential diagnosis generation; (4) weighing of diagnoses; (5) generation of diagnostic plan; (6) access to diagnostic reference information; (7) facilitating follow-up; (8) screening for early detection in asymptomatic patients; (9) collaborative diagnosis; and (10) facilitating diagnostic feedback to clinicians. We found many studies characterising potential interventions, but relatively few evaluating the interventions in actual clinical settings and even fewer demonstrating clinical impact. Conclusions Diagnostic HIT research is still in its early stages with few demonstrations of measurable clinical impact. Future efforts need to focus on: (1) improving methods and criteria for measurement of the diagnostic process using electronic data; (2) better usability and interfaces in electronic health records; (3) more meaningful incorporation of evidence-based diagnostic protocols within clinical workflows; and (4) systematic feedback of diagnostic performance. PMID:23852973

El-Kareh, Robert; Hasan, Omar; Schiff, Gordon D

2013-01-01

45

76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee. DATES: The meeting will be held July 22, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight time)....

2011-05-19

46

The future of anti-infective products in animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery, development and marketing of animal health anti-infective products are at an important crossroads. Traditional anti-infective products include antibiotics, parasiticides and vaccines, which are administered to either food production or companion animals. The convergence of market conditions, new regulatory guidance, political decisions and food safety concerns has led to a redirection of research away from traditional antibiotics and towards

Thomas R. Shryock

2004-01-01

47

Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the

Matthew Scotch; Lynda Odofin; Peter Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

48

75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study. DATES: We will consider all...INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Sheep 2011 Study, contact Ms. Sandra...

2010-08-27

49

Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.  

PubMed

Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

2012-01-01

50

Containment and competition: Transgenic animals in the One Health agenda.  

PubMed

The development of the One World, One Health agenda coincides in time with the appearance of a different model for the management of human-animal relations: the genetic manipulation of animal species in order to curtail their ability as carriers of human pathogens. In this paper we examine two examples of this emergent transgenic approach to disease control: the development of transgenic chickens incapable of shedding avian flu viruses, and the creation of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to dengue or malaria infection. Our analysis elaborates three distinctions between the One World, One Health agenda and its transgenic counterpoint. The first concerns the conceptualization of outbreaks and the forms of surveillance that support disease control efforts. The second addresses the nature of the interspecies interface, and the relative role of humans and animals in preventing pathogen transmission. The third axis of comparison considers the proprietary dimensions of transgenic animals and their implications for the assumed public health ethos of One Health programs. We argue that the fundamental difference between these two approaches to infectious disease control can be summarized as one between strategies of containment and strategies of competition. While One World, One Health programs seek to establish an equilibrium in the human-animal interface in order to contain the circulation of pathogens across species, transgenic strategies deliberately trigger a new ecological dynamic by introducing novel animal varieties designed to out-compete pathogen-carrying hosts and vectors. In other words, while One World, One Health policies focus on introducing measures of inter-species containment, transgenic approaches derive their prophylactic benefit from provoking new cycles of intra-species competition between GM animals and their wild-type counterparts. The coexistence of these divergent health protection strategies, we suggest, helps to elucidate enduring tensions and concerns about how humans should relate to, appraise, and intervene on animals and their habitats. PMID:24961736

Lezaun, Javier; Porter, Natalie

2014-06-15

51

A new model for companion-animal primary health care education.  

PubMed

The majority of graduates from veterinary schools in the United States and Canada join companion-animal practices. In most schools, their clinical learning and client interaction experiences occurred primarily in referral teaching hospitals. These specialty hospitals play an essential role in the veterinary care continuum by providing advanced training, clinically-based research, and sophisticated diagnostics and procedures. However, they are not ideal as the principal setting for preparing veterinarians to bring value to the primary health care practices that they join. A new model for companion-animal primary health care education and service delivery has been developed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The nine integrated programs, which have defined learning objectives and outcome assessments, include communication, nutrition, rehabilitation, behavior, welfare, One Health (ecosystem approach to health), preventive and general medicine, good citizenship, and research. The learning experience begins with first-year student veterinarians and takes place in a practice setting with paying clients from the community. Significantly, the students are learning in an environment that emphasizes the importance of the client experience, teamwork, and practice management while ensuring quality health care for patients. The future of companion-animal primary health care and the optimal preparation of veterinarians are critical issues for the veterinary colleges and profession. Enhanced research into new models for primary health care education and service delivery is urgently needed. PMID:22951456

Stone, Elizabeth A; Conlon, Peter; Cox, Sherri; Coe, Jason B

2012-01-01

52

Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications  

PubMed Central

In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

2013-01-01

53

A strategy for health surveillance in laboratory animal workers exposed to high molecular weight allergens  

PubMed Central

Aims: To develop a health surveillance strategy with the use of diagnostic and prognostic prediction models to detect and predict occupational allergic diseases efficiently. Methods: Data from laboratory animal workers (n = 351) participating in an ongoing cohort study were used to develop diagnostic and prognostic models with logistic regression analyses. A diagnostic model was developed from questionnaire items, and exposure measurements to find predictors for the estimation of the probability of sensitisation to workplace allergens. With the resulting questionnaire model workers were divided into subgroups (high/low probability). A prognostic model was established in workers initially low sensitised using follow up data over a 23 year period. The accuracy of the models was evaluated by the concordance (c) statistic, and by comparison of the predicted and observed prevalence. Results: A diagnostic rule, containing five questionnaire items, identified workers with a high risk of sensitisation. These workers showed high rates of work related asthma, allergic symptoms, doctor's visit, and absenteeism. A prognostic rule based on four questionnaire items predicted workers at high risk of near future sensitisation with high rates of future (allergic) respiratory symptoms, and asthmatic attacks. Conclusion: The risk of (future) sensitisation and the severity of laboratory animal allergy can be predicted accurately with diagnostic and prognostic prediction models based on questionnaire items. Workers with an increased risk of future sensitisation also showed serious allergic symptoms at follow up. Workers with a low risk have a low risk of becoming diseased in the future. PMID:15377769

Meijer, E; Grobbee, D; Heederik, D

2004-01-01

54

The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that information adapted to audiences with low health literacy suits people with high health literacy as well. PMID:25586711

van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

2015-01-01

55

Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

2008-04-01

56

Animal diseases of public health importance.  

PubMed Central

The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing problems, strengthening infrastructure, promoting standardization as a means of facilitating trade, and safeguarding the interests of consumers. This paper considers the importance of emerging foodborne diseases from the perspectives of the consumer, international trade in food, producers and processors, and developing countries and addresses prevention and control measures. PMID:9366603

Orriss, G. D.

1997-01-01

57

Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.  

PubMed

Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

2004-10-01

58

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Awards Application 2012  

E-print Network

USDA/Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Research Funding & Animal Health and Disease authorization. Proposals that involve or utilize research animals, biohazards, human subjects, or Veterinary have been obtained. II. USDA Animal Health and Disease Supplemental Award In addition to research

Stephens, Graeme L.

59

Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.  

PubMed

The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

2014-08-01

60

DL-945 1/09 Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

veterinarian. CEM cases or suspect cases should be reported to the USDA (http://www.aphis.usda information regarding Contagious Equine Metritis, see the following fact sheets: (USDA APHIS) http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/fsheet_faq_notice/fs_ahcem.pdf (OIE) http://www

Keinan, Alon

61

Immunoglobulin G, Equine Chemistry Animal Health Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

.M. Measurement of Serum IgG in Foals by Radial Immunodiffusion and Automated Turbidimetric Immunoassay. J. Vet Overnight with ice packs Comments Equine only. Results Format Quantitative Sensitivity 81% The reference

Keinan, Alon

62

Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A functional model was developed and presented here to identify critical control points in associated biochemical pathways and further understand that how environmental factors impact the immune system to affect animal health.. A general comparison of the differences in cellular responses to mild v...

63

Decomposing health: tolerance and resistance to parasites in animals  

E-print Network

Review Decomposing health: tolerance and resistance to parasites in animals Lars Ra°berg1,*, Andrea against parasites and pathogens can be divided into two conceptually different components: the ability to limit parasite burden (resistance) and the ability to limit the harm caused by a given burden (tolerance

Graham, Andrea L.

64

Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

Gill, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

65

COLLABORATION IN ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY EPIDEMIOLOGY: SWINE DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Collaboration in Animal Health & Food Safety Epidemiology (CAHFSE), a partnership among APHIS, ARS, and FSIS of USDA was established to track food borne pathogens and monitor diseases from farm through plant. Sampling began in July, 2003. By December 31, 2004, 43 farms in 5 states were participa...

66

Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle  

PubMed Central

There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492

2011-01-01

67

Livestock production and animal health in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

In Sicily, as in other Mediterranean areas, livestock represents one of the most important resources for the island economy. This sector involves more than 16,000 farms of cattle and 10,000 farms of sheep and goats (respectively 6% and 15% of national production) which are actually increasing their number. Most livestock in Sicily is owned by small holders and pastoralists. Regional production of milk feeds some industries, which involve a large and increasing occupational area. Due to its peculiar geographic aspect Sicily is constituted by hill areas with sporadic grasses, therefore extensive grazing methods represent an ancient, traditional practice for using poor lands. For the control of infectious diseases Veterinary Services (VS) are based on the public regional network that is coordinated by the Ministry of Health in Rome. Even if Sicilian VS had to solve many constraints related to traditional "pastoral management system", to the lack of any sanitary background of this sector, to unknown data on the numbers of the whole livestock, the effort done in the last years has allowed to monitor for brucellosis, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine TBC, swine vescicular disease (MVS) and other diseases for the majority of the farms. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) still represent a serious impediment to the improvement of meat and milk production in the region. Every year, several outbreaks related to Theileria, Babesia or Anaplasma infections in cattle are recorded. Imported breeds pay the most expensive tribute often with a mortality rate of 100%. In the last five years more than 170 outbreaks of TBDs have been notified by our Institute although the pathogen prevalence and economical impact in the Sicilian livestock is still unknown. The outdoor grazing of the animals, far away from observation, a subclinical course of the disease, can in fact create difficulties in discovering infection and therefore the therapy is often too late. New diagnostic and control methods (PCR, vaccination) are being developed at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Sicily in cooperation with other national and international laboratories (such as the University of Utrecht). PMID:11071536

Caracappa, S

1999-09-01

68

Animal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority  

E-print Network

Animal Care and Use Occupational Health Program 1.0 Regulatory Authority California Code in laboratory animal facilities or have substantial animal contact. The National Institute of Health (NIH) Public Health Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (September 1986) and 9 Code of Federal

de Lijser, Peter

69

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...Applicability 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing...the licensee and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...prescribed in a filed Outline of Production or Standard Requirement...

2010-01-01

70

Special Issue Public, Animal, and Environmental Health Implications of Aquaculture  

E-print Network

Aquaculture is important to the United States and the worlds fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the shrouded public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture. U.S. Fisheries System Coastal estuaries serve as a breeding ground and provide habitats for more than 75 % of commercial landings and 80 % to 90 % of the recreational catch of fish and shellfish. From these habitats, hundreds of species of seafood are produced. Aquacultured species now contribute up to 15 % of the U.S. supply (1,2). Wild species are harvested by 17,000,000 recreational anglers and nearly 300,000 commercial harvesters. Commercial harvesters deploy 93,000 vessels, while recreational fishermen have millions of recreational fishing boats. Nearly 5,000 domestic plants are located in every state throughout the United States, not just in the coastal areas (3). Current per capita consumption of commercially harvested species averages 15 pounds; it is estimated that per capita consumption of recreationally harvested seafood approaches an additional 3 to 4 pounds per person (4).

E. Spencer Garrett; Carlos Lima Dos Santos; Michael L. Jahncke

71

[Animal hoarding: a mental disorder with implications for public health].  

PubMed

Animal hoarding (AH) is a mental disorder that is characterised by an excessive number of kept animals, inability to maintain minimal standards of animal care and hygiene, and deficient insight into the thereby developing failures and problems. Although AH as a disease concept is neither represented in the DSM-5 nor the ICD-10, it may be classified as a subform of the hoarding disorder (DSM-5 300.3) that was implemented in the DSM-5 as an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Due to the hygienic deficiencies of the living spaces and the insufficient keeping of animals there is an increased risk of epizootic diseases and zoonoses. Specific epidemiological studies do not exist, however, women seem to be affected more frequently. AH is diagnosed mostly in late adulthood. Besides thorough somatic and psychiatric medical diagnostics, cooperation with the veterinary offices and authorities is usually necessary. Comorbid mental disorders (particularly depressive, obsessive-compulsive and personality disorders) are frequent. Currently, no evidence-based therapies exist. Social therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic interventions as well as sufficient treatment of comorbid mental disorders are recommended. PMID:24901316

Gahr, M; Connemann, B J; Freudenmann, R W; Klle, M A; Schnfeldt-Lecuona, C J

2014-06-01

72

Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications  

PubMed Central

The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

OSullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

2010-01-01

73

Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.  

PubMed

Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides a sound working platform not only for dealing with immediate questions when new or emerging disease situations arise, but also for more long-term activities, such as policy development, contingency planning and trade negotiations. Animal health issues, which emerged during my eight years as a CVO in Denmark from 1999 to 2007, will be used as examples, including BSE, FMD, HPAI and Trichinella testing. Emphasis will be placed on how science-based surveillance methodology and tools were developed, applied and documented. PMID:22305878

Willeberg, Preben

2012-08-01

74

Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

2012-05-31

75

Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in nave subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Bnlkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A

2007-02-01

76

Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

PubMed Central

A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organizations definition of health, a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

2007-01-01

77

76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...surveillance programs are maintained, and the owners of animals involved with animal disease control or surveillance programs. Such...or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing laboratories. Employee, cooperator, and...

2011-11-28

78

[Animal biomonitoring and micropollutants in public health--review].  

PubMed

The aim of the present review is to provide a picture of the current knowledge on animal biomonitoring and on the link between pollution and Public Health. There are various reasons leading to this road: the need of early detection of industrial pollutants, especially micropollutants that have adverse effects in very low concentrations: it is important to disclose the presence of these compounds directly or through certain molecular biomarkers in living organisms rather than in the natural environment, where they are often below the detection threshold; the need to optimize the allocation of resources: some experiences of biomonitoring carried out in wild animals may be useful in the identification of pollution sources; however, biomonitoring of domestic animals appears to be more feasable and effective, because they share with humans the exposure to pollutants. Nowadays, professionals of different disciplines such as doctors and biologists do not share a common set of terms and definitions in animal biomonitoring: this review wants to give a contribution in the consolidation of the current knowledge under a common language. PMID:23139184

Rombol, Pasquale; Battisti, Sabrina; Scaramozzino, Paola

2012-01-01

79

Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.  

PubMed

Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

2014-03-01

80

Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia  

PubMed Central

Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

2014-01-01

81

Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health  

PubMed Central

The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

82

Animal genomics for animal health report: critical needs, problems to be solved, potential solutions, and a roadmap for moving forward.  

PubMed

The first International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health, held at the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Headquarter, 23-25 October, 2007, Paris, France, assembled more than 250 participants representing research organizations from 26 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. In an effort to broaden the perspective of the roundtable discussion, the organizers set out four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This symposium report provides detailed summaries ofthe outcome ofthe roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, the problems needing to be solved, according to the views of the participants, are identified, including potential solutions, recommendations, and lastly, concrete steps that could be taken to address these problems. This report serves as a roadmap to steer research priorities in animal genomics research. PMID:18817334

Archibald, A; Audonnet, J C; Babiuk, L; Bishop, S C; Gay, C G; McKay, J; Mallard, B; Plastow, G; Pinard van der Laan, M H; Torremorell, M

2008-01-01

83

Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.  

PubMed

The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model. PMID:22916854

Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

2012-09-01

84

Respiratory Health Effects of Large Animal Farming Environments  

PubMed Central

With increases in large animal-feeding operations to meet consumer demand, adverse upper and lower respiratory health effects in exposed agriculture workers is a concern. The aim of this study was to review large animal confinement feeding operational exposures associated with respiratory disease with focus on recent advances in the knowledge of causative factors and cellular and immunological mechanisms. A PubMed search was conducted with the following keywords: airway, farm, swine, dairy, horse, cattle inflammation, organic dust, endotoxin, and peptidoglycan that were published between 1980 and current. Articles were selected based on their relevance to environmental exposure and reference to airway diseases. Airway diseases included rhinitis, sinusitis, mucus membrane inflammation syndrome, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome. There is lower prevalence of IgE-mediated asthma and atopy in farmers and their children, but organic dust worsens existing asthma. Multiple etiologic factors are linked to disease including allergens, organic dusts, endotoxins, peptidoglycans and gases. Large animal confinement feeding operations contain a wide-diversity of microbes with increasing focus on Gram-positive bacteria and archeabacteria as opposed to Gram-negative bacteria in mediating disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like innate immune pathways respond to these exposures. Finally, a chronic inflammatory adaptation, tolerance-like response in chronically exposed workers occurs. Large animal confinement farming exposures produces a wide spectrum of upper and lower respiratory tract diseases due to the complex diversity of organic dust, particulates, microbial cell wall components and gases and resultant activation of various innate immune receptor signaling pathways. PMID:23199220

May, Sara; Romberger, Debra J.; Poole, Jill A.

2014-01-01

85

Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.  

PubMed

Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. PMID:22335835

Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

2013-02-01

86

Development of diagnostic and prognostic technologies for aerospace health management applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective aerospace health management integrates component, subsystem and system level health monitoring strategies, consisting of anomaly\\/diagnostic\\/prognostic technologies, with an integrated modeling architecture that addresses failure mode mitigation and life cycle costs. Included within such health management systems will be various failure mode diagnostic and prognostic (D\\/P) approaches ranging from generic signal processing and experience-based algorithms to the more complex knowledge

Michael J. Roemer; E. O. Nwadiogbu; G. Bloor

2001-01-01

87

Diagnostic Classification 0-3: Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multi-disciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.

88

Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood. Diagnostic Classification: 0-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multidisciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the

Wieder, Serena, Ed.

89

Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness  

E-print Network

of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although oftenModeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness Randall S. Singer overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals

Singer, Randall

90

The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the development of international standards for laboratory animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) is a Paris-based inter-governmental body formed in 1924 with the objective of improving transparency and international collaboration in the control of serious epizootic animal diseases. At the time of publication the OIE has 170 Members. The formation in 1995 of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) saw the recognition of the OIE as the

Sarah Kahn

91

Report from the Second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health: Critical Needs, Challenges and Potential Solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

92

Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

93

SmartHEALTH: A multisensor platform for POC cancer diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many diagnostic fields a massive trend towards bringing the diagnostic procedure closer to the patient in space and time can be observed. This so-called Point-of-Care diagnostics (POC) greatly benefits from recent advances in microfabrication technologies, namely in the field of polymer based microsystems [1]. This is the more important as there is a massive pressure in reducing cost in

C. Gartner; H. Becker

2008-01-01

94

Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health.  

PubMed

The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals' health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

Tllez, Guillermo; Laukov, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Callaway, Todd

2015-01-01

95

78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for...the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

2013-04-24

96

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

97

Animals as Sentinels of Human Environmental Health Hazards: An Evidence-Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recognition that animals could be serving as sentinels for environmental risks to human health, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the use of animal sentinel data in human health \\u000adecision making. We performed a systematic review of the animal sentinel literature to assess the evidence linking such events to human health. A search of MEDLINE identified peer-reviewed original studies

Peter M. Rabinowitz; Zimra Gordon; Rebecca Holmes; Brynn Taylor; Matthew Wilcox; Daniel Chudnov; Prakash Nadkarni; F. Joshua Dein

2005-01-01

98

The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.  

PubMed

Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address them. PMID:23413732

Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

2012-08-01

99

Farm animal serum proteomics and impact on human health.  

PubMed

Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

Di Girolamo, Francesco; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

2014-01-01

100

78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal Studies...quality in animal studies. The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), Division of the National Toxicology...

2013-03-08

101

The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a discussion of the methodological research on which the development of the instrument was based. The WMH-CIDI includes a screening module and 40 sections that focus on diagnoses (22 sections), functioning (four sections), treatment

Ronald C. Kessler; T. Bedirhan stn

2004-01-01

102

USGS National Wildlife Health Center Diagnostic Case Submission Guidelines  

E-print Network

federal authority o Migratory birds under Migratory Bird Treaty Act or Eagle Protection Act o Federal in rehabilitation. Exceptions may include: o Federally protected species. o Animals that died within 72 hours is suspected (e.g. turtle Ranavirus, snake fungal disease). · Captive animals (originating from zoos, private

103

Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

104

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS 8135008 January 2004  

E-print Network

United States Department of Agriculture · Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service PEST ALERT.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confiscated more than arriving international travelers who may consume the snails as meat or folk medicine, or wish to keep them

Watson, Craig A.

105

UNCG Health and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research  

E-print Network

UNCG Health and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research PREFACE and Safety Program for Personnel Using Animals in Teaching and Research (HSPUSTR) is to prevent occupational effective interactions among researchers, the Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), the Consulting

Saidak, Filip

106

Bridging human and animal research: A comparative approach to studies of personality and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates a comparative approach to personality and health research. We (1) review evidence showing that personality exists and can be measured in animals, (2) illustrate the benefits of animal studies for human personality research, (3) illustrate the benefits of human studies for animal personality research, and (4) provide guidelines for making cross-species comparisons. We conclude that a comparative

Pranjal H. Mehta; Samuel D. Gosling

2008-01-01

107

Estimating Diagnostic Test Accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Accounting for the Complexities of Population Structure in Food Animals  

PubMed Central

For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test (gold standard) is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect), robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI) and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9) and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3), respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8). For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals. PMID:24906140

Hartnack, Sonja; Nathues, Christina; Nathues, Heiko; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Lewis, Fraser Iain

2014-01-01

108

Animal health: foundation of a safe, secure, and abundant food supply.  

PubMed

During the past century, reductions in animal diseases have resulted in a safer, more uniform, and more economical food supply. In the United States, the passage of the 1906 Federal Meat Inspection Act mandated better sanitary conditions for slaughter and processing, as well as inspection of live animals and their processed products. Following World War II, Congress passed the Poultry Products Inspection Act. Both acts are regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for regulations governing the health of live animals prior to slaughter. This article is a brief overview of the ways in which the current predominance of zoonotics among emerging diseases underscores the importance of veterinary health professionals and the need for continued coordination between animal-health and public-health officials. Examples of intersections between animal- and public-health concerns include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and Johne's disease, as well as extending beyond food safety to diseases such as avian influenza (AI). In the United States, we have in place an extensive public and private infrastructure to address animal-health issues, including the necessary expertise and resources to address animal-health emergencies. However, many challenges remain, including a critical shortage of food-animal veterinarians. These challenges can be met by recruiting and training a cadre of additional food-supply veterinarians, pursuing new technologies, collaborating with public-health officials to create solutions, and sending a clear and consistent message to the public about important animal-health issues. PMID:17220485

DeHaven, W Ron; Goldberg, Ruth

2006-01-01

109

Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.  

PubMed

Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

2013-01-01

110

75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0073...Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

2010-08-26

111

76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0076...Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

2011-08-31

112

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures 147.8 Procedures for...

2010-01-01

113

Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness.  

PubMed

To achieve further reductions in foodborne illness levels in humans, effective pre-harvest interventions are needed. The health status of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although often overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals can potentially influence foodborne pathogen levels in three ways. First, diseased animals may shed higher levels of foodborne pathogens. Second, animals that require further handling in the processing plant to remove affected parts may lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Finally, certain animal illnesses may lead to a higher probability of mistakes in the processing plant, such as gastrointestinal ruptures, which would lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Consequently, interventions that reduce the incidence of food animal illnesses might also help reduce bacterial contamination on meat, thereby reducing human illness. Some of these interventions, however, might also present a risk to human health. For example, the use of antibiotics in food animals can reduce rates of animal illness but can also select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria which can threaten human treatment options. In this study, we present a mathematical model to evaluate human health risks from foodborne pathogens associated with changes in animal illness. The model is designed so that potential human health risks and benefits from interventions such as the continued use of antibiotics in animal agriculture can be evaluated simultaneously. We applied the model to a hypothetical example of Campylobacter from chicken. In general, the model suggests that very minor perturbations in microbial loads on meat products could have relatively large impacts on human health, and consequently, small improvements in food animal health might result in significant reductions in human illness. PMID:17270298

Singer, Randall S; Cox, Louis A; Dickson, James S; Hurd, H Scott; Phillips, Ian; Miller, Gay Y

2007-05-16

114

Animal Health and Management and Their Impact on Economic Efficiency1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between animal health and economic efficiency were examined using data from genetic investigations and management studies. Genetic investiga- tions have indicated that cows bred for high production do require more health care, but that increased costs for health care negate only a small fraction of the greater returns from cows that are genet- ically superior for yield traits. These

C. W. Young; V. R. Eidman; J. K. Reneau

1985-01-01

115

Improving clinician-patient communication of health risks when diagnostic test information is imprecise.  

PubMed

Both clinicians and patients experience difficulty with the statistical reasoning required to make inferences about health states on the basis of information derived from diagnostic tests. This problem will grow in importance as we move into the era of personalised medicine where an increasing supply of imprecise diagnostic tests meets an increasing demand to use such tests on the part of intelligent but statistically innumerate clinicians and patients. We describe a user-friendly, interactive, graphical interface for calculating, visualising, and communicating accurate inferences about uncertain health states when diagnostic information (test sensitivity and specificity, and health state prevalence) is imprecise and ambiguous in its application to a specific patient. The software is free, open-source, and runs on all popular PC operating systems (Windows, Mac, Linux). PMID:21963924

Fountain, John; Gunby, Philip

2011-09-01

116

Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2007-01-01

117

Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?  

PubMed Central

Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agns

2014-01-01

118

Page 1 of 3 Animal Health Fact Sheet  

E-print Network

, the animal generally has a fever and rapid heart rate and is showing signs of anorexia (poor appetite breeding areas. Does EEE infect wildlife? EEE can infect deer, but it does not appear to be a significant

Hayden, Nancy J.

119

[Update - health risks induced by ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging].  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate. PMID:24297861

Knsli, Claudio; Walter, Martin

2013-12-01

120

Community participation in veterinary public health and animal health in the Caribbean--results of a preliminary survey.  

PubMed

Veterinary public health and animal health activities are said to be a good entry point to get the community interested in their own health. Because of the pastoral traditions of veterinary medicine and the accompanying privilege of an intimate link with agricultural community life, veterinary public health and animal health workers are in and ideal strategic position to spearhead community organization and education across a much broader spectrum of health issues. A preliminary study on community participation in veterinary public health (VPH) and animal health (AH) in the Caribbean is herein presented. This study was conducted to pre-test two questionnaires which were developed to determine the extent to which the community is participating in VPH and AH programs in the Caribbean, and to identify ways and means to strengthen intersectoral collaboration between the Ministries of Agriculture, Health and Local Governments. Two questionnaires were designed to collect primary data. Eighty-two staff profile questionnaires were completed by staff belonging to six categories from 12 Caribbean countries and political units. The categories included Animal Health Assistants, Veterinary Public Health Assistants, Veterinarians, Extension Officers, Public Health Inspectors, and Artificial Insemination Officers. This questionnaire sought to obtain basic information on services provided, participation of staff in farmers organization, coordination between agencies, and training. Eighty-seven (87) farm profiles were completed by livestock farmers from eleven Caribbean countries and political units. This questionnaire sought to obtain basic information as to number and types of animals raised, role and services of Government staff, and farmers participation. Analysis of the different responses between the two groups demonstrated the potential value and application of the information that could be obtained from such a study. The results are discussed. PMID:3557827

Arambulo, P V; Aleta, I R; Vallenas, A

1986-09-01

121

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

122

Antibiotic resistanceconsequences for animal health, welfare, and food production  

PubMed Central

Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

Bengtsson, Bjrn

2014-01-01

123

Approximate Entropy as a diagnostic tool for machine health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to machine health monitoring based on the Approximate Entropy (ApEn), which is a statistical measure that quantifies the regularity of a time series, such as vibration signals measured from an electrical motor or a rolling bearing. As the working condition of a machine system deteriorates due to the initiation and\\/or progression of structural defects,

Ruqiang Yan; Robert X. Gao

2007-01-01

124

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

125

Discussion Guide - Units 8 - 9 - People and Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Units covered in this section are: Unit 8 - Animal Health and the Environment Unit 9 -Some Biomedical Success Stories Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

126

Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development  

PubMed Central

The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

Delwart, Eric

2012-01-01

127

A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services  

PubMed Central

Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

2008-01-01

128

The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits of sexually selected colourants?  

E-print Network

REVIEW The antioxidant function of many animal pigments: are there consistent health benefits February 2005; MS. number: ARV-29) Several classes of pigments impart flamboyant colours on animals for studying the honesty-reinforcing mechanisms underlying sexually selected traits, because the very pigments

McGraw, Kevin J.

129

Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the

Enticott, Gareth

2012-01-01

130

When dogs are man's best friend the health benefits of companion animals in the modern society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Australian society, like many Western societies, has evolved into a highly urbanised, somewhat hectic community where animal contact for its members is becoming limited. Research in the last few decades has indicated that association with companion animals can have far reaching benefits on the health of the owners of pets. The effects include those of a physical nature, such

Kathryn Wilks

1999-01-01

131

University of Tennessee Health Science Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee  

E-print Network

transport animals within or between buildings on the UTHSC campus as well as affiliated institutions (e.g., the VA Medical Center, LeBonheur) These procedures are necessary to ensure the health and well facility. 7. Transport of large animals (dogs, cats, swine, etc) must be done by Department of Comparative

Cui, Yan

132

Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,

Jonas, Albert M.

1984-01-01

133

Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic

A. Kijlstra; I. A. J. M. Eijck

2006-01-01

134

Animal Productivity and Health Responses to Hind-Gut Acidosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the large intestine of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, and/or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates to the large intestine, hind-gut ac...

135

Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the precautionary principle. Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humansdirectly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

2011-01-01

136

High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself amon...

137

The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals  

PubMed Central

Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

2014-01-01

138

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

139

[Influence of computer tomography diagnostics on the treatment in state health care system].  

PubMed

The presented paper is a continuation of the widely debated topic on the role of radiation technologies, including computed tomography (CT), in municipal medicine, which has been earlier raised on the pages of the Vestnik. The main objective of the paper is that by using the results obtained from the use of CT in a near-Moscow health care facility that is typical of Russia's municipal health care service, the author attempted to provide evidence that it is necessary to extensively introduce this technique into the most mass link of Russian public health care--municipal medicine. As an evidence basis, the author analyzed changes occurring in the organization of a therapeutic-and-diagnostic process the municipal health care facility from a great variety of organ and system pathology that is particularly important from the practical point of view. The data obtained before and after introduction of CT into the municipal diagnostic algorithms on specific, the most critical clinical situations are compared. Moreover, objective analytical data are confirmed by a battery of brilliant diagnostic images. The author elucidates the readiness of municipal clinicians for virtually complete use of CT data for their purposes. By using several nosological entities, he shows the CT-induced transfer of some therapeutic procedures from the regional to municipal area of practice. In addition, arguments are advanced in favor of the thesis that some therapeutic technologies now in use are not up to world standards and municipal health care cannot be in compliance with civilized standards without its effective diagnostic support. Prominent in the paper is the description of changes in the continuity of diagnostic medicine at the municipal and regional levels after inclusion CT into the day-to-day activities of a municipal facility. It is concluded that the population needs for CT: one 24-slice unit per 50,000 dwellers of an area under service of a municipal facility. PMID:16898088

Krushinski?, A G

2005-01-01

140

What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents from farm to fork. Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

2007-01-01

141

Diagnostic tool for structural health monitoring: effect of material nonlinearity and vibro-impact process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous techniques are available for monitoring structural health. Most of these techniques are expensive and time-consuming. In this paper, vibration-based techniques are explored together with their use as diagnostic tools for structural health monitoring. Finite-element simulations are used to study the effect of material nonlinearity on dynamics of a cracked bar. Additionally, several experiments are performed to study the effect of vibro-impact behavior of crack on its dynamics. It was observed that a change in the natural frequency of the cracked bar due to crack-tip plasticity and vibro-impact behavior linked to interaction of crack faces, obtained from experiments, led to generation of higher harmonics; this can be used as a diagnostic tool for structural health monitoring.

Hiwarkar, V. R.; Babitsky, V. I.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

2013-07-01

142

Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

143

Mental Health Promotion with Animated Characters: Exploring Issues and Potential  

E-print Network

) to design helping systems for improving their health? · Would girls need a different system than boys)? In this article we focus on one particular behavioral problem ­ underage drinking ­ and one particular psychotherapeutic intervention ­ brief motivational interviewing. Underage drinking has been identified as one

Lisetti, Christine

144

Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

Balsam, Joshua Michael

145

Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

2004-01-01

146

Approximate Entropy as a diagnostic tool for machine health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to machine health monitoring based on the Approximate Entropy ( ApEn), which is a statistical measure that quantifies the regularity of a time series, such as vibration signals measured from an electrical motor or a rolling bearing. As the working condition of a machine system deteriorates due to the initiation and/or progression of structural defects, the number of frequency components contained in the vibration signal will increase, resulting in a decrease in its regularity and an increase in its corresponding ApEn value. After introducing the theoretical framework, numerical simulation of an analytic signal is presented that establishes a quantitative relationship between the severity of signal degradation and the ApEn values. The results of the simulation are then verified experimentally, through vibration measurement on a realistic bearing test bed. The study has shown that ApEn can effectively characterise the severity of structural defect, with good computational efficiency and high robustness.

Yan, Ruqiang; Gao, Robert X.

2007-02-01

147

One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases  

PubMed Central

The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee. PMID:21489237

2011-01-01

148

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

149

Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions.  

PubMed

Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats) creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective. PMID:24981914

Seimenis, Aristarhos; Tabbaa, Darem

2014-01-01

150

Policy on the Occupational Health & Safety Program in the Care and Use of Animals in Research and Instruction  

E-print Network

Policy on the Occupational Health & Safety Program in the Care and Use of Animals in Research involved in animal research or instruction is first and foremost to provide employees a safe work place for Research, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and Regional FirstCare's Occupational Health

Arnold, Jonathan

151

The nature of animal health economics in relation to veterinary epidemiology.  

PubMed

Animal health economics is being formally integrated into such institutions as sub-Saharan African universities and Veterinary Services. Unfortunately, the nature of the relationship between economics and epidemiology is not clearly understood. Economics has an extensive theoretical apparatus and an array of methods and techniques. Animal health economics has two interrelated branches: economics for the planning and management of animal health services and economic analysis of diseases and interventions. Epidemiology and economics, although separate scientific areas, are complementary when the goal is efficient management of animal health and associated delivery systems. In performing economic analyses, an "economic model' should determine data requirements (epidemiological and socioeconomic), as such analyses invariably require epidemiological inputs. The core concepts in economic analysis are as follows: conceptual models, opportunity cost of resources, marginal analysis and partial analysis. Important methods include statistical models, mathematical programming, budgets, cost minimisation, decision analysis, variants of cost-benefit analysis and simulation. Given the nature of animal health economics, veterinarians who want to practise as economists need a thorough training in economic principles and methods, in addition to training in basic epidemiology. PMID:9025136

Mlangwa, J E; Samui, K L

1996-09-01

152

What is normal? A field approach to characterizing health and management of the nation's animal populations.  

PubMed

There is a growing demand for information about the health and well-being of animals on farms. Such information has many uses. In some instances such information is used locally by livestock owners and producers to gauge their position relative to their peers. In other instances the information can be used at a national or international level by policy makers and trade negotiators. Animal health companies use such information to target research and product development. Academicians and other educators use information on animal health to teach future members of the agricultural industries. In addition, consumers are asking more questions about the manner in which animals are raised and cared for on farms. With so many stakeholders with an interest in such information there is a need for objective data collected with credible methods covering a substantial proportion of the population of interest. Such efforts are unlikely to be accomplished by entities other than a nationally focused unit in the government. The United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) has been providing management and health-related data on the United States livestock and poultry populations for nearly 20 years. PMID:18950878

Dargatz, David A

2009-02-01

153

Validation of a Diagnostic PCR Method for Routine Analysis of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a validation study, a comparative study of a PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL-71, for detection\\u000a of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic validation organ for validation of alternative microbiological\\u000a methods (NordVal) on 250 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment

Charlotta Lfstrm; Charlotta Engdahl Axelsson; Peter Rdstrm

2008-01-01

154

Modeling the Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence with Genetic Animal Models  

PubMed Central

A diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD) using the DSM-IV-R is categorical, based on an individuals manifestation of three or more symptoms from a list of seven. AD risk can be traced to both genetic and environmental sources. Most genetic studies of AD risk implicitly assume that an AD diagnosis represents a single underlying genetic factor. We recently found that the criteria for an AD diagnosis represent three somewhat distinct genetic paths to individual risk. Specifically, heavy use and tolerance versus withdrawal and continued use despite problems reflected separate genetic factors. However, some data suggest that genetic risk for AD is adequately described with a single underlying genetic risk factor. Rodent animal models for alcohol-related phenotypes typically target discrete aspects of the complex human AD diagnosis. Here, we review the literature derived from genetic animal models in an attempt to determine whether they support a single-factor or multiple-factor genetic structure. We conclude that there is modest support in the animal literature that alcohol tolerance and withdrawal reflect distinct genetic risk factors, in agreement with our human data. We suggest areas where more research could clarify this attempt to align the rodent and human data. PMID:21910077

Kendler, Kenneth S.; Hitzemann, Robert J.

2012-01-01

155

Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach  

PubMed Central

Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

2013-01-01

156

Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology  

PubMed Central

Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (?D) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health.

Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

2015-01-01

157

Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).  

PubMed

The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis. PMID:20537093

Lefranois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

2010-04-01

158

Risk analysis and its link with standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.  

PubMed

Among the agreements included in the treaty that created the World Trade Organization (WTO) in January 1995 is the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) that sets out the basic rules for food safety and animal and plant health standards. The SPS Agreement designates the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the organisation responsible for developing international standards for animal health and zoonoses. The SPS Agreement requires that the sanitary measures that WTO members apply should be based on science and encourages them to either apply measures based on the OIE standards or, if they choose to adopt a higher level of protection than that provided by these standards, apply measures based on a science-based risk assessment. The OIE also provides a procedural framework for risk analysis for its Member Countries to use. Despite the inevitable challenges that arise in carrying out a risk analysis of the international trade in animals and animal products, the OIE risk analysis framework provides a structured approach that facilitates the identification, assessment, management and communication of these risks. PMID:21809770

Sugiura, K; Murray, N

2011-04-01

159

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The pig MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

Pantosti, Annalisa

2012-01-01

160

Global Antimicrobial Resistance: Where Is the Connection between Animal and Human Public Health?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the early 1990's, there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public and animal health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upwar...

161

Units 8 - 9 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The units in this section are: Unit 8 - Animal Health and The Environment Unit 9 - Some Biomedical Success Stories Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

162

ImmunotoxicityBridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symposium Overview: ImmunotoxicityBridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

1995-01-01

163

SERVAL: A New Framework for the Evaluation of Animal Health Surveillance.  

PubMed

Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain. PMID:23414450

Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Strk, K D C

2015-02-01

164

Nature Heals People, Plants, Animals and the (Re-)connection to Health  

E-print Network

Nature Heals People, Plants, Animals and the (Re-)connection to Health Presented by the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum's Nature-Based Therapeutic Services (NBT), a shared initiative with the Center for Spirituality and Healing to further the understanding of how nature heals Thursday, March 14, 7-9 p.m. & Friday

Netoff, Theoden

165

Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio\\/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery

B. B. Chomel; N. Marano

166

The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

2014-01-01

167

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers. PMID:21215766

Dorne, J L C M; Fernndez-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

2013-08-01

168

Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects  

SciTech Connect

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernndez-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigacin y Tecnologa Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougres (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2013-08-01

169

LAHVA: Linked Animal-Human Health Visual Analytics Ross Maciejewski Benjamin Tyner Yun Jang Cheng Zheng Rimma V. Nehme  

E-print Network

LAHVA: Linked Animal-Human Health Visual Analytics Ross Maciejewski Benjamin Tyner Yun Jang Cheng of Medicine ABSTRACT Coordinated animal-human health monitoring can provide an early warning system with fewer false alarms for naturally occurring dis- ease outbreaks, as well as biological, chemical and environmen

Maciejewski, Ross

170

[The design and development of a quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases at the National Centre for Animal and Plant Health in Cuba].  

PubMed

A quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases was developed at the national centre for animal and plant health (CENSA), responsible for coordinating the clinical, epizootiological and laboratory diagnosis of causal agents of exotic animal diseases in Cuba. A model was designed on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2000 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999 of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and other regulatory documents from international and national organisations that deal specifically with the treatment of emerging diseases. Twenty-nine standardised operating procedures were developed, plus 13 registers and a checklist to facilitate the evaluation of the system. The effectiveness of the quality system was confirmed in the differential diagnosis of classical swine fever at an animal virology laboratory in Cuba. PMID:15861883

de Oca, N Montes; Villoch, A; Prez Ruano, M

2004-12-01

171

Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy and in addition produced a viable test stand vehicle health monitor. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data.

Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, T. L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K.

1993-01-01

172

Is Appearing Chronically Ill a Sign of Poor Health? A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a physicians assessment that a patient appears chronically ill for the detection of poor health status. Methods The health status of 126 adult outpatients was determined using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Physician participants (n?=?111 residents and faculty) viewed photographs of each patient participant and assessed whether or not the patient appeared chronically ill. For the entire group of physicians, the median sensitivity and specificity of appearing chronically ill for the detection of poor health status (defined as SF-12 physical health score below age group norms by at least 1 SD) were calculated. The study took place from February 2009 to January 2011. Results Forty-two participants (33%) had an SF-12 physical health score ?1 SD below age group norms, and 22 (18%) had a score ?2 SD below age group norms. When poor health status was defined as an SF-12 physical score ?1 SD below age group norms, the median sensitivity was 38.1% (IQR 28.647.6%), specificity 78.6% (IQR 69.084.0%), positive likelihood ratio 1.64 (IQR 1.422.15), and negative likelihood ratio 0.82 (IQR 0.740.87). For an SF-12 physical score ?2 SD below age group norms, the median sensitivity was 45.5% (IQR 36.454.5%), specificity 76.9% (IQR 66.383.7%), positive likelihood ratio 1.77 (IQR 1.492.25), and negative likelihood ratio 0.75 (IQR 0.660.86). Conclusions Our study suggests that a physicians assessment that a patient appears chronically ill has poor sensitivity and modest specificity for the detection of poor health status in adult outpatients. The associated likelihood ratios indicate that this assessment may have limited diagnostic value. PMID:24312192

Rawal, Shail; Atia, Mina; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Par, Dwayne E.; Joorden, Steve; Hwang, Stephen W.

2013-01-01

173

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines  

PubMed Central

Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

Krogh, Carmen ME

2014-01-01

174

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.  

PubMed

In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

2014-10-01

175

Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vtrinaires Sans Frontires (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141

Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

2014-06-01

176

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2013-10-01

177

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2014-10-01

178

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2011-10-01

179

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2010-10-01

180

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2012-10-01

181

Providing excellence in veterinary diagnostic services. FY 2010-2011 Exceptional Item  

E-print Network

that threaten Texas livestock and public health. · Expands the current diagnostic testing and animal disease and eradication of tick-borne and other vector-borne diseases of animal and public health significance. (Agri our southern border threaten both the economic viability of the agricultural (e.g. animal production

182

Diagnostic Work-Up of Neurological Syndromes in a Rural African Setting: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Health Care Providers  

PubMed Central

Background Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. Results Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a diviner do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. Conclusion Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach. PMID:25340726

Mpanya, Alain; Boelaert, Marleen; Baloji, Sylvain; Matangila, Junior; Lubanza, Symphorien; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Chappuis, Franois; Lutumba, Pascal; Hendrickx, David

2014-01-01

183

Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.  

PubMed

Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks. PMID:20838176

McElroy, Katie G

2010-01-01

184

Two-Layer Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) with Passive Capillary Valves for mHealth Medical Diagnostics.  

PubMed

There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width???height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings. PMID:25626544

Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

2015-01-01

185

Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating HazardsSearching for Solutions  

PubMed Central

A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans. PMID:17384781

Thorne, Peter S.

2007-01-01

186

Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

2013-08-01

187

Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.  

PubMed

In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines the alternative delivery systems that are emerging in the developing world and their strengths and weaknesses. The implications for food safety and trade are specifically highlighted. Also included are the practical experiences of countries, from all along the development continuum, that have introduced alternative systems. This paper deals with implications for the future, and while the growing importance of veterinary care for companion animals is acknowledged, the focus is on veterinary services for food animals. PMID:15200084

de Haan, C

2004-04-01

188

Carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals: a public health concern on the horizon.  

PubMed

Clinical infections attributed to carbapenemase-producing bacteria are a pressing public health concern owing to limited therapeutic options and linked antimicrobial resistance. In recent years, studies have reported the emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their public health impact. This has been closely followed by the global dissemination of highly resistant and virulent zooanthroponotic extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) ST131 clones. It has also been hypothesized that companion animals may act as a reservoir for Gram-negative multidrug-resistant pathogens in the community. Two recent reports have documented the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals. This phenomenon is of great concern because of the close contact between humans and their pets, and the potential for cross-species transmission. This scenario suggests a role for multifaceted control of Gram-negative multidrug-resistant infections in companion animals. This short article addresses this issue and identifies steps that could facilitate this process. PMID:24398342

Abraham, Sam; Wong, Hui San; Turnidge, John; Johnson, James R; Trott, Darren J

2014-05-01

189

A Model-based Health Monitoring and Diagnostic System for the UH-60 Helicopter. Appendix D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-based reasoning techniques hold much promise in providing comprehensive monitoring and diagnostics capabilities for complex systems. We are exploring the use of one of these techniques, which utilizes multi-signal modeling and the TEAMS-RT real-time diagnostic engine, on the UH-60 Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) flight research aircraft. We focus on the engine and transmission systems, and acquire sensor data across the 1553 bus as well as by direct analog-to-digital conversion from sensors to the QHuMS (Qualtech health and usage monitoring system) computer. The QHuMS computer uses commercially available components and is rack-mounted in the RASCAL facility. A multi-signal model of the transmission and engine subsystems enables studies of system testability and analysis of the degree of fault isolation available with various instrumentation suites. The model and examples of these analyses will be described and the data architectures enumerated. Flight tests of this system will validate the data architecture and provide real-time flight profiles to be further analyzed in the laboratory.

Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hindson, William; Sanderfer, Dwight; Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck

2001-01-01

190

Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

2013-01-01

191

Luminescence-Based Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coating Health and Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines designed for higher temperature operation, a diagnostic capability for the health and performance of TBCs will be essential to indicate when a mitigating action needs to be taken before premature TBC failure threatens engine performance or safety. In particular, it is shown that rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers can be integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence emission that can be monitored to assess TBC erosion and delamination progression, and to map surface and subsurface temperatures as a measure of TBC performance. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers are presented.

Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

2013-01-01

192

DSM-5, ICD-10, ICD-11, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, and Person-Centered Integrative Diagnosis: An Overview for College Mental Health Therapists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Therapists in the field of college mental health counseling commonly voice an ambivalent orientation towards the utilization of formal psychological diagnostic systems yet often use diagnostic terms. Knowledge of the current and emerging diagnostic systems may contribute to greater syntheses of these differing approaches. This article will first

Cooper, Stewart E.

2014-01-01

193

Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in human and animal health: an African perspective.  

PubMed

Lipids are essential for plant and animal development, growth and nutrition and play critical roles in health and reproduction. The dramatic increase in the human population has put increasing pressure on human food sources, especially of those sources of food which contain adequate levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and more importantly, sources of food which have favorable ratios of the n-3 (18-carbon, ?-linolenic acid, ALA) to n-6 (18-carbon linoleic acid, LA) PUFAs. Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of the n-3 PUFAs in diets as well as potentially negative effects of excessive levels of n-6 PUFAs in diets. This review discusses these human health issues relating to changes in diets based on environmental and industrial changes as well as strategies in East Africa for improving lipid composition of food using indigenous sources. PMID:25458696

Dunbar, B S; Bosire, R V; Deckelbaum, R J

2014-12-01

194

The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre and surveillance of wild animal diseases in Canada.  

PubMed Central

The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCWHC) was established in 1992 as an organization among Canada's 4 veterinary colleges, with a mandate to apply veterinary medicine to wildlife management and conservation in Canada. A major function of the CCWHC is nation-wide surveillance of wild animal diseases. Disease surveillance is conceived as consisting of 4 different activities: detection, diagnosis, information management, and use of information. In the CCWHC surveillance program, detection of disease is carried out by a wide range of professional and avocational field personnel, and much effort is expended to stimulate and support this activity. Diagnosis is done by personnel of provincial and federal veterinary laboratories and the CCWHC. Information management is achieved through a national database of wildlife disease incidents developed and maintained by the CCWHC. Use of information is enabled through established channels for distribution of information derived from the surveillance program to persons responsible for wildlife programs and policies, and to the public. There has been a high demand for the services of the CCWHC since its establishment. The CCWHC responds to approximately 2000 requests for information annually, distributes its newsletter to over 1700 recipients, examines approximately 1200 wild animal submissions each year, and has accumulated records of over 5000 disease incidents in its database. Technical information from the CCWHC has benefited federal, provincial/territorial, and nongovernment wildlife agencies; endangered species recovery programs; federal and provincial veterinary services; and federal and provincial public health programs. Images Figure 1. PMID:9167876

Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G A; Barker, I K; Daoust, P Y; Martineau, D

1997-01-01

195

Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health  

PubMed Central

After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of Escherichia coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development, and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence) among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these bad genes in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR) commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the future. PMID:24027562

Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bla

2013-01-01

196

Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.  

PubMed

The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

Schillhorn van Veen, T W

2004-04-01

197

The role of the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases.  

PubMed

The development of countermeasures to support an effective response to Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD) poses a challenge on a global scale and necessitates the coordinated involvement of scientists from government, industry and academia, as well as regulatory entities. The Agricultural Defense Branch under the Chemical and Biological Defense Division (CBD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) supports this important mission within the United States. This article provides an overview of the Agricultural Defense Branch's vaccine and diagnostic TAD project. PMID:23689879

Colby, M; Coats, M; Brake, D; Fine, J

2013-01-01

198

The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance  

PubMed Central

Background Studying mitochondrial (mt) genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus,Dirofiliria immitis and Strongyloides stercoralis. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that the newly described species T. malaysiensis was more closely related to T. cati than to T. canis, consistent with results of a previous study using sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacers as genetic markers. Conclusion The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three roundworms of human and animal health significance, which provides mtDNA evidence for the validity of T. malaysiensis and also provides a foundation for studying the systematics, population genetics and ecology of these and other nematodes of socio-economic importance. PMID:18482460

Li, Ming-Wei; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Wu, Xiang-Yun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2008-01-01

199

Neural Network Based State of Health Diagnostics for an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer  

SciTech Connect

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSAs complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.

Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.

2009-05-13

200

Non-Invasive Health Diagnostics using Eye as a 'Window to the Body'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a 'window to the body', the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and help develop preventative/therapeutic countermeasures early. The effects of space travel on human body are similar to those of normal aging. For example, radiation exposure in space could lead to formation of cataracts and cancer by damaging the DNA and causing gene mutation. Additionally, the zero-gravity environment causes fluid shifts in the upper extremities of the body and changes the way blood flows and organ system performs. Here on Earth, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are major eye diseases and are expected to double in next two decades. To detect, prevent, and treat untoward effects of prolonged space travel in real-time requires the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. We are developing fiber-optic sensors to evaluate the ocular tissues in health, aging, and disease employing the techniques of dynamic light scattering (cataract, uveitis, Alzheimer's, glaucoma, DR, radiation damage, refractive surgery outcomes), auto-fluorescence (aging, DR), laser-Doppler flowmetry (choroidal blood flow), Raman spectroscopy (AMD), polarimetry (diabetes), and retinal oximetry (occult blood loss). The non-invasive feature of these technologies integrated in a head-mounted/goggles-like device permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling evaluation of the results to therapy that may ultimately be useful in various telemedicine applications on Earth and in space.

Ansari, Rafat R.

2002-01-01

201

Parent-reported mental health in preschoolers: findings using a diagnostic interview.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that many preschoolers meet criteria for psychiatric diagnoses; still, relatively little is known about preschool mental health, particularly emotional problems, in the community. This study investigated the rates of parent-reported DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Five hundred forty-one parents were interviewed with the PAPA. Of the children, 27.4% met criteria for a PAPA/DSM-IV diagnosis; 9.2% met criteria for 2 or more diagnoses. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (9.4%), specific phobia (9.1%), and separation anxiety disorder (5.4%) were the most common diagnoses; depression (1.8%), selective mutism (1.5%), and panic disorder (0.2%) were the least common. In addition, there was significant comorbidity/covariation between depression, anxiety, and ODD and between ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratios = 1.81-18.44; P < .05), and significant associations with measures of psychosocial functioning. The stability and clinical significance of diagnoses and patterns of comorbidity must be elucidated in future research. PMID:21683173

Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

2011-01-01

202

UBC's researchers contribute to a global effort to save lives, fight disease and address critical health issues concerning humans and animals.  

E-print Network

health issues concerning humans and animals. Our dedicated researchers have helped to improve (SARS). At most universities, scientific research involving animals plays an essential role in saving lives and improving health. We only involve animals in research when no alternative exists. While we

Michelson, David G.

203

Introduction: The University of Connecticut Health Center is actively involved in working with animals. In  

E-print Network

in animal areas, please contact: Dr. Ron Wallace, Office of Research Safety, (860) 679-3781, rwallace with animals. In performing your assigned duties, you may at times come in contact with animals that animals are being housed and maintained. If you have concerns regarding the welfare of animals, please

Oliver, Douglas L.

204

Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health  

PubMed Central

Components used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are detected in humans. In addition to their utility in plastics, an inadvertent characteristic of these chemicals is the ability to alter the endocrine system. Phthalates function as anti-androgens while the main action attributed to BPA is oestrogen-like activity. PBDE and TBBPA have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis while PBDEs also exhibit anti-androgen action. Experimental investigations in animals indicate a wide variety of effects associated with exposure to these compounds, causing concern regarding potential risk to human health. For example, the spectrum of effects following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Concentrations of BPA in the foetal mouse within the range of unconjugated BPA levels observed in human foetal blood have produced effects in animal experiments. Finally, thyroid hormones are essential for normal neurological development and reproductive function. Human body burdens of these chemicals are detected with high prevalence, and concentrations in young children, a group particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. PMID:19528057

Talsness, Chris E.; Andrade, Anderson J. M.; Kuriyama, Sergio N.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

2009-01-01

205

Novel and emerging therapies safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals: a review.  

PubMed

Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals. PMID:24171271

Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Mahima; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Verma, Amit Kumar; Deb, Rajib; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kapoor, Sanjay

2013-02-01

206

A New Medical Research Model: Ethically and Responsibly Advancing Health for Humans and Animals.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of genomics, computational analytics, emerging technologies, and personalized medicine, the possibility of a new research model is emerging. Using the clues from thousands of species living on our planet, scientists from many disciplines (medicine, veterinary medicine, wildlife) must collaborate, prioritize, and strategize on how to address causes of health and disease. Such clues should guide disease prevention, as well as the development of innovative, efficacious, and gentler therapies. Geographic and language barriers must be broken down, and scientists-even within a single academic, corporate, or government research site-must be vigilant in seeking the help of nonmedical disciplines of colleagues from whence answers might come. The public will become more interested in and demanding of such a model, desiring that all family members (humans and animals) have an opportunity for a long and healthy life. Above all, such activities will be humanely conducted with outcomes having the greatest chance for success. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 3 is February 15, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. PMID:25387116

Olson, Patricia N; Ganzert, Robin R

2014-09-01

207

75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a networked laboratory...officials, and owners of animals undergoing testing in a networked laboratory...primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a networked...

2010-08-18

208

Health laboratories in the Tanga region of Tanzania: the quality of diagnostic services for malaria and other communicable diseases.  

PubMed

Although critical for good case management and the monitoring of health interventions, the health-laboratory services in sub-Saharan Africa are grossly compromised by poor infrastructures and a lack of trained personnel, essential reagents and other supplies. The availability and quality of diagnostic services in 37 health laboratories in three districts of the Tanga region of Tanzania have recently been assessed. The results of the survey, which involved interviews with health workers, observations and a documentary review, revealed that malaria accounted for >50% of admissions and out-patient visits. Most (92%) of the laboratories were carrying out malaria diagnosis and 89% were measuring haemoglobin concentrations but only one (3%) was conducting culture and sensitivity tests, and those only on urine and pus samples. Only 14 (17%) of the 84 people found working in the visited laboratories were laboratory technologists with a diploma certificate or higher qualification. Sixteen (43%) of the study laboratories each had five or fewer types of equipment and only seven (19%) had more than 11 types each. Although 11 (30%) of the laboratories reported that they conducted internal quality control, none had standard operating procedures (SOP) on display or evidence of such quality assurance. Although malaria was the main health problem, diagnostic services for malaria and other diseases were inadequate and of poor quality because of the limited human resources, poor equipment and shortage of supplies. If the health services in Tanga are not to be overwhelmed by the progressively increasing burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other emerging and re-emerging diseases, more funding and appropriate policies to improve the availability and quality of the area's diagnostic services will clearly be required. PMID:19583914

Ishengoma, D R S; Rwegoshora, R T; Mdira, K Y; Kamugisha, M L; Anga, E O; Bygbjerg, I C; Rnn, A M; Magesa, S M

2009-07-01

209

Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?  

PubMed

Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichlo spp., which have collectively been termed the epichlo fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

2014-01-01

210

Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?  

PubMed Central

Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as ergot alkaloid intoxication. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichlo spp., which have collectively been termed the epichlo fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

2014-01-01

211

Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.  

PubMed

Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis--vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology. PMID:24092400

Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

2013-12-01

212

Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments responses, and barriers to involvement. Results Health departments roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health. PMID:23382947

Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

2013-01-01

213

The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change.  

PubMed

The term 'global change' is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A subset of land use issues relates to the management of protective technologies in relation to residues in food and the environment and the emergence of resistance. Another is the question of changing biodiversity of both parasites and their associated natural enemies, and the effects on the host--parasite relationship and on parasite management. A framework for studying impacts of global change is proposed and illustrated with field data, and CLIMEX and simulation modelling of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Parasitology suffers from the perception that the key impacts of global change will be driven by changes at lower trophic levels, with parasitic interactions being treated as secondary effects. This is incorrect because the environment mediates host-parasite interactions as much as it affects parasites directly. Parasitologists need to strive for holistic solutions to the management of animal and human health, within a wider context of overall management of those systems, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to global efforts aimed at coping with global change. PMID:11406142

Sutherst, R W

2001-07-01

214

Antimicrobial resistance and the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance and the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine are complex issues that are currently a source of major international concern. It is therefore essential for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to consider this issue, while at the same time continuing to address the problem of zoonotic diseases. That is why the OIE has included objectives for veterinary drugs, especially antimicrobials, in its Strategic Plan. The OIE plays an active part in discussions on this subject in conjunction with other international organisations working in this field, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, the OIE has adopted guidelines both for defining harmonised methodologies for antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring and for helping countries to conduct a risk analysis tailored to their situation and to take appropriate management measures. The OIE has included this issue in its programme of assistance to countries by offering them structural enhancement tools: the Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (O1E PVS Tool), PVS Gap Analysis, veterinary legislation support, and training for veterinary national focal points, with the aid of its Collaborating Centres for veterinary medicinal products. Only by mobilising all countries to improve the quality of antimicrobials, to introduce antimicrobial resistance surveillance and to implement measures for the responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials, will it be possible to halt the spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:22849287

Orand, J P

2012-04-01

215

The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges  

PubMed Central

Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate change and disease emergence 13 3.4 Outbreak investigations 13 4 Surveillance and surveys 15 4.1 Investigation of disease prevalence 15 4.2 Developments in surveillance methodology 16 4.2.1 Risk-based surveillance and scenario tree modelling 16 4.2.2 Spatial and temporal analysis 16 4.3 Test validation 17 5 Spread, establishment and impact of pathogens 18 5.1 Identifying routes of spread 18 5.1.1 Ex-ante studies of disease spread 19 5.1.2 Ex-post observational studies 21 5.2 Identifying risk factors for disease establishment 23 5.3 Assessing impact at the population level 24 5.3.1 Recording mortality 24 5.3.2 Farm health and production records 26 5.3.3 Assessing the impact of disease in wild populations 27 6 Conclusions 31 7 Competing interests 32 8 Authors' contributions 32 9 Acknowledgements 33 10 References 33 PMID:21834990

2011-01-01

216

Improving Lateral-Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) Diagnostics via Biomarker Enrichment for mHealth.  

PubMed

Optical detection technologies based on mobile devices can be utilized to enable many mHealth applications, including a reader for lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, an intrinsic challenge associated with LFIA for clinical diagnostics is the limitation in sensitivity. Therefore, rapid and simple specimen processing strategies can directly enable more sensitive LFIA by purifying and concentrating biomarkers. Here, a binary reagent system is presented for concentrating analytes from a larger volume specimen to improve the malaria LFIA's limit of detection (LOD). The biomarker enrichment process utilizes temperature-responsive gold-streptavidin conjugates, biotinylated antibodies, and temperature-responsive magnetic nanoparticles. The temperature-responsive gold colloids were synthesized by modifying the citrate-stabilized gold colloids with a diblock copolymer, containing a thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) segment and a gold-binding block composed of NIPAAm-co-N,N-dimethylaminoethylacrylamide. The gold-streptavidin conjugates were synthesized by conjugating temperature-responsive gold colloids with streptavidin via covalent linkages using carbodiimide chemistry chemistry. The gold conjugates formed half-sandwiches, gold labeled biomarker, by complexing with biotinylated antibodies that were bound to Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), a malaria antigen. When a thermal stimulus was applied in conjunction with a magnetic field, the half-sandwiches and temperature-responsive magnetic nanoparticles that were both decorated with pNIPAAm formed large aggregates that were efficiently magnetically separated from human plasma. The binary reagent system was applied to a large volume (500 ?L) specimen for concentrating biomarker 50-fold into a small volume and applied directly to an off-the-shelf malaria LFIA to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:25626532

Lai, James J; Stayton, Patrick S

2015-01-01

217

The Awareness of Health Professionals in Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Parasites in Gaza Strip, Palestine  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnosis of intestinal parasites still depends on conventional methods in Gaza strip hospitals and private laboratories. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the opinion and the practice of physicians and medical laboratories technologists towards the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out during the period from August 2006 to December 2006. All the subjects during this period were eligible for the interview. The sample size included 371 individuals out of them 270 physicians and 101 medical laboratory technologists (MLTs). Simple random sampling was used to select the physicians and MLTs from eight hospitals and eleven primary health-care centers. Results: It was found that (57.8%) 156/270 of physicians depend on the direct smear microscopy in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza, compared to (31.7% (32/101) of MLT. Knowledge about the possible correlation of occult blood with reasons other than the presence of intestinal parasites was evident among both physicians and MLTs, reaching over 80% (P = 0.08). It was found that (54.4%, 147/270) of physicians and (73.3%. 74/101) of MLTs depend on wet mount result for of Entamoeba histolytica diagnosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Low awareness was found among both physicians and MLT regarding the diagnostic techniques used in the examination of intestinal parasites in Gaza Strip. Prescription of medicine by physicians sometimes depends on the clinical picture without laboratory confirmation. Advanced techniques were less used in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. PMID:24669336

Hindi, AI

2014-01-01

218

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal disease is a major social and economic problem across the United States, and throughout the world. Diseases can lead to animal suffering and distress, reduced performance, and possibly even death. Infectious diseases have major negative effects on poultry and livestock production, both in terms of economics and on animal welfare. The costs of animal disease are estimated to be

Alison Van Eenennaam

219

APPLICATION OF THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ALGORITHMS FOR SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF MULTI DIMENSION PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA FOR DEVELOPING POLYPARAMETRIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF PUBLIC HEALTH DIAGNOSTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyparametric intelligence information system for diagnostics human functional state in medicine and public health is developed. The essence of the system consists in polyparametric describing of human functional state with the unified set of physiological parameters and using the polyparametric cognitive model developed as the tool for a system analysis of multitude data and diagnostics of a human functional

Nina Dmitrieva; Oleg Glazachev

220

Enteric Viruses of Humans and Animals in Aquatic Environments: Health Risks, Detection, and Potential Water Quality Assessment Tools  

PubMed Central

Waterborne enteric viruses threaten both human and animal health. These pathogens are host specific and cause a wide range of diseases and symptoms in humans or other animals. While considerable research has documented the risk of enteric viruses to human health from contact with contaminated water, the current bacterial indicator-based methods for evaluation of water quality are often ineffectual proxies for pathogenic viruses. Additionally, relatively little work has specifically investigated the risk of waterborne viruses to animal health, and this risk currently is not addressed by routine water quality assessments. Nonetheless, because of their host specificity, enteric viruses can fulfill a unique role both for assessing health risks and as measures of contamination source in a watershed, yet the use of animal, as well as human, host-specific viruses in determining sources of fecal pollution has received little attention. With improved molecular detection assays, viruses from key host groups can be targeted directly using PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. A multispecies viral analysis would provide needed information for controlling pollution by source, determining human health risks based on assessments of human virus loading and exposure, and determining potential risks to production animal health and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic pathogens. While there is a need to better understand the prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, the development of improved methods for specific and sensitive detection will facilitate the use of these microbes for library-independent source tracking and water quality assessment tools. PMID:15944460

Fong, Theng-Theng; Lipp, Erin K.

2005-01-01

221

Self Diagnostic Accelerometer for Mission Critical Health Monitoring of Aircraft and Spacecraft Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self diagnostic accelerometer system has been shown to be sensitive to multiple failure modes of charge mode accelerometers. These failures include sensor structural damage, an electrical open circuit and most importantly sensor detachment. In this paper, experimental work that was performed to determine the capabilities of a self diagnostic accelerometer system while operating in the presence of various levels of mechanical noise, emulating real world conditions, is presented. The results show that the system can successfully conduct a self diagnostic routine under these conditions.

Lekki, John; Tokars, Roger; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, M. Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

2009-01-01

222

Airflow and Particle Deposition Simulations in Health and Emphysema: From In-Vivo to In-Silico Animal Experiments  

E-print Network

-Silico Animal Experiments Jessica M. Oakes1 , Alison L. Marsden1 , Celine Grandmont2,3 , Shawn C. Shadden4 of California Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 5 Department of Medicine, Division of Physiology, University of California be taken when prescribing boundary conditions to model lung physiology in health or disease

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Veterinary Toxicology Veterinary toxicologists based in the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System and the  

E-print Network

Veterinary Toxicology Veterinary toxicologists based in the California Animal Health and Food up to 15,000 tests each year, the toxicology group has participated heavily in the diagnosis soil · Oleander poisoning in dairy cows ­among the top 5 toxicants of cattle, sheep, horses and goats

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

224

The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

1993-01-01

225

An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

226

Development of a novel diagnostic test for detection of bovine viral diarrhea persistently infected animals using hair  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus. PMID:21897105

Miller, Myrna M.; Kohrt, Laura J.; Scherba, Gail; Garrett, Edgar F.; Fredrickson, Richard L.

2011-01-01

227

Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).  

PubMed

The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647

Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; Gonzlez, C G

2013-08-01

228

Cluster detection diagnostics for small area health data: with reference to evaluation of local likelihood models.  

PubMed

The focus of this paper is the development of a range of cluster detection diagnostics that can be used to assess the degree to which a clustering method recovers the true clustering behaviour of small area data. The diagnostics proposed range from individual region specific diagnostics to neighbourhood diagnostics, and assume either individual region risk as focus, or concern areas of maps defined to be clustered and the recovery ability of methods. A simulation-based comparison is made between a small set of count data models: local likelihood, BYM and Lawson and Clark. It is found that local likelihood has good performance across a range of criteria when a CAR prior is assumed for the lasso parameter. PMID:16453370

Hossain, Monir Md; Lawson, Andrew B

2006-03-15

229

Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women  

PubMed Central

Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M?=?4.31, SD 364) traumatic events (range 018). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of 2.30 (SD?=?066range 04) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD ?=?049, range 03.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p?=?0021) and depression (p?=?0002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID:25419743

Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

2014-01-01

230

Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production  

PubMed Central

Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

2014-01-01

231

Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.  

PubMed

The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms. PMID:23031524

Blanco-Penedo, I; Lpez-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernndez, J; Benedito, J L

2012-09-01

232

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...entry. (b) For all animal semen offered for...the origin of the animal semen, the number, breed, species, and purpose of the...person to whom the animal semen will be delivered...than Australia and New Zealand is to...

2010-01-01

233

The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling  

PubMed Central

Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. PMID:22769234

2012-01-01

234

Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

Bandettini, Peter A.

235

The Impact of Health on Individual Retirement Plans: a Panel Analysis comparing Selfreported versus Diagnostic Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies have concluded that the use of self-reported health in retirement models is likely to yield an unreliable impact of health on retirement due to justification bias. A few recent studies based on younger cohorts approaching retirement age have found little support for this hypothesis. This paper adds fresh evidence to this debate by considering the effect of health

Mona Larsen; Nabanita Datta Gupta

2004-01-01

236

Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2011: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.  

PubMed

Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, feed stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such outbreaks have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education. PMID:21546893

2011-05-01

237

The association between proximity to animal-feeding operations and community health: a protocol for updating a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlots to house 50,000 cattle, and poultry houses to house 250,000 hens. There is primary research that suggests livestock facilities that confine animals indoors for feeding can represent a health hazard for surrounding communities. In this protocol, we describe a review about the association between proximity to animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals in nearby communities. A systematic review of the topic was published by some members of our group in 2010. The purpose of this review is to update that review. Methods/Design The populations of interest are people living in communities near livestock production facilities. Outcomes of interest are any health outcome measured in humans such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, and mental health. Measures of antibiotic resistance in people from the communities compared to measures of resistance found in animals and the environment on animal-feeding operations will also be summarized. The exposure of interest will be exposure to livestock production using a variety of metrics such as distance from facilities, endotoxin levels, and measures of odor. Electronic searches will be conducted using MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process (via OvidSP), CAB Abstracts (via Web of Knowledge), and Science Citation Index (via Web of Knowledge). No language or date restriction will be applied. We will access the risk of bias using a pilot version of a tool developed by the Methods Groups of the Cochrane Collaboration for non-randomized interventions. We propose to conduct a meta-analysis for each health metric (e.g., combining all respiratory disease outcomes, combining all gastrointestinal outcomes). A planned subgroup analysis will be based on the domains of the risk of bias. Discussion This systematic review will provide synthesis of current evidence reporting the association between living near an animal-feeding operation and human health. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010521 PMID:25200608

2014-01-01

238

The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,

Beavers, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

239

Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development

W. T. Powers; A. E. Cooper; T. L. Wallace; W. L. Buntine; K. Whitaker

1993-01-01

240

Use of animal products in traditional Chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly practised in many countries of the world. Some recent textbooks of TCM still recommend formulas containing various animal tissues such as tiger bones, antelope, buffalo or rhino horns, deer antlers, testicles and os penis of the dog, bear or snake bile. Usually, animal tissues are combined with medical herbs. In most of the

J. Still

2003-01-01

241

Rapporteur report: cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health.  

PubMed

Three talks were presented in the session on "Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health". The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from epidemiological studies. The overall conclusion of the three presentations and the following general discussion was that the scientific evidence available to date is weak and contains large gaps in knowledge either due to the poor quality of published studies or because of the lack of published research on certain health-related topics. It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects. PMID:15556663

Leszczynski, Dariusz

2005-01-01

242

Pleuromutilins: use in food-producing animals in the European Union, development of resistance and impact on human and animal health.  

PubMed

Pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin) are antimicrobial agents that are used mainly in veterinary medicine, especially for swine and to a lesser extent for poultry and rabbits. In pigs, tiamulin and valnemulin are used to treat swine dysentery, spirochaete-associated diarrhoea, porcine proliferative enteropathy, enzootic pneumonia and other infections where Mycoplasma is involved. There are concerns about the reported increases in the MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin for porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from different European countries, as only a limited number of antimicrobials are available for the treatment of swine dysentery where resistance to these antimicrobials is already common and widespread. The loss of pleuromutilins as effective tools to treat swine dysentery because of further increases in resistance or as a consequence of restrictions would present a considerable threat to pig health, welfare and productivity. In humans, only one product containing pleuromutilins (retapamulin) is authorized currently for topical use; however, products for oral and intravenous administration to humans with serious multidrug-resistant skin infections and respiratory infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are being developed. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the usage of pleuromutilins, resistance development and the potential impact of this resistance on animal and human health. PMID:24793902

van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Pringle, Mrit; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; Jukes, Helen; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constana Matias Ferreira; Pyrl, Satu; Rantala, Merja; Ruauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Trneke, Karolina

2014-08-01

243

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XNA.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XNA - FVB-Tg(Sprr2f-cre)1Dcas/Nci

244

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XC1.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 106 Strain: 01XC1 - FVB;129-Rb1/Nci Results

245

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XN5.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 109 Strain: 01XN5 - B6.129S6-Tgfbr2/Nci

246

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XB2.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 117 Strain: 01XB2 - FVB.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

247

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XK8.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01XK8 - FVB-Tg(ARR2/Pbsn-MYC)7Key/Nci

248

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XH3.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 108 Strain: 01XH3 - B6.129-Pten/Nci Results

249

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBR.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 117 Strain: 01XBR - B6;129-Ptch1/Nci Results

250

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XT4.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 103 Strain: 01XT4 - FVB.Cg-Tg(Dct-rtTA2S*M2)#MrlnTg(tetO-HIST1H2BJ/GFP)47Efu/Nci

251

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBT.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XBT - B6.Cg-Cdkn2a Tyr/Nci

252

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XGL.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 103 Strain: 01XGL - B6.Cg-Tg(ED-L2-cre)267Jkat/Nci

253

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAD.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XAD - B6;129-Gadd45a/Nci Results

254

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBL.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 108 Strain: 01XBL - B6;129-Myf6/Nci

255

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XA6.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 111 Strain: 01XA6 - STOCK Tgfb1 Rag2/Nci

256

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBP.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XBP - B6;129S-Nkx3-1/Nci

257

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAC.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XAC - B6.129-Gt(ROSA)26Sor

258

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XM8.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 112 Strain: 01XM8 - FVB/N-Tg(KRT5-tTA)1216Glk/Nci

259

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XGA.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XGA - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc2)6113Njen/Nci

260

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01BM3.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01BM3 - B6.129S-Kras/Nci Results

261

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XL5.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 106 Strain: 01XL5 - B6.FVB-Tg(Ipfl-cre)1Tuv/Nci

262

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XM2.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 114 Strain: 01XM2 - 129S4-Trp53/Nci Results

263

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XD5.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XD5 - B6.D2-Tg(RIP1-Tag2)2Dh/Nci Results

264

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XT3.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 107 Strain: 01XT3 - FVB.Cg-Tg(KRT14-HPV16)wt1Dh/Nci

265

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAB.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XAB - B6;129-Gt(ROSA)26Sor

266

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XC8.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 101 Strain: 01XC8 - STOCK Brca1/Nci Results

267

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XGB.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 112 Strain: 01XGB - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc3)12740Njen/Nci

268

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XBQ.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 109 Strain: 01XBQ - B6;129S-Nkx3-1/Nci

269

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XF5.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01XF5 - B6.Cg-Tg(Pbsn-cre)4Prb/Nci Results

270

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XB9.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 119 Strain: 01XB9 - STOCK Brca2/Nci Results

271

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XC2.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 4 Strain: 01XC2 - FVB.129P2-Trp53/Nci Results

272

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAA.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XAA - B6.Cg-Apc/Nci Results

273

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01X66.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01X66 - B6.Cg-Tg(CD207-cre)1Dhka/Nci

274

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01X62.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01X62 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

275

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XD8.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 114 Strain: 01XD8 - FVB/N-Tg(Fabp1-Cre)1Jig/Nci

276

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XN3.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 107 Strain: 01XN3 - B6.Cg-Tg(GFAP-cre)8Gtm/Nci Results

277

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01BM1.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 110 Strain: 01BM1 - B6;129S-Blm/Nci Results

278

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XT5.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01XT5 - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc2)6070Njen/Nci

279

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XEA.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 105 Strain: 01XEA - B6;CBA-Tg(tetO-EGFR*L858R)56Hev/Nci

280

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XG2.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 103 Strain: 01XG2 - FVB-Tg(MMTV-Myc)141-3Led/Nci

281

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XGC.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XGC - STOCK Gt(ROSA)26SorTgTn(sb-T2/Onc3)12775Njen/Nci

282

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XN2.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 102 Strain: 01XN2 - FVB;129S6-Stk11/Nci

283

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XB1.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 101 Strain: 01XB1 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

284

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XAF.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 115 Strain: 01XAF - B6.129S4-Trp53/Nci Results

285

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XG7.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XG7 - B6.129-Cdkn2a/Nci Results

286

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XE4.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 100 Strain: 01XE4 - FVB.129-Cdkn2a/Nci

287

X:\\MMHAnimalHealthRpt-01XJ6.pdf  

Cancer.gov

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory NCI Mouse Repository Animal Health Report Completed Tests Requested 10/01/13 Thru 12/15/14 Bldg: 1046 Isolator: 104 Strain: 01XJ6 - B6.129-Kras/Nci Results

288

Spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the exotic Newcastle outbreak in 2002-2003.  

PubMed

After the 1971-1973 outbreak of exotic Newcastle disease (END) in California, a free-of-charge diagnostic submission program was created for backyard poultry flocks. This program was implemented to improve disease surveillance in small poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the END outbreak in 2002-2003. Cases and controls were selected from within a 100-mile (161-km) radius of each of three laboratories, and their geographic distributions were evaluated. Global clustering of cases was significant around all three laboratories, with mixed results at the local clustering level and the only significant clustering at the focal level around the Davis laboratory with an observed to expected ratio of approximately 5. The area of influence for all three laboratories was about 20 miles (32 km). The significant clustering of cases around the laboratories indicates that more public information about the free-of-charge program could result in coverage of a larger portion of the population; however, the value of the information resulting from increased sampling should be considered relative to the additional cost of obtaining it. PMID:19431996

Soberano, Gustavo; Carpenter, A Tim E; Cardona, Carol; Charlton, Bruce

2009-03-01

289

Comparison of susceptibility to antimicrobials of bacterial isolates from companion animals in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in Canada between 2 time points 10 years apart.  

PubMed

The susceptibility to antimicrobials of bacterial species most frequently isolated from companion animals in a veterinary teaching diagnostic laboratory was evaluated retrospectively. A significant decrease between 1990-1992 and 2002-2003 was noted in the susceptibility of dog isolates to the following antimicrobials: Escherichia coli to cephalothin (86% to 61%, P < 0.001); E. coli to ampicillin (85% to 67%, P < 0.001); Proteus spp. to ampicillin (92% to 71%, P < 0.01); coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius) to enrofloxacin (99% to 95%, P < 0.01). Significantly increased susceptibilities were also noted as follows: coagulase-positive staphylococci to erythromycin (78% to 90%, P < 0.001) and tetracycline (61% to 77%, P < 0.001). Despite a limited number of results available for cats, a significant increase in susceptibility was noted for Pseudomonas spp. to gentamicin (40% to 100%, P < 0.05) and for E. coli to tetracycline (59% to 80%, P < 0.05). Regular updates on the resistance to antimicrobials used in veterinary medicine are required. PMID:16933555

Authier, Simon; Paquette, Dominique; Labrecque, Olivia; Messier, Serge

2006-08-01

290

Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

2008-07-01

291

Units 11 - 12 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section contains two Units plus the Glossary and Index: Unit 11 - What Is MSMR? Unit 12 - Careers in Health and Health Research Glossary of Terms Used Index Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

292

Pollution and contamination of the domestic environment leading to detrimental, long run and possible irreversible effects upon human and animal health and longevity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animal health and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.

1975-01-01

293

Health care sensor - Based systems for point of care monitoring and diagnostic applications: A brief survey.  

PubMed

Continuous, real-time remote monitoring through medical point - of - care (POC) systems appears to draw the interest of the scientific community for healthcare monitoring and diagnostic applications the last decades. Towards this direction a significant merit has been due to the advancements in several scientific fields. Portable, wearable and implantable apparatus may contribute to the betterment of today's healthcare system which suffers from fundamental hindrances. The number and heterogeneity of such devices and systems regarding both software and hardware components, i.e sensors, antennas, acquisition circuits, as well as the medical applications that are designed for, is impressive. Objective of the current study is to present the major technological advancements that are considered to be the driving forces in the design of such systems, to briefly state the new aspects they can deliver in healthcare and finally, the identification, categorization and a first level evaluation of them. PMID:25571429

Tsakalakis, Michail; Bourbakis, Nicolaos G

2014-08-01

294

Use of the Child Behavior Checklist as a Diagnostic Screening Tool in Community Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines whether the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) can be used as an accurate psychiatric screening tool for children in community mental health settings. Method: Associations, logistic regression models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to test the predictive relationship between the CBCL and

Rishel, Carrie W.; Greeno, Catherine; Marcus, Steven C.; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol

2005-01-01

295

Diagnostic tests for alcoholism in primary health care: compared efficacy of different instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alcoholism is an uncommon diagnosis in normal medical activity despite being a prevalent health problem in Spain. One of the main obstacles that make diagnosis difficult is the lack of valid, reliable instruments of detection. The aim of the present study is to validate different tests for diagnosing alcoholism (CAGE, Alcohol Clinical Index, MCV, GGT, GOTGPT and GGTAP) in

F. Escobar; F. Esp; M. Canteras

1995-01-01

296

Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics.  

PubMed

The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an image stacking algorithm to decrease the image noise and enhance weak signals, and (2) an optical signal amplifier utilizing a capillary tube array. These approaches were used in a detection system which includes multi-wavelength LEDs capable of exciting many fluorophores in multiple wavelengths, a mobile phone or a webcam as a detector, and capillary tube array configured with 36 capillary tubes for signal enhancement. The capillary array enables a ~100 increase in signal sensitivity for fluorescein, reducing the limit of detection (LOD) for mobile phones and webcams from 1000 nM to 10nM. Computational image stacking enables another ~10 increase in signal sensitivity, further reducing the LOD for webcam from 10nM to 1 nM. To demonstrate the feasibility of the device for the detection of disease-related biomarkers, adenovirus DNA labeled with SYBR green or fluorescein was analyzed by both our capillary array and a commercial plate reader. The LOD for the capillary array was 5 ug/mL, and that of the plate reader was 1 ug/mL. Similar results were obtained using DNA stained with fluorescein. The combination of the two signal amplification approaches enables a ~1000 increase in LOD for the webcam platform. This brings it into the range of a conventional plate reader while using a smaller sample volume (10 ul) than the plate reader requires (100 ul). This suggests that such a device could be suitable for biosensing applications where up to 10 fold smaller sample sizes are needed. The simple optical configuration for mHealth described in this paper employing the combined capillary and image processing signal amplification is capable of measuring weak fluorescent signals without the need of dedicated laboratories. It has the potential to be used to increase sensitivity of other optically based mHealth technologies, and may increase mHealth's clinical utility, especially for telemedicine and for resource-poor settings and global health applications. PMID:23928092

Balsam, Joshua; Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

2014-01-15

297

The implications of naturally occurring levels of fumonisins in corn for human and animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of corn with the fungus Fusarium moniliforme and its secondary metabolites, the fumonisins, has been associated with several human and animal diseases. This paper summarizes present knowledge and presents new data on the levels of fumonisins present in foods and feeds associated with these diseases as well as in commercial corn and corn-based products. The doses of fumonisins to

Pieter G. Thiel; Walter F. O. Marasas; Eric W. Sydenham; Gordon S. Shephard; Wentzel C. A. Gelderblom

1992-01-01

298

Quantifying Potential Human Health Impacts of Animal Antibiotic Use: Enrofloxacin and Macrolides in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some

Douglas A. Popken

2006-01-01

299

Center for Animal Health and Food Safety www.cahfs.umn.edu 612-625-8709  

E-print Network

Medicine www.cvm.umn.edu 612-626-8387 Can dogs become infected with Ebola? Very little is known about how dogs or other animals respond to Ebola virus. Studies on dogs in West Africa have shown that dogs develop antibodies when exposed to Ebola, suggesting that they may develop mild infections without

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

300

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) http://olaw.nih.gov National Institutes of Health  

E-print Network

, Suite 360, MSC 7982 6705 Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-7982 zip code for US Mail; 20817 zip code.V.M. Director wolffa@od.nih.gov 301-594-2061 301-915-9466 Brent Morse, D.V.M. Animal Welfare Program Specialist

Baker, Chris I.

301

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals and in the environment: Progress on research to safeguard human health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases of humans and many animals caused by protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium has become a very important pathogen in drinking water, detected in over 90% of the surface waters tested in the United States and found in surface waters worldwi...

302

Units 1 - 4 - Reference Manual for People and Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first four units of the curriculum are: Unit 1 - The Facts About Biomedical Research Unit 2 - Who Conducts Biomedical Research? Unit 3 - Fact vs. Myth Unit 4 - Some Animals Which Contribute to Biomedical Research Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

303

Discussion Guide - Units 1 - 4 - People and Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Units covered in this section are: Unit 1- The Facts About Biomedical Research Unit 2 - Who Conducts Biomedical Research? Unit 3 - Fact vs. Myth Unit 4 - Some Animals Which Contribute to Biomedical Research Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

304

Units 5 - 7 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The units in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

305

IMMUNOTOXICITY - BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ANIMAL RESEARCH AND HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...

306

Fusarium mycotoxins: a review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisins are the major Fusarium mycotoxins occurring on a worldwide basis in cereal grains, animal feeds and forages. Other important Fusarium mycotoxins include moniliformin and fusaric acid. Spontaneous outbreaks of Fusarium mycotoxicoses have been recorded in Europe, Asia, New Zealand and South America and, in addition, chronic exposure occurs on a regular and more widespread scale.

J. P. F. DMello; C. M. Placinta; A. M. C. Macdonald

1999-01-01

307

DRAFT NOTES ON RESEARCH STRATEGY Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health, and Comparative  

E-print Network

This is a multidisciplinary Institute that integrates Glasgow's substantial research expertise in animal biology and ecology more pressing, given the threat posed by rapid environmental change and human population increase. We in relation to environmental change, emerging diseases and the conservation of biodiversity. This Institute

Glasgow, University of

308

Page 1 of 16 Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine  

E-print Network

Parent­infant vocalisations at 12 months predict psychopathology at 7 years CS Allely, D Purves, A Mc the egg's natural defence against bacterial penetration by increasing cuticle deposition MM Bain, K Mcdade (2), 222 Animal activity around-the-clock with no overt circadian rhythms: patterns, mechanisms

Guo, Zaoyang

309

Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening, a brief pan-diagnostic web screen for emotional health  

PubMed Central

Few standardized tools are available for time-efficient screening of emotional health status across diagnostic categories, especially in primary care. We evaluated the 45-question Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening (BRISC) and the 15-question mini-BRISC in identifying poor emotional health and coping capacity across a range of diagnostic groups compared with a detailed clinical assessment in a large sample of adult outpatients. Participants 1860 years of age (n = 1079) recruited from 12 medical research and clinical sites completed the computerized assessments. Three index scores were derived from the full BRISC and the mini-BRISC: one for risk (negativitypositivity bias) and two for coping (resilience and social capacity). Summed answers were converted to standardized z-scores. BRISC scores were compared with detailed health assessment and diagnostic interview (for current psychiatric, psychological, and neurological conditions) by clinicians at each site according to diagnostic criteria. Clinicians were blinded to BRISC scores. Clinical assessment stratified participants as having clinical (n = 435) or healthy (n = 644) diagnostic status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that a z-score threshold of ?1.57 on the full BRISC index of emotional health provided an optimal classification of clinical versus healthy status (sensitivity: 81.2%, specificity: 92.7%, positive predictive power: 80.2%, and negative predictive power: 93.1%). Comparable findings were revealed for the mini-BRISC. Negativitypositivity bias index scores contributed the most to prediction. The negativitypositivity index of emotional health was most sensitive to classifying major depressive disorder (100%), posttraumatic stress disorder (95.8%), and panic disorder (88.7%). The BRISC and mini-BRISC both offer a brief, clinically useful screen to identify individuals at risk of disorders characterized by poor emotion regulation, from those with good emotional health and coping. PMID:23139903

Williams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas J; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gatt, Justine M; Koslow, Stephen H; Kulkarni, Jayashri; DeVarney, Savannah; Gordon, Evian; John Rush, Augustus

2012-01-01

310

inappropriate, confusing and misleading to have different health communities (for humans and animals) involved  

E-print Network

) Measles eradication: recommendations from a meeting co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, the Pan Department of Agriculture, Washington DC 25 Santa, J.F. et al. (1916) Sleeping sickness. A record of four

Maizels, Rick

311

Comparison of milk yield and animal health in Turkish farms with differing stall types and resting surfaces.  

PubMed

The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

2015-02-01

312

Comparison of Milk Yield and Animal Health in Turkish Farms with Differing Stall Types and Resting Surfaces  

PubMed Central

The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

2015-01-01

313

The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.  

PubMed

The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

2013-08-01

314

Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a reference range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cellcell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

315

Health economic evaluation of treatments for Alzheimer's disease: impact of new diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

The socio-economic impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias is enormous, and the potential economic challenges ahead are clear given the projected future numbers of individuals with these conditions. Because of the high prevalence and cost of dementia, it is very important to assess any intervention from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. The diagnostic criteria for preclinical AD suggested by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association workgroups in combination with the goal of effective disease-modifying treatment (DMT) are, however, a challenge for clinical practice and for the design of clinical trials. Key issues for future cost-effectiveness studies include the following: (i) the consequences for patients if diagnosis is shifted from AD-dementia to predementia states, (ii) bridging the gap between clinical trial populations and patients treated in clinical practice, (iii) translation of clinical trial end-points into measures that are meaningful to patients and policymakers/payers and (iv) how to measure long-term effects. To improve cost-effectiveness studies, long-term population-based data on disease progression, costs and outcomes in clinical practice are needed not only in dementia but also in predementia states. Reliable surrogate end-points in clinical trials that are sensitive to detect effects even in predementia states are also essential as well as robust and validated modelling methods from predementia states that also take into account comorbidities and age. Finally, the ethical consequences of early diagnosis should be considered. PMID:24605810

Wimo, A; Ballard, C; Brayne, C; Gauthier, S; Handels, R; Jones, R W; Jonsson, L; Khachaturian, A S; Kramberger, M

2014-03-01

316

Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health. PMID:20691081

2010-01-01

317

Rodents on pig and chicken farms a potential threat to human and animal health  

PubMed Central

Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

Backhans, Annette; Fellstrm, Claes

2012-01-01

318

The Incidence of Dementia and Intake of Animal Products: Preliminary Findings from the Adventist Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between animal product consumption and evidence of dementia in two cohort substudies. The first enrolled 272 California residents matched for age, sex, and zip code (1 vegan, 1 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and 2 'heavy' meat eaters in each of 68 quartets). This design ensured a wide range of dietary exposure. The second included 2,984 unmatched subjects who resided

Paul Giem; W. Lawrence Beeson; Gary E. Fraser

1993-01-01

319

Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated H. heilmannii, but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii. These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. Candidatus Helicobacter bovis is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

2009-01-01

320

Development of health supplement probiotic in relation to physical strength and biological activity in experimental animal.  

PubMed

A probiotic nutritive health supplement having a healthy nutritive value was formulated to enhance body function. A 90 days study proved the formulated health supplement to improve the body weight with a maintained normal level of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood which is needful for the proper cardiac function. The supplement also maintained the blood parameters to avoid any illness in the body. In the present study, the health supplement was able to maintain the Haemoglobin level, RBC Count, WBC Count, Platelet Count in Sprague Dawley rats. It is also found that the supplement maintained the cardiac rhythm in the stressful condition and increased in the time of swimming in the force swimming test which indicates an increase in the physical strength. PMID:23986310

Mahajan, P G; Tripathi, A S; Chandewar, A V; Apte, K G; Mazumder, P M; Mahajan, G D

2014-02-01

321

Early Exposure to Soy Isoflavones and Effects on Reproductive Health: A Review of Human and Animal Studies  

PubMed Central

Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potential hormonal activity due to their similar chemical structure to 17-?-estradiol. The increasing availability of soy isoflavones throughout the food supply and through use of supplements has prompted extensive research on biological benefits to humans in chronic disease prevention and health maintenance. While much of this research has focused on adult populations, infants fed soy protein based infant formulas are exposed to substantial levels of soy isoflavones, even when compared to adult populations that consume a higher quantity of soy-based foods. Infant exposure, through soy formula, primarily occurs from birth to one year of life, a stage of development that is particularly sensitive to dietary and environmental compounds. This has led investigators to study the potential hormonal effects of soy isoflavones on later reproductive health outcomes. Such studies have included minimal human data with the large majority of studies using animal models. This review discusses key aspects of the current human and animal studies and identifies critical areas to be investigated as there is no clear consensus in this research field. PMID:22254003

Dinsdale, Elsa C.; Ward, Wendy E.

2010-01-01

322

Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2008: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).  

PubMed

Rabies is a fatal viral zoonosis and a serious public health problem. The disease is an acute, progressive encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus. Although the United States has been declared free of canine rabies virus variant transmission, multiple viral variants are maintained in wild mammal populations, and there is always a risk of reintroduction of canine rabies. All mammals are believed to be susceptible to the disease, and for purposes of this document, use of the term "animal" refers to mammals. The recommendations in this compendium serve as a basis for animal rabies-prevention and -control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. The most current version replaces all previous versions. These recommendations do not supersede state and local laws or requirements. Principles of rabies-prevention and -control are detailed in Part I; recommendations for parenteral vaccination procedures are presented in Part II; and all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part III. PMID:18418348

2008-04-18

323

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

2001-06-01

324

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza  

E-print Network

of Avian Influenza Jessica H. Leibler,1 Joachim Otte,2 David Roland-Holst,3 Dirk U. Pfeiffer,4 Ricardo with public health interests. Keywords: influenza A virus, avian, poultry, zoonoses, agriculture, biosecurity infection in 1999, SARS in 2002, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from This article

Kammen, Daniel M.

325

Advanced sensing, degradation detection, diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for structural health management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a micro-sized Linear Polarization Resistance (?LPR) corrosion sensor for Structural Health Management (SHM) applications. The ?LPR sensor is based on conventional macro-sized Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) sensors with the additional benefit of a reduced form factor making it a viable and economical candidate for remote corrosion monitoring of high value structures, such as buildings, bridges, or aircraft. An experiment was conducted with eight ?LPR sensors and four test coupons to validate the performance of the sensor. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the sensor as an efficient means to measure corrosion. The paper concludes with a brief description of a typical application where the ?LPR is used in a bridge cable.

Brown, Douglas; Darr, Duane; Morse, Jeffrey; Betti, Raimondo; Laskowski, Bernard

2012-04-01

326

Invited review: Use of meta-analysis in animal health and reproduction: methods and applications.  

PubMed

The objectives of this paper are to provide an introduction to meta-analysis and systematic review and to discuss the rationale for this type of research and other general considerations. We highlight methods used to produce a rigorous meta-analysis and discuss some aspects of interpretation of meta-analysis drawing on examples from the animal and veterinary science literature. Meta-analysis is a rapidly expanding area of research that has been relatively underutilized in animal and veterinary science. It is a quantitative, formal, epidemiological study design used to systematically assess previous research studies to derive conclusions about that body of research. Outcomes from a meta-analysis may include a more precise estimate of the effect of treatment or risk factor for disease, or other outcomes, than any individual study contributing to the pooled analysis. The examination of variability or heterogeneity in study results is also a critical outcome. The benefits of meta-analysis include a consolidated and quantitative review of a large, and often complex, sometimes apparently conflicting, body of literature. Meta-analytic methods place less emphasis on dichotomous outcomes from null hypothesis significance testing and greater emphasis on determining the magnitude and the precision of an effect of interest. A substantial benefit of meta-analysis is the potential to investigate new hypotheses using existing data, both through the development of a priori hypotheses and by examination of the heterogeneity in study responses. The specification of the outcome and hypotheses that are tested is critical to the conduct of meta-analyses, as is a sensitive literature search. A failure to identify the majority of existing studies can lead to erroneous conclusions; however, there are methods of examining data to identify the potential for studies to be missing; for example, by the use of funnel plots. Many of the statistical methods to conduct meta-analysis are widely used. Bayesian methods are well suited to meta-analysis. The post-hoc methods used to evaluate heterogeneity and publication bias, which include the I (2) statistic, L'Abb plots, Galbraith plots, Rosenthal's N, and influential study analysis are exclusively used in meta-analysis. Examples where meta-analyses have been repeated in animal science or veterinary medicine show good consistency in estimates of effect. Findings of studies to date have provided new understandings of rumen modifiers, milk fever, parasite control, mastitis, somatotropin, and reproductive manipulations. Rigorously conducted meta-analyses are useful tools to improve animal well-being and productivity. The need to integrate findings from many studies ensures that meta-analytic research is desirable and the large body of research now generated makes the conduct of this research feasible. PMID:19620636

Lean, I J; Rabiee, A R; Duffield, T F; Dohoo, I R

2009-08-01

327

Biologics industry challenges for developing diagnostic tests for the National Veterinary Stockpile.  

PubMed

Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases. Because of the need to deliver a return on the investment, research and development dollars continue to be focused on infectious diseases that have a negative impact on current domestic herd health, production systems, or companion animal health. Overcoming the administrative, legal, fiscal, and technological barriers to provide veterinary diagnostic products for the National Veterinary Stockpile will reduce the threat of natural or intentional spread of foreign diseases and increase the security of the food supply in the US. PMID:23689882

Hardham, J M; Lamichhane, C M

2013-01-01

328

Rapid Bacterial Whole-Genome Sequencing to Enhance Diagnostic and Public Health Microbiology  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE The latest generation of benchtop DNA sequencing platforms can provide an accurate whole-genome sequence (WGS) for a broad range of bacteria in less than a day. These could be used to more effectively contain the spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. OBJECTIVE To compare WGS with standard clinical microbiology practice for the investigation of nosocomial outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, the identification of genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance, and typing of other clinically important pathogens. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A laboratory-based study of hospital inpatients with a range of bacterial infections at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, a secondary and tertiary referral center in England, comparing WGS with standard diagnostic microbiology using stored bacterial isolates and clinical information. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Specimens were taken and processed as part of routine clinical care, and cultured isolates stored and referred for additional reference laboratory testing as necessary. Isolates underwent DNA extraction and library preparation prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Bioinformatic analyses were performed by persons blinded to the clinical, epidemiologic, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. RESULTS We investigated 2 putative nosocomial outbreaks, one caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and the other by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae; WGS accurately discriminated between outbreak and nonoutbreak isolates and was superior to conventional typing methods. We compared WGS with standard methods for the identification of the mechanism of carbapenem resistance in a range of gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, E cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae). This demonstrated concordance between phenotypic and genotypic results, and the ability to determine whether resistance was attributable to the presence of carbapenemases or other resistance mechanisms. Whole-genome sequencing was used to recapitulate reference laboratory typing of clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and to provide extended phylogenetic analyses of these. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The speed, accuracy, and depth of information provided by WGS platforms to confirm or refute outbreaks in hospitals and the community, and to accurately define transmission of multidrug-resistant and other organisms, represents an important advance. PMID:23857503

Reuter, Sandra; Ellington, Matthew J.; Cartwright, Edward J. P.; Kser, Claudio U.; Trk, M. Este; Gouliouris, Theodore; Harris, Simon R.; Brown, Nicholas M.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Quail, Mike; Parkhill, Julian; Smith, Geoffrey P.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Peacock, Sharon J.

2014-01-01

329

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2014-01-01

330

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2012-01-01

331

9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...

2013-01-01

332

Animal-free paralytic shellfish toxin testing--the Canadian perspective to improved health protection.  

PubMed

The performance characteristics of AOAC Official Method 2011.02 (the PCOX method) as a replacement for the AOAC mouse bioassay procedure have been well defined by validation studies, but these data do not communicate the complete story. The context provided by analyzing 9000 regulatory monitoring samples over 3 years demonstrates not only the reduction in animal use but also the increase in food safety that has been realized using a chemistry-based method. Detection of lower toxin levels provided early warning to enable directed sampling as toxin levels increased. The toxin profile information generated by a chemistry-based method was used to detect potential interferences qualitatively and can be used to assess the impact of changes recommended to monitoring programs. Such changes might include which toxins should be included in an action limit or the toxic equivalence factors used for these toxins. PMID:24830144

Rourke, Wade A; Murphy, Cory J

2014-01-01

333

IncA/C plasmids: An emerging threat to human and animal health?  

PubMed

Incompatibility group IncA/C plasmids are large, low copy, theta-replicating plasmids that have been described in the literature for over 40 years. However, they have only recently been intensively studied on the genomic level because of their associations with the emergence of multidrug resistance in enteric pathogens of humans and animals. These plasmids are unique among other enterobacterial plasmids in many aspects, including their modular structure and gene content. While the IncA/C plasmid genome structure has now been well defined, many questions remain pertaining to their basic biological mechanisms of dissemination and regulation. Here, we discuss the history of IncA/C plasmids in light of our recent understanding of their population distribution, genomics, and effects on host bacteria. PMID:22754754

Johnson, Timothy J; Lang, Kevin S

2012-01-01

334

Community health workers use malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) safely and accurately: results of a longitudinal study in Zambia.  

PubMed

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could radically improve febrile illness management in remote and low-resource populations. However, reliance upon community health workers (CHWs) remains controversial because of concerns about blood safety and appropriate use of artemisinin combination therapy. This study assessed CHW ability to use RDTs safely and accurately up to 12 months post-training. We trained 65 Zambian CHWs, and then provided RDTs, job-aids, and other necessary supplies for village use. Observers assessed CHW performance at 3, 6, and 12 months post-training. Critical steps performed correctly increased from 87.5% at 3 months to 100% subsequently. However, a few CHWs incorrectly read faint positive or invalid results as negative. Although most indicators improved or remained stable over time, interpretation of faint positives fell to 76.7% correct at 12 months. We conclude that appropriately trained and supervised CHWs can use RDTs safely and accurately in community practice for up to 12 months post-training. PMID:22764292

Counihan, Helen; Harvey, Steven A; Sekeseke-Chinyama, Masela; Hamainza, Busiku; Banda, Rose; Malambo, Thindo; Masaninga, Freddie; Bell, David

2012-07-01

335

Decision Making for Animal Health and Welfare: Integrating Risk-Benefit Analysis with Prospect Theory  

PubMed Central

This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

2013-01-01

336

Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.  

PubMed

While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

2014-12-01

337

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

338

Evaluation and delivery of domestic animal health services in remote communities in the Northwest Territories: A case study of status and needs  

PubMed Central

Domestic animal health services are supplied to communities in Canadas Northwest Territories (NT) in diverse ways, including private veterinary practices in 2 of 33 communities, and by mail-order, fly-in, free clinics, and a government-coordinated lay vaccinator program in some of the other 31 communities. We evaluated delivery, needs, and potential uptake of domestic animal health services in the Sahtu Settlement Area, NT by offering free clinics for 225 dogs in 2008 and 2009; and administered questionnaires to 42 dog owners and 67 students in 2008. Owners indicated that 20% of dogs were neutered, 37% had had rabies vaccinations, and 29% had been dewormed. Physical examination of dogs demonstrated that 54% were thin and 4% were emaciated. Owners and youth showed a range of attitudes toward dogs and supported improved domestic animal health services. Future services need to build on existing programs and collaborate with communities to ensure relevance, ownership, and sustainability. PMID:21197203

Brook, Ryan K.; Kutz, Susan J.; Millins, Caroline; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.; Leighton, Ted

2010-01-01

339

The diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) may be present in 10%20% of patients in medical settings. Routine depression screening is sometimes recommended to improve depression management. However, studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools have typically used data-driven, exploratory methods to select optimal cutoffs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cutoff points around whatever cutoff score is most accurate in that given study. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cutoff points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each possible cutoff point. As a result, traditional meta-analyses may generate exaggerated estimates of accuracy. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by synthesizing data from all studies for each cutoff score to obtain diagnostic accuracy estimates. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the shorter PHQ-2 and PHQ-8 are commonly recommended for depression screening. Thus, the primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2 to detect MDD among adults across all potentially relevant cutoff scores. Secondary analyses involve assessing accuracy accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, sex, medical comorbidity). Methods/design Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will include studies that included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of MDD based on a validated structured or semi-structured clinical interview administered within 2weeks of the administration of the PHQ. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, perform full article review, and extract study data. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cutoff values. Discussion The proposed IPD meta-analyses will allow us to obtain estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010673 PMID:25348422

2014-01-01

340

Imaging the basic function unit of small\\/medium animal via diagnostic CT with an adaptor-and-holder assembly (AAHA): feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging the basic functional unit (BFU) of small\\/medium animal - an organ's smallest assembly of diverse cells that functions like the organ itself - is of significance in pre-clinical research. A BFU is usually a spheroid with its horizontal, transverse and vertical radii equal to ~50 mum and its dimension is virtually the same in small\\/medium animal and human. Apparently,

Xiangyang Tang

2010-01-01

341

Animal Health Problems Attributed to Environmental Contamination in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya: A Case Study on Heavy Metal Poisoning in the Waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa (Ruppel 1835)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in which samples of soil, forage, as well as serum, bone, kidney, and liver of waterbuck were collected\\u000a from Lake Nakuru National Park. The objective was to determine the ecosystem health status in order to establish the causes\\u000a of animal health problems previously recorded in some sections of the Park. Trace element analysis in serum indicated

I. O. Jumba; S. M. Kisia; R. Kock

2007-01-01

342

An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.  

PubMed

Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread. PMID:24629777

Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

2014-07-16

343

Getting antimalarials on target: impact of national roll-out of malaria rapid diagnostic tests on health facility treatment in three regions of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objectives Parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment is recommended for patients of all ages, with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) an important tool to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to patients with malaria. To evaluate the impact on case management practices of routine government implementation of mRDTs, we conducted large-scale health facility surveys in three regions of Tanzania before and after mRDT roll-out. Methods Febrile patients at randomly selected health facilities were interviewed about care received at the facility, and blood samples were collected for reference blood smears. Health facility staff were interviewed about their qualifications and availability of malaria diagnostics and drugs. Results The percentage of febrile patients tested for malaria at the facility increased from 15.8% in 2010 to 54.9% in 2012. ACTs were obtained by 65.8% of patients positive by reference blood smear in 2010 and by 50.2% in 2012 (P=0.0675); no antimalarial was obtained by 57.8% of malaria-negative patients in 2010 and by 82.3% in 2012 (P<0.0001). Overall, ACT use decreased (39.921.3%, P<0.0001) and antibiotic use increased (31.248.5%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Roll-out of mRDTs in Tanzania dramatically improved diagnostic testing for malaria and reduced overuse of ACTs for patients without parasitemia. However, postroll-out almost 50% of febrile patients did not receive a diagnostic test, and almost 50% of patients testing positive did not receive ACTs. Stock-outs of ACTs and mRDTs were important problems. Further investigation is needed to determine reasons for not providing ACTs to patients with malaria and potential for inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:23937722

Bruxvoort, Katia; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Nchimbi, Happy; Festo, Charles; Taylor, Mark; Thomson, Rebecca; Cairns, Matthew; Thwing, Julie; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick

2013-01-01

344

TESTING OF SWINE FECES OBTAINED THROUGH THE NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM'S SWINE 2000 STUDY FOR THE PRESENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A national study on the natural occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in swine feces by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), was carried out by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS). With the cooperation of pork producers from 13 of...

345

CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: ?Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health? sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

346

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

347

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2012-01-01

348

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2013-01-01

349

9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

2014-01-01

350

International collaborative research: role of FAO and other international organizations on animal health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present situation, needs and potential for the veterinary research and diagnostic laboratories in Latin America and the Caribbean are presented based upon the evaluation of their scientific personnel. The following conclusions were arrived at. 1.(a) The economic crisis in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean has seriously affected veterinary services in general and the diagnostic and research laboratories

Carlos Arellano Sota

1995-01-01

351

Aquatic Animal Health Service  

E-print Network

State Aquarium; research scientist and head veterinarian at the New England Aquarium; committee member Association of Zoos and Aquariums. In 2007, Dr.Weber joined the UC Davis School ofVeterinary Medicine

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

352

Diagnostic History and Treatment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs  

MedlinePLUS

... aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs On This Page Key findings One-half ... identified as having ASD by a range of health care providers. School-aged CSHCN identified as having ASD ...

353

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

. Additionally, mice should be tested for Helicobacter as outlined in SOP 2.D.6, "Animal Health Monitoring health concerns: i. Additional testing of the sentinels or quarantine animals may be required2.D.9 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES for ANIMAL

Krovi, Venkat

354

Mental Health Screening in Kindergarten Youth: A Multistudy Examination of the Concurrent and Diagnostic Validity of the Impairment Rating Scale.  

PubMed

Using a multistudy approach, we examined the utility of the Impairment Rating Scale (IRS; Fabiano et al., 2006) as a screening tool for detecting kindergarten children who are at risk for social, emotional, academic, and behavioral problems. In Study 1 (N = 568), we evaluated the concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the parent and teacher IRS test score inferences in relation to scores from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). In Study 2 (N = 242), we addressed limitations in Study 1 and evaluated the concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the parent and teacher IRS test score inferences in relation to scores from BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), quarterly grades, kindergarten reading competency tests, and daily behavior outcomes on a classwide discipline system. Results indicate moderate to strong concurrent and diagnostic validity utility for the teacher IRS test score inferences and low to moderate concurrent and diagnostic validity utility for the parent IRS test score inferences. IRS scores of 3 or 4 may represent appropriate cutpoints for determining risk status in kindergarten youth depending on school districts' intended use of the tool for screening. Implications for future research and practice in universal school-based screening are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25222431

Girio-Herrera, Erin; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Owens, Julie Sarno

2014-09-15

355

Prevalence and Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Swine Feces Recovered in the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 6 April 2004\\/Accepted 3 August 2004 A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in swine feces in the United States as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 study. Fecal samples collected from swine operations from 13 of the top 17 swine-producing states were tested for the presence of

Pina M. Fratamico; Lori K. Bagi; Eric J. Bush; Barbara T. Solow

2004-01-01

356

Two amphibian diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, are now globally notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE): an assessment.  

PubMed

The global trade in amphibians entails the transport of tens of millions of live animals each year. In addition to the impact harvesting wild animals can have on amphibian populations, there is mounting evidence that the emerging pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranaviruses, the aetiological agents of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, respectively, are spread through this trade. The link between these pathogens and amphibian declines and extinctions suggests that the epidemiological impact of the trade is significant and may negatively affect conservation and trade economics. Here we present a brief assessment of the volume of the global trade in live amphibians, the risk of individuals harboring infection, and information on the recent listing by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code. This listing made chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease internationally notifiable diseases and thus subject to OIE standards, which aim to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in live amphibians and their products. PMID:21268971

Schloegel, Lisa M; Daszak, Peter; Cunningham, Andrew A; Speare, Richard; Hill, Barry

2010-11-01

357

Impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the Public Health Laboratory London.  

PubMed

Planning for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at the Public Health Laboratory London was based on the requirement to meet potential increased demand with scalable capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services during the Games period. Retrospective cross-sectional time-series data analysis was used to assess the number of gastrointestinal specimens received in the laboratory and the number of positive results. There was no increase in the number of gastrointestinal specimens received during the Games period, thus the Games had no impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the laboratory. There was a decrease in the number of public health specimens received for culture [incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI)?= 0.13-0.86, P = 0.02] and a decrease in the number of culture positive community specimens (odds ratio = 0.59, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.85, P = 0.005), suggesting a decrease in gastrointestinal illness during the Games period. As previous planning assumptions were not based on actual specimen activity, the results of this study may modify the extent of additional planning for microbiological services required for mass gatherings. PMID:24809387

Williams, K; Sinclair, C; McEwan, R; Fleet, K; Balasegaram, S; Manuel, R

2014-07-01

358

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

359

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

360

9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

361

9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

362

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

363

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

364

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

365

9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

366

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

367

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

368

9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

369

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

370

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

371

9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

372

9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

373

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

374

9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

375

9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

376

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

377

9 CFR 96.4 - Uncertified animal casings; disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uncertified animal casings; disposition. 96.4 Section 96.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

378

9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

379

9 CFR 96.3 - Certificate for animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for animal casings. 96.3 Section 96.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

380

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

381

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

382

Animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of human neuropsychiatric disorders in animals is extremely challenging given the subjective nature of many symptoms, the lack of biomarkers and objective diagnostic tests, and the early state of the relevant neurobiology and genetics. Nonetheless, progress in understanding pathophysiology and in treatment development would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here we review the current state of animal models

Steven E Hyman; Eric J Nestler

2010-01-01

383

Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB. PMID:22012976

Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

2011-01-01

384

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

2010-04-01

385

21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

386

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

2011-04-01

387

21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

388

Newer diagnostic tools in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem. Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant TB (XDR-TB) cause high mortality. There are obstacles to the diagnosis of TB due to lack of accurate, cost effective and rapid diagnostic tools. The delay in diagnostic process is an unresolved bottleneck impeding access to treatment. Presently available diagnostic tools for TB except some liquid culture and molecular tests take long time. TB culture and drug susceptibility test (DST) need specialized laboratory setup and are also very expensive. The New Diagnostics Working Group (NDWG) on TB is supporting development of new tools and also provides information to World Health Organization (WHO) for endorsement. Globally, TB control programmes need rapid and accurate diagnostic tools, which are to be implemented in peripheral health centers as well. In this review, we describe development of newer diagnostic tools, their endorsement status and usage in TB diagnosis. PMID:25145058

Anbarasu, S; Selvakumar, N; Vanaja, Kumar

2012-09-01

389

The Navigation GuideEvidence-Based Medicine Meets Environmental Health: Integration of Animal and Human Evidence for PFOA Effects on Fetal Growth  

PubMed Central

Background: The Navigation Guide is a novel systematic review method to synthesize scientific evidence and reach strength of evidence conclusions for environmental health decision making. Objective: Our aim was to integrate scientific findings from human and nonhuman studies to determine the overall strength of evidence for the question Does developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) affect fetal growth in humans? Methods: We developed and applied prespecified criteria to systematically and transparently a) rate the quality of the scientific evidence as high, moderate, or low; b) rate the strength of the human and nonhuman evidence separately as sufficient, limited, moderate, or evidence of lack of toxicity; and c) integrate the strength of the human and nonhuman evidence ratings into a strength of the evidence conclusion. Results: We identified 18 epidemiology studies and 21 animal toxicology studies relevant to our study question. We rated both the human and nonhuman mammalian evidence as moderate quality and sufficient strength. Integration of these evidence ratings produced a final strength of evidence rating in which review authors concluded that PFOA is known to be toxic to human reproduction and development based on sufficient evidence of decreased fetal growth in both human and nonhuman mammalian species. Conclusion: We concluded that developmental exposure to PFOA adversely affects human health based on sufficient evidence of decreased fetal growth in both human and nonhuman mammalian species. The results of this case study demonstrate the application of a systematic and transparent methodology, via the Navigation Guide, for reaching strength of evidence conclusions in environmental health. Citation: Lam J, Koustas E, Sutton P, Johnson PI, Atchley DS, Sen S, Robinson KA, Axelrad DA, Woodruff TJ. 2014. The Navigation Guideevidence-based medicine meets environmental health: integration of animal and human evidence for PFOA effects on fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect 122:10401051;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307923 PMID:24968389

Koustas, Erica; Sutton, Patrice; Johnson, Paula I.; Atchley, Dylan S.; Sen, Saunak; Robinson, Karen A.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2014-01-01

390

Assessing health in agriculture-towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.  

PubMed

In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems. 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24777948

Vieweger, Anja; Dring, Thomas F

2015-02-01

391

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

392

Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131  

PubMed Central

Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

2015-01-01

393

Managing animal disease risk in Australia: the impact of climate change.  

PubMed

Climate change is one of a number of factors that are likely to affect the future of Australian agriculture, animal production and animal health, particularly when associated with other factors such as environmental degradation, intensive animal production, an increasing human population, and expanding urbanisation. Notwithstanding the harshness and variability of Australia's climate, significant livestock industries have been developed, with the majority of products from such industries exported throughout the world. A critical factor in achieving market access has been an enviable animal health status, which is underpinned by first class animal health services with a strong legislative basis, well-trained staff, engagement of industry, effective surveillance, good scientific and laboratory support, effective emergency management procedures, a sound quarantine system, and strong political support. However, enhancements still need to be made to Australia's animal health system, for example: re-defining the science-policy interface; refining foresight, risk analysis, surveillance, diagnostics, and emergency management; improving approaches to education, training, technology transfer, communications and awareness; and engaging more with the international community in areas such as capacity building, the development of veterinary services, and disease response systems. A 'one health' approach will be adopted to bring together skills in the fields of animal, public, wildlife and environmental health. These initiatives, if managed correctly, will minimise the risks resulting from global warming and other factors predisposing to disease. PMID:18819678

Black, P F; Murray, J G; Nunn, M J

2008-08-01

394

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare  

E-print Network

.nih.gov/grants/olaw/olaw.htm. This reprint includes the Health Research Extension Act of 1985, Public Law 99-158,"Animals In Research, Research and Training. The U.S. Principles were promulgated in 1985 by the Interagency Research Animal;Table of Contents Health Research Extension Act of 1985, Public Law 99-158, November 20, 1985, "Animals

Baker, Chris I.

395

HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

396

COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

397

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

398

Classification and diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms: The 2008 World Health Organization criteria and point-of-care diagnostic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) treatise on the classification of hematopoietic tumors lists chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) as a subdivision of myeloid neoplasms that includes the four classic myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs)chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF)as well as chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL), chronic eosinophilic leukemia\\/hypereosinophilic syndrome (CEL\\/HES) and CMPD, unclassifiable. In the

A Tefferi; J W Vardiman; A Tefferi

2008-01-01

399

Integrated diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

Hunthausen, Roger J.

1988-01-01

400

Immunodetection of fungal and oomycete pathogens: Established and emerging threats to human health, animal welfare and global food security.  

PubMed

Abstract Filamentous fungi (moulds), yeast-like fungi, and oomycetes cause life-threatening infections of humans and animals and are a major constraint to global food security, constituting a significant economic burden to both agriculture and medicine. As well as causing localized or systemic infections, certain species are potent producers of allergens and toxins that exacerbate respiratory diseases or cause cancer and organ damage. We review the pathogenic and toxigenic organisms that are etiologic agents of both animal and plant diseases or that have recently emerged as serious pathogens of immunocompromised individuals. The use of hybridoma and phage display technologies and their success in generating monoclonal antibodies for the detection and control of fungal and oomycete pathogens are explored. Monoclonal antibodies hold enormous potential for the development of rapid and specific tests for the diagnosis of human mycoses, however, unlike plant pathology, their use in medical mycology remains to be fully exploited. PMID:23734714

Thornton, Christopher R; Wills, Odette E

2015-02-01

401

9 CFR 2.128 - Inspection for missing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Section 2.128 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...including the use of sterile clothing, footwear, and masks where required, or...

2010-01-01

402

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

2012-06-26

403

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals ...

2011-04-01

404

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals ...

2012-04-01

405

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals ...

2014-04-01

406

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals ...

2010-04-01

407

Onco-epidemiology of domestic animals and targeted therapeutic attempts: perspectives on human oncology.  

PubMed

The spontaneous tumor biology has been investigated with the support of animalists using animals as a preclinical model allowing translation of results in clinical practice. This review provides an insight into the field of comparative oncology. Evidence shows that companion animal health care is impressively growing in terms of development of new therapies and diagnostic tools, nutrition and disease prevention. However, even if most animal tumors might be a reliable model to study human carcinomas, many open questions, related to the opportunities to select and recruit new models in oncology, along with their legal and ethical implications, remain unanswered. PMID:24816783

Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; De Vico, Gionata; Iannitti, Tommaso

2014-11-01

408

Animal Cloning 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

409

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior to animators. We propose a framework for achieving the intricacy of animal motion and behavior evident, and behavior of individual animals, as well as the patterns of social behavior evident in groups of animals

Toronto, University of

410

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

Ns&feature=player_embedded#at=74 Animal cognition? Does the dog know what she is talking about? Video #12;Imitation in quail Demonstrator Observer Pecking Stepping Akins & Zentall, 1996, J Comp Psychol, 110, 316-320. #12;Imitation in quail: Results #12;http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/susan_savage_rumbaugh_on_apes_that_write

Cooper, Brenton G.

411

Animism inside Japanese animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animism and the Nature-friendly ideology are something like the air that exists naturally for the Japanese. The common values such as a sacredness of the Nature and the sweetness of the Nature for human beings also work as important themes in today\\

Hayao Miyazaki; Mikyung Bak

412

Diagnostic data for neurological conditions in interRAI assessments in home care, nursing home and mental health care settings: a validity study  

PubMed Central

Background The interRAI suite of assessment instruments can provide valuable information to support person-specific care planning across the continuum of care. Comprehensive clinical information is collected with these instruments, including disease diagnoses. In Canada, interRAI data holdings represent some of the largest repositories of clinical information in the country for persons with neurological conditions. This study examined the accuracy of the diagnostic information captured by interRAI instruments designed for use in the home care, long-term care and mental health care settings as compared with national administrative databases. Methods The interRAI assessments were matched with an inpatient hospital record and emergency department (ED) visit record in the preceding 90days. Diagnoses captured on the interRAI instruments were compared to those recorded in either administrative record for each individual. Diagnostic validity was examined through sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value analysis for the following conditions: multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Alzheimers disease and other dementias, Parkinsons disease, traumatic brain injury, stroke, diabetes mellitus, heart failure and reactive airway disease. Results In the three large study samples (home care: n?=?128,448; long-term care: n?=?26,644; mental health: n?=?13,812), interRAI diagnoses demonstrated high specificity when compared to administrative records, for both neurological conditions (range 0.80 1.00) and comparative chronic diseases (range 0.83 1.00). Sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were more varied by specific diagnosis, with sensitivities and PPV for neurological conditions ranging from 0.23 to 0.94 and 0.14 to 0.77, respectively. The interRAI assessments routinely captured more cases of the diagnoses of interest than the administrative records. Conclusions The interRAI assessment collected accurate information about disease diagnoses when compared to administrative records within three months. Such information is likely relevant to day-to-day care in these three environments and can be used to inform care planning and resource allocation decisions. PMID:24176093

2013-01-01

413

Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when plant reference databases become better established. PMID:22511890

Coghlan, Megan L; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dith C; White, Nicole E; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I; Bunce, Michael

2012-01-01

414

Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance  

PubMed Central

The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a directed mutation pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes. PMID:23071694

Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

415

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

416

The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.  

PubMed

The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

2010-08-01

417

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

418

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 320. (ART 320) (FST 320) Computer Animation (3) Prerequisite: CSC 220 (ART 220) (FST 220) or permission of instructor. Basic principles of animation using 3-D computer-generated animation and basic processes for animating synthetic objects through structured exercises. Principles of designing and producing 3-D computer-generated animation through the creation of advanced motion studies. Projects focus on developing higher-level skills in model building, animation and color, and lighting.

Patterson, Eric

2003-04-21

419

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

420

Rapid urbanization of red foxes in estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.  

PubMed

Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

2014-01-01

421

Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

2014-01-01

422

Using exceedance probabilities to detect anomalies in routinely recorded animal health data, with particular reference to foot-and-mouth disease in Viet Nam.  

PubMed

The widespread availability of computer hardware and software for recording and storing disease event information means that, in theory, we have the necessary information to carry out detailed analyses of factors influencing the spatial distribution of disease in animal populations. However, the reliability of such analyses depends on data quality, with anomalous records having the potential to introduce significant bias and lead to inappropriate decision making. In this paper we promote the use of exceedance probabilities as a tool for detecting anomalies when applying hierarchical spatio-temporal models to animal health data. We illustrate this methodology through a case study data on outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Viet Nam for the period 2006-2008. A flexible binomial logistic regression was employed to model the number of FMD infected communes within each province of the country. Standard analyses of the residuals from this model failed to identify problems, but exceedance probabilities identified provinces in which the number of reported FMD outbreaks was unexpectedly low. This finding is interesting given that these provinces are on major cattle movement pathways through Viet Nam. PMID:25457601

Richards, K K; Hazelton, M L; Stevenson, M A; Lockhart, C Y; Pinto, J; Nguyen, L

2014-10-01

423

Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models.  

PubMed Central

In humans, cancer may be caused by genetics and environmental exposures; however, in the majority of instances the identification of the critical time window of exposure is problematic. The evidence for exposures occurring during the preconceptional period that have an association with childhood or adulthood cancers is equivocal. Agents definitely related to cancer in children, and adulthood if exposure occurs in utero, include: maternal exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy and childhood leukemia and certain other cancers, and maternal use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina of their daughters. The list of environmental exposures that occur during the perinatal/postnatal period with potential to increase the risk of cancer is lengthening, but evidence available to date is inconsistent and inconclusive. In animal models, preconceptional carcinogenesis has been demonstrated for a variety of types of radiation and chemicals, with demonstrated sensitivity for all stages from fetal gonocytes to postmeiotic germ cells. Transplacental and neonatal carcinogenesis show marked ontogenetic stage specificity in some cases. Mechanistic factors include the number of cells at risk, the rate of cell division, the development of differentiated characteristics including the ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens, the presence of stem cells, and possibly others. Usefulness for human risk estimation would be strengthened by the study of these factors in more than one species, and by a focus on specific human risk issues. Images Figure 1 PMID:10852857

Anderson, L M; Diwan, B A; Fear, N T; Roman, E

2000-01-01

424

Transplacental Transfer of Hepatitis B Neutralizing Antibody during Pregnancy in an Animal Model: Implications for Newborn and Maternal Health  

PubMed Central

Despite the success of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) of the newborn in preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus), in non-US clinical trials, administering hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) to mothers at the end of pregnancy (in addition to passive-active PEP of the newborn) only partially improved outcomes. That is, a significant percentage of newborns became infected during their first year of life. We used a relevant animal model for human IgG transplacental transfer to study dose, time and subclass dependence of HBV neutralizing antibody (nAb) maternal, and fetal levels at the end of pregnancy. Pregnant guinea pigs received 50 or 100?IU/kg HBIGIV 25 days before delivery. Human total IgG, IgG subclasses, and nAb in mothers and their litters were measured. In vitro analyses of guinea pig Fc neonatal receptor binding to HBIGIV, as well as to all human IgG subclasses, were also performed. Our study showed that nAb transferred transplacentally from the pregnant guinea pigs to their litters; no transfer occurred during parturition. The amount of the transferred nAb was dose and time dependent. Thus, selection of an efficacious dose in the clinic is important: microdosing may be underdosing, particularly in cases of high viraemia. PMID:24800066

Ma, Li; Norton, Malgorzata G.; Mahmood, Iftekhar; Zhao, Zhong; Zhong, Lilin; Zhang, Pei; Struble, Evi B.

2014-01-01

425

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

426

Development of an expert system for the integration of biomarker responses in mussels into an animal health index.  

PubMed

Biomarkers on sentinel organisms are utilised worldwide in biomonitoring programs. However, the lack of effective interpretational capacity has hampered their uptake for use for assessment of risk in environmental management. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an objective decision-support or expert system capable of integrating biomarker results into a five-level health-status index. The expert system is based on a set of rules derived from available data on responses to natural and contaminant-induced stress of marine mussels. Integration of parameters includes: level of biological organization; biological significance; mutual interrelationship; and qualitative trends in a stress gradient. The system was tested on a set of biomarker data obtained from the field and subsequently validated with data from previous studies. The results demonstrate that the expert system can effectively quantify the biological effects of different levels of pollution. The system represents a simple tool for risk assessment of the harmful impact of contaminants by providing a clear indication of the degree of stress syndrome induced by pollutants in mussels. PMID:17536766

Dagnino, A; Allen, J I; Moore, M N; Broeg, K; Canesi, L; Viarengo, A

2007-01-01

427

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

428

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

429

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

430

9 CFR 96.6 - Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port. 96.6 Section 96.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

2014-01-01

431

9 CFR 151.8 - Eligibility of an animal for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility of an animal for certification. 151.8 Section 151.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-01-01

432

9 CFR 91.2 - Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations. 91.2 Section 91.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

2012-01-01

433

9 CFR 96.6 - Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port. 96.6 Section 96.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

2012-01-01

434

9 CFR 151.8 - Eligibility of an animal for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility of an animal for certification. 151.8 Section 151.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-01-01

435

9 CFR 96.6 - Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified foreign animal casings arriving at seaboard or border port. 96.6 Section 96.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

2013-01-01

436

9 CFR 91.2 - Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations. 91.2 Section 91.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

2013-01-01

437

9 CFR 91.2 - Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals to be handled in compliance with regulations. 91.2 Section 91.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

2014-01-01

438

9 CFR 151.8 - Eligibility of an animal for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility of an animal for certification. 151.8 Section 151.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-01-01

439

University of Nebraska Animal Research Facilities  

E-print Network

University of Nebraska Animal Research Facilities Policy on Photography and Videography in Areas with Animals Purpose: Contact between visitors to the University and animals used in Research and teaching can animals, to protect the health of research animals, to protect the confidentiality and integrity

Farritor, Shane

440

Anime perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional hand-drawn animation, the perspective view is not geometrically correct, unlike 3DCG. However, this perspective, which we may call anime perspective, is more natural for human eyes, especially for children. In this article, we present two anime perspective projection methods for seamlessly merging 3D models and traditional 2D animation. One is a view dependent deformer, Anime-Pers deformer, which offers

Yosuke Katsura; Ken Anjyo

2007-01-01

441

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What animals abandon their offspring? Find out this and more as you explore reproduction in the animal world. Did you know that all animals must reproduce to survive? In this project you will be learning some interesting facts about reproduction in animals. After you have some background information you will have a chance to select 3 animals and complete a chart on reproduction. TASK: Day 1 ...

Mrs. Joggerst

2008-03-30

442

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

443

It puts life in us and we feel big: shifts in the local health care system during the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda  

PubMed Central

This paper is an analysis of the social interaction between drug sellers, their clients and local health care workers within a medical trial that introduced rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into private sector drug shops in Mukono District, Uganda. It locates the introduction of a new technology to test blood and a system of referral within the context of local concerns about the choice and evaluation of treatment; and the socially legitimated statuses, roles and hierarchies within the local health care system. Based on the multi-layered interpretation of 21 focus group discussions, we describe three key aspects of the trial central to local interpretation: openly testing blood, supervisory visits to drug shops and a new referral form. Each had the potential to shift drug shop vendors from outsider to insider of the formal health service. The responses of the different groups of participants reflect their situation within the health care system. The clients and patients welcomed the local availability of new diagnostic technology and the apparent involvement of the government in securing good quality health services for them from providers with often uncertain credentials. The drug shop vendors welcomed the authorization to openly test blood, enabling the demonstration of a new skill and newfound legitimacy as a health worker rather than simple drug seller. Formal sector health workers were less enthusiastic about the trial, raising concerns about professional hierarchies and the maintenance of a boundary around the formal health service to ensure the exclusion of those they considered untrained, unprofessional and untrustworthy personnel. PMID:25632175

Hutchinson, Eleanor; Chandler, Clare; Clarke, Sin; Lal, Sham; Magnussen, Pascal; Kayendeke, Miriam; Nabirye, Christine; Kizito, James; Mbonye, Anthony

2015-01-01

444

[Diagnostic accuracy].  

PubMed

Clinical decision making while making a diagnosis is based on pre-test probability evaluation, a decision whether further tests are needed, and post-test probability evaluation based on test results. The add value of the test is the increase in probability, which depends on its diagnostic accuracy. Some measures of diagnostic accuracy are sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio, area under the curve, Youden index, and diagnostic odds ratio. ROC curve is the most efficient way of graphic description of the relationship between sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic accuracy of a test is evaluated in a cross-sectional study on a group of individuals subjected simultaneously to the index test and the gold standard. All parameters of diagnostic accuracy are very sensitive to the study design, therefore it is of utmost importance to perform and write a study to adhere to the proposed STARD standards. This lecture gives an insight into the basics of biostatistical terminology from the field of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:16526310

Simundi?, Ana-Maria

2006-01-01

445

Human health risks from metals and metalloid via consumption of food animals near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana: Estimation of the daily intakes and target hazard quotients (THQs).  

PubMed

Heavy metal and metalloid contamination in food resulting from mining is of major concern due to the potential risk involved. Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. This study was therefore to assess metals in different organs and different animal species near gold mines used for human consumption (free-range chicken, goat and sheep) in Tarkwa, Ghana, and to estimate the daily intake and health risk. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and Hg analysis was done using the mercury analyzer. Principal component analysis of the results showed a clear separation between chicken, grouped on one side, and the ruminants clustered on another side in both offal and muscle. Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb made one cluster in the offal of chicken. Chicken muscle also showed similar distribution with As, Hg and Pb clustered together. The daily intake of metals (?g/kg body weight/day) were in the following ranges; As [0.002 (kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.19 (chicken gizzard)], Cd [0.003 (chicken muscle)-0.55 (chicken liver)], Hg [0.002 (goat muscle)-0.29 (chicken liver)], Pb [0.01 (muscles and kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.96 (chicken gizzard)] and Mn [0.13 (goat kidney)-8.92 (sheep liver)]. From the results, daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Mn in these food animals were low compared to the provisional tolerable daily intake guidelines. The THQs although less than one, indicated that contributions of chicken gizzard and liver to toxic metal exposure in adults and especially children could be significant. PMID:25450929

Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2015-01-01

446

Cardioprotective efficacy depends critically on pharmacological dose, duration of ischaemia, health status of animals and choice of anaesthetic regimen: a case study with folic acid.  

PubMed

BackgroundAcute, high-dose folic acid (FA) administration has recently been shown to possess unprecedented effective cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we explore the translation potential of FA as treatment modality for cardiac I/R.MethodsDependency of FA protection on dose, ischaemia duration, and eNOS was examined in an isolated mouse heart I/R model, whereas dependency on animal health status and anaesthesia was examined in an in vivo rat model of regional cardiac I/R.Results50M FA provided maximal reduction (by 95%) of I/R-induced cell death following 25min ischaemia in isolated wild-type hearts, with protection associated with increased coupled eNOS protein. No protection was observed with 35min I or in eNOS/ hearts. Acute intravenous administration of FA during a 25min ischaemic period reduced infarct size by 45% in in vivo pentobarbital-anaesthetised young, healthy rats. FA did not reduce infarct size in aged or pre-diabetic rats, although it did preserve hemodynamics in the pre-diabetic rats. Finally, using a clinically-relevant anaesthetic regimen of fentanyl-propofol anaesthesia, FA treatment was ineffective in young, aged and pre-diabetic animals.ConclusionsThe protective potential of an initially promising cardioprotective treatment of high dose FA against cardiac I/R infarction, is critically dependent on experimental conditions with relevance to the clinical condition. Our data indicates the necessity of expanded pre-clinical testing of cardioprotective interventions before embarking on clinical testing, in order to prevent too many lost-in-translation drugs and unnecessary clinical studies. PMID:25432364

Zuurbier, Coert J; Heinen, Andre; Koeman, Anneke; Stuifbergen, Roy; Hakvoort, Theodorus; Weber, Nina C; Hollmann, Markus W

2014-11-29

447

Effects of nationwide addition of selenium to fertilizers on foods, and animal and human health in Finland: From deficiency to optimal selenium status of the population.  

PubMed

Despite different geological features the Nordic countries are generally selenium-poor areas. In each country various factors such as food importation and life-style determine the selenium (Se) intake. Due to an extremely low Se intake in the 1970s in Finland, 0.025mg/day, an official decision was made in 1984 to supplement multinutrient fertilizers with Se in the chemical form of sodium selenate. Almost all fertilizers used in Finland since 1985 have contained Se. Currently all crop fertilizers contain 15mg Se/kg. Finland is still the only country to take this country-wide measure. In a national monitoring programme, sampling of cereals, basic foodstuffs, feeds, fertilizers, soils, and human tissues has been carried out annually since 1985 by four governmental research organizations. Sampling of foods has been done four times per year and human blood has been obtained annually from the same (n=60) adults. The accuracy of analyses has been verified by annual interlaboratory quality control. During this programme the selenium concentration of spring cereals has increased on average 15-fold compared with the level before the Se fertilization. The mean increase in the Se concentration in beef, pork and milk was 6-, 2- and 3-fold. In terms of Se, organically grown foods of plant origin are generally comparable to products produced before the Se supplementation of fertilizers. Milk from organically fed cows is 50% lower in Se than the usual milk. The average dietary human intake increased from 0.04mg Se/day/10MJ in 1985 to a present plateau of 0.08mg Se/day/10MJ, which is well above the current nutrition recommendations. Foods of animal origin contribute over 70% of the total daily Se intake. The mean human plasma Se concentration increased from 0.89?mol/L to a general level of 1.40?mol/L that can be considered to be an optimal status. The absence of Se deficiency diseases and a reference population have made conclusions on the impact on human health difficult. However, the rates of cardiovascular diseases and cancers have remained similar during the pre- and post-supplementation indicating medical and life-style factors to be much stronger determinants than Se. The nationwide supplementation of fertilizers with sodium selenate is shown to be effective and safe in increasing the Se intake of the whole population. Also, the health of animals has improved. PMID:24908353

Alfthan, Georg; Eurola, Merja; Ekholm, Pivi; Venlinen, Eija-Riitta; Root, Tarja; Korkalainen, Katja; Hartikainen, Helin; Salminen, Pirjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Aspila, Pentti; Aro, Antti

2014-05-20

448

Detection of Candida species resistant to azoles in the microbiota of rheas (Rhea americana): possible implications for human and animal health.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in breeding rheas (Rhea americana) in Brazil. However, there are no data on the yeast microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of this avian species, and the phenotypic characteristics of these yeasts are not known. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate Candida species from the digestive tract of rheas and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and secretion of phospholipases of the recovered isolates. For this purpose, 58 rheas from breeding operations in the cities of Fortaleza and Mossor, north-eastern Brazil, were used. Samples were gathered from the oropharynx and cloaca of the animals using sterile swabs. Stool samples were collected from their pens by scraping with a scalpel blade. For the primary isolation, the material was seeded onto 2?% Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.5 g l(-1)). The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical features. After identification, all the strains were submitted to antifungal susceptibility testing for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole. The phospholipase activity of the Candida species isolates was also tested by culturing on egg yolk agar. Candida species were isolated from at least one anatomical site in 36/58 birds (14/17 juveniles and 22/41 adults) and in 6/10 faecal samples. Mostly, only a single species was isolated from each collection site (36/56 positive sites), with up to three species being observed only in four cases (4/56). A total of 77 isolates were obtained, belonging to the species Candida parapsilosis sensu lato (19), Candida albicans (18), Candida tropicalis (13), Candida guilliermondii (12), Candida krusei (10) and Candida famata (5). C. albicans was more prevalent in the oropharynx of the juvenile rheas when compared with adult ones (P<0.001). All tested isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, but 16 isolates were simultaneously resistant to the two azole derivatives (11/18 C. albicans, 1/10 C. krusei, 2/19 C. parapsilosis sensu lato and 2/13 C. tropicalis). C. albicans presented a particularly high resistance rate to fluconazole (15/18) and itraconazole (13/18). Finally, 23/77 strains secreted phospholipases. In summary, healthy rheas carry potentially pathogenic Candida species in their gastrointestinal tract, including azole-resistant strains that secrete phospholipases, and are prone to disseminating them in the environment. Thus, breeding and handling these animals may have some implications for human and animal health. PMID:23493027

Brilhante, Raimunda Smia Nogueira; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Castelo-Branco, Dbora de Souza Collares Maia; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; Macedo, Ramila de Brito; Lima, Daniel Teixeira; Paiva, Manoel de Arajo Neto; Monteiro, Andr Jalles; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Sidrim, Jos Jlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fbio Gadelha; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rodrigues, Terezinha de Jesus Santos

2013-06-01

449

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.

450

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

451

Farm Animals  

MedlinePLUS

... Animals Share Compartir Farm animals including cows, sheep, pigs, chickens and goats, can pass diseases to people. ... failure due to E. coli O157:H7 infection. Pigs can carry the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica (yer-SIN- ...

452

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

453

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

454

Quadruped Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation

Ljiljana Skrba; Lionel Reveret; Franck Htroy; Marie-Paule Cani; Carol O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

455

Animal Scent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

2012-05-09

456

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Dr. Paul McGreevey

2010-01-01

457

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

458

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Beardsley, Ms.

2011-10-26

459

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

460

Diagnostic Immunopathology  

PubMed Central

The application of immunologic techniques to tissue sections has added a new dimension to the investigation and classification of various processes. Virtually every section of diagnostic pathology has been enhanced by using specific monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antiserum. Neoplasms formerly diagnosed as poorly differentiated or anaplastic may be precisely identified as to their origin through the use of specific membrane or cytoplasmic markers. Other cellular products, including viruses, hormones, enzymes or highly specific proteins, are also available to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic processes. New and more specific reagents are regularly becoming available for the diagnostic repertoire of pathologists. We present some of the principles of diagnostic immunopathology to show the scope and importance of the techniques. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3529633

Cancilla, Pasquale A.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Naeim, Faramarz; Said, Jonathan W.

1986-01-01

461

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RESTRICTION...Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...the United States for use as gut strings or similar...

2012-01-01

462

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RESTRICTION...Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...the United States for use as gut strings or similar...

2013-01-01

463

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RESTRICTION...Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...the United States for use as gut strings or similar...

2011-01-01

464

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RESTRICTION...Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...the United States for use as gut strings or similar...

2014-01-01

465

9 CFR 96.5 - Instructions regarding handling certified animal casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RESTRICTION...Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...the United States for use as gut strings or similar...

2010-01-01

466

Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

2005-01-01

467

How safe is diagnostic ultrasonography?  

PubMed Central

Health care workers and patients alike are concerned about the safety of diagnostic ultrasonography in clinical practice. Evidence published to date on the immediate and possible long-term biologic effects of exposure to ultrasound in diagnostic procedures is reviewed in this paper. No harmful effect in the human fetus, child or adult following the diagnostic use of pulsed ultrasound has been reported. However, the question of long-term biologic effects cannot yet be answered. Continued vigilance and further research are required. PMID:6378349

Brown, B S

1984-01-01

468

World Organisation for Animal Health  

MedlinePLUS

... African horse sickness Peste des petits ruminants Classical Swine Fever Self-declared disease status Web portal on ... Israel South Korea Iran Jordan Philippines NMIS Philippines pig update Thailand Oman Indonesia Philippines Turkey Vietnam One ...

469

75 FR 69585 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine Suspension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pyrimethamine oral suspension from Animal Health Pharmaceuticals, LLC...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Animal Health Pharmaceuticals, LLC...transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, NADA 141...this change of sponsorship, Animal Health Pharmaceuticals,...

2010-11-15

470

Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

471

Improving Diagnostic Reasoning to Improve Patient Safety  

PubMed Central

Both clinicians and patients rely on an accurate diagnostic process to identify the correct illness and craft a treatment plan. Achieving improved diagnostic accuracy also fulfills organizational fiscal, safety, and legal objectives. It is frequently assumed that clinical experience and knowledge are sufficient to improve a clinician's diagnostic ability, but studies from fields where decision making and judgment are optimized suggest tha