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Sample records for animal health diagnostic

  1. Protecting animal and human health and the nation's food supply through veterinary diagnostic laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Claire B

    2011-03-01

    The current detection system for animal diseases requires coordination between veterinarians; veterinary medical laboratories; and state, federal, and international agencies, as well as associated private sector industries. Veterinary clinical pathologists in clinical and governmental laboratories often have responsibilities and expertise in one or more laboratory disciplines involved in diagnosing zoonotic and/or emerging diseases and diseases exotic to the United States that are important to animal and human health and the nation's food supply. The knowledge and roles of all veterinary laboratory professionals are vital to detect, monitor, and confirm diseases and conditions that affect animal and human health and the nation's animal food supply. PMID:21295729

  2. World Organisation for Animal Health

    MedlinePlus

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  3. The OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health.

    PubMed

    Bernoth, Eva-Maria

    2007-01-01

    The OIE develops normative documents relating to rules that Member Countries can use to protect themselves from diseases without setting up unjustified sanitary barriers. For aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals are prepared by the Aquatic Animals Commission, with the assistance of internationally renowned experts, the OIE's other Specialist Commissions, and in consultation with OIE Member Countries. These standards are described in detail. There are currently 27 OIE Reference Laboratories and one Collaborating Centre for aquatic animal diseases, providing a network of expertise in aquatic animal health. The OIE is committed to raising awareness about aquatic animal health and assisting Member Countries to fulfill their international obligations. Members of the Aquatic Animals Commission regularly present on the activities of the Aquatic Animals Commission at the Conferences of the OIE Regional Commissions and at scientific venues. Regional initiatives conducted in concert with other organisations complement the OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health. A range of interesting challenges lies ahead. PMID:18306529

  4. Integrating animal health and foodborne disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Berman, E M; Shimshony, A

    2013-08-01

    The control of foodborne diseases from an animal source has become an important part of public health policy. Since the agents that cause these diseases originate in animals, Veterinary Services, as well as Public Health Services, must be involved in their control. Control programmes should be established either through cooperation between the two Services or by the consolidation of all those involved into a single food control agency. Surveillance is an important part of these control programmes. The following questions must be addressed when planning an effective surveillance programme. What is the relative incidence, morbidity, mortality and economic cost of the foodborne disease in humans? Is the animal population the exclusive or a significant source of the human foodborne infection? What kind of surveillance is needed to identify the disease-causing agent in the animal population? Are we interested in identifying all cases of a disease in order to eradicate it or is our aim to reduce its incidence in the animal population? Do we have the ability to control the disease in the animal population? What disease detection tests are available? What are the sensitivity, specificity and cost of these diagnostic tests? Finally, does the country, region or agency involved have the legal, financial and educational resources to carry out this surveillance and follow it up with appropriate action? After these questions have been resolved,the veterinary and public health sectors must jointly decide if surveillance and control are feasible. If so, they can then begin to develop an appropriate programme. PMID:24547641

  5. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    PubMed

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin. PMID:24511828

  6. Companion animals and human health.

    PubMed

    Edney, A T

    1992-04-01

    Pets, or companion animals, are said to be good for people. Until recently there has been little serious study of the effects on people's health of their interactions with companion animals. This is in spite of the fact that they have shared human lives for centuries and their beneficial effects have been known for at least 200 years. This paper reviews the ways in which companion animals have favourable effects on human health and behaviour, for example, as guides for blind and deaf people, for enriching the lives of long stay patients and for providing physical activity like horse riding for the severely disabled. Current knowledge of the effects of animals on human psychological, behavioural, physiological and social development is reviewed, including the use of animals in prison programmes. New findings in Australia show that pet owners had marked reduction in risk factors related to cardiac disease compared with non-owners. Other recent work has indicated that companion animals are able to act as 'early warning systems' for acute human conditions such as epileptic seizures. PMID:1534428

  7. Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: Diagnostic Laboratory Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Vaughn A.

    1980-01-01

    The veterinary diagnostic laboratory's prime role has been diagnosis and/or laboratory findings to assist a diagnosis. Interpretation and evaluation and more involvement with decision-making in monitoring groups of animals and their health status are seen as future roles for diagnostic laboratories. (MLW)

  8. Farm animal practitioners' views on their use and expectations of veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P A; Epperson, W B

    2013-05-11

    Diagnostic sampling of farm animals by private veterinary practitioners can be an important contributing factor towards the discovery of emerging and exotic diseases. This focus group study of farm animal practitioners in Northern Ireland investigated their use and expectations of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, and elicited their opinions on the role of the private practitioner in veterinary surveillance and the protection of rural public health. The veterinarians were enthusiastic users of diagnostic laboratories, and regarded their own role in surveillance as pivotal. They attached great importance to their veterinary public health duties, and called for more collaboration with their medical general practitioner counterparts. The findings of this research can be used to guide future development of veterinary diagnostic services; provide further insights into the mechanics of scanning surveillance; and measure progress towards a 'One Health' approach between veterinarians and physicians in one geographical region of the UK. PMID:23612486

  9. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. PMID:19967940

  10. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... well. Though they may be cute and cuddly, wild animals may carry germs, viruses, and parasites. Deer and ... mice carry ticks that cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. ...

  11. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  12. Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rönmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components. PMID:25282018

  13. Balancing Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria and antibiotics have likely co-existed since the beginning of time; one seeks only to survive (bacteria) while the other (antibiotics) serves multiple functions. The discovery of antimicrobials began a golden age in medicine as previously untreatable diseases were cured. Animals benefite...

  14. Balancing Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria and antibiotics have likely co-existed since the beginning of time; one seeks only to survive (bacteria) while the other (antibiotics) serves multiple functions. The discovery of antimicrobials began a ‘golden age’ in medicine as previously untreatable diseases were cured. Animals benefite...

  15. [Animal production and animal health and their relationship with veterinary public health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Casas Olascoaga, R; Rosenberg, F J; Astudillo, V M

    1991-12-01

    The authors analyse the relationships which exist, in terms of programmes, sectors and institutions, between animal health, animal production and veterinary public health on the one hand, and between each of these three sectors and public health in general on the other. The most important common factor is food safety. Undernutrition, which affects some 60 million inhabitants of Latin America and the Caribbean, is still the most important public health problem in this part of the world. While it is known that the major cause of undernutrition is the low gross domestic product and uneven distribution of wealth, increased animal production and productivity would provide the key to an improvement in the situation. The concept of animal health, in its broadest sense, implies optimum animal production in a given region and during a specified period of time. Veterinary public health has functions and objectives which are crucial for food safety: protection and hygiene of foods, and control of the use in animal production of substances toxic to human beings (such as heavy metals, hormones and insecticides). Within the area of transmissible diseases, the authors discuss control measures for zoonoses. Besides the specific subject of interdisciplinary relationships in regard to zoonoses, the authors stress the importance of joint work conducted in the research, development and implementation of laboratory diagnostic activities and the production and quality control of antigens and vaccines. The production of laboratory animals is another sphere of common activity and research, and it cannot be said that such work is specific to any one of the three disciplines. Moreover, the fields of health, animal health and veterinary public health share the same methods and strategies, and reciprocal benefits could be more significant than the objectives of individual programmes. Reference is made to the organisation of state services and their adaptation to administrative de-centralisation, particularly at the local level. PMID:1840853

  16. 76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY... on Animal Health. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  17. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products. PMID:26470463

  18. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

  19. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  20. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. PMID:25577677

  1. Economic assessment of animal health performance.

    PubMed

    Galligan, David

    2006-03-01

    This article describes the fundamental principles of economic assessment of animal health performance in the modem animal production environment. Animal production is a complex system of combined inputs (eg, physical inputs, managerial decision choices) into a production process that produces products valued by society. Perturbations to this system include disease processes and management inefficiencies. Economic valuation of these perturbations must account for the marginal changes in revenues and cost, the time dimensions of occurrence, the inherent risk characteristics of biologic systems, and any opportunity value that exists that allows management to intervene within the process and make economically influencing decisions. It has been recognized that improving animal health can play a major role in achieving efficient and economically rewarding production. PMID:16517303

  2. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  3. Overview of the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, John

    2016-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases arising from livestock and wildlife pose serious threats to global human health, as shown by a series of continuous outbreaks involving highly pathogenic influenza, SARS, Ebola and MERS. The risk of pandemics and bioterrorism threats is ever present and growing, but our ability to combat them is limited by the lack of available vaccines, therapeutics and rapid diagnostics. The use of high bio-containment facilities, such as the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, plays a key role studying these dangerous pathogens and facilitates the development of countermeasures. To combat diseases like MERS, we must take a holistic approach that involves the development of early biomarkers of infection, a suite of treatment options (vaccines, anti-viral drugs and antibody therapeutics) and appropriate animal models to test the safety and efficacy of candidate treatments. PMID:27118215

  4. Animal health: Tackling a mitey problem.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Kathryn

    2015-07-11

    The poultry ectoparasite Dermanyssus gallinae, known to poultry farmers as 'red mite', has a negative impact on animal health and is a vector of viruses and bacteria. It also sometimes attacks poultry farm workers, and human infestations have been reported originating from pigeons' nests in urban areas. A European project is currently investigating synergistic and holistic approaches to improving the health, welfare and productivity of laying hens through more effective prevention and control of the red mite. Kathryn Bartley reports from a two-day conference held in Italy in May, which provided an update on progress with the project. PMID:26160787

  5. Climate change and animal health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, P; Coetzer, J A W

    2008-08-01

    Climate change is expected to have direct and indirect impacts on African livestock. Direct impacts include increased ambient temperature, floods and droughts. Indirect impacts are the result of reduced availability of water and forage and changes in the environment that promote the spread of contagious diseases through increased contact between animals, or increased survival or availability of the agent or its intermediate host. The distribution and prevalence of vector-borne diseases may be the most significant effect of climate change. The potential vulnerability of the livestock industry will depend on its ability to adapt to such changes. Enhancing this adaptive capacity presents a practical way of coping with climate change. Adaptive capacity could be increased by enabling the African livestock owner to cope better with animal health problems through appropriate policy measures and institutional support. Developing an effective and sustainable animal health service, associated surveillance and emergency preparedness systems and sustainable disease control and prevention programmes is perhaps the most important strategy for dealing with climate change in many African countries. PMID:18819677

  6. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  7. Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low. PMID:21095201

  8. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  9. The need to include animal protection in public health policies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-11-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  10. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  11. High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center.

    PubMed

    Bannantine, John P; Olsen, Steven C; Kehrli, Marcus E; Stanton, Thad B; Casas, Eduardo; Whipple, Diana L; Zuelke, Kurt A

    2013-08-30

    Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself among the world's premier animal health research centers. Its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the U.S. livestock and poultry industries. Research from NADC has impacted control or management efforts on nearly every major animal disease in the United States since 1961. For example, diagnostic tests and vaccines developed by NADC scientists to detect and prevent hog cholera were integral in the ultimate eradication of this costly swine disease from the U.S. Most major veterinary vaccines for critical diseases such as brucellosis and leptospirosis in cattle, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), porcine parvovirus and influenza in swine had their research origins or were developed and tested at the NADC. Additional discoveries made by NADC scientists have also resulted in the development of a nutritional approach and feed additives to prevent milk fever in transition dairy cattle. More recently, NADC's archive of historic swine influenza viruses combined with an established critical mass of influenza research expertise enabled NADC researchers to lead an effective national research response to the pandemic associated with the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This review commemorates some of the key animal health contributions in NADC's first 50 years, recaps the newly completed modernization of the center into new facilities, and offers highlights of the ongoing research that will define NADC's mission going forward. PMID:23642415

  12. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes. PMID:26231503

  13. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

  14. Agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biowarfare targeting animal agriculture. The clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and epidemiologic features of some important animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T M; Gregg, D A; King, D J; Noah, D L; Perkins, L E; Swayne, D E; Inskeep, W

    2001-09-01

    In the past 100 years, to our knowledge there have been approximately 12 events involving the intentional introduction of microbiologic agents into livestock and animal populations worldwide, of which three were World War I events in the United States. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no recent intentional introduction of microbiologic agents (viruses or bacteria) into livestock and animal populations in the United States. The criminal or terrorist use of chemicals against animals and agriculture products have been more common. With the political, economic, and military new world order, however, the United States must maintain a vigilant posture. The framework for this vigilance must be an intelligence system sensitive to the needs of agriculture and a first-class animal disease diagnostic surveillance and response system. PMID:11572141

  15. 76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Health. The meeting is being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES: The... (APHIS), which is organizing the meeting, asks that those planning to attend the meeting let APHIS...

  16. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?

    PubMed

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

    2014-02-01

    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration. PMID:24346862

  17. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  18. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  19. [Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

  20. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. PMID:25431381

  1. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... information with stakeholders. By expanding the registry to include APHIS' Animal Care,...

  2. Issues and special features of animal health research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  3. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  4. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture. PMID:9366596

  5. Managing animal health from an aquaculture perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the production of aquatic animals for food. The aquaculture industry is a rapidly expanding segment of U. S. agriculture and NOAA estimated the industry was worth $1.2 billion in 2011. Disease related losses in aquaculture either by decreased performance and/or mortality is estimate...

  6. Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Tools for Early Detection of Arthropod-Borne Animal Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of existing and emerging nucleic acid diagnostic tools for arthropod-borne animal viral diseases. The outbreak of West Nile virus in the United Sates (U.S.) and the recent outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in East Africa have h...

  7. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials. PMID:26119294

  8. Trends in domestic animal medico-legal pathology cases submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Beverly J

    2012-09-01

    Pathologists at veterinary diagnostic laboratories receive medico-legal cases from a variety of animal species for postmortem examination. A search of computerized records of the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada from 1998 to 2010 identified 1706 medicolegal cases. These were categorized according to the history as criminal investigations, anesthetic-related deaths, insurance, litigation, malpractice cases, and regulatory cases. Statistically significant linear trends in the proportion of medicolegal cases for all animals and criminal cases for companion animals were identified over the 12 year period. Companion animals had significantly greater odds of being a medicolegal case in all categories except for insurance and regulatory cases, compared to noncompanion animals. Based on pathology reports for the 271 criminal cases, 43.1% were consistent with neglect, 29.2% were compatible with non-accidental injury, 4.80% were poisonings, 10.7% were deemed to be due to natural disease, and 11.43% were inconclusive. PMID:22458814

  9. Diagnostic Error in Correctional Mental Health: Prevalence, Causes, and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael S; Hynes, Katie; Hatcher, Simon; Colman, Ian

    2016-04-01

    While they have important implications for inmates and resourcing of correctional institutions, diagnostic errors are rarely discussed in correctional mental health research. This review seeks to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic errors in prisons and jails and explores potential causes and consequences. Diagnostic errors are defined as discrepancies in an inmate's diagnostic status depending on who is responsible for conducting the assessment and/or the methods used. It is estimated that at least 10% to 15% of all inmates may be incorrectly classified in terms of the presence or absence of a mental illness. Inmate characteristics, relationships with staff, and cognitive errors stemming from the use of heuristics when faced with time constraints are discussed as possible sources of error. A policy example of screening for mental illness at intake to prison is used to illustrate when the risk of diagnostic error might be increased and to explore strategies to mitigate this risk. PMID:26984134

  10. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    MedlinePlus

    United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service About APHIS Ask The Expert Careers Contact Us Help Toggle navigation Search Search Flickr YouTube Twitter Facebook Email Blog Home ...

  11. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  12. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  13. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  14. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  15. Cloning of farm animals: impact on animal health and welfare and implications in trade.

    PubMed

    Menéndez González, S; Reist, M

    2011-02-01

    The commercial use of animal cloning for breeding food producing animals has been limited so far by biological and technical constraints such as adverse effects on the health and welfare of animals, especially high perinatal and postnatal disease and mortality of clones. However, the improvement of the technique may overcome those problems in future and contribute to the spread of cloning in agricultural production, which raises concern not only on health and welfare aspects but also on food safety and ethics. This may cause conflict in international trade. The present article reviews these topics on the basis of up-to-date scientific opinions. PMID:21274831

  16. Use of health information technology to reduce diagnostic errors

    PubMed Central

    El-Kareh, Robert; Hasan, Omar; Schiff, Gordon D

    2013-01-01

    Background Health information technology (HIT) systems have the potential to reduce delayed, missed or incorrect diagnoses. We describe and classify the current state of diagnostic HIT and identify future research directions. Methods A multi-pronged literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, backwards and forwards reference searches and contributions from domain experts. We included HIT systems evaluated in clinical and experimental settings as well as previous reviews, and excluded radiology computer-aided diagnosis, monitor alerts and alarms, and studies focused on disease staging and prognosis. Articles were organised within a conceptual framework of the diagnostic process and areas requiring further investigation were identified. Results HIT approaches, tools and algorithms were identified and organised into 10 categories related to those assisting: (1) information gathering; (2) information organisation and display; (3) differential diagnosis generation; (4) weighing of diagnoses; (5) generation of diagnostic plan; (6) access to diagnostic reference information; (7) facilitating follow-up; (8) screening for early detection in asymptomatic patients; (9) collaborative diagnosis; and (10) facilitating diagnostic feedback to clinicians. We found many studies characterising potential interventions, but relatively few evaluating the interventions in actual clinical settings and even fewer demonstrating clinical impact. Conclusions Diagnostic HIT research is still in its early stages with few demonstrations of measurable clinical impact. Future efforts need to focus on: (1) improving methods and criteria for measurement of the diagnostic process using electronic data; (2) better usability and interfaces in electronic health records; (3) more meaningful incorporation of evidence-based diagnostic protocols within clinical workflows; and (4) systematic feedback of diagnostic performance. PMID:23852973

  17. Evaluating a Dental Diagnostic Terminology in an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    White, Joel M.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C.; Ramoni, Rachel L.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school’s predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization. PMID:21546594

  18. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

  19. Containment and competition: transgenic animals in the One Health agenda.

    PubMed

    Lezaun, Javier; Porter, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    The development of the One World, One Health agenda coincides in time with the appearance of a different model for the management of human-animal relations: the genetic manipulation of animal species in order to curtail their ability as carriers of human pathogens. In this paper we examine two examples of this emergent transgenic approach to disease control: the development of transgenic chickens incapable of shedding avian flu viruses, and the creation of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to dengue or malaria infection. Our analysis elaborates three distinctions between the One World, One Health agenda and its transgenic counterpoint. The first concerns the conceptualization of outbreaks and the forms of surveillance that support disease control efforts. The second addresses the nature of the interspecies interface, and the relative role of humans and animals in preventing pathogen transmission. The third axis of comparison considers the proprietary dimensions of transgenic animals and their implications for the assumed public health ethos of One Health programs. We argue that the fundamental difference between these two approaches to infectious disease control can be summarized as one between strategies of containment and strategies of competition. While One World, One Health programs seek to establish an equilibrium in the human-animal interface in order to contain the circulation of pathogens across species, transgenic strategies deliberately trigger a new ecological dynamic by introducing novel animal varieties designed to out-compete pathogen-carrying hosts and vectors. In other words, while One World, One Health policies focus on introducing measures of inter-species containment, transgenic approaches derive their prophylactic benefit from provoking new cycles of intra-species competition between GM animals and their wild-type counterparts. The coexistence of these divergent health protection strategies, we suggest, helps to elucidate enduring tensions and concerns about how humans should relate to, appraise, and intervene on animals and their habitats. PMID:24961736

  20. Large animal model for health hazard assessment of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Costa, D.L.; Janoff, A.; Susskind, H.; Weiss, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of large animals for the experimental assessment of human health hazards associated with inhaled pollutants are discussed. Results from studies designed to elucidate mechanisms controlling pulmonary function at the organismal, cellular and molecular level are presented. It is shown that studies in large animals permit technically sophisticated approaches not feasible in small animals and not permissible in man. Use of large animals also permits serial, non-invasive determinations of structural and functional changes which may be of temporal importance. 6 references.

  1. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    PubMed Central

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing problems, strengthening infrastructure, promoting standardization as a means of facilitating trade, and safeguarding the interests of consumers. This paper considers the importance of emerging foodborne diseases from the perspectives of the consumer, international trade in food, producers and processors, and developing countries and addresses prevention and control measures. PMID:9366603

  2. Applying the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code to the welfare of animals exported from Australia.

    PubMed

    Schipp, M A; Sheridan, A D

    2013-12-01

    Australia has implemented a through-chain regulatory framework to address animal welfare issues in the livestock export trade. The framework places the responsibility for ensuring that the welfare of exported animals meets internationally accepted standards on those who hold the licences issued for the export of Australian livestock. It applies to all livestock (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, camels) exported from Australia, either for immediate slaughter or for feeding and eventual slaughter. The development of the framework began when the Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock were implemented in December 2004, to safeguard animal welfare from the point when the animals are selected for export up until the moment when they are offloaded in the destination country. The framework has recently been extended to incorporate animal welfare requirements through to the point of slaughter in the destination country. The requirements draw on, and are consistent with, the animal welfare chapters of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code. PMID:24761723

  3. A new model for companion-animal primary health care education.

    PubMed

    Stone, Elizabeth A; Conlon, Peter; Cox, Sherri; Coe, Jason B

    2012-01-01

    The majority of graduates from veterinary schools in the United States and Canada join companion-animal practices. In most schools, their clinical learning and client interaction experiences occurred primarily in referral teaching hospitals. These specialty hospitals play an essential role in the veterinary care continuum by providing advanced training, clinically-based research, and sophisticated diagnostics and procedures. However, they are not ideal as the principal setting for preparing veterinarians to bring value to the primary health care practices that they join. A new model for companion-animal primary health care education and service delivery has been developed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The nine integrated programs, which have defined learning objectives and outcome assessments, include communication, nutrition, rehabilitation, behavior, welfare, One Health (ecosystem approach to health), preventive and general medicine, good citizenship, and research. The learning experience begins with first-year student veterinarians and takes place in a practice setting with paying clients from the community. Significantly, the students are learning in an environment that emphasizes the importance of the client experience, teamwork, and practice management while ensuring quality health care for patients. The future of companion-animal primary health care and the optimal preparation of veterinarians are critical issues for the veterinary colleges and profession. Enhanced research into new models for primary health care education and service delivery is urgently needed. PMID:22951456

  4. Attitudes to animal-assisted therapy with farm animals among health staff and farmers.

    PubMed

    Berget, B; Ekeberg, Ø; Braastad, B O

    2008-09-01

    Green care is a concept that involves the use of farm animals, plants, gardens or the landscape in cooperation with health institutions for different target groups of clients. The present study aimed at examining psychiatric therapists' (n = 60) and farmers' (n = 15) knowledge, experience and attitudes to Green care and animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for people with psychiatric disorders. Most respondents had some or large knowledge about Green care, but experience with Green care was generally low in both groups. Both farmers and therapists believed that AAT with farm animals could contribute positively to therapy to a large or very large extent, with farmers being significantly more positive. Most of the therapists thought that AAT with farm animals contributes to increased skills in interactions with other humans, with female therapists being more positive than males. Two-thirds of the therapists believed that AAT with farm animals to a large extent could contribute better to mental health than other types of occupational therapy. There were no differences in attitudes to AAT between psychiatrists/psychologists and psychiatric nurses. This study confirms the marked potential of offering AAT services with farm animals for psychiatric patients by documenting positive attitudes to it among psychiatric therapists. PMID:18768010

  5. Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

  6. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that information adapted to audiences with low health literacy suits people with high health literacy as well. PMID:25586711

  7. Nutraceuticals in joint health: animal models as instrumental tools.

    PubMed

    Mvel, Elsa; Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Merceron, Christophe; Coxam, Vronique; Wittrant, Yohann; Beck, Laurent; Guicheux, Jrme

    2014-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with no curative treatments. Many studies have begun to demonstrate the efficacy of nutraceuticals for slowing down OA. Animal models are utilized as a compulsory step in demonstrating the protective potential of these compounds on joint health. Nevertheless, there exist a wide variety of available OA models and selecting a suitable system for evaluating the effects of a specific compound remains difficult. Here, we discuss animal studies that have investigated nutraceutical effects on OA. In particular, we highlight the large spectrum of animal models that are currently accepted for examining the OA-related effects of nutraceuticals, giving recommendations for their use. PMID:24955836

  8. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

  9. One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice.

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J

    2011-09-01

    Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses. PMID:21872779

  10. Echinococcus granulosus: Epidemiology and state-of-the-art of diagnostics in animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, Philip; Mastin, Alexander; van Kesteren, Freya; Boufana, Belgees

    2015-10-30

    Diagnosis and detection of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) infection in animals is a prerequisite for epidemiological studies and surveillance of echinococcosis in endemic, re-emergent or emergent transmission zones. Advances in diagnostic approaches for definitive hosts and livestock, however, have not progressed equally over the last 20 years. Development of laboratory based diagnostics for canids using coproantigen ELISA and also coproPCR, have had a huge impact on epidemiological studies and more recently on surveillance during hydatid control programmes. In contrast, diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock still relies largely on conventional post-mortem inspection, despite a relatively low diagnostic sensitivity especially in early infections, as current serodiagnostics do not provide a sufficiently specific and sensitive practical pre-mortem alternative. As a result, testing of dog faecal samples by coproantigen ELISA, often combined with mass ultrasound screening programmes for human CE, has been the preferred approach for monitoring and surveillance in resource-poor endemic areas and during control schemes. In this article we review the current options and approaches for diagnosis of E. granulosus infection in definitive and animal intermediate hosts (including applications in non-domesticated species) and make conclusions and recommendations for further improvements in diagnosis for use in epidemiological studies and surveillance schemes. PMID:26321135

  11. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

  12. Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

    2008-08-01

    The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia. PMID:18819679

  13. Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

    2013-05-01

    Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009. PMID:24155436

  14. COLLABORATION IN ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY EPIDEMIOLOGY: SWINE DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Collaboration in Animal Health & Food Safety Epidemiology (CAHFSE), a partnership among APHIS, ARS, and FSIS of USDA was established to track food borne pathogens and monitor diseases from farm through plant. Sampling began in July, 2003. By December 31, 2004, 43 farms in 5 states were participa...

  15. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  16. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability §...

  17. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  18. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  19. 75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. BILLING CODE 3410-34-S...

  20. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... / Friday, July 27, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health... Animal Health Status AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule... consolidating the list of factors APHIS considers when evaluating the animal health status of a foreign...

  1. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA..., Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. BILLING CODE 3410-34-P...

  2. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Paperwork Reduction Act, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention...

  3. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492

  4. [Animal hoarding: a mental disorder with implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Connemann, B J; Freudenmann, R W; Kölle, M A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C J

    2014-06-01

    Animal hoarding (AH) is a mental disorder that is characterised by an excessive number of kept animals, inability to maintain minimal standards of animal care and hygiene, and deficient insight into the thereby developing failures and problems. Although AH as a disease concept is neither represented in the DSM-5 nor the ICD-10, it may be classified as a subform of the hoarding disorder (DSM-5 300.3) that was implemented in the DSM-5 as an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Due to the hygienic deficiencies of the living spaces and the insufficient keeping of animals there is an increased risk of epizootic diseases and zoonoses. Specific epidemiological studies do not exist, however, women seem to be affected more frequently. AH is diagnosed mostly in late adulthood. Besides thorough somatic and psychiatric medical diagnostics, cooperation with the veterinary offices and authorities is usually necessary. Comorbid mental disorders (particularly depressive, obsessive-compulsive and personality disorders) are frequent. Currently, no evidence-based therapies exist. Social therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic interventions as well as sufficient treatment of comorbid mental disorders are recommended. PMID:24901316

  5. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    PubMed

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies. PMID:22516880

  6. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    PubMed

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides a sound working platform not only for dealing with immediate questions when new or emerging disease situations arise, but also for more long-term activities, such as policy development, contingency planning and trade negotiations. Animal health issues, which emerged during my eight years as a CVO in Denmark from 1999 to 2007, will be used as examples, including BSE, FMD, HPAI and Trichinella testing. Emphasis will be placed on how science-based surveillance methodology and tools were developed, applied and documented. PMID:22305878

  7. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  8. Public health implications of animals in retail food outlets.

    PubMed

    Dyjack, David T; Ho, Jessica; Lynes, Rahel; Lynes, Rachel; Bliss, Jesse C

    2013-12-01

    Growing societal interest to permit animals into retail food outlets presents both risks and benefits to the dining public and consumers. This article summarizes a literature review that evaluated the associated potential public health issues related to this subject. Using the EBSCOhost research protocol and Google search engines between March 2010 and June 2011, the authors have compiled and synthesized scientific research articles, empirical scientific literature, and publicly available news media. While pets are known carriers of bacteria and parasites, among others, the relative risk associated with specific pet-human interactions in the dining public has yet to be established in a clear and consistent manner. Much of the available health-risk-factor evidence reflects pets in domestic conditions and interaction with farm animals. Special consideration is recommended for vulnerable populations such as children, asthmatics, the elderly, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised. PMID:24437046

  9. [Animal health in organic agriculture: new guidelines and perspectives for food animal practitioners].

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Walkenhorst, M; Klocke, P

    2003-11-01

    In the last decade, the organic agriculture in Switzerland has been substantially increased due to the interest of consumer and financial incentives of the federation. Ruminants take directly or indirectly the largest part from grassland used within the organic managed surfaces. As the contacts between veterinary practice and organic agriculture has increased, the potential for veterinary activity in this area has developed considerably. The organic agriculture guidelines stipulate that all the preventive measures should be taken in feeding, keeping and breeding to insure animal health safety. This requires veterinary services for herd management. The organic status of a farm affects veterinary practice also in the form of alternative therapy/drugs administration and measures like dehorning and tail-docking. An important point in organic managed herds requests that treatment of animals should depend on alternative medical preparations or procedures based on veterinarian's experience and also on the therapeutic effect on the animal species concerned as well as on the disease. However, there are no restrictions on the veterinarian to use registered drugs as long as no alternative therapy, according to experience and possible success, is available to treat the animals. The prophylactic administration of allopathic veterinary drugs is not permissible. Further features in organic farms regarding the use of drugs are the keeping of withholding/withdrawal time, the documentation and the treatment frequency tolerated by organic marketing. Despite the above measures, the animal health has a priority regardless of its organic status. Although management of organic farms represent a unique responsibility, there are still obvious deficits in the education of veterinary practitioners for this new situation. However, in the future the extension of veterinary activity to include the alternative medical therapy should be regarded for the practitioner as a challenge and an opportunity at the same time. PMID:14639822

  10. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A

    2007-02-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  11. Health Effects of Airborne Exposures from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S.; Kline, Joel N.; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Dosman, James A.; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  12. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  13. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: We are giving notice... Health for a 2-year period. The Secretary of Agriculture has determined that the ] Committee is...

  14. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  15. Report from the Second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health: Critical Needs, Challenges and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. Importantly, stakeholders were included to provide input on priorities and the potential value of animal genomics to the animal health community. In an effort to facilitate the roundtable discussion, the organizers identified four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This report provides the outcome of the roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, problems are identified, including potential solutions and recommendations. This report captures key points made by symposium participants during the roundtable discussion and serves as a roadmap to steer future research priorities in animal genomics research. PMID:21645288

  16. Nonculture molecular techniques for diagnosis of bacterial disease in animals: a diagnostic laboratory perspective.

    PubMed

    Cai, H Y; Caswell, J L; Prescott, J F

    2014-03-01

    The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease. PMID:24569613

  17. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    PubMed

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25812201

  18. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure. PMID:12416314

  19. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  20. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request a reinstatement of an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring Feedlot 2011...

  1. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations, an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring...

  2. 76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... notice published in the Federal Register on May 19, 2011 (76 FR 28910), we announced that the next... Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health...

  3. Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

  4. 77 FR 50457 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Intent To Renew and Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Intent To Renew and Request for Nominations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... for nominations for membership was published \\1\\ in the Federal Register on May 24, 2012 (77 FR...

  5. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  6. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  7. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. PMID:22335835

  8. 9 CFR 130.14 - User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics. 130.14 Section 130.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.14 User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics. (a) Diagnostic reagents. User fees for...

  9. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

  10. Report from the Second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health: Critical Needs, Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

  11. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. PMID:26233459

  12. Interactive computerized learning program exposes veterinary students to challenging international animal-health problems.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Patricia A; Hird, Dave; Arzt, Jonathan; Hayes, Rick H; Magliano, Dave; Kasper, Janine; Morfin, Saul; Pinney, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a computerized case-based CD-ROM (CD) on international animal health that was developed to give veterinary students an opportunity to "virtually" work alongside veterinarians and other veterinary students as they try to solve challenging disease problems relating to tuberculosis in South African wildlife, bovine abortion in Mexico, and neurologic disease in horses in Rapa Nui, Chile. Each of the three case modules presents, in a highly interactive format, a problem or mystery that must be solved by the learner. As well as acquiring information via video clips and text about the specific health problem, learners obtain information about the different countries, animal-management practices, diagnostic methods, related disease-control issues, economic factors, and the opinions of local experts. After assimilating this information, the learner must define the problem and formulate an action plan or make a recommendation or diagnosis. The computerized program invokes three principles of adult education: active learning, learner-centered education, and experiential learning. A medium that invokes these principles is a potentially efficient learning tool and template for developing other case-based problem-solving computerized programs. The program is accessible on the World Wide Web at . A broadband Internet connection is recommended, since the modules make extensive use of embedded video and audio clips. Information on how to obtain the CD is also provided. PMID:18287479

  13. Role of import and export regulatory animal health officials in international control and surveillance for animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bokma, Bob H

    2006-10-01

    The challenges to those who regulate the import and export of animals and animal products are escalating, due to the evolving nature of animal and human disease agents. The diseases and agents of interest may include low pathogenic avian influenza, bluetongue, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and foot-and-mouth disease. Fear of an incursion of an unknown or incompletely understood threat can significantly limit risk tolerance. The fear may be that an incursion will affect export trade or tourism. An incomplete knowledge of the animal health situation in the exporting country, due to insufficient surveillance for the disease agent of concern, may limit the application of science in import decisions. In addition, the disease agent may be inappropriately considered exotic if it has not been described. As a result, excessive safeguards for disease agents that do not present any new threat may be employed. To confront these challenges, we are striving toward transparency in international reporting. Moreover, regulatory import decisions exceeding the recommendations of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code of the World Organization for Animal Health must be fair and science-based. PMID:17135497

  14. [Enthusiasm for diagnostic tests: health effects and their surveillance. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso

    2008-04-01

    The medicalization of life has been encouraged by an excessive interest in health as an end in itself rather than as a means for a better life. This new concept of health has stimulated the growth of the secondary market of health and, in analogy with the knowledge society, the emergence of what is known as the "health society". Among the most popular health "products" are diagnostic tests, explaining the enthusiasm for screening programs and the new genetic technologies, especially in the detection and prognosis of cancer. Because of the iatrogenic potential of diagnostic tests and the unnecessary demand caused by their excessive use, this phenomenon is a matter of public health concern. Health administrations must face this challenge with a diverse range of interventions that range from clinical management to policy formulation including the improvement of diagnostic research. The contribution of diagnostic research has so far been limited by its irregular quality. PMID:18405573

  15. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and... information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study to support the equine industry in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that...

  16. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  17. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals' health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  18. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. Methods This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. Results All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. Conclusions The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities, community members, local to national political leaders, as well as the technical personnel from veterinary, medical and public health sectors since it affects both humans and animals. PMID:26218368

  19. Diagnostic Classification 0-3: Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multi-disciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  20. Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood. Diagnostic Classification: 0-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Serena, Ed.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multidisciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  1. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of an... AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: New information collection; comment... and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support...

  2. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  3. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

  4. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    PubMed Central

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  5. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address them. PMID:23413732

  6. Integrating the surveillance of animal health, foodborne pathogens and foodborne diseases in developing and in-transition countries.

    PubMed

    de Balogh, K; Halliday, J; Lubroth, J

    2013-08-01

    Animal diseases, foodborne pathogens and foodborne diseases have enormous impacts upon the health and livelihoods of producers and consumers in developing and in-transition countries. Unfortunately, the capacity for effective surveillance of infectious disease threats is often limited in these countries, leading to chronic under-reporting. This further contributes towards underestimating the effects of these diseases and an inability to implement effective control measures. However, innovative communications and diagnostic tools, as well as new analytical approaches and close cooperation within and between the animal and human health sectors, can be used to improve the coverage, quality and speed of reporting, as well as to generate more comprehensive estimates of the disease burden. These approaches can help to tackle endemic diseases and build essential surveillance capacities to address changing disease threats in the future. PMID:24547657

  7. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths Are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Beasley, Val R.

    2015-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks. PMID:25903764

  8. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    PubMed

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks. PMID:25903764

  9. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  10. Parasites and fungi as risk factors for human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Góralska, Katarzyna; Błaszkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature data suggests that parasitic and fungal diseases, which pose a threat to both human and animal health, remain a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Attention is increasingly paid to the role played by natural microbiota in maintaining homeostasis in humans. A particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of manipulating the human microbiota (permanent, transient, pathogenic) and macrobiota (e.g., Trichuris suis) to support the treatment of selected diseases such as Crohn's disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Emphasis is placed on important medical species whose infections not only impair health but can also be life threatening, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Echinococcus multilocularis and Baylisascaris procyonis, which expand into areas which have so far been uninhabited. This article also presents the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic parasitoses imported from the tropics, which spread across large groups of people through human-to-human transmission (Enterobius vermicularis, Sarcoptes scabiei). It also discusses the problem of environmentally-conditioned parasitoses, particularly their etiological factors associated with food contaminated with invasive forms (Trichinella sp., Toxoplasma gondii). The analysis also concerns the presence of developmental forms of geohelminths (Toxocara sp.) and ectoparasites (ticks), which are vectors of serious human diseases (Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis), in the environment. Mycological topics contains rare cases of mycoses environmentally conditioned (CNS aspergillosis) and transmissions of these pathogens in a population of hospitalized individuals, as well as seeking new methods used to treat mycoses. PMID:26878617

  11. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... records being proposed is the National Animal ] Health Laboratory Network. This notice is necessary to... information about the owner of or person having primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a... of animals undergoing testing in a networked laboratory. Categories of records in the system:...

  12. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY... National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study. DATES: We will consider all....gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study,...

  13. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ..., including animal identification, confinement and handling, care, and disease testing; Describe health... information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Agency, including whether the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of an Information...

  14. Investigating the Overlooked Genomes That Impact Animal Health: The Gut Microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucosal surfaces of humans and animals are colonized by a diverse microbiota that contributes significantly to host health. The gut microbiome influences animal health through assuring nutritional uptake and metabolism, developing and mediating innate immunity, and modulating virulence and abun...

  15. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Sheep 2011 Study. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before October 26, 2010... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Sheep 2011 Study, contact Ms. Sandra Warnken, Management...

  16. Sentinel Animals in a One Health Approach to Harmful Cyanobacterial and Algal Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Miller, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    People, domestic animals, and wildlife are all exposed to numerous environmental threats, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, because animals exhibit wide variations in diet, land use and biology, they are often more frequently or heavily exposed to HAB toxins than are people occupying the same habitat, making them sentinels for human exposures. Historically, we have taken advantage of unique physiological characteristics of animals, such as the sensitivity of canaries to carbon monoxide, to more quickly recognize threats and help protect human health. As HAB events become more severe and widespread worldwide, exposure and health outcome data for animals can be extremely helpful to predict, prevent, and evaluate human exposures and health outcomes. Applying a One Health approach to investigation of HABs means that lessons learned from animal sentinels can be applied to protect people, animals and our shared environment. PMID:27152315

  17. Drugs and diagnostic innovations to improve global health.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Nwaka, Solomon

    2011-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Affordable effective drugs and diagnostics are critical for patient management and disease control but the development of new drugs and diagnostics is too slow to keep up with the emergence and spread of infectious diseases around the world. Innovative collaborative research and development involving disease endemic countries and developed countries are urgently needed to accelerate progress along the path from discovery to product adoption. These emerging approaches and the need for increased investment in human and financial resources to support them are discussed. PMID:21896368

  18. Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time. PMID:25812198

  20. Application of Microbial Genomics to Improve Aquatic Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis have greatly increased our understanding of microorganism gene content, pathogenesis, taxonomy, and evolution. Currently, there are over three hundred completed, publicly-available microbial genomes. To date, no genome of an aquatic animal pathogen...

  1. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

  2. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

  3. Using Animation as an Information Tool to Advance Health Research Literacy among Minority Participants

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video’s cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants’ ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

  4. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    PubMed Central

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  5. High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself amon...

  6. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  7. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  8. Ecology of Disease: The Intersection of Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...

  9. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  10. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,

  11. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  12. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on Aquatic Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the latter portion of the 20th century, North America experienced numerous large-scale mortality events affecting a broad diversity of aquatic animals. Short-term forensic investigations of these events have sometimes characterized a causative agent or condition, but have rare...

  13. Animal Productivity and Health Responses to Hind-Gut Acidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the large intestine of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, and/or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates to the large intestine, hind-gut ac...

  14. Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health. PMID:1600580

  15. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    PubMed

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training. PMID:20128484

  16. Reasons for relinquishment of companion animals in U.S. animal shelters: selected health and personal issues.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, J M; Salman, M D; New, J G; Kass, P H

    1999-01-01

    In personal interviews, people surrendering their dogs and cats to 12 animal shelters in 4 regions of the country discussed their reasons for relinquishing their companion animals and answered questions about their own characteristics and those of their pet. The interviews identified 71 reasons for relinquishment. Personal issues lead the class of reasons for relinquishment of cats and ranked 3rd among those given for relinquishment of dogs. The top 3 health and personal issues cited for giving up cats were allergies of a family member to cats, owner's personal problems, and anew baby. For dogs, the top 3 reasons cited were lack of time for the dog, owner's personal problems, and allergies. Analysis of these health and personal issues suggests that education and counseling before and after acquisition of a pet, as well as the availability of temporary accommodations for pets during times of personal crisis, may reduce relinquishments. PMID:16363961

  17. [The role of reference laboratories in animal health programmes in South America].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, I E

    2003-08-01

    The contribution of the Panamerican Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Centre (PANAFTOSA), as an OIE (World organisation for animal health) regional reference laboratory for the diagnosis of FMD and vesicular stomatitis, and for the control of the FMD vaccine, has been of fundamental importance to the development, implementation and harmonisation of modern laboratory procedures in South America. The significance of the work conducted by PANAFTOSA is particularly obvious when one considers the two pillars on which eradication programmes are based, namely: a well-structured regional laboratory network, and the creation of a system which allows technology and new developments to be transferred to Member Countries as quickly and efficiently as possible. Over the past decade, PANAFTOSA has kept pace with the changing epidemiological situation on the continent, and with developments in the international political and economical situation. This has involved the strengthening of quality policies, and the elaboration and implementation of diagnostic tools that make for more thorough epidemiological analyses. The integration of PANAFTOSA into the network of national laboratories and its cooperation with technical and scientific institutes, universities and the private sector means that local needs can be met, thanks to the design and rapid implementation of methodological tools which are validated using internationally accepted criteria. This collaboration, which ensures harmonisation of laboratory tests and enhances the quality of national Veterinary Services, serves to promote greater equity, a prerequisite for regional eradication strategies and this in turn, helps to increase competitiveness in the region. PMID:15884590

  18. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

  19. Antibiotic resistance—consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

  20. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Slizovskiy, I B; Conti, L A; Trufan, S J; Reif, J S; Lamers, V T; Stowe, M H; Dziura, J; Rabinowitz, P M

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities. PMID:25734823

  1. [Update - health risks induced by ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Knsli, Claudio; Walter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate. PMID:24297861

  2. Decomposing health: tolerance and resistance to parasites in animals.

    PubMed

    Rberg, Lars; Graham, Andrea L; Read, Andrew F

    2009-01-12

    Plant biologists have long recognized that host defence against parasites and pathogens can be divided into two conceptually different components: the ability to limit parasite burden (resistance) and the ability to limit the harm caused by a given burden (tolerance). Together these two components determine how well a host is protected against the effects of parasitism. This distinction is useful because it recognizes that hosts that are best at controlling parasite burdens are not necessarily the healthiest. Moreover, resistance and tolerance can be expected to have different effects on the epidemiology of infectious diseases and host-parasite coevolution. However, studies of defence in animals have to date focused on resistance, whereas the possibility of tolerance and its implications have been largely overlooked. The aim of our review is to (i) describe the statistical framework for analysis of tolerance developed in plant science and how this can be applied to animals, (ii) review evidence of genetic and environmental variation for tolerance in animals, and studies indicating which mechanisms could contribute to this variation, and (iii) outline avenues for future research on this topic. PMID:18926971

  3. Decomposing health: tolerance and resistance to parasites in animals

    PubMed Central

    Rberg, Lars; Graham, Andrea L.; Read, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Plant biologists have long recognized that host defence against parasites and pathogens can be divided into two conceptually different components: the ability to limit parasite burden (resistance) and the ability to limit the harm caused by a given burden (tolerance). Together these two components determine how well a host is protected against the effects of parasitism. This distinction is useful because it recognizes that hosts that are best at controlling parasite burdens are not necessarily the healthiest. Moreover, resistance and tolerance can be expected to have different effects on the epidemiology of infectious diseases and hostparasite coevolution. However, studies of defence in animals have to date focused on resistance, whereas the possibility of tolerance and its implications have been largely overlooked. The aim of our review is to (i) describe the statistical framework for analysis of tolerance developed in plant science and how this can be applied to animals, (ii) review evidence of genetic and environmental variation for tolerance in animals, and studies indicating which mechanisms could contribute to this variation, and (iii) outline avenues for future research on this topic. PMID:18926971

  4. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    PubMed

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks. PMID:26904893

  5. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. PMID:24897784

  6. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  7. Encouraging newly elected parliamentarians to take action on animal health and welfare.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    BVA and its branches developed three manifestos ahead of the May elections in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, aiming to raise awareness of the importance of safeguarding animal health and promoting animal welfare. Public affairs manager, Helena Cotton, encourages members to use the manifestos when speaking to newly elected representatives and stakeholders. PMID:27154947

  8. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  9. Developing a Comprehensive Animal Care Occupational Health and Safety Program at a Land-Grant Institution.

    PubMed

    Goodly, Lyndon J; Jarrell, Vickie L; Miller, Monica A; Banks, Maureen C; Anderson, Thomas J; Branson, Katherine A; Woodward, Robert T; Peper, Randall L; Myers, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and sound ethical practices require institutions to provide safe working environments for personnel working with animals; this mandate is achieved in part by establishing an effective animal care Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP). Land-grant institutions often face unique organizational challenges in fulfilling this requirement. For example, responsibilities for providing health and safety programs often have historically been dispersed among many different divisions scattered around the campus. Here we describe how our institutional management personnel overcame organizational structure and cultural obstacles during the formation of a comprehensive campus-wide animal care OHSP. Steps toward establishing the animal care OHSP included assigning overall responsibility, identifying all stakeholders, creating a leadership group, and hiring a fulltime Animal Care OHSP Specialist. A web-based portal was developed, implemented, and refined over the past 7 y and reflected the unique organizational structures of the university and the needs of our research community. Through this web-based portal, hazards are identified, risks are assessed, and training is provided. The animal care OHSP now provides easy mandatory enrollment, supports timely feedback regarding hazards, and affords enrollees the opportunity to participate in voluntary medical surveillance. The future direction and development of the animal care OHSP will be based on the research trends of campus, identification of emerging health and safety hazards, and ongoing evaluation and refinement of the program. PMID:26817980

  10. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... data necessary for managing and analyzing animal disease control or surveillance programs and... Service Agency, APHIS' Wildlife Services, or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing... Surveillance and Monitoring System, USDA- APHIS-15. This notice is necessary to meet the requirements of...

  11. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... identification, fencing, animal care and handling, trade and movement, and disease testing; Describe the producer... necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Agency, including whether the information will... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of an Information...

  12. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  13. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the

  14. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  15. A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, Chang; Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Guo, Guangping; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2005-06-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system has been developed for quick non-destructive evaluation and long term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The system consists of three major parts: a diagnostic layer with a network of piezoelectric elements and fiber gratings to offer a simple and efficient way to integrate a large network of transducers onto a structure; diagnostic hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit together with a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input, data collection, and information processing; and diagnostic software to determine the condition of the structure. This paper presents key development issues related to the manufacturing of the hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic layer and integration of a highly portable diagnostic hardware. Validation and proof testing of this integrated diagnostic system are also presented.

  16. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  17. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  18. Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

  19. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33-45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21-31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these issues with them. The results indicate the importance of an intervention concerning animal contact and associated health outcomes for the target population and provide insights to the potential implications of program implementation. PMID:26870739

  20. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33–45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21–31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these issues with them. The results indicate the importance of an intervention concerning animal contact and associated health outcomes for the target population and provide insights to the potential implications of program implementation. PMID:26870739

  1. [The need for research to support the emergence of alternative animal health systems].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Bonnet, P; Renard, J F

    2004-04-01

    Animal diseases remain one of the main problems for livestock production in terms of trade development, poverty reduction and public health. Animal health systems are complex because of the diversity of the parties involved and because of various changes in the delivery of veterinary services, such as the redefinition of the roles of the public and private sectors. It is, therefore, often difficult to assess the global performance of animal health systems and sub-systems in terms of their medical, economic and social effectiveness. In addition, the necessary reliability of the health information obtained leads to certification of the status of regions and countries with regard to epizootics, which requires a high degree of standardisation and conformity with international norms. An assessment therefore needs to be made of the advantages of alternative systems compared with conventional systems. An animal health system should be seen as a whole, and when assessing its overall performance several things must be taken into account, e.g. the markets for products and the sometimes contradictory interests of all the different parties involved. There are, therefore, many research needs and avenues to be pursued, including: the methods, data and tools required for assessing the effectiveness of systems, including a definition of what constitutes a reliable indicator; the factors that determine the health of a herd; having a clearer idea of what will affect herd health will make it possible to map risk indicators and animal health care needs; the design and management of realistic and harmonised animal health information systems whose indicators provide reliable measurements of health; the function, organisation and effectiveness of participative surveillance approaches; the definition and effectiveness of animal health contracts, such as health mandates between the State and private veterinarians; the function and role of livestock auxiliaries; the establishment of assessment methods and standards that take into account the specific situation of southern countries that could lead to the certification and accreditation of alternative systems. The efficiency of these systems must then be tested (direct impact, cost-benefit studies) using the above-mentioned indicators, and an implementation 'toolkit' can then be assembled, taking into account the local differences which will affect the suitability of each system for different locations. Research into the assessment of animal health systems is a long-term investment, but it ensures that quality certification is reliable and allows for the safe development of animal product markets. PMID:15200111

  2. Quality and Safety in Health Care, Part XI: Introduction to Diagnostic Errors.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2016-06-01

    The process of reaching a diagnosis in health care has not been emphasized in safety programs carried out by health care organizations as much as many other aspects of care such as handoffs, medication errors, patient falls, wrong-side surgery, and decreasing hospital-acquired infections. However, diagnostic errors are a fairly frequent cause of harm that can contribute to serious injury or death. This article is the first in a series discussing the diagnostic process and how to define, measure, and prevent errors in diagnosis. PMID:26975016

  3. Animal-human connections, "one health," and the syndemic approach to prevention.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie; Buntain, Bonnie J; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2009-03-01

    A syndemic involves two or more afflictions that, by interacting synergistically, contribute to excess burdens of disease. A syndemic approach to prevention, meanwhile, focuses on connections among health-related problems, considers those connections when developing health policies, and aligns with forces for social change. In this short report, we expand the syndemic concept to acknowledge the extent to which animal health connects with human health and, with reference to existing publications, we demonstrate the pertinence of this expanded definition for a syndemic approach to prevention. Our demonstration assumes practical importance in relation to the concept of 'one health', which many prominent veterinary and human health scientists have recently endorsed as a sound basis for redressing human diseases, animal diseases, and environmental degradation worldwide. While social scientists have mostly ignored animal health, few 'one health' proponents have emphasized social conditions or involved social scientists. By explicitly accommodating animal-human connections in our expanded conceptualization of a syndemic, we hope to help create a space in which human health, veterinary, and social scientists may learn from one another, collaborate in research, and cooperate to clear the way for innovations in prevention. PMID:19157669

  4. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  5. Automated multiphasic health testing. Diagnostic and testing results obtained at the Health Evaluation Center. Public Health Service Hospital, Baltimore.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, B; Holland, P M; Hsieh, R K

    1975-01-01

    The results of automated multiphasic health testing (AMHT) were evaluated with special attention to diagnoses made by physicians and to false positive results, as well as to laboratory test results. The study population consisted of 1,157 patients at the Health Evaluation Center of the Public Health Service Hospital in Baltimore. Although 95 percent of the patients had at least one newly diagnosed disease or condition., the percentage dropped to 78 percent when dental abnormalities were excluded and to 70 percent when dental, vision, and hearing abnormalities were excluded. Abnormal laboratory test results were observed for 98 percent of the patients, and 36 percent had at least one false positive test result. The study results indicated that AMHT is a highly productive method for comprehensive medical testing with a variety of uses other than mass screening. The productive diagnostic yield combined witha high percentage of false positive results dictate the need for careful planning for followup care, strict attention to quality control, and excellent communication between the AMHT center and the practicing physician. Images p133-a PMID:805446

  6. Economic analysis and costing of animal health: a literature review of methods and importance.

    PubMed

    Dehove, A; Commault, J; Petitclerc, M; Teissier, M; Macé, J

    2012-08-01

    Myriads of data, a host of methods, but no single universal indicator. The Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Gap Analysis helps to quantify the needs of national Veterinary Services. In a world of scarce public financial resources and heightened transparency and accountability, official Veterinary Services (national Veterinary Authorities) must be able to justify their needs in economic and budgetary terms to their line minister, national parliament and the public at large, or in negotiations with donors. Animal health and Veterinary Service activities are a global public good. It is the responsibility of governments to maintain animal health systems, including networks for the surveillance and control of animal diseases to ensure the early detection of suspected animal disease outbreaks, a rapid response and, where possible, eradication of animal disease outbreaks 'at source'. The establishment of animal health systems is a core responsibility of the State, and it requires the use of public funds, although it does not preclude public-private partnerships and strategies for ensuring complementarity between the partners concerned. The PVS Gap Analysis mission of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a method for analysing and quantifying disparities between a baseline situation (determined by PVS Evaluation using the OIE PVS Tool) and the target levels set by the country itself in accordance with its priorities. An added advantage is that the method can be used for training and awareness raising. PMID:23413736

  7. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    PubMed

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice and improve their advice by showing, for example, the potential benefits of their advice. PMID:26179079

  8. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure... paper we are making available for comment presents a structure we believe will give the NAHLN...

  9. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals. Prevention of pet-associated zoonotic diseases includes commonsense measures such as hand-washing, but are often overlooked by pet owners and non-pet owners alike. PMID:26514953

  10. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community’s health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community’s health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Result Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members’ exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals. Conclusion Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed. PMID:26959816

  11. The public health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations on local communities.

    PubMed

    Greger, Michael; Koneswaran, Gowri

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been well-documented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs. PMID:20010001

  12. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  13. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  14. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees' performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  15. Advances in pasture management for animal productivity and health.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M G; Clark, D A; Litherland, A J

    2004-12-01

    A wide range of management techniques is available to enhance quantity and quality of forage supply to grazing animals throughout the annual production cycle. Within broad limits, dry matter (DM) production is relatively insensitive to management of defoliation frequency, severity and duration. However defoliation management has effects on feed quality which can be enhanced, in particular, by control of pasture growth in the spring through maintenance of relatively low average pasture masses. Treading damage can have significant immediate and ongoing effects on pasture production and farmers can use a range of management techniques to minimise these. Fertiliser application practices have a potent influence on pasture production and seasonality of that production. Available soil nitrogen is the primary nutrient deficiency limiting production in New Zealand's characteristically grass-dominant pastures. Nitrogen fertiliser usage has increased markedly in recent years, particularly to grow substantially greater amounts of forage during the cool season, and this trend looks set to continue. However, the use of nitrogen fertiliser has important environmental implications. Pasture renewal and forage crop use has also increased in recent years. Care needs to be taken in conducting cost-benefit analyses, selecting the options that best meet the needs, and in establishment and subsequent management practices. Ryegrass (perennial and hybrids) and white clover remain the primary choice for permanent pasture renewal, the availability of safe endophytes having largely alleviated effects of endophyte toxicosis. Special-purpose mixtures are used, especially in dry environments. Italian ryegrasses, brassicas and chicory are common choices for forage crops. A range of management techniques can be used to alleviate deleterious effects of some forages, including ryegrass endophyte toxicosis, facial eczema, and toxins associated with Fusarium fungi. Generally these techniques are not totally effective. More research is required to increase our understanding of these disorders, and in order to develop more effective and reliable management practices. PMID:15768131

  16. Challenges and options for animal and public health services in the next two decades.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E

    2006-04-01

    Trade in livestock and livestock products makes up approximately one sixth of global agriculture trade. This trade is demand driven, primarily by growing human populations, changing economies, and consumer preferences in developing countries. Different rates of population growth, economic growth, urbanisation, environmental sustainability, and technology transfer will determine which countries will reap the greatest benefits. Global trends in demand and supply for food, not terrorism, will drive the future of animal and public health service delivery. To benefit the greatest number of people and countries, animal and public health services should support policies that temper growing disparities among rich and poor countries, city and rural populations, and the sexes. Economic growth is critical to overcoming disparities between countries and best supported by integrated animal health, public health, labour, and foreign policies. Opportunities for job growth will be the greatest along the value added chain of food production and will require significant investments in science- (risk-) based education. PMID:16796064

  17. Applying One Health to the Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Darlene; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-12-01

    The use of animal-assisted interventions in therapeutic programs is a growing phenomenon. Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) involve a variety of species (dogs, cats, horses, domesticated birds, etc.) in primary health care. Despite their increasing application in a wide range of therapeutic services, the empirical evidence base of AAIs is limited. The authors of this paper propose that the public health framework of One Health can be adapted to advance AAI research. One Health's perspective on the environment is primarily ecological. The environmental impact on the human-animal interactions within AAIs, however, incorporates social, cultural, political, and economic factors. The environment has received minimal attention in AAI research. The authors discuss how this framework has been used in their prior AAI research and work with Indigenous people. Applying this framework to AAIs may guide future AAI research. PMID:26063040

  18. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

  19. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee. PMID:21489237

  20. An ergonomic analysis of premixing and compounding processes in an animal health plant.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Goggins, W B

    1999-01-01

    This study is based on an ergonomic job analysis designed to develop a hazard prevention program for the premixing and compounding processes in animal health products plants. Animal health products plants are "pharmaceutical facilities" for livestock or domestic animals. A hazardous aerosol (highly concentrated antibiotics, anthelmintics, mineral oil, and animal hormones) is generated in the premixing or compounding processes. The animal health premixing jobs are heavy-duty jobs and have high potential for chemical exposure, heat stress, and ergonomic hazards. Ergonomic job analysis was used to recognize, identify, and evaluate actuarial and potential risks of injures or irritations. Chemical hazards and eight ergonomic factors were discussed: (1) forceful exertions, (2) awkward postures, (3) localized contract stresses, (4) vibration, (5) noise, (6) temperature extremes, (7) repetitive activities, and (8) prolonged activities. The results show that (1) current practices do not violate occupational safety and health regulations or recommended guidelines, but that hazards should be identified to protect worker health and safety; (2) for chemical hazards prevention, operators wear whole-body protection equipment, which also causes heat stress and increases the noise level in the work zone; and (3) the loading weight of the bags used needs to be reduced. PMID:10386360

  1. Diagnostics for piezoelectric transducers under cyclic loads deployed for structural health monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart G.; Park, Gyuhae; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Todd, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    Accurate sensor self-diagnostics are a key component of successful structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Transducer failure can be a significant source of failure in SHM systems, and neglecting to incorporate an adequate sensor diagnostics capability can lead to false positives in damage detection. Any permanently installed SHM system will thus require the ability to accurately monitor the health of the sensors themselves, so that when deviations in baseline measurements are observed, one can clearly distinguish between structural changes and sensor malfunction. This paper presents an overview of sensor diagnostics for active-sensing SHM systems employing piezoelectric transducers, and it reviews the sensor diagnostics results from an experimental case study in which a 9 m wind turbine rotor blade was dynamically loaded in a fatigue test until reaching catastrophic failure. The fatigue test for this rotor blade was unexpectedly long, requiring more than 8 million fatigue cycles before failure. Based on previous experiments, it was expected that the rotor blade would reach failure near 2 million fatigue cycles. Several sensors failed in the course of this much longer than expected test, although 48 out of 49 installed piezoelectric transducers survived beyond the anticipated 2 million fatigue cycles. Of the transducers that did fail in the course of the test, the sensor diagnostics methods presented here were effective in identifying them for replacement and/or data cleansing. Finally, while most sensor diagnostics studies have been performed in a controlled, static environment, some data in this study were collected as the rotor blade underwent cyclic loading, resulting in nonstationary structural impedance. This loading condition motivated the implementation of a new, additional data normalization step for sensor diagnostics with piezoelectric transducers in operational environments.

  2. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annette Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations' veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare. PMID:21999393

  3. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and communication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare. PMID:21999393

  4. Diagnostic tool for structural health monitoring: effect of material nonlinearity and vibro-impact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiwarkar, V. R.; Babitsky, V. I.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Numerous techniques are available for monitoring structural health. Most of these techniques are expensive and time-consuming. In this paper, vibration-based techniques are explored together with their use as diagnostic tools for structural health monitoring. Finite-element simulations are used to study the effect of material nonlinearity on dynamics of a cracked bar. Additionally, several experiments are performed to study the effect of vibro-impact behavior of crack on its dynamics. It was observed that a change in the natural frequency of the cracked bar due to crack-tip plasticity and vibro-impact behavior linked to interaction of crack faces, obtained from experiments, led to generation of higher harmonics; this can be used as a diagnostic tool for structural health monitoring.

  5. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  6. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  7. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-01-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (δD) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for advancing our understanding of environmental effects on animal health. PMID:25691980

  8. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  9. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-02-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen. PMID:27077311

  10. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees*†

    PubMed Central

    Steelman, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565

  11. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565

  12. Animal health risks associated with the transportation and utilisation of wildlife products.

    PubMed

    Bengis, R G

    1997-04-01

    The animal health risks associated with the movement of wildlife products are infinitely less than those associated with the movement of live animals. Very few pathogens are sufficiently robust to survive the significant changes in temperature, pH, moisture content and osmolality which occur post mortem, or which are associated with preservation processes such as pickling, smoking or drying. Certain pathogens, however, (e.g. foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever [hog cholera] and African swine fever viruses and the anthrax bacillus) are hardy and resistant to these environmental changes and therefore constitute a finite animal health risk if raw, undercooked or under-preserved products from infected wild animals are imported. Other less robust pathogens, such as rinderpest virus, may remain infectious in animal products if these are obtained from acutely infected animals and frozen immediately. Macroparasitic diseases such as trichinellosis and echinococcosis-hydatidosis, if present in the unprocessed tissues of infected wildlife, are potentially infectious to carnivorous or omnivorous companion animals. The importation of untreated wet hides may result in the introduction of alien ectoparasites and/or the infectious diseases for which they are vectors. The author discusses the more significant pathogens found in free-ranging wildlife which should be taken into consideration when importing wildlife products from endemically or epidemically infected countries. PMID:9329110

  13. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog bites, parasite levels and dog demographics are needed to measure the long-term sustainability of benefits to dog, human and wildlife health. PMID:25439233

  14. Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

  15. 9 CFR 130.14 - User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics. 130.14 Section 130.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... by FADDL are for the diagnosis of animal diseases foreign to the United States. These reagents may...

  16. 9 CFR 130.14 - User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics. 130.14 Section 130.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... by FADDL are for the diagnosis of animal diseases foreign to the United States. These reagents may...

  17. Setting the One Health agenda and the human-companion animal bond.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Gregg K; Day, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    "One Health", also called "One Medicine", began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  18. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions, such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however, some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions, such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health, and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which OS may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins. PMID:26664975

  19. Rational use of diagnostic imaging in paediatrics. The report of a World Health Organization Study Group.

    PubMed

    Merten, D F; Palmer, P E; Sweet, E M; Fendel, H; Fauré, C; Fujioka, M

    1989-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is the agency of the United Nations with primary responsibility for international health matters and public health. Through the exchange of the knowledge and experience of health professionals from 165 nations WHO promotes comprehensive health services worldwide. As a part of this effort WHO has in recent years been concerned with improving the availability and utilization of diagnostic imaging, especially as it relates to health services in developing countries. Having devised and specified suitable basic radiographic equipment (the WHO BRS) a WHO Scientific Group was convened in 1982 to study the utilization of radiographic procedures and to to recommend their more efficacious and rational use. Then in 1984, recognizing the implications of newer imaging technology on world health, a second WHO Scientific Group considered the design, impact and future use of ultrasonography and computed tomography in developing countries. The findings of these scientific groups were published as part of the WHO Technical Report Series which makes available the recommendations of such international groups of experts. Although some of the needs of children were considered in these previous Technical Reports, WHO felt that the size and socioeconomic importance of the paediatric population worldwide warranted a further study and report to address the particular technical and clinical problems of diagnostic imaging in the paediatric age group. Thus a third WHO Scientific Group met in Geneva from 18 to 24 November 1985 to review established practices and experience in paediatric imaging throughout the world; and to recommend rational guidelines for diagnostic imaging for children to age 14 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2748226

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Pantosti, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50 years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

  1. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis. PMID:20537093

  2. Risk analysis and its link with standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, K; Murray, N

    2011-04-01

    Among the agreements included in the treaty that created the World Trade Organization (WTO) in January 1995 is the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) that sets out the basic rules for food safety and animal and plant health standards. The SPS Agreement designates the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the organisation responsible for developing international standards for animal health and zoonoses. The SPS Agreement requires that the sanitary measures that WTO members apply should be based on science and encourages them to either apply measures based on the OIE standards or, if they choose to adopt a higher level of protection than that provided by these standards, apply measures based on a science-based risk assessment. The OIE also provides a procedural framework for risk analysis for its Member Countries to use. Despite the inevitable challenges that arise in carrying out a risk analysis of the international trade in animals and animal products, the OIE risk analysis framework provides a structured approach that facilitates the identification, assessment, management and communication of these risks. PMID:21809770

  3. Repeated Diagnostic Imaging Studies in Ontario and the Impact of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Liu, Kuan; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; McArthur, Eric; Jain, Arsh K; Ordon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health information exchange systems can link the results of diagnostic imaging tests across hospitals and geographic areas. One of the potential benefits of these systems is a reduction in imaging studies ordered by physicians who do not know about or have access to the previous imaging results. We used administrative data from Ontario, Canada (from the year 2013), to measure how frequently the same cross-sectional imaging study is repeated in a patient. Overall, 12.8% of the specified imaging tests were repeated within 90 days. An area of Southwestern Ontario with a health information exchange system for diagnostic imaging tests had a 13% lower rate of repeat cross-sectional imaging compared with the rest of the province (11.2 vs 12.8%, p < 0.01). The use of linked radiology systems may be able to reduce the number of repeated imaging tests and improve patient safety and hospital efficiency. PMID:27133604

  4. Health plan diagnostics: what plan sponsors and trustees need to know.

    PubMed

    Lynne, Donna

    2003-06-01

    The needed information for diagnosing the cost-effectiveness of the health plan includes understanding where cost pressures are coming from, how the plan compares to other plans and the key characteristics of the covered group. Allocating resources for the staff or consultants to produce and analyze this information is a wise investment. Two case studies illustrate the power of plan diagnostics to lead to positive solutions that address cost increases--without hurting plan members. PMID:12800310

  5. Sustainability of a privatized community-based animal health worker system in Mwingi District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rubyogo, J C; Murithii, P M; Agumbah, G J O; Obhai, G

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a study on the sustainability of Community-based Animal Health Worker (CAHW) services in Mwingi District, Kenya. These services began in 1992 and were supported by the District Veterinary Authority (DVA) with assistance from the Integrated Food Security Programme-Eastern (IFSP-E). Over time and using a process of participatory reviews with multiple stakeholders, the system evolved into a network of CAHWs. The study focused on CAHWs' service sustainability and their relationships with other animal health service providers. A mutually beneficial and supportive arrangement existed between the CAHWs and Animal Health Assistants (AHAs), based on a private drug supply system, referral and backstopping support. The CAHWs derived sufficient income from their veterinary work to maintain their interest in the system. Seventy percent of CAHWs were continuing to offer adequate animal health services 3 years or more after their initial training and the withdrawal of donor support. Ninety-five percent of sampled CAHWs (n = 40) viewed their business as successful and expanding. Considering the agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions of the district, the CAHW system can be viewed as an initial stage in the process of extending quality private sector veterinary services. PMID:15934633

  6. Improvements in animal productivity and health with a total aerobic manure management system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management using second generation technology on air and water quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health. The technology is a lower cost, second generation treatment system develop...

  7. Animals at the Crossroads: A Perspective on Credentialing in the Mental Health Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, James D.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the credentialing process in mental health and likens it to the process of animals in confrontation over territoriality. Examines the data on which credentialing claims are predicated and the implications of and to the marketplace of licensing and certification. (BH)

  8. Electronic Communication in Africa--the Promotion of Animal Health Information Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Erica E.; Miller, E. Stan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the Veterinary Science Library at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) promotes electronic communication through various Internet and other network links. Provides a sample of online information sources available to veterinary teams and animal health workers, and a list of electronic addresses for South African libraries and…

  9. Factors influencing the demand of the service of community based animal health care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mutambara, J; Dube, I; Matangi, E; Majeke, F

    2013-11-01

    This study was done to find out about animal health service providers and factors that determined demand for community based veterinary service delivery in smallholder sector of Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions and a questionnaire was used to collect data on veterinary services providers and socio-economic factors related to animal health from a sample (N=333) smallholder livestock farmers from Gutu district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. Analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, K-mean cluster analysis and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the majority of farmers (45%) obtained services from both Community Based Animal Health Workers (CBAHWs) and Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), 25% DVS only, 20% used CBAHWs while 10% did not seek any services. Further analysis showed that distance to CBAHW, distance to AHMC and employment status were significantly related to demand for CBAHWs with coefficients of -1.5, 0.7 and -10.3, respectively. The study thus concluded that CBAHW is an alternative animal health service delivery approach already practiced in smallholder farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Socio-economic factors significantly influenced the demand for CBAHW services. Given limited resources by state sponsored veterinary services, it is recommended that the CBAHWs approach should be encouraged as supplementary service provider especially in areas further DVS. These community organizations can be empowered by the state to deliver more improved services based on hygiene and modern science at a relatively low cost to farmers. PMID:23958456

  10. NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM SWINE 2000: A SURVEILLANCE STUDY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 IN SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a national surveillance system (National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000) to monitor the presence of pathogens in swine, 2526 swine fecal samples were collected from 57 sites in the top 17 swine producing states to investigate the natural occurrence of Escherichia coli 0157 in ...

  11. Animal Health Technicians: A Survey of Program Graduates and of Veterinarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsaleau, Richard B.; Walters, Henry R.

    This document compiles the reports of two surveys conducted by Cosumnes River College to determine the status of graduates of its Animal Health Technician program, and to assess the acceptance and use of such paraprofessionals by area veterinarians. Information concerning type of employment, state certification, salaries, types of duties, length

  12. Global Antimicrobial Resistance: Where Is the Connection between Animal and Human Public Health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public and animal health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upwar...

  13. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fernández-Cruz, M.L.; Bertelsen, U.; Renshaw, D.W.; Peltonen, K.; Anadon, A.; Feil, A.; Sanders, P.; Wester, P.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

  14. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human-Companion Animal Bond

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Gregg K.; Day, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  15. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations. PMID:25734821

  16. A critical view of transgender health care in Germany: Psychopathologizing gender identity - Symptom of 'disordered' psychiatric/psychological diagnostics?

    PubMed

    Güldenring, Annette

    2015-01-01

    After explaining the essential trans* terminology, I offer a short historical overview of the way health care has dealt with the subject of gender, trans* and health in different times. In the third section, I compare the world's most important diagnostic manuals, namely the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), i.e. their criteria for 'gender identity disorders' (ICD-10) and 'gender dysphoria' (DSM-5). The fourth section branch out the factors which influence every diagnostic conception - of no matter whom - in the health care system. The last section discusses the implications resulting from this diagnostic dilemma for the health situation of gender nonconforming people. PMID:26569634

  17. Inter-observer agreement, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of animal-based indicators of young lamb welfare.

    PubMed

    Phythian, C J; Toft, N; Cripps, P J; Michalopoulou, E; Winter, A C; Jones, P H; Grove-White, D; Duncan, J S

    2013-07-01

    A scientific literature review and consensus of expert opinion used the welfare definitions provided by the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) Five Freedoms as the framework for selecting a set of animal-based indicators that were sensitive to the current on-farm welfare issues of young lambs (aged ≤ 6 weeks). Ten animal-based indicators assessed by observation - demeanour, response to stimulation, shivering, standing ability, posture, abdominal fill, body condition, lameness, eye condition and salivation were tested as part of the objective of developing valid, reliable and feasible animal-based measures of lamb welfare The indicators were independently tested on 966 young lambs from 17 sheep flocks across Northwest England and Wales during December 2008 to April 2009 by four trained observers. Inter-observer reliability was assessed using Fleiss's kappa (κ), and the pair-wise agreement with an experienced, observer designated as the 'test standard observer' (TSO) was examined using Cohen's κ. Latent class analysis (LCA) estimated the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of each observer without assuming a gold standard and predicted the Se and Sp of randomly selected observers who may apply the indicators in the future. Overall, good levels of inter-observer reliability, and high levels of Sp were identified for demeanour (κ = 0.54, Se ≥ 0.70, Sp ≥ 0.98), stimulation (κ = 0.57, Se = 0.30 to 0.77, Sp ≥ 0.98), shivering (κ = 0.55, Se = 0.37 to 0.85, Sp ≥ 0.99), standing ability (0.54, Se ≥ 0.80, Sp ≥ 0.99), posture (κ = 0.45, Se ≥ 0.56, Sp = 0.99), abdominal fill (κ = 0.44, Se = 0.39 to 0.98, Sp = 0.99), body condition (κ = 0.72, Se ⩾ 0.38 to 0.90, Sp = 0.99), lameness (κ = 0.68, Se > 0.73, Sp = 1.00), and eye condition (κ = 0.72, Se ≥ 0.86, Sp = 0.99). LCA predicted that randomly selected observers had Se > 0.77 (acceptable), and Sp ≥ 0.98 (high) for assessments of demeanour, lameness, abdominal fill posture, body condition and eye condition. The diagnostic performance of some indicators was influenced by the composition of the study population, and it would be useful to test the indicators on lambs with a greater level of outcomes associated with poor welfare. The findings presented in this paper could be applied in the selection of valid, reliable and feasible indicators used for the purposes of on-farm assessments of lamb welfare. PMID:23561038

  18. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on both AI risk analysis and on AIV ecology. PMID:20521662

  19. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    PubMed

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of highest impact to be identified routinely for resource allocation. PMID:26272470

  20. Perspectives on One Health: a survey of national Delegates to the World Organisation for Animal Health, 2012.

    PubMed

    Glynn, M K; Brink, N

    2014-08-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) surveyed all 178 national Delegates to better understand the perceptions and priorities of Veterinary Services with respect to One Health efforts and to guide future work in that area. For the purposes of this survey, the concept or practice of One Health was defined as 'the intersectoral collaborative approach to preventing, detecting, and controlling diseases among animals and humans, including the collaboration among the institutions and systems that support their prevention, detection and control'. A total of 120 OlE Delegates, representing countries from all five OIE regions, responded to the survey. Delegates identified zoonoses, rabies and influenza as high-priority disease areas and disease reporting and food safety as high-priority programme areas for One Health approaches. Veterinary Services participated in joint programmes, involving these priority disease and programme areas, with national intersectoral partners. Delegates reported barriers to implementing One Health approaches, including a lack of resources, the complexity of collaboration, inadequate capacity within their Veterinary Services, and a lack of adequate legislation, policy, guidance and political will for One Health activities. Delegates supported OIE efforts to enhance One Health activities, and requested that the OIE and partners provide technical information and advice and conduct training and capacity-building seminars for One Health. Veterinary Services cannot effectively apply One Health approaches at the national level without effective partnerships across sectors. The OlE can serve as a model for countries by continuing its commitment to these intersectoral partnerships at the international level. PMID:25707174

  1. 9 CFR 130.18 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic... Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES...) Virology reagents. User fees for virology reagents produced by the Diagnostic Virology Laboratory at...

  2. 9 CFR 130.18 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic... Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES...) Virology reagents. User fees for virology reagents produced by the Diagnostic Virology Laboratory at...

  3. 9 CFR 130.18 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic... Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES...) Virology reagents. User fees for virology reagents produced by the Diagnostic Virology Laboratory at...

  4. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response. PMID:23413743

  5. Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

  6. How well do health professionals interpret diagnostic information? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Davenport, Clare; Jameson, Catherine; Burke, Margaret; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Hyde, Chris; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether clinicians differ in how they evaluate and interpret diagnostic test information. Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from inception to September 2013; bibliographies of retrieved studies, experts and citation search of key included studies. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Primary studies that provided information on the accuracy of any diagnostic test (eg, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios) to health professionals and that reported outcomes relating to their understanding of information on or implications of test accuracy. Results We included 24 studies. 6 assessed ability to define accuracy metrics: health professionals were less likely to identify the correct definition of likelihood ratios than of sensitivity and specificity. –25 studies assessed Bayesian reasoning. Most assessed the influence of a positive test result on the probability of disease: they generally found health professionals’ estimation of post-test probability to be poor, with a tendency to overestimation. 3 studies found that approaches based on likelihood ratios resulted in more accurate estimates of post-test probability than approaches based on estimates of sensitivity and specificity alone, while 3 found less accurate estimates. 5 studies found that presenting natural frequencies rather than probabilities improved post-test probability estimation and speed of calculations. Conclusions Commonly used measures of test accuracy are poorly understood by health professionals. Reporting test accuracy using natural frequencies and visual aids may facilitate improved understanding and better estimation of the post-test probability of disease. PMID:26220870

  7. Veterinary medical ethics. An ethicist's commentary on animal health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Ramey, David; Rollin, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    Veterinarians working with racehorses face unique challenges. No other type of practice expects veterinarians to "correct" such minute deficiencies in performance. Since the actual performance potential of many horses cannot be known, treatments may be targeted at "perceived" deficiencies in performance. Nevertheless, seconds or fractions of a second determine profit and loss and thus the animal's value for the trainer and owner. One or two seconds may ultimately determine whether a horse continues racing or is sold for slaughter. Is a veterinarian who works to maintain or improve racehorse performance in keeping with the veterinarian's oath to "promote animal health and welfare?" PMID:24891634

  8. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  9. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community. PMID:25812199

  10. Farm Animal Models of Organic Dust Exposure and Toxicity: Insights and Implications for Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Chakia J.; Gerald, Carresse L.; Waterman, Jenora T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Modern food animal production is a major contributor to the global economy, owing to advanced intensive indoor production facilities aimed at increasing market readiness and profit. Consequences of these advances are accumulation of dusts, gases and microbial products that diminish air quality within production facilities. Chronic inhalation exposure contributes to onset and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms and diseases in animals and workers. This article reviews literature regarding constituents of farm animal production facility dusts; animal responses to production building and organic dust exposure, and the effect of chronic inhalation exposure on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent findings –Porcine models of production facility and organic dust exposures reveal striking similarities to observations of human cells, tissues and clinical data. Oxidative stress plays a key role in mediating respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and enhancement of antioxidant levels through nutritional supplements can improve respiratory health. Summary – Pigs are well adapted to the exposures common to swine production buildings and thus serve as excellent models for facility workers. Insight for understanding mechanisms governing organic dust associated respiratory diseases may come from parallel comparisons between farmers and the animals they raise. PMID:25636160

  11. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-11-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

  12. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

  13. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the... quality in animal studies. The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), Division of...

  14. The utilization of BMR measurements as a routine diagnostic procedure in normal health maintenance.

    PubMed

    Lee, W E; Hershey, D

    1985-02-01

    The hypothesis that BMR measurements should become part of the routine diagnostics utilized by physicians in long term health maintenance programs is developed. The hypothesis is supported from two viewpoints. First, a number of conditions are known to cause increases in BMR. The conditions include endocrine disorders, cardiovascular abnormalities, and cancer. Thus an observed substantial rise in BMR could indicate the onset of a medical problem if the higher level is maintained over an extended period of time. Second, available data from a longitudinal aging study suggests that sustained periods of increased BMR indicate "killing" stresses which can be detrimental or even fatal to individual subjects. The recent improvements in BMR measurements techniques reported here now make it possible to set up an inexpensive, reliable, and easy-to-use apparatus. Thus it would not be difficult to incorporate BMR measurement techniques as one of the routinely utilized diagnostic procedures. PMID:3990588

  15. Biomarker Discovery in Animal Health and Disease: The Application of Post-Genomic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rowan E.; Kirwan, Jennifer; Doherty, Mary K.; Whitfield, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: The causes of many important diseases in animals are complex and multifactorial, which present unique challenges. Biomarkers indicate the presence or extent of a biological process, which is directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. Identifying biomarkers or biomarker profiles will be an important step towards disease characterization and management of disease in animals. The emergence of post-genomic technologies has led to the development of strategies aimed at identifying specific and sensitive biomarkers from the thousands of molecules present in a tissue or biological fluid. This review will summarize the current developments in biomarker discovery and will focus on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in biomarker discovery for animal health and disease. PMID:19662203

  16. Use of animal products in traditional Chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards.

    PubMed

    Still, J

    2003-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly practised in many countries of the world. Some recent textbooks of TCM still recommend formulas containing various animal tissues such as tiger bones, antelope, buffalo or rhino horns, deer antlers, testicles and os penis of the dog, bear or snake bile. Usually, animal tissues are combined with medical herbs. In most of the cases, the medical use of the preparations is justified in terms of the rules of TCM. So far, little research has been done to prove the claimed clinical efficacy of TCM animal products. This paper discusses some related ecological, ethico-legal and health concerns such as hunting, breeding and trade with endangered species, risks of transmission of zoonoses, quality of the products, and alternatives to preparations from endangered species. PMID:12801499

  17. Diagnostics in a digital age: an opportunity to strengthen health systems and improve health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    2015-11-01

    Diagnostics play a critical role in clinical decision making, and in disease control and prevention. Rapid point-of-care (POC) tests for infectious diseases can improve access to diagnosis and patient management, but the quality of these tests vary, quality of testing is often not assured and there are few mechanisms to capture test results for surveillance when the testing is so decentralised. A new generation of POC molecular tests that are highly sensitive and specific, robust and easy to use are now available for deployment in low resource settings. Decentralisation of testing outside of the laboratory can put tremendous stress on the healthcare system and presents challenges for training and quality assurance. A feature of many of these POC molecular devices is that they are equipped with data transmission capacities. In a digital age, it is possible to link data from diagnostic laboratories and POC test readers and devices to provide data on testing coverage, disease trends and timely information for early warning of infectious disease outbreaks to inform design or optimisation of disease control and elimination programmes. Data connectivity also allows control programmes to monitor the quality of tests and testing, and optimise supply chain management; thus, increasing the efficiency of healthcare systems and improving patient outcomes. PMID:26553825

  18. Integrating animal health surveillance and food safety: the issue of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Acar, J F; Moulin, G

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in commensal, zoonotic and pathogenic bacteria from humans, animals and food is an essential source of information when formulating measures to improve food safety. International organisations (the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) have developed a complete set of standards related to resistance surveillance programmes and are calling for the establishment of integrated surveillance programmes. The most important task in establishing an integrated surveillance programme for antimicrobial resistance should be the harmonisation of laboratory testing methodology and antimicrobial-use reporting. Overthe last decade, the integration of surveillance of antimicrobial resistance has been an important step toward addressing the global concern with antimicrobial resistance. However, very few systems are in place and there is still a lot to do before harmonised surveillance systems become the norm. PMID:24547644

  19. Materiomics for Oral Disease Diagnostics and Personal Health Monitoring: Designer Biomaterials for the Next Generation Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Ming L; Khalili, Sammy; Cranford, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    We live in exciting times for a new generation of biomarkers being enabled by advances in the design and use of biomaterials for medical and clinical applications, from nano- to macro-materials, and protein to tissue. Key challenges arise, however, due to both scientific complexity and compatibility of the interface of biology and engineered materials. The linking of mechanisms across scales by using a materials science approach to provide structure-process-property relations characterizes the emerging field of 'materiomics,' which offers enormous promise to provide the hitherto missing tools for biomaterial development for clinical diagnostics and the next generation biomarker applications towards personal health monitoring. Put in other words, the emerging field of materiomics represents an essentially systematic approach to the investigation of biological material systems, integrating natural functions and processes with traditional materials science perspectives. Here we outline how materiomics provides a game-changing technology platform for disruptive innovation in biomaterial science to enable the design of tailored and functional biomaterials--particularly, the design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. Rigorous and complementary computational modeling and experimental techniques will provide an efficient means to develop new clinical technologies in silico, greatly accelerating the translation of materiomics-driven oral health diagnostics from concept to practice in the clinic. PMID:26760957

  20. Afghanistan and the development of alternative systems of animal health in the absence of effective government.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, B E C; Ward, D E

    2004-04-01

    This case study describes the efforts by both non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies to develop an alternative system for delivering animal health services in Afghanistan, during a period in which there was effectively no government. The authors examine the period from the mid-1980s to the year 2003. During this time, Afghanistan experienced war and severe civil unrest, resulting in the collapse of the veterinary infrastructure. As most trained animal health professionals had fled the country, an initial emphasis was placed on training intermediate and lower-level veterinary auxiliary personnel, as well as on the implementation of emergency treatment and vaccination campaigns. Gradually this programme has developed from an emergency-oriented approach to a more development-oriented process, resulting in a community-based system of animal health care in more than 250 districts (out of approximately 360). Some 500 paraveterinarians, trained for a period of five months, play a pivotal role in this programme, supported in outlying villages by trained vaccinators and basic veterinary workers. In this paper, the authors present an estimation of the impact of this programme. Essential elements of the programme are, as follows: the recruitment of trainees from areas where need has been identified; an emphasis on practical and problem-oriented training; the deployment of staff in so-called 'veterinary field units', supervised by more highly qualified staff and monitors; a guaranteed supply of veterinary medicines, anthelmintics and vaccines; a gradually increasing rate of cost recovery. The ultimate objective of the programme is to establish a self-sustaining system, based on the 'user-pays' principle. The paper concludes by describing the present-day problems of the animal health infrastructure in Afghanistan. Not only must the new government try to regain its central position, it must also assimilate two decades of development in the veterinary sector, which has occurred largely outside governmental control. PMID:15200103

  1. Implementation of a system for the regional management of animal health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bellini, S; Di Francesco, C; Giovannini, A; Colangeli, P; Calistri, P; Petrella, D; Caporale, V

    2000-12-01

    A telematic system to support decisions and operations in case of animal health emergencies has been designed and implemented in the Abruzzo region of Italy. The system aims to improve decision-making by Veterinary Services in the event of an outbreak of exotic disease. The system has been tested, first by a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease, and then during an outbreak of swine vesicular disease. Critical problems were detected and corrected in both cases. PMID:11107627

  2. The economic rationale of public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V

    2004-04-01

    In the changing market environment of livestock products, the delivery of animal health services is emerging as an important priority area for enhancing the competitiveness of poor livestock producers. At the same time, governments are continuing to face serious budgetary difficulties and are finding it difficult to expand the reach of these services or improve service quality. In this context of a changing environment and dwindling public resources, this paper revisits the economic framework that has thus far guided thinking about public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services and examines the ongoing debate on livestock service delivery for the poor. The paper highlights the importance of strong institutions and appropriate legislation for regulating behaviour and enforcing contracts and re-emphasises the idea, which is supported by economic theory, that there is a need for task sharing between the public and private sectors. The paper further emphasizes the need for: a) integrating the debate on livestock service delivery with the larger debate on political economy and institutional development, and b) ensuring service access in poor marginal areas by working through membership organisations, self-help groups and civil society organisations, and by promoting the use of para-professionals and community-based animal health delivery systems. PMID:15200085

  3. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment. PMID:26082128

  4. Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, T. L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K.

    1993-01-01

    The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy and in addition produced a viable test stand vehicle health monitor. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data.

  5. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for...

  6. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for...

  7. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures...

  8. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for...

  9. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions...

  10. Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Katie G

    2010-01-01

    Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks. PMID:20838176

  11. A review of the animal models used to investigate the health benefits of soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M

    2006-01-01

    This review considers the recent literature in which animal models were used to investigate the purported health benefits of soy isoflavones. The main conclusions are that our animal models demonstrate minimal effects in breast, prostate, and colon cancer prevention, and that, while some cancers may respond to isoflavones, it would appear that isoflavones do not prevent further development once cancer has become established. Regarding cardiovascular health, the lipid-lowering effects of isoflavones have been established, but their efficacy may be less than original research purported. However, it may be considered a bonus of habitual soy consumption that blood cholesterol levels would be reduced somewhat. With respect to osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms, animal models do not show any consistent benefit of isoflavones in preventing osteoporosis, and calcium fortification or the use of prescribed medications are likely much better approaches to combat bone loss. However, our animal models of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms may not be entirely representative of the human situation. Perhaps the benefit of isoflavones in cognitive skills and in delaying Alzheimer's disease is an area where they can be of some advantage. However, this field is very recent and requires much more research in both humans and animal models before any definitive benefit can be propounded. On the other hand, isoflavones in moderation are probably not dangerous, as few studies have indicated adverse effects. However, large doses have been shown to increase apoptosis and cell degeneration, and in some cancer regimes, once the cancer has progressed beyond the hormone-dependent stage, high doses of isoflavones may be contraindicated. The prospect of mega-dosing from isoflavone supplements opens a new chapter in the risk assessment of isoflavone consumption. PMID:16918038

  12. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in a major site of e-waste dumping such as West Africa. Therefore, considerations are also given on data gaps possibly fitting a systematic risk assessment of the e-waste health impacts in different subscenarios as well as possible protective factors for exposed subpopulations.

  13. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    PubMed

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy or meat) can only be sustainable with adequate marketing, supply of quality feed, veterinary services, labour, management and control of pollution. Animal health programmes play a keyrole in the proposed system approach. PMID:1502778

  14. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  15. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Carmen ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  16. A descriptive study of visits by animal health specialists in pig farming: type, frequency, and herd-health management factors.

    PubMed

    Enting, J; van de Laak, M J; Tielen, M J; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1998-10-01

    This research was carried out to analyse the visits specialists of the Dutch Animal Health Service made to growing and fattening pig farms. The type and frequency of the visits and identified herd-health management factors that did not meet accepted standards were investigated. In total 373 visit reports were studied. The majority of the visits (n = 306 of 373) were made to investigate the cause of health, welfare, and performance problems ('problem-solving visits'). Respiratory disorders were the main reason for requesting a specialist to assess farm conditions and management (n = 156). In the other 67 of 373 visit reports the specialists screened for herd-health management factors that did not meet standards for the prevention of disease ('screening visits'). For both types of visits, the main factors detected were abrupt changes in feeding regimens (e.g. changes in feed type, feed composition or feed supplier) (37%), inadequate measures to prevent introduction of pathogens by people and trucks (83%), and incorrect adjustment of the ventilation system (58-60%). The specialists focusing on housing-climate management, identified the majority of factors in an equal number irrespective of whether the visit was a problem-solving visit or a screening visit. This implies that even on farms that appear not to have health or performance problems, factors that relate to disease are present and may cause problems sooner or later. Although veterinary practitioners and other farm advisors assist farmers in their management to optimize herd health, the findings of the research suggest that advisors could provide additional support in situations where environmental and managerial factors play a role in pig health and performance. The knowledge of advisors about integrated herd-health management can be broadened by means of textbooks, courses, or computer programs. PMID:9810625

  17. Trans-diagnostic Psychopathology Factors and Sexual Minority Mental Health: Evidence of Disparities and Associations with Minority Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mental health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals has traditionally taken a disorder-by-disorder approach. Recently developed trans-diagnostic approaches provide a new method to frame such investigations; however, trans-diagnostic factors have yet to be applied to sexual minority mental health disparities research. The current study applied this methodology to investigate mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals in a large national probability sample (N = 34,653). Twelve-month diagnoses of 13 common mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were modeled, and multi-group analysis indicated a sexual orientation-invariant trans-diagnostic latent structure. Significant disparities at the latent trans-diagnostic factor level were observed; these factor-level disparities are manifested as observed mental disorder disparities. Gender differences typically seen in trans-diagnostic research were not present between sexual minority women and men. Trans-diagnostic internalizing and externalizing factors were then used as outcomes in a minority stress framework and were positively predicted by lifetime history of sexual orientation-related minority stressors (i.e., discrimination and victimization). Implications for using trans-diagnostic approaches to frame intervention efforts, supplement disorder-by-disorder disparities methodologies, and synthesize piecemeal disparities literatures are discussed. PMID:25530981

  18. Timely Reporting and Interactive Visualization of Animal Health and Slaughterhouse Surveillance Data in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Muellner, Ulrich J.; Vial, Flavie; Wohlfender, Franziska; Hadorn, Daniela; Reist, Martin; Muellner, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess, and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programing skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programing skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences) for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems. PMID:26664974

  19. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Peter M; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L

    2015-05-26

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  20. Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans. PMID:17384781

  1. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  2. Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.

    PubMed

    de Haan, C

    2004-04-01

    In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines the alternative delivery systems that are emerging in the developing world and their strengths and weaknesses. The implications for food safety and trade are specifically highlighted. Also included are the practical experiences of countries, from all along the development continuum, that have introduced alternative systems. This paper deals with implications for the future, and while the growing importance of veterinary care for companion animals is acknowledged, the focus is on veterinary services for food animals. PMID:15200084

  3. Beyond the skeleton: the role of vitamin D in companion animal health.

    PubMed

    Mellanby, R J

    2016-04-01

    While the role of vitamin D in the maintenance of skeletal health has been well-established for many years, the discovery that many non-skeletal tissues express the vitamin D receptor stimulated renewed interest in vitamin D and its wider physiological roles. Subsequently, a vast literature has emerged over the past three decades which has linked vitamin D deficiency to the development of many human diseases including cancer, autoimmune, infectious and cardiovascular disorders. In contrast, the role vitamin D plays in the physiology of non-skeletal tissues in cats and dogs has received little attention. The situation is now starting to change with the publication of several studies that have indicated that vitamin D metabolism is deranged in numerous companion animal disorders. This article reviews the biology of vitamin D in companion animals and highlights some of the recent studies which have advanced understanding of vitamin D homeostasis in cats and dogs. Finally, the essay discusses how a "One Health" approach could further the understanding of vitamin D metabolism in mammals. Investigating vitamin D homoeostasis in companion animals offers many advantages compared to human studies in which vitamin D status is influenced by many more variables. PMID:27000647

  4. "The Maasai Need Cows and the Cows Need Maasai," the Use of a Photovoice Approach to Assess Animal Health Needs.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Frank; Clancy, Eoin; Thomas, Adam; Kutz, Susan; Hatfield, Jennifer; Orsel, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The Maasai pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa depend on their livestock for income and food. Livestock production can be significantly improved by addressing animal health concerns. We explored the use of photovoice, a participatory action research method, to strengthen our understanding of the Maasai's animal health needs. Nine interviewees, representing warriors, elders, and women, identified animal, social, and human health themes. The use of photography provided a new medium for Maasai to express their needs and a focus for researcher-participant communications, thereby facilitating new insights across language and cultural barriers. PMID:26664973

  5. The health preoccupation diagnostic interview: inter-rater reliability of a structured interview for diagnostic assessment of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Wallhed Finn, Daniel; Hedman, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and illness anxiety disorder (IAD) are two new diagnoses introduced in the DSM-5. There is a need for reliable instruments to facilitate the assessment of these disorders. We therefore developed a structured diagnostic interview, the Health Preoccupation Diagnostic Interview (HPDI), which we hypothesized would reliably differentiate between SSD, IAD, and no diagnosis. Persons with clinically significant health anxiety (n = 52) and healthy controls (n = 52) were interviewed using the HPDI. Diagnoses were then compared with those made by an independent assessor, who listened to audio recordings of the interviews. Ratings generally indicated moderate to almost perfect inter-rater agreement, as illustrated by an overall Cohen's κ of .85. Disagreements primarily concerned (a) the severity of somatic symptoms, (b) the differential diagnosis of panic disorder, and (c) SSD specifiers. We conclude that the HPDI can be used to reliably diagnose DSM-5 SSD and IAD. PMID:27096407

  6. Time-scheduled delivery of computer health animations: "Installing" healthy habits of computer use.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sy-Chyi; Chern, Jin-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    The development of modern technology brings convenience to our lives but removes physical activity from our daily routines, thereby putting our lives at risk. Extended computer use may contribute to symptoms such as visual impairment and musculoskeletal disorders. To help reduce the risk of physical inactivity and promote healthier computer use, this study developed a time-scheduled delivery of health-related animations for users sitting in front of computers for prolonged periods. In addition, we examined the effects that the program had on the computer-related health behavior intentions and actions of participants. Two waves of questionnaires were implemented for data collection before and after intervention. The results showed that the animation program indeed had a positive effect on participants' healthy computer use actions in terms of breathtaking, body massages, and body stretches. It also helped to bridge the intention-action gap of the health behaviors. The development and evaluation were documented, and users' experiences/suggestions were discussed at the end. PMID:23715211

  7. Perspectives on Australian animal health aid projects in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2011-10-01

    Future food security poses many challenges and with increasing prosperity and demand for meat, the emerging but largely unregulated trade in livestock and their products from developing countries in South-East Asia and particularly the Mekong region, pose enormous risks of transboundary disease epidemics. However this is a challenge that should be met as substantial improvements in large ruminant production through appropriate knowledge-based interventions can potentially move the largely rural smallholder populations of Lao PDR and Cambodia from subsistence to a productivity focus, offering a new pathway for poverty alleviation. Large development projects have been implemented in the Mekong region to facilitate this process and research is needed to define problems, identify and test solutions, and then suggest the most appropriate delivery mechanisms for promulgating the interventions that are most sustainable. Animal health aid projects are needed to improve livestock productivity, minimize risk to trade and human health and enhance the capacities of countries where there are significant gaps in the provision of veterinary services. Improving large ruminant production, particularly through forages technology and infectious disease risk management including village-level biosecurity, provides a potential driver of foot and mouth disease (FMD) control and eventual eradication in the region. A perspective on issues involved in Australian aid projects addressing regional animal health research and development and a checklist of strategies to consider when designing and managing such projects is provided. PMID:21426534

  8. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  9. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  10. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. PMID:22958252

  11. Detection of small trace molecules in human and animal exhalation by tunable diode lasers for applications in biochemistry and medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Galagan, Marina E.

    1995-02-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, CO2, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is no need for any preliminary preparations of tested samples. Some pairs of the gases, for instance, CO and CO2, NH3 and CO2 and CO and N2O, can be measured simultaneously by one laser providing complex studies. The high sensitive gas analysis could provide necessary background to the noninvasive diagnostics in a wide variety of medical problems. Perspectives of the TDLS methods in application to medicine diagnostics are demonstrated by the first results of exhalation tests.

  12. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeler, Edmund J; Taylor, Nicholas G H

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. PMID:21834990

  13. The implementation of animal welfare standards by Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE): analysis of an OIE questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Stafford, K J; Mellor, D J

    2009-12-01

    A questionnaire on the status of animal welfare legislation and its implementation was distributed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to 172 Member Countries in 2008. Overall, 45% of questionnaires were returned. The response rate varied from 25% in Africa to 69% in Europe. Eighty-seven percent of respondent countries indicated that there was a competent national veterinary authority for animal welfare legislation in their country. In many countries, the authority responsible for the operational implementation of animal welfare legislation appears to be the same as the authority responsible for creating the legislation. Forty-nine (66%) respondents identified a veterinary authority as being responsible for the implementation of animal welfare legislation at a state or provincial level. Most respondent countries indicated that they had legislation covering animal transport (83%), the slaughter of animals for human consumption (91%), the killing of animals for disease control (86%) and dog control (61%). Training courses on animal welfare were available for official veterinarians, private veterinarians, producers and processors in 73%, 44%, 57% and 51% of respondent countries, respectively. Eighty-two percent of respondent countries exported live animals to other countries and 56% of respondent countries indicated that personnel handling animals during transport were aware of OIE standards on animal welfare or other standards. Many European countries require transporters to be trained and certified according to European Union regulations. It was mandatory to stun livestock prior to slaughter in 31% of countries, but in 57% religious exceptions were allowed, and in 8% stunning was not mandatory. The most commonly used method of stunning was mechanical but electrical stunning was also common. It was mandatory to stun livestock prior to killing for disease control in 44% of countries but it was not mandatory in 43%. There was legislation on humane killing in 74% of countries, but in 25% of countries there was no such legislation. The national veterinary authority was responsible for these regulations in most (71%) respondent countries. In 73% of respondent countries the personnel who conducted killing for disease control were generally aware of the domestic legislation for animal welfare. Of all the problems considered, the problem of stray dog management was ranked as 'major' or 'severe' more often than any of the other issues. Killing for disease control was mentioned as a problem by one respondent, but only if services were overwhelmed. In the animal transport section of the questionnaire, long-distance transport was the major issue. Many respondents had no problems with any of these issues. PMID:20462173

  14. 77 FR 42255 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate the Layers 2013 Study, an information collection to support the U.S. poultry...

  15. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  16. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  17. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  18. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  19. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  20. University leadership for innovation in global health and HIV/AIDS diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Palamountain, K M; Stewart, K A; Krauss, A; Kelso, D; Diermeier, D

    2010-01-01

    Medical products used in the developed world often fail to adequately serve resource-limited settings where electricity, transportation and health care workers are not readily available. We suggest that the problem is not only a lack of coordinated financial resources to purchase existing medical products, but also a lack of products that are specifically designed for resource-limited settings. While donor organisations with a focus on global health are increasingly willing to bear the additional financial risk for the research and development of such high-impact medical products, corporations are still reluctant to take their best scientists and engineers away from more commercially attractive projects. Universities, on the other hand, given their teaching and research missions, are well positioned to engage in such high-risk development projects. A group of biomedical, engineering, business and social science researchers at Northwestern University (NU) propose a creative model to address significant social and health needs. The team's initial product focus is a rapid test for diagnosing infants with HIV. The NU model aligns the incentives and expertise of industry, donors and academia to innovate medical products, such as the infant HIV diagnostic test, for resource-limited settings. PMID:20119876

  1. A Model-based Health Monitoring and Diagnostic System for the UH-60 Helicopter. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hindson, William; Sanderfer, Dwight; Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Model-based reasoning techniques hold much promise in providing comprehensive monitoring and diagnostics capabilities for complex systems. We are exploring the use of one of these techniques, which utilizes multi-signal modeling and the TEAMS-RT real-time diagnostic engine, on the UH-60 Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) flight research aircraft. We focus on the engine and transmission systems, and acquire sensor data across the 1553 bus as well as by direct analog-to-digital conversion from sensors to the QHuMS (Qualtech health and usage monitoring system) computer. The QHuMS computer uses commercially available components and is rack-mounted in the RASCAL facility. A multi-signal model of the transmission and engine subsystems enables studies of system testability and analysis of the degree of fault isolation available with various instrumentation suites. The model and examples of these analyses will be described and the data architectures enumerated. Flight tests of this system will validate the data architecture and provide real-time flight profiles to be further analyzed in the laboratory.

  2. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  3. Luminescence-Based Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coating Health and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines designed for higher temperature operation, a diagnostic capability for the health and performance of TBCs will be essential to indicate when a mitigating action needs to be taken before premature TBC failure threatens engine performance or safety. In particular, it is shown that rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers can be integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence emission that can be monitored to assess TBC erosion and delamination progression, and to map surface and subsurface temperatures as a measure of TBC performance. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers are presented.

  4. Assessing the expenditure distribution of animal health surveillance: the case of Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Häsler, B; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2014-01-01

    Animal health surveillance in Great Britain (GB) is conducted through public and private initiatives, yet there is no consolidated information on these activities and their outcomes. We developed an inventory of livestock health surveillance programmes in GB to identify gaps in resource use and potential synergies that could be exploited. The inventory contained details of 36 livestock surveillance activities active in 2011. Data were collected by questionnaire and interviews. Livestock health surveillance funding was found to be unevenly distributed between species: the vast majority (approximately 94 per cent) was spent on cattle diseases (tuberculosis surveillance accounted for most of this expenditure), with 2 per cent on pigs, 2 per cent on sheep/goats, 1 per cent on poultry, and 1 per cent on antimicrobial resistance surveillance across all species. Consequently, surveillance efforts in GB appears heavily skewed towards regions with high cattle densities, particularly high-prevalence tuberculosis areas such as the southwest. The contribution of private schemes to surveillance funding was hard to quantify due to limited access to data, but was estimated to be about 10 per cent. There is scope to better understand the benefits of surveillance, enhance data sharing, clarify costs and identify who pays and who gains. Health surveillance should be considered within the sharing of responsibilities for disease control. PMID:24162504

  5. Two-layer Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) with passive capillary valves for mHealth medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width ≫ height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings. PMID:25626544

  6. An integrated process and management tools for ranking multiple emerging threats to animal health.

    PubMed

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Voller, Fay; Montibeller, Gilberto; Franco, L Alberto; Sribhashyam, Sumitra; Watson, Eamon; Hartley, Matt; Gibbens, Jane C

    2013-02-01

    The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs supports the use of systematic tools for the prioritisation of known and well defined animal diseases to facilitate long and medium term planning of surveillance and disease control activities. The recognition that emerging events were not covered by the existing disease-specific approaches led to the establishment of the Veterinary Risk Group (VRG), constituted of government officials, and supporting structures such as the Risk Management Cycle and the Emerging Threat Highlight Report (ETHiR), to facilitate the identification, reporting and assessment of emerging threats to UK's animal health. Since its inception in November 2009 to the end of February 2011, the VRG reviewed 111 threats and vulnerabilities (T&V) reported through ETHiR. In July 2010 a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria-decision-analysis (MCDA) improved ETHiR to allow the systematic prioritisation of emerging T&V. The DSS allows the regular ranking of emerging T&V by calculating a set of measurement indices related to the actual impact, possible impact on public perception and level of available capabilities associated with every T&V. The systematic characterisation of the processes leading to the assessment of T&V by the VRG has led to a consistent, auditable and transparent approach to the identification and assessment of emerging risks. The regular use of MCDA to manage a portfolio of emerging risks represents a different and novel application of MCDA in a health related context. PMID:22954461

  7. The emerging animal health delivery system in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Bedard, B G; Hunt, T

    2004-04-01

    Livestock production in the People's Republic of China has expanded at an unprecedented rate over the last decade and this trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Government and private sector investment supports this growth, and the fact that small farmers are incorporating more animal husbandry into their work is expected to mitigate some of the concerns over recent World Trade Organization accession, particularly in the more precarious grain growing regions. Modernisation and intensification of the livestock industry in the People's Republic of China is subject to significant risks as regards both infectious and production-related diseases and within the framework of food safety and public health challenges. Although historically, the veterinary service system in the People's Republic of China has been successful in the eradication and control of major disease outbreaks, domestic and international market concerns are providing the catalyst for significant reforms in the animal health delivery system in the country. This paper provides an overview of the existing veterinary system in terms of the education and qualifications of veterinary personnel, delivery mechanisms, and future approaches to reforming the system in the context of a dynamic livestock industry in transition. PMID:15200104

  8. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    PubMed Central

    Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Béla

    2013-01-01

    After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of Escherichia coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development, and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence) among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these “bad genes” in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR) commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the future. PMID:24027562

  9. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY...

  10. Using patient management as a surrogate for patient health outcomes in diagnostic test evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Before a new test is introduced in clinical practice, evidence is needed to demonstrate that its use will lead to improvements in patient health outcomes. Studies reporting test accuracy may not be sufficient, and clinical trials of tests that measure patient health outcomes are rarely feasible. Therefore, the consequences of testing on patient management are often investigated as an intermediate step in the pathway. There is a lack of guidance on the interpretation of this evidence, and patient management studies often neglect a discussion of the limitations of measuring patient management as a surrogate for health outcomes. Methods We discuss the rationale for measuring patient management, describe the common study designs and provide guidance about how this evidence should be reported. Results Interpretation of patient management studies relies on the condition that patient management is a valid surrogate for downstream patient benefits. This condition presupposes two critical assumptions: the test improves diagnostic accuracy; and the measured changes in patient management improve patient health outcomes. The validity of this evidence depends on the certainty around these critical assumptions and the ability of the study design to minimise bias. Three common designs are test RCTs that measure patient management as a primary endpoint, diagnostic before-after studies that compare planned patient management before and after testing, and accuracy studies that are extended to report on the actual treatment or further tests received following a positive and negative test result. Conclusions Patient management can be measured as a surrogate outcome for test evaluation if its limitations are recognised. The potential consequences of a positive and negative test result on patient management should be pre-specified and the potential patient benefits of these management changes clearly stated. Randomised comparisons will provide higher quality evidence about differences in patient management using the new test than observational studies. Regardless of the study design used, the critical assumption that patient management is a valid surrogate for downstream patient benefits or harms must be discussed in these studies. PMID:22333319

  11. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

  12. Use of trainer animals to improve performance and health of newly arrived feedlot calves.

    PubMed

    Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L

    2000-03-01

    Four trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of using trainer animals to improve the health and performance of newly arrived feedlot calves. For all trials, trainer animals were given 3 wk to adapt to the feedlot before arrival of the feeder calves and initiation of the trials. Trainer animals were present with newly received feedlot calves for 14 d after arrival and then were removed from the pens for the remaining 14 d of the experiments. In Trial 1, trainer animals were six crossbred beef steers and six mature cull beef cows. Newly received calves were allotted to 18 pens with 10 calves/pen. Six pens contained a trainer steer and six pens contained a trainer cow. Similar procedures were used for the subsequent three trials, except 12 trainer cows and 24 pens were used, and in Trial 4 half of the calves were allotted to pasture paddocks for 14 d before placement in their feedlot pens. During wk 1 of Trial 1, calves with trainer cows and steers gained weight more rapidly (P < .10) than those without a trainer animal (1.12 vs .67 kg/d, respectively). During wk 2, this trend was reversed and overall gains did not differ (P > .20) among treatment groups. Morbidity was 16.7 for control calves, 28.3% for calves with trainer steers, and 8.3% for calves with trainer cows. Four of six trainer steers required antibiotic treatment for respiratory disease. On d 1, a greater (P < .05) percentage of calves in the trainer cow group (81.7%) were observed eating during the first 30 min after feeding compared with either the steer trainer group (60%) or the control group containing no trainer animal (48.3%). This trend continued on d 2 but was not evident on d 3 or 7. In Trial 2, overall gains were 10% greater (P < .06) and final BW was higher (P < .01) for calves with trainer cows than for those without trainers. Trainer cows resulted in a substantial reduction (P < .01) in calf morbidity compared with calves housed alone. In Trial 3, trainer cows did not improve performance or health of newly received calves. More (P < .07) calves with trainers than without were eating 5 min after feeding on d 1, 2, 4, and 8. In Trial 4, the presence of trainer cows the first 2 wk did not affect (P > .27) gains. However, calves placed on pasture after arrival had lower (P < .03) gains during wk 1 than those housed in the feedlot. Calves placed in pasture paddocks upon arrival had more than twice (P < .01) the incidence of morbidity of those placed directly in the feedlot. In these trials, trainer cows had a significant effect on eating behavior of newly received calves, but health and performance benefits were variable. PMID:10764059

  13. DSM-5, ICD-10, ICD-11, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, and Person-Centered Integrative Diagnosis: An Overview for College Mental Health Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stewart E.

    2014-01-01

    Therapists in the field of college mental health counseling commonly voice an ambivalent orientation towards the utilization of formal psychological diagnostic systems yet often use diagnostic terms. Knowledge of the current and emerging diagnostic systems may contribute to greater syntheses of these differing approaches. This article will first…

  14. [The improvement of the animal health risk analysis system in France].

    PubMed

    Nairaud, D; Prunaux, O

    2003-08-01

    After several decades of gradual improvement in its system for managing health risks, France was confronted in 1996 with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis. This triggered a collective questioning, which highlighted the need to reform a system that had shown its limitations. Risk analysis, established as a key principle by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), was cast as the necessary basis of the reform, objectives of which were to better identify priority risks in order to ensure the protection of human and animal health, and to improve the quality of measures implemented by the public authorities. The Act of 1 July 1998 founded several independent risk assessment agencies, including the French Agency for Food Safety (AFSSA), with the specific mandate of food safety at every stage of the food chain. Other organisational reforms enhanced the new system, notably the separation between the functions of risk management and economic support for food industries, initially at central level, then in 2002 at the level of field services in the 100 French départements. Lastly, new procedures were introduced. These were designed, in accordance with the principles of risk assessment, to better identify and to individualise the different decision-making sequences. The decision-making process was extended to include submission to the agency in charge of evaluating health risks and examination by the agency of the resulting draft decision. PMID:15884580

  15. Deciphering the effects of climate on animal populations: diagnostic analysis provides new interpretation of Soay sheep dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Alan; Lima, Mauricio

    2006-12-01

    Soay sheep on the island of Hirta exhibit periodic population collapses that have been proposed to result from nonlinear interactions between weather, population density, and age structure. Here we employ a diagnostic approach to reanalyze the data from 1985 to 2004 and find that climate mainly affects the equilibrium population size, thus acting as a lateral perturbation. From this, we derive a simple energetic model for a population interacting with its food supply in the presence of variable winter weather. This model explains the strong nonlinearity in the Soay sheep population regulation function and provides a framework for evaluating climatic perturbations. We examined two integrative climatic indexes, one representing effects on forage production and the other representing the severity of winter weather. Results suggest that the latter has the main effect on Soay sheep population dynamics. Models incorporating this variable provided fairly accurate predictions of Soay sheep population fluctuations. The diagnostic approach offers an objective way to develop simple, nonstructured population models that are useful for understanding the causes of population fluctuations and predicting population changes, provided they are based on a careful consideration of the underlying biological and/or ecological mechanisms. PMID:17109320

  16. Development of a novel diagnostic test for detection of bovine viral diarrhea persistently infected animals using hair.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldeep; Miller, Myrna M; Kohrt, Laura J; Scherba, Gail; Garrett, Edgar F; Fredrickson, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus. PMID:21897105

  17. Developmentally-Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: DSM-IV, RDC-PA, and the revised DC: 0-3

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this paper, we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children included DC:0-3, a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infant, toddlers, and preschoolers. We will briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Lastly, we will review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. PMID:21142337

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination features for identifying large rotator cuff tears in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; Taylor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common and disabling complaint. The early diagnosis of medium and large size rotator cuff tears can enhance the prognosis of the patient. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features with the strongest ability to accurately predict the presence of a medium, large or multitendon (MLM) rotator cuff tear in a primary care cohort. Methods: Participants were consecutively recruited from primary health care practices (n = 203). All participants underwent a standardized history and physical examination, followed by a standardized X-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Clinical features associated with the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear were identified (P<0.200), a logistic multiple regression model was derived for identifying a MLM rotator cuff tear and thereafter diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Results: A MLM rotator cuff tear was identified in 24 participants (11.8%). Constant pain and a painful arc in abduction were the strongest predictors of a MLM tear (adjusted odds ratio 3.04 and 13.97 respectively). Combinations of ten history and physical examination variables demonstrated highest levels of sensitivity when five or fewer were positive [100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.00; negative likelihood ratio: 0.00, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28], and highest specificity when eight or more were positive (0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95; positive likelihood ratio 4.66, 95% CI: 2.34–8.74). Discussion: Combinations of patient history and physical examination findings were able to accurately detect the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear. These findings may aid the primary care clinician in more efficient and accurate identification of rotator cuff tears that may require further investigation or orthopedic consultation. PMID:24421626

  19. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  20. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  1. Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Talsness, Chris E.; Andrade, Anderson J. M.; Kuriyama, Sergio N.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Components used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are detected in humans. In addition to their utility in plastics, an inadvertent characteristic of these chemicals is the ability to alter the endocrine system. Phthalates function as anti-androgens while the main action attributed to BPA is oestrogen-like activity. PBDE and TBBPA have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis while PBDEs also exhibit anti-androgen action. Experimental investigations in animals indicate a wide variety of effects associated with exposure to these compounds, causing concern regarding potential risk to human health. For example, the spectrum of effects following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Concentrations of BPA in the foetal mouse within the range of unconjugated BPA levels observed in human foetal blood have produced effects in animal experiments. Finally, thyroid hormones are essential for normal neurological development and reproductive function. Human body burdens of these chemicals are detected with high prevalence, and concentrations in young children, a group particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. PMID:19528057

  2. The importance of multiparasitism: examining the consequences of co-infections for human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Vaumourin, Elise; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Gasqui, Patrick; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Most parasites co-occur with other parasites, although the importance of such multiparasitism has only recently been recognised. Co-infections may result when hosts are independently infected by different parasites at the same time or when interactions among parasite species facilitate co-occurrence. Such interactions can have important repercussions on human or animal health because they can alter host susceptibility, infection duration, transmission risks, and clinical symptoms. These interactions may be synergistic or antagonistic and thus produce diverse effects in infected humans and animals. Interactions among parasites strongly influence parasite dynamics and therefore play a major role in structuring parasite populations (both within and among hosts) as well as host populations. However, several methodological challenges remain when it comes to detecting parasite interactions. The goal of this review is to summarise current knowledge on the causes and consequences of multiparasitism and to discuss the different methods and tools that researchers have developed to study the factors that lead to multiparasitism. It also identifies new research directions to pursue. PMID:26482351

  3. Animal health surveillance: navigation amidst the flotsam of human frailty and fiscal inertia.

    PubMed

    Kellar, J A

    2012-07-01

    National veterinary services monitor endemic, emerging and exotic disease situations. They intervene when epidemic tendencies demand. They unravel complex disease situations. They do so as monopolies, in environments of political influence and budgetary restraint. When human, animal health and trade protection dictate, they design import or domestic disease control programs. As much as 80% of program expenditures are on surveillance. Their initiatives are scrutinized by treasuries from which they seek funding, industries from which they seek collaboration and trading partners from whom they seek recognition. In democracies, surveillance and control programs are often the products of a complicated consultative process. It involves individuals who have both a commitment to improving an existing animal health situation and access to the required resources. The generations that designed traditionally risk-averse national surveillance and control programs have given way to a new one which is more epidemiologically informed. Their successors design programs bearing epidemiologically based improvements. The transition, however, has not been overwhelmingly welcomed. Expenditures on surveillance are tolerated out of fear during outbreaks of foreign or re-emergence of indigenous disease. Between epidemics, they decline at the hands of producers' unwillingness and budgetary restraint. Human nature responds to the high cost of surveillance in forms ranging from naïveté through to conspiracy. While legislation cannot subdue such human frailty, several other opportunities exist. Education can remove the majority of problems caused by ignorance, leaving the minority that arise intentionally. Technology decreases the high cost of testing which tempts individuals to cut corners. International standards assist National Veterinary Services to overcome domestic resistance. PMID:22310236

  4. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as ‘ergot alkaloid intoxication’. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  5. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  6. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Shimaa M G; Ali, Haytham; Chase, Christopher C L; Cepica, Arnost

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities. PMID:25900363

  7. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate change and disease emergence 13 3.4 Outbreak investigations 13 4 Surveillance and surveys 15 4.1 Investigation of disease prevalence 15 4.2 Developments in surveillance methodology 16 4.2.1 Risk-based surveillance and scenario tree modelling 16 4.2.2 Spatial and temporal analysis 16 4.3 Test validation 17 5 Spread, establishment and impact of pathogens 18 5.1 Identifying routes of spread 18 5.1.1 Ex-ante studies of disease spread 19 5.1.2 Ex-post observational studies 21 5.2 Identifying risk factors for disease establishment 23 5.3 Assessing impact at the population level 24 5.3.1 Recording mortality 24 5.3.2 Farm health and production records 26 5.3.3 Assessing the impact of disease in wild populations 27 6 Conclusions 31 7 Competing interests 32 8 Authors' contributions 32 9 Acknowledgements 33 10 References 33 PMID:21834990

  8. The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change.

    PubMed

    Sutherst, R W

    2001-07-01

    The term 'global change' is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A subset of land use issues relates to the management of protective technologies in relation to residues in food and the environment and the emergence of resistance. Another is the question of changing biodiversity of both parasites and their associated natural enemies, and the effects on the host--parasite relationship and on parasite management. A framework for studying impacts of global change is proposed and illustrated with field data, and CLIMEX and simulation modelling of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Parasitology suffers from the perception that the key impacts of global change will be driven by changes at lower trophic levels, with parasitic interactions being treated as secondary effects. This is incorrect because the environment mediates host-parasite interactions as much as it affects parasites directly. Parasitologists need to strive for holistic solutions to the management of animal and human health, within a wider context of overall management of those systems, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to global efforts aimed at coping with global change. PMID:11406142

  9. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

  10. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    PubMed

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance. PMID:25798491

  11. Design and implementation of the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study.

    PubMed

    Losinger, W C; Bush, E J; Hill, G W; Smith, M A; Garber, L P; Rodriguez, J M; Kane, G

    1998-02-27

    The United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study was designed to estimate management, health and productivity parameters on pig operations in the United States. Sixteen major swine-producing states that accounted for nearly 91% of June 1, 1995 swine inventory and nearly three-fourths of United States swine producers were included in the study. In the initial phase of the study, National Agricultural Statistics Service enumerators collected information from 1477 producers involved in all phases of swine production (farrowing, nursery, and grower/finisher). Of these, 405 operations with > or = 300 finisher pigs (with at least one finisher pig > or = 54 kg) participated in the subsequent component of the study, which involved on-farm visits by state and federal veterinary medical officers and animal health technicians, and which concentrated on the grower/finisher phase of production. Of those eligible to take part in the second phase of the study, participation was higher among independent producers (48.3%) than among contract producers (15.3%). Participation was also higher among operations that used advanced record-keeping systems (such as record cards for individual breeding hogs or a computer-based record-keeping system). Thus, study results could have been influenced by response biases. As a biosecurity measure, 40.5 +/- 2.1% of operations restricted entry to employees only. For operations that permitted non-employees to enter the premises, relatively few enforced other biosecurity measures on visitors (0.4 +/- 0.1% required feed-delivery personnel and livestock handlers to shower before entering the premises; 3.3+/- 0.9% required a footbath; and 7.0 +/- 1.5% required feed-delivery personnel and livestock handlers not to have visited another operation with pigs on that day). The most common method of waste storage (used by 49.9 +/- 3.8% of operations with > or = 300 finisher pigs) was below-floor slurry or deep pit. PMID:9604264

  12. PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SWINE FECES BASED ON THE NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM'S SWINE 2000 STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) comprise a serologically diverse group of organisms that have caused disease in humans and animals. In 2000, the USDA's National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted a study carried out by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service with the col...

  13. Parent-reported mental health in preschoolers: findings using a diagnostic interview.

    PubMed

    Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that many preschoolers meet criteria for psychiatric diagnoses; still, relatively little is known about preschool mental health, particularly emotional problems, in the community. This study investigated the rates of parent-reported DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Five hundred forty-one parents were interviewed with the PAPA. Of the children, 27.4% met criteria for a PAPA/DSM-IV diagnosis; 9.2% met criteria for 2 or more diagnoses. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (9.4%), specific phobia (9.1%), and separation anxiety disorder (5.4%) were the most common diagnoses; depression (1.8%), selective mutism (1.5%), and panic disorder (0.2%) were the least common. In addition, there was significant comorbidity/covariation between depression, anxiety, and ODD and between ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratios = 1.81-18.44; P < .05), and significant associations with measures of psychosocial functioning. The stability and clinical significance of diagnoses and patterns of comorbidity must be elucidated in future research. PMID:21683173

  14. Non-Invasive Health Diagnostics using Eye as a 'Window to the Body'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    As a 'window to the body', the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and help develop preventative/therapeutic countermeasures early. The effects of space travel on human body are similar to those of normal aging. For example, radiation exposure in space could lead to formation of cataracts and cancer by damaging the DNA and causing gene mutation. Additionally, the zero-gravity environment causes fluid shifts in the upper extremities of the body and changes the way blood flows and organ system performs. Here on Earth, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are major eye diseases and are expected to double in next two decades. To detect, prevent, and treat untoward effects of prolonged space travel in real-time requires the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. We are developing fiber-optic sensors to evaluate the ocular tissues in health, aging, and disease employing the techniques of dynamic light scattering (cataract, uveitis, Alzheimer's, glaucoma, DR, radiation damage, refractive surgery outcomes), auto-fluorescence (aging, DR), laser-Doppler flowmetry (choroidal blood flow), Raman spectroscopy (AMD), polarimetry (diabetes), and retinal oximetry (occult blood loss). The non-invasive feature of these technologies integrated in a head-mounted/goggles-like device permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling evaluation of the results to therapy that may ultimately be useful in various telemedicine applications on Earth and in space.

  15. Saliva--a diagnostic window to the body, both in health and in disease.

    PubMed

    Greabu, Maria; Battino, Maurizio; Mohora, Maria; Totan, Alexandra; Didilescu, Andreea; Spinu, Tudor; Totan, Cosmin; Miricescu, Daniela; Radulescu, Radu

    2009-01-01

    Saliva, the most available and non-invasive biofluid of the human body, permanently "bathes" the oral cavity and is trying to cope with an ever-changing milieu. The oral cavity, a very complex and unique milieu due to its dual function, is the only place in the body where the mineralized tissue is exposed to the external environment in which there are complex interactions between various surfaces: host soft and hard tissues, food, air, and microorganisms. Saliva includes a large number of inorganic and organic compounds, which act as a "mirror of the body's health." In addition to its other functions, saliva could constitute the first line of defense against oxidative stress. Due to its composition and functions, saliva could have a significant role in controlling and/or modulating oxidative damages in the oral cavity. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers distinctive advantages over serum. Furthermore, saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for the screening of large populations. Gland-specific saliva can be used for diagnosis of pathology specific to one of the major salivary glands. Whole saliva, however, is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases. As we enter the era of genomic medicine, sialochemistry will play an increasingly important role in the early detection, the monitoring and progression of the systemic and oral diseases. We reviewed the current data within literature and of our research concerning clinical potential of the saliva. PMID:20108531

  16. Neural Network Based State of Health Diagnostics for an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2009-05-13

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSA’s complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.

  17. Neural-network-based state of health diagnostics for an automated radioxenon sampler/analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2009-05-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSA's complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.

  18. Escaping the Golden Cage: Animal Models of Eating Disorders in the Post-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Era.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Michael; Croghan, Anna E; Cui, Huxing

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are severe, life-threatening mental illnesses characterized by marked disturbances in body image and eating patterns. Attempts to understand the neurobiological basis of EDs have been hindered by the perception that EDs are primarily socially reinforced behaviors and not the result of a pathophysiologic process. This view is reflected by the diagnostic criteria of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, which emphasize intrapsychic conflicts such as "inability to maintain body weight," "undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation," and "denial of the seriousness of low body weight" over neuropsychological measures. The neuropsychological constructs introduced within the research domain criteria (RDoC) matrix offer new hope for determining the neural substrate underlying the biological predisposition to EDs. We present selected studies demonstrating deficits in patients with EDs within each domain of the RDoC and propose a set of behavioral tasks in model systems that reflect aspects of that deficit. Finally, we propose a battery of tasks to examine comprehensively the function of neural circuits relevant to the development of EDs. PMID:25777657

  19. Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology. PMID:24092400

  20. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial collaboration are crucial to achieve the goal of rabies-free status in Taiwan. PMID:26162074

  1. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health. Part I: Moving beyond pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Riviere, J E; Gabrielsson, J; Fink, M; Mochel, J

    2016-06-01

    The application of mathematical modeling to problems in animal health has a rich history in the form of pharmacokinetic modeling applied to problems in veterinary medicine. Advances in modeling and simulation beyond pharmacokinetics have the potential to streamline and speed-up drug research and development programs. To foster these goals, a series of manuscripts will be published with the following goals: (i) expand the application of modeling and simulation to issues in veterinary pharmacology; (ii) bridge the gap between the level of modeling and simulation practiced in human and veterinary pharmacology; (iii) explore how modeling and simulation concepts can be used to improve our understanding of common issues not readily addressed in human pharmacology (e.g. breed differences, tissue residue depletion, vast weight ranges among adults within a single species, interspecies differences, small animal species research where data collection is limited to sparse sampling, availability of different sampling matrices); and (iv) describe how quantitative pharmacology approaches could help understanding key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of a drug candidate, with the goal of providing explicit, reproducible, and predictive evidence for optimizing drug development plans, enabling critical decision making, and eventually bringing safe and effective medicines to patients. This study introduces these concepts and introduces new approaches to modeling and simulation as well as clearly articulate basic assumptions and good practices. The driving force behind these activities is to create predictive models that are based on solid physiological and pharmacological principles as well as adhering to the limitations that are fundamental to applying mathematical and statistical models to biological systems. PMID:26592724

  2. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16–December 28, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010–July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial collaboration are crucial to achieve the goal of rabies-free status in Taiwan. PMID:26162074

  3. Secular trends in diagnostic code density in electronic healthcare data from health care systems in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project.

    PubMed

    Hechter, Rulin C; Qian, Lei; Sy, Lina S; Greene, Sharon K; Weintraub, Eric S; Naleway, Allison L; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Donahue, James G; Daley, Matthew F; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Lugg, Marlene M; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Large observational vaccine safety studies often use automated diagnoses extracted from medical care databases to identify pre-specified potential adverse events following immunization (AEFI). We assessed the secular trends and variability in the number of diagnoses per encounter regardless of immunization status referred as diagnostic code density, by healthcare setting, age, and pre-specified condition in eight large health care systems of the Vaccine Safety Datalink project during 2001-2009. An increasing trend in diagnostic code density was observed in all healthcare settings and age groups, with variations across the sites. Sudden increases in diagnostic code density were observed at certain sites when changes in coding policies or data inclusion criteria took place. When vaccine safety studies use an historical comparator, the increased diagnostic code density over time may generate low expected rates (based on historical data) and high observed rates (based on current data), suggesting a false positive association between a vaccine and AEFI. The ongoing monitoring of the diagnostic code density can provide guidance on study design and choice of appropriate comparison groups. It can also be used to ensure data quality and allow timely correction of errors in an active safety surveillance system. PMID:23267842

  4. Enteric Viruses of Humans and Animals in Aquatic Environments: Health Risks, Detection, and Potential Water Quality Assessment Tools

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Lipp, Erin K.

    2005-01-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses threaten both human and animal health. These pathogens are host specific and cause a wide range of diseases and symptoms in humans or other animals. While considerable research has documented the risk of enteric viruses to human health from contact with contaminated water, the current bacterial indicator-based methods for evaluation of water quality are often ineffectual proxies for pathogenic viruses. Additionally, relatively little work has specifically investigated the risk of waterborne viruses to animal health, and this risk currently is not addressed by routine water quality assessments. Nonetheless, because of their host specificity, enteric viruses can fulfill a unique role both for assessing health risks and as measures of contamination source in a watershed, yet the use of animal, as well as human, host-specific viruses in determining sources of fecal pollution has received little attention. With improved molecular detection assays, viruses from key host groups can be targeted directly using PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. A multispecies viral analysis would provide needed information for controlling pollution by source, determining human health risks based on assessments of human virus loading and exposure, and determining potential risks to production animal health and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic pathogens. While there is a need to better understand the prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, the development of improved methods for specific and sensitive detection will facilitate the use of these microbes for library-independent source tracking and water quality assessment tools. PMID:15944460

  5. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in swine: implications for animal production and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Astiz, S; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Torres-Rovira, L; Barbero, A; Ayuso, M; Garcia-Contreras, C; Vazquez-Gomez, M

    2016-07-01

    The concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) addresses, from a large set of epidemiological evidences in human beings and translational studies in animal models, both the importance of genetic predisposition and the determinant role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on adult morphomics and homeostasis. Compelling evidences suggest that both overnutrition and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome and therefore its phenotype during prenatal and postnatal life. In fact, the DOHaD concept is an extreme shift in the vision of the factors conditioning adult phenotype and supposes a drastic change from a gene-centric perspective, only modified by lifestyle and nutritional strategies during juvenile development and adulthood, to a more holistic approach in which environmental, parental, and prenatal conditions are strongly determining postnatal development and homeostasis. The implications of DOHaD are profound in all the mammalian species and the present review summarizes current knowledge on causes and consequences of DOHaD in pigs, both for meat production and as a well-recognized model for biomedicine research. PMID:27238437

  6. The Awareness of Health Professionals in Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Parasites in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, AI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of intestinal parasites still depends on conventional methods in Gaza strip hospitals and private laboratories. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the opinion and the practice of physicians and medical laboratories technologists towards the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out during the period from August 2006 to December 2006. All the subjects during this period were eligible for the interview. The sample size included 371 individuals out of them 270 physicians and 101 medical laboratory technologists (MLTs). Simple random sampling was used to select the physicians and MLTs from eight hospitals and eleven primary health-care centers. Results: It was found that (57.8%) 156/270 of physicians depend on the direct smear microscopy in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza, compared to (31.7% (32/101) of MLT. Knowledge about the possible correlation of occult blood with reasons other than the presence of intestinal parasites was evident among both physicians and MLTs, reaching over 80% (P = 0.08). It was found that (54.4%, 147/270) of physicians and (73.3%. 74/101) of MLTs depend on wet mount result for of Entamoeba histolytica diagnosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Low awareness was found among both physicians and MLT regarding the diagnostic techniques used in the examination of intestinal parasites in Gaza Strip. Prescription of medicine by physicians sometimes depends on the clinical picture without laboratory confirmation. Advanced techniques were less used in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. PMID:24669336

  7. Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments’ responses, and barriers to involvement. Results Health departments’ roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health. PMID:23382947

  8. Animal health aspects of adaptation to climate change: beating the heat and parasites in a warming Europe.

    PubMed

    Skuce, P J; Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J; Mitchell, M

    2013-06-01

    Weather patterns in northern European regions have changed noticeably over the past several decades, featuring warmer, wetter weather with more extreme events. The climate is projected to continue on this trajectory for the foreseeable future, even under the most modest warming scenarios. Such changes will have a significant impact on livestock farming, both directly through effects on the animals themselves, and indirectly through changing exposure to pests and pathogens. Adaptation options aimed at taking advantage of new opportunities and/or minimising the risks of negative impacts will, in themselves, have implications for animal health and welfare. In this review, we consider the potential consequences of future intensification of animal production, challenges associated with indoor and outdoor rearing of animals and aspects of animal transportation as key examples. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the epidemiology of important livestock pathogens, with a particular focus on parasitic infections, and the likely animal health consequences associated with selected adaptation options. Finally, we attempt to identify key gaps in our knowledge and suggest future research priorities. PMID:23739475

  9. A novel diagnostic technique to determine uterine health of Holstein cows at 35 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Knauer, W A; Bicalho, M L S; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2012-03-01

    The objectives were (1) to evaluate the association of uterine lavage sample optical density (ULSOD) with uterine health, and (2) to estimate and evaluate a threshold value that will maximize the accuracy of ULSOD as a diagnostic tool for clinical endometritis. The study enrolled 1,742 cows from 3 dairy farms located near Ithaca, New York. The samples were collected at 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) by using low-volume uterine lavage. Cows with a purulent or mucopurulent secretion in the sample were diagnosed with clinical endometritis, whereas a subgroup of all studied cows was examined for cytological evidence of inflammation by endometrial cytology. Data for ULSOD measured at different wavelengths (200, 352, 620, 790, 860, and 960 nm) were available for 554 cows; all 1,742 cows had data for ULSOD measured at 620 nm (ULSOD(620)). Incidences of clinical endometritis, metritis, and retained placenta were 10, 15.2, and 5.6%, respectively. The ULSOD(620) was associated with clinical endometritis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the accuracy of optical density in the detection of clinical endometritis was conducted for ULSOD measured at different wavelengths; ULSOD(620) was selected for further analysis because it presented the best ROC curve to detect clinical endometritis. The recommended threshold for ULSOD(620) ROC was 0.058, where the sensitivity and specificity were 76.3 and 78.3%, respectively. The ROC analysis of the accuracy of optical density in the detection of endometritis defined as a percentage of neutrophils in the uterine lavage samples higher than 18% was conducted for ULSOD(620). The recommended threshold was 0.059, where the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 82.2%, respectively. Cows with ULSOD(620) ≤ 0.058 were 1.21 times more likely to conceive than cows with ULSOD(620) >0.058; moreover, the median calving-to-conception interval for cows that had ULSOD(620) ≤ 0.058 was 122 d compared with 148 d for cows that had ULSOD(620) >0.058. Cows that were positive for Arcanobacterium pyogenes, diagnosed with metritis, or had retained placenta had 4.0, 1.4, and 1.7 times higher odds of having ULSOD(620) >0.058, respectively. Cows with ULSOD(620) >0.058 had a higher percentage of neutrophils in the uterine lavage samples than cows with ULSOD(620) ≤ 0.058. Uterine lavage sample optical density measured at 620 nm can be used as an objective indicator of uterine health in dairy cows, principally for clinical endometritis. PMID:22365216

  10. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  11. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  12. FATE OF DIETARY PERCHLORATE IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS: RELEVANCE TO ANIMAL HEALTH AND LEVELS IN THE MILK SUPPLY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for fiv...

  13. An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

  14. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    PubMed

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647

  15. Animal models for some important RNA viruses of public health concern in SEARO countries: viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Badole, Sachin L; Yadav, Pragya D; Patil, Dilip R; Mourya, Devendra T

    2015-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are major public health problems in the South-East Asia Regional (SEAR) countries. VHFs are a group of illnesses; that are caused by four families of viruses, viz. Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae. All VHFs have common features: they affect several organs and damage the blood vessels. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage. To understand pathogenesis, genetic and environmental influence that increase the risk of VHFs, efficacy and safety studies on candidate vaccines and testing of various therapeutic agents, appropriate animal models are essential tools in public and animals health. In the current review, the suitable animal models for Flavivirus [Dengue hemorhagic fever (DHF), Kyasanur forest disease (KFD)]; Bunyavirus [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), Hantavirus fever (HF)]; and Paramyxovirus [Nipah virus fever (NiV)] have been reviewed with specific emphasis on emerging and reemerging viruses in SEAR countries. PMID:25815861

  16. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances. PMID:20128464

  17. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. PMID:22769234

  18. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer for Mission Critical Health Monitoring of Aircraft and Spacecraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John; Tokars, Roger; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, M. Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A self diagnostic accelerometer system has been shown to be sensitive to multiple failure modes of charge mode accelerometers. These failures include sensor structural damage, an electrical open circuit and most importantly sensor detachment. In this paper, experimental work that was performed to determine the capabilities of a self diagnostic accelerometer system while operating in the presence of various levels of mechanical noise, emulating real world conditions, is presented. The results show that the system can successfully conduct a self diagnostic routine under these conditions.

  19. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security. PMID:26989765

  20. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security. PMID:26989765

  1. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community

    PubMed Central

    Awosanya, Emmanuel J.; Akande, H. O.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5%) were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70%) who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7%) engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42) had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%); ectoparasites (81%) and vaccination against diseases (73.8%). Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1%) have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3%) was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%), the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04) with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. Conclusion: The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza. PMID:27047163

  2. 9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (6) Surveillance. (7) Diagnostic laboratory capabilities. (8) Emergency preparedness and response. (c... disease must not have been reported in domestic livestock for at least the past 25 years and must not...

  3. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  4. Physical and mental health outcomes of prenatal maternal stress in human and animal studies: a review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, Hind; Saftlas, Audrey F

    2008-09-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in the offspring through experimental studies using animal models and epidemiological studies of human populations. The purpose of this review article is to establish a parallel between animal and human studies, while focusing on methodological issues and gaps in knowledge. The review examines the quality of recent evidence for prevailing PNMS theoretical models, namely the biopsychosocial model for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the fetal programming model for chronic diseases. The investigators used PubMed (2000-06) to identify recently published original articles in the English language literature. A total of 103 (60 human and 43 animal) studies were examined. Most human studies originated from developed countries, thus limiting generalisability to developing nations. Most animal studies were conducted on non-primates, rendering extrapolation of findings to pregnant women less straightforward. PNMS definition and measurement were heterogeneous across studies examining similar research questions, thus precluding the conduct of meta-analyses. In human studies, physical health outcomes were often restricted to birth complications while mental health outcomes included postnatal developmental disorders and psychiatric conditions in children, adolescents and adults. Diverse health outcomes were considered in animal studies, some being useful models for depression, schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in human populations. The overall evidence is consistent with independent effects of PNMS on perinatal and postnatal outcomes. Intervention studies and large population-based cohort studies combining repeated multi-dimensional and standardised PNMS measurements with biomarkers of stress are needed to further understand PNMS aetiology and pathophysiology in human populations. PMID:18782252

  5. 9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....g., is it passive and/or active; what is the quantity and quality of sampling and testing? (10... received, it will make a final decision on what conditions will be necessary to allow the importation in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for recognition of...

  6. 7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... activities necessary to prevent, detect, control or eradicate foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal...; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and develop... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1544). (18) Executive Order 11987, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 116. (19) Section...

  7. 9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....g., is it passive and/or active; what is the quantity and quality of sampling and testing? (10... received, it will make a final decision on what conditions will be necessary to allow the importation in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for recognition of...

  8. 7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... activities necessary to prevent, detect, control or eradicate foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal...; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and develop... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1544). (18) Executive Order 11987, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 116. (19) Section...

  9. 7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... activities necessary to prevent, detect, control or eradicate foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal...; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and develop... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1544). (18) Executive Order 11987, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 116. (19) Section...

  10. 7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... activities necessary to prevent, detect, control or eradicate foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign animal...; inspection, testing, treatment, and certification of animals; and a program to investigate and develop... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1544). (18) Executive Order 11987, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 116. (19) Section...

  11. Service program diagnostics and decision support technology for improving health technology service efficiency and productivity.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, D F

    1998-01-01

    Our in-depth survey of both the state of the art and the results of application, implementation, and rollout of problem resolution diagnostics in control help desks and field service clearly shows the potential of online remote diagnostics technology (Figure 9) to improve service force productivity and efficiency and to make more effective use of service resources (people and parts). Our survey of the current and planned future expenditures for diagnostics used in field service clearly indicates that the overall service diagnostics market is currently sizable, in the range of $2 billion as of 1997, and is projected to grow to approximately $2.6 billion by 2000. This current expenditure and growth will occur primarily in the electronics arena, but there are still substantial development and application investments occurring in both electromechanical and mechanical areas. We believe that the pace of investment will fall off as the service industry shifts from development and experimental research to the application and rollout of standard off-the-shelf technology. Thus, the overall pattern of the diagnostics market indicates a continuing increase in expenditures by the field service industry for electronics-oriented service diagnostics and some increase with respect to use of this technology in electromechanical and mechanical applications. The application and use of diagnostics technology will also be affected by the ability of the field service management community to recognize the need to search for an optimum as opposed to a feasible solution to dispatch, assignment, call screening, call avoidance, and logistics deployment. The further rollout of affordable wireless communications technology such as Ardis and Ram mobile and the new cellular-based CPDP technology, coupled with the increased availability of inexpensive wireless-based laptops, portables, and CD-ROM-based problem resolution and diagnostics technology clearly shows the value of this technology in improving service productivity, efficiency, and profitability. As we move from very expensive academically and research and development-oriented diagnostics applications to the purchase and use of off-the-shelf software and predeveloped knowledge bases, it is clear that this technology will be broadly applied. PMID:9739473

  12. [Impact on public health of quinolone resistance in animal-origin bacteria].

    PubMed

    Orden Gutiérrez, J A; de la Fuente López, R

    2001-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most useful classes of antimicrobial agents used in human and animal medicine today, both because of their spectrum and their physicochemical properties. The use of quinolones in animals is a matter of special concern because it could contribute to the acquisition of resistance in foodborn bacteria (such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and this, in turn, could lead to a reduction in the efficacy of such compounds in treating infections in humans. However, the causal relationship between the use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine and the isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in humans has not been generally proven and, moreover, the use of fluoroquinolones in animals is only one of the many factors implicated in the resistance to these antimicrobials. Even so, the surveillance of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and foods and the prudent use of these antimicrobials in animals should have the highest priority. PMID:11693069

  13. The association between proximity to animal-feeding operations and community health: a protocol for updating a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlots to house 50,000 cattle, and poultry houses to house 250,000 hens. There is primary research that suggests livestock facilities that confine animals indoors for feeding can represent a health hazard for surrounding communities. In this protocol, we describe a review about the association between proximity to animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals in nearby communities. A systematic review of the topic was published by some members of our group in 2010. The purpose of this review is to update that review. Methods/Design The populations of interest are people living in communities near livestock production facilities. Outcomes of interest are any health outcome measured in humans such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, and mental health. Measures of antibiotic resistance in people from the communities compared to measures of resistance found in animals and the environment on animal-feeding operations will also be summarized. The exposure of interest will be exposure to livestock production using a variety of metrics such as distance from facilities, endotoxin levels, and measures of odor. Electronic searches will be conducted using MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process (via OvidSP), CAB Abstracts (via Web of Knowledge), and Science Citation Index (via Web of Knowledge). No language or date restriction will be applied. We will access the risk of bias using a pilot version of a tool developed by the Methods Groups of the Cochrane Collaboration for non-randomized interventions. We propose to conduct a meta-analysis for each health metric (e.g., combining all respiratory disease outcomes, combining all gastrointestinal outcomes). A planned subgroup analysis will be based on the domains of the risk of bias. Discussion This systematic review will provide synthesis of current evidence reporting the association between living near an animal-feeding operation and human health. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010521 PMID:25200608

  14. The Microbiome: The Trillions of Microorganisms That Maintain Health and Cause Disease in Humans and Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, A; Proctor, L M; Surette, M G; Suchodolski, J S

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome is the complex collection of microorganisms, their genes, and their metabolites, colonizing the human and animal mucosal surfaces, digestive tract, and skin. It is now well known that the microbiome interacts with its host, assisting in digestion and detoxification, supporting immunity, protecting against pathogens, and maintaining health. Studies published to date have demonstrated that healthy individuals are often colonized with different microbiomes than those with disease involving various organ systems. This review covers a brief history of the development of the microbiome field, the main objectives of the Human Microbiome Project, and the most common microbiomes inhabiting the human respiratory tract, companion animal digestive tract, and skin in humans and companion animals. The main changes in the microbiomes in patients with pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous lesions are described. PMID:26220947

  15. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended. PMID:26631396

  16. 76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    .../or active; what is the quantity and quality of sampling and testing? Diagnostic laboratory... believe it is advisable to clarify further what information is necessary for APHIS to initiate an... would not be applicable or necessary. An example of this would be some of the information...

  17. Multi-omic data integration and analysis using systems genomics approaches: methods and applications in animal production, health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, there has been a remarkable development of high-throughput omics (HTO) technologies such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics across all facets of biology. This has spearheaded the progress of the systems biology era, including applications on animal production and health traits. However, notwithstanding these new HTO technologies, there remains an emerging challenge in data analysis. On the one hand, different HTO technologies judged on their own merit are appropriate for the identification of disease-causing genes, biomarkers for prevention and drug targets for the treatment of diseases and for individualized genomic predictions of performance or disease risks. On the other hand, integration of multi-omic data and joint modelling and analyses are very powerful and accurate to understand the systems biology of healthy and sustainable production of animals. We present an overview of current and emerging HTO technologies each with a focus on their applications in animal and veterinary sciences before introducing an integrative systems genomics framework for analysing and integrating multi-omic data towards improved animal production, health and welfare. We conclude that there are big challenges in multi-omic data integration, modelling and systems-level analyses, particularly with the fast emerging HTO technologies. We highlight existing and emerging systems genomics approaches and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of the biology of complex traits or diseases and holistic improvement of production performance, disease resistance and welfare. PMID:27130220

  18. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions.

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, R O

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. PMID:6186479

  19. Impact of heat stress on health and performance of dairy animals: A review.

    PubMed

    Das, Ramendra; Sailo, Lalrengpuii; Verma, Nishant; Bharti, Pranay; Saikia, Jnyanashree; Imtiwati; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    Sustainability in livestock production system is largely affected by climate change. An imbalance between metabolic heat production inside the animal body and its dissipation to the surroundings results to heat stress (HS) under high air temperature and humid climates. The foremost reaction of animals under thermal weather is increases in respiration rate, rectal temperature and heart rate. It directly affect feed intake thereby, reduces growth rate, milk yield, reproductive performance, and even death in extreme cases. Dairy breeds are typically more sensitive to HS than meat breeds, and higher producing animals are, furthermore, susceptible since they generates more metabolic heat. HS suppresses the immune and endocrine system thereby enhances susceptibility of an animal to various diseases. Hence, sustainable dairy farming remains a vast challenge in these changing climatic conditions globally. PMID:27057109

  20. Impact of heat stress on health and performance of dairy animals: A review

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ramendra; Sailo, Lalrengpuii; Verma, Nishant; Bharti, Pranay; Saikia, Jnyanashree; Imtiwati; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability in livestock production system is largely affected by climate change. An imbalance between metabolic heat production inside the animal body and its dissipation to the surroundings results to heat stress (HS) under high air temperature and humid climates. The foremost reaction of animals under thermal weather is increases in respiration rate, rectal temperature and heart rate. It directly affect feed intake thereby, reduces growth rate, milk yield, reproductive performance, and even death in extreme cases. Dairy breeds are typically more sensitive to HS than meat breeds, and higher producing animals are, furthermore, susceptible since they generates more metabolic heat. HS suppresses the immune and endocrine system thereby enhances susceptibility of an animal to various diseases. Hence, sustainable dairy farming remains a vast challenge in these changing climatic conditions globally. PMID:27057109

  1. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  2. Transforming the blood glucose meter into a general healthcare meter for in vitro diagnostics in mobile health.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile network and smartphones have provided an enormous opportunity for transforming in vitro diagnostics (IVD) from central labs to home or other points of care (POC). A major challenge to achieving the goal is a long time and high costs associated with developing POC IVD devices in mobile Health (mHealth). Instead of developing a new POC device for every new IVD target, we and others are taking advantage of decades of research, development, engineering and continuous improvement of the blood glucose meter (BGM), including those already integrated with smartphones, and transforming the BGM into a general healthcare meter for POC IVDs of a wide range of biomarkers, therapeutic drugs and other analytical targets. In this review, we summarize methods to transduce and amplify selective binding of targets by antibodies, DNA/RNA aptamers, DNAzyme/ribozymes and protein enzymes into signals such as glucose or NADH that can be measured by commercially available BGM, making it possible to adapt many clinical assays performed in central labs, such as immunoassays, aptamer/DNAzyme assays, molecular diagnostic assays, and enzymatic activity assays onto BGM platform for quantification of non-glucose targets for a wide variety of IVDs in mHealth. PMID:26946282

  3. Effect of 3D animation videos over 2D video projections in periodontal health education among dental students

    PubMed Central

    Dhulipalla, Ravindranath; Marella, Yamuna; Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Nagamani, Penupothu; Talada, Kishore; Kakarlapudi, Anusha

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence about the distinguished effect of 3D oral health education videos over conventional 2 dimensional projections in improving oral health knowledge. This randomized controlled trial was done to test the effect of 3 dimensional oral health educational videos among first year dental students. Materials and Methods: 80 first year dental students were enrolled and divided into two groups (test and control). In the test group, 3D animation and in the control group, regular 2D video projections pertaining to periodontal anatomy, etiology, presenting conditions, preventive measures and treatment of periodontal problems were shown. Effect of 3D animation was evaluated by using a questionnaire consisting of 10 multiple choice questions given to all participants at baseline, immediately after and 1month after the intervention. Clinical parameters like Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) were measured at baseline and 1 month follow up. Results: A significant difference in the post intervention knowledge scores was found between the groups as assessed by unpaired t-test (p<0.001) at baseline, immediate and after 1 month. At baseline, all the clinical parameters in the both the groups were similar and showed a significant reduction (p<0.001)p after 1 month, whereas no significant difference was noticed post intervention between the groups. Conclusion: 3D animation videos are more effective over 2D videos in periodontal disease education and knowledge recall. The application of 3D animation results also demonstrate a better visual comprehension for students and greater health care outcomes. PMID:26759805

  4. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  5. Pleuromutilins: use in food-producing animals in the European Union, development of resistance and impact on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Pringle, Märit; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; Jukes, Helen; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança Matias Ferreira; Pyörälä, Satu; Rantala, Merja; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

    2014-08-01

    Pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin) are antimicrobial agents that are used mainly in veterinary medicine, especially for swine and to a lesser extent for poultry and rabbits. In pigs, tiamulin and valnemulin are used to treat swine dysentery, spirochaete-associated diarrhoea, porcine proliferative enteropathy, enzootic pneumonia and other infections where Mycoplasma is involved. There are concerns about the reported increases in the MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin for porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from different European countries, as only a limited number of antimicrobials are available for the treatment of swine dysentery where resistance to these antimicrobials is already common and widespread. The loss of pleuromutilins as effective tools to treat swine dysentery because of further increases in resistance or as a consequence of restrictions would present a considerable threat to pig health, welfare and productivity. In humans, only one product containing pleuromutilins (retapamulin) is authorized currently for topical use; however, products for oral and intravenous administration to humans with serious multidrug-resistant skin infections and respiratory infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are being developed. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the usage of pleuromutilins, resistance development and the potential impact of this resistance on animal and human health. PMID:24793902

  6. Smart technologies for detecting animal welfare status and delivering health remedies for rangeland systems.

    PubMed

    Rutter, S M

    2014-04-01

    Although the emerging field of precision livestock farming (PLF) is predominantly associated with intensive animal production, there is increasing interest in applying smart technologies in extensive rangeland systems. Precision livestock farming technologies bring the possibility of closely monitoring the behaviour, liveweight and other parameters of individual animals in free-ranging systems. 'Virtual fencing', ideally based on positive reinforcement, i.e. rewarding animals for moving in a specified direction, has the potential to gently guide foraging livestock towards areas of vegetation identified by remote sensing. As well as reducing hunger, this could be integrated with weather forecasting to help ensure that animals are automatically directed to areas with appropriate shelter when adverse weather is forecast. The system could also direct animals towards handling facilities when required, reducing the fear and distress associated with being mustered. The integration of the various data collected by such a 'virtual shepherd' system should be able to rapidly detect disease and injury, and sick animals could then be automatically shepherded to an enclosure for treatment. In general, rangeland livestock already have the freedom to express normal behaviour, but PLF technologies could facilitate this. By bringing levels of monitoring and control normally associated with intensive production to rangeland systems, PLF has the potential, with appropriate adoption, to enhance the capacity of rangeland livestock production systems to meet key areas of welfare concern highlighted by the Five Freedoms. PMID:25000790

  7. Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an imag...

  8. Evolution of the cooperation between the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    PubMed

    Berlingieri, F; Bruno, A; Njeumi, F; Cavirani, S

    2007-12-01

    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization recognises the international standards adopted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in matters of animal health and zoonoses and those adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the Commission) in matters of food safety. The importance of the production phase in ensuring food safety has been acknowledged and the OIE and the Commission have been working to strengthen their cooperation since 2001, with the intent of promoting a holistic approach to the food chain. Procedures for exchanging information are in place, communication has improved and there is cross-referencing between the respective international standards of the two organisations. Good examples of collaboration in the development of standards include the texts produced by the two organisations regarding meat inspection and animal/product identification and traceability. At the same time, there is still room for improving cooperation and the legal services of the OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization are expected to work together to find options for closer collaboration between the OIE and the Commission. PMID:18293609

  9. A review of RT-PCR technologies used in veterinary virology and disease control: sensitive and specific diagnosis of five livestock diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin; Reid, Scott M; Mertens, Peter; Oura, Chris A L; van Rijn, Piet A; Slomka, Marek J; Banks, Jill; Brown, Ian H; Alexander, Dennis J; King, Donald P

    2009-10-20

    Real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods in the field of molecular diagnostics and research. The potential of this format to provide sensitive, specific and swift detection and quantification of viral RNAs has made it an indispensable tool for state-of-the-art diagnostics of important human and animal viral pathogens. Integration of these assays into automated liquid handling platforms for nucleic acid extraction increases the rate and standardisation of sample throughput and decreases the potential for cross-contamination. The reliability of these assays can be further enhanced by using internal controls to validate test results. Based on these advantageous characteristics, numerous robust rRT-PCRs systems have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. Here, we review the rRT-PCR assays that have been developed for the detection of five RNA viruses that cause diseases that are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), namely: foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bluetongue disease, avian influenza and Newcastle disease. The performance of these tests for viral diagnostics and disease control and prospects for improved strategies in the future are discussed. PMID:19497689

  10. Health-seeking behaviour, diagnostics and transmission dynamics in the control of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Medley, Graham F; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Olliaro, Piero L; Adams, Emily R

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Indian subcontinent have committed to reducing the incidence of kala-azar, a clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis, to below 1 in 10,000 by 2020. We address the role of timing of use and accuracy of diagnostics in kala-azar control and elimination. We use empirical data on health-seeking behaviour and health-system performance from the Indian state of Bihar, Bangladesh and Nepal to parameterize a mathematical model. Diagnosis of cases is key to case management, control and surveillance. Treatment of cases prevents onward transmission, and we show that the differences in time to diagnosis in these three settings explain the observed differences in incidence. Shortening the time from health-care seeking to diagnosis is likely to lead to dramatic reductions in incidence in Bihar, bringing the incidence down to the levels seen in Bangladesh and Nepal. The results emphasize the importance of maintaining population and health-system awareness, particularly as transmission and disease incidence decline. We explore the possibility of diagnosing patients before the onset of clinical kala-azar (before 14 days fever), and show that this could have a marked impact on incidence, even for a moderately sensitive test. However, limited specificity (that results in false positives) is a major barrier to such a strategy. Diagnostic tests of high specificity used at an early stage of active infection, even if sensitivity is only moderate, could have a key role in the control of kala-azar, and prevent its resurgence when paired with the passive health-care system and tests of high sensitivity, such as the test for rK39 antibody response. PMID:26633763

  11. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the potential value of examining hematological parameters as an approach to better understand the ecological relevance of parasite-host interactions. PMID:26657699

  12. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the potential value of examining hematological parameters as an approach to better understand the ecological relevance of parasite-host interactions. PMID:26657699

  13. Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD  = 0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID:25419743

  14. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence-based identification of bacteria in laboratory rodents: a practical approach in laboratory animal bacteriology diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Benga, Laurentiu; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Köhrer, Karl; Gougoula, Christina; Sager, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Correct identification of bacteria is crucial for the management of rodent colonies. Some bacteria are difficult to identify phenotypically outside reference laboratories. In this study, we evaluated the utility of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing as a means of identifying a collection of 30 isolates of rodent origin which are conventionally difficult to identify. Sequence analysis of the first approximate 720 to 880 bp of the 5'- end of 16S rDNA identified 25 isolates (83.33%) with ≥ 99% similarity to a sequence of a type strain, whereas three isolates (10%) displayed a sequence similarity ≥ 97% but <99% to the type strain sequences. These similarity scores were used to define identification to species and genus levels, respectively. Two of the 30 isolates (6.67%) displayed a sequence similarity of ≥ 95 but <97% to the reference strains and were thus allocated to a family. This technique allowed us to document the association of mice with bacteria relevant for the colonies management such as Pasteurellaceae, Bordetella hinzii or Streptococcus danieliae. In addition, human potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Paracoccus yeei or others not yet reported in mouse bacterial species such as Leucobacter chironomi, Neisseria perflava and Pantoea dispersa were observed. In conclusion, the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, with higher performance characteristics than the classical phenotypic methods, for identification of laboratory animal bacteria. For the first time this method allowed us to document the association of certain bacterial species with the laboratory mouse. PMID:24876090

  15. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... calf health from birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat quality; and Estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns...

  16. Status of industrial fluoride pollution and its diverse adverse health effects in man and domestic animals in India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluorosis in humans and domestic animals is a worldwide health problem and caused by a prolonged period of fluoride exposure through drinking of fluoride contaminated water. But in recent years, due to rapid industrialization in India, diverse serious health problems among industrial workers and residents and domestic animals living in the industrial areas due to fluoride pollution are on the rise. A number of coal-burning and industrial activities such as power-generating stations, welding operations and the manufacturing or production of steel, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, chemical fertilizers, bricks, glass, plastic, cement, and hydrofluoric acid are generally discharging fluoride in both gaseous and particulate/dust forms into surrounding environments which create a industrial fluoride pollution and are an important cause of occupational exposure to fluoride in several countries including India. An industrial emitted fluoride contaminates not only surrounding soil, air, and water but also vegetation, crops and many other biotic communities on which man and animals are generally dependants for food. Long- time of inhalation or ingestion of industrial fluoride also causes serious health problems in the forms of industrial and neighborhood fluorosis. In India, whatever research works conducted so far on the chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or poisoning (industrial and neighborhood fluorosis) in man and various species of domestic animals due to a prolonged period of industrial fluoride exposure or pollution (contamination) are critically reviewed in the present communication. Simultaneously, we are also focused the various bio-indicators and bio-markers for chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or pollution. PMID:26903127

  17. [Radiculopathy and the organization of health services: applicability verification of a technic for analyzing time factors in diagnostic procedures].

    PubMed

    Marinelli, G; Cerone, G; Pajewski, L A; Porto, C; Fabiani, L; Aloisi, P

    1989-01-01

    The PERT is a SPR (Reticular Programation System) based on statistic-mathematic models. Since some years they are applied to productive processes to increase the efficiency and effectiveness. They all have a same base structure which is the net that is composed by the logical succession of the event and the activity which has the part of the project. Determining the minimum time (to), the maximum one (tp) and the more frequent time (tm) of each activity and applying the statistic method PERT, one gets the probable duration (te) of every activity and the critical path of the net is placed in evidence. This is formed by the chain of those activities whose duration determines the total duration of the project. The Authors have desired to verify the applicability of SPR even to the "medical industry" and, more precisely, to the diagnostic process for the verification of radiculoneuropathy. Such pathology affects a large part of the active population. The diagnostic process in this case comprises besides an accurate neurological and clinical examination of the patient, also the x-ray exam, the electromyography, the Computed Tomography (CT) and the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR) exam. These last two investigations gives an increase of diagnostic accuracy. With the collaboration of the physicians of the diagnostic Service, the Authors have measured in every step of the diagnostic procedure the waiting time of 48 patients with low back pain. Applying the PERT method, it has been possible to put in evidence in the net the critical activities. They are such that their duration time determines the probable duration of the whole diagnostic process. Such duration in this case it corresponds to 91 days with a standard deviation of 33 days. The delay of any critical activity causes a lealy of the whole route. This delay influences negatively on the patient's health. Besides it determines an economic damage to the system because a relation cost/time exists. The systems of reticular programmation have as objective not only the one of improving the programmation and the control of the processes, but also the attainment of an optimum cost/time ratio, varying in a way that the total cost of the realization of the process is minimum. They represent a useful criterion to direct Quality Assurance (Q.A) in the local political sanitary context, within the bounds of organization of technical - scientific quality. An accurate application of the Q.A. should modify besides the duration of the critical activities. PMID:2483632

  18. Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The training of health workers in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is an important component of a wider strategy to improve parasite-based malaria diagnosis at lower level health care facilities (LLHFs) where microscopy is not readily available for all patients with suspected malaria. This study describes the process and cost of training to attain competence of lower level health workers to perform malaria RDTs in a public health system setting in eastern Uganda. Methods Health workers from 21 health facilities in Uganda were given a one-day central training on the use of RDTs in malaria case management, including practical skills on how to perform read and interpret the test results. Successful trainees subsequently integrated the use of RDTs into their routine care for febrile patients at their LLHFs and transferred their acquired skills to colleagues (cascade training model). A cross-sectional evaluation of the health workers competence in performing RDTs was conducted six weeks following the training, incorporating observation, in-depth interviews with health workers and the review of health facility records relating to tests offered and antimalarial drug (AMD) prescriptions pre and post training. The direct costs relating to the training processes were also documented. Results Overall, 135 health workers were trained including 63 (47%) nursing assistants, a group of care providers without formal medical training. All trainees passed the post-training concordance test with???80% except 12 that required re-training. Six weeks after the one-day training, 51/64 (80%) of the health workers accurately performed the critical steps in performing the RDT. The performance was similar among the 10 (16%) participants who were peer-trained by their trained colleagues. Only 9 (14%) did not draw the appropriate amount of blood using pipette. The average cost of the one-day training was US$ 101 (range $92-$112), with the main cost drivers being trainee travel and per-diems. Health workers offered RDTs to 76% of febrile patients and AMD prescriptions reduced by 37% six weeks post-training. Conclusion One-day training on the use of RDTs successfully provided adequate skill and competency among health workers to perform RDTs in fever case management at LLHF in a Uganda setting. The cost averaged at US$101 per health worker trained, with the main cost drivers being trainee travel and per diems. Given the good peer training noted in this study, there is need to explore the cost-effectiveness of a cascade training model for large scale implementation of RDTs. PMID:22519958

  19. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals, exposed flocks, infected flocks, noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  20. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  1. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply.

    PubMed

    Capuco, A V; Rice, C P; Baldwin, R L; Bannerman, D D; Paape, M J; Hare, W R; Kauf, A C W; McCarty, G W; Hapeman, C J; Sadeghi, A M; Starr, J L; McConnell, L L; Van Tassell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  2. Addressing governance challenges in the provision of animal health services: A review of the literature and empirical application transaction cost theory.

    PubMed

    Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina; Nielsen, Thea

    2015-11-01

    Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades. The focuses of the past reforms were on market failures to decide what the public sector, the private sector, and the "third sector" (the community-based sector) should do with regard to providing animal health services. However, such frameworks have paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. This paper presents a framework for analyzing institutional arrangements for providing animal health services that focus not only on market failures, but also on governance challenges, such as elite capture, and absenteeism of staff. As an analytical basis, Williamson's discriminating alignment hypothesis is applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of different institutional arrangements for animal health services in view of both market failures and governance challenges. This framework is used to generate testable hypotheses on the appropriateness of different institutional arrangements for providing animal health services, depending on context-specific circumstances. Data from Uganda and Kenya on clinical veterinary services is used to provide an empirical test of these hypotheses and to demonstrate application of Williamson's transaction cost theory to veterinary service delivery. The paper concludes that strong public sector involvement, especially in building and strengthening a synergistic relation-based referral arrangement between paraprofessionals and veterinarians is imperative in improving animal health service delivery in developing countries. PMID:26477330

  3. The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,

  4. The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,…

  5. Animal-related injuries in a resource-limited setting: experiences from a Tertiary health institution in northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal related injuries are a major but neglected emerging public health problem and contribute significantly to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. No prospective studies have been done on animal related injuries in our setting. This study was conducted to determine the management patterns and outcome of animal related injuries and their social impact on public health policy in the region. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study of animal related injury patients that presented to Bugando Medical Centre between September 2007 and August 2011. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 452 (8.3%) animal-related injury patients were studied. The modal age group was 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. Dog-bites (61.1%) were the most common injuries. Musculoskeletal (71.7%) region was the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (92.5%) and fractures (49.1%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Only 140 (31.0%) patients were hospitalized and most of them (97.1%) were treated surgically. Wound debridement was the most common procedure performed in 91.2% of patients. Postoperative complication rate was 15.9%, the commonest being surgical site infections (SSI) in 55.1% of patients. SSI was significantly associated with late presentation and open fractures (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. Patients who had severe injuries, long bone fractures and those with hemiplegia stayed longer in the hospital (P < 0.001). Mortality rate was 10.2% and was significantly high in patients with severe injuries, severe head injury, tetanus and admission SBP < 90 mmHg (P < 0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Conclusion Animal related injuries constitute a major public health problem in our setting and commonly affect the young adult male in their economically productive age-group. Measures towards prevention and proper treatment and follow up are important in order to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from this form of trauma PMID:23374146

  6. Animal Well-Being in Small Poultry Flocks: Improving bird health and product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer interest in farm animal welfare is increasing and, while there is little legislation, voluntary welfare assurance programs exist; however, most small poultry producers do not participate in these programs. Raising birds in small flocks has some inherent welfare advantages, such as ample sp...

  7. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305

  8. INVESTIGATIONS OF REPORTED PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN THE THREE MILE ISLAND AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the ...

  9. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals and in the environment: Progress on research to safeguard human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases of humans and many animals caused by protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium has become a very important pathogen in drinking water, detected in over 90% of the surface waters tested in the United States and found in surface waters worldwi...

  10. The role of veterinary services in animal health and food safety surveillance, and coordination with other services.

    PubMed

    Bellemain, V

    2013-08-01

    The control of animal health and food safety has undergone profound changes and is now seen in terms of a global approach, 'from the stable to the table'. The risks themselves have also evolved, principally due to changing practices, and this, coupled with increased knowledge and changes in consumer demands, has led to a more global conception of production chains. In terms of official controls, targeted control of the final food product has gradually been replaced by control of the production processes and an integrated approach to hazards throughout the production chain. This, in turn, has resulted in a new division of responsibilities among the producers (farmers), the manufacturers and the administration; namely, Veterinary Services. The areas in which veterinarians are involved have gradually been extended from animal production to all levels of the food production chain. Animal health interventions on farms are comparable to interventions in agri-food companies. Both are, or should be, included in veterinary training and education. To meet new challenges, the current trend is for Veterinary Services to be responsible for, or coordinate, sanitary interventions from the stable to the table. Coordination between Veterinary Services and other relevant authorities is a key component of good public governance, especially for effective action and optimal management of the resources available. PMID:24547643

  11. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills. PMID:21777495

  12. The effectiveness of community-based animal health workers, for the poor, for communities and for public safety.

    PubMed

    Peeling, D; Holden, S

    2004-04-01

    The development of community animal health (CAH) is an invaluable tool for addressing a series of challenges, particularly for the policy-maker, whose prime concern is public welfare. This paper examines three of the major challenges which confront governments, particularly the governments of less-developed countries, namely, the collapse of government services, the crucial issue of poverty reduction and the misuse of animal drugs. Although CAH is a potentially powerful tool for approaching all of these problems, the authors argue that CAH can only be fully exploited on a macroscopic level by developing strong institutions to support and regulate such community initiatives. In some countries, developing such institutions depends upon accepting the more fundamental and controversial principle of legalising non-professional animal health service providers who work within the private sector. In Section 1, the authors outline the three principal challenges which face governments, particularly in developing countries, and to which CAH offers a potential solution. Sections 2 to 4 investigate the evidence relating to each of these challenges in turn. Section 5 briefly draws on the lessons that have been generated by field experiences over the years, to propose how governments may develop CAH systems to their best advantage. PMID:15200101

  13. Spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the exotic Newcastle outbreak in 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Soberano, Gustavo; Carpenter, A Tim E; Cardona, Carol; Charlton, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    After the 1971-1973 outbreak of exotic Newcastle disease (END) in California, a free-of-charge diagnostic submission program was created for backyard poultry flocks. This program was implemented to improve disease surveillance in small poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the END outbreak in 2002-2003. Cases and controls were selected from within a 100-mile (161-km) radius of each of three laboratories, and their geographic distributions were evaluated. Global clustering of cases was significant around all three laboratories, with mixed results at the local clustering level and the only significant clustering at the focal level around the Davis laboratory with an observed to expected ratio of approximately 5. The area of influence for all three laboratories was about 20 miles (32 km). The significant clustering of cases around the laboratories indicates that more public information about the free-of-charge program could result in coverage of a larger portion of the population; however, the value of the information resulting from increased sampling should be considered relative to the additional cost of obtaining it. PMID:19431996

  14. “The Maasai Need Cows and the Cows Need Maasai,” the Use of a Photovoice Approach to Assess Animal Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Frank; Clancy, Eoin; Thomas, Adam; Kutz, Susan; Hatfield, Jennifer; Orsel, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The Maasai pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa depend on their livestock for income and food. Livestock production can be significantly improved by addressing animal health concerns. We explored the use of photovoice, a participatory action research method, to strengthen our understanding of the Maasai’s animal health needs. Nine interviewees, representing warriors, elders, and women, identified animal, social, and human health themes. The use of photography provided a new medium for Maasai to express their needs and a focus for researcher–participant communications, thereby facilitating new insights across language and cultural barriers. PMID:26664973

  15. Carcinogenicity of saccharin in laboratory animals and humans: letter to Dr. Harry Conacher of Health Canada.

    PubMed

    Bell, Warren; Clapp, Richard; Davis, Devra; Epstein, Samuel; Farber, Emmanuel; Fox, Donald A; Holub, Bruce; Jacobson, Michael F; Lijinsky, William; Millstone, Erik; Reuber, Melvin D; Suzuki, David; Temple, Norman J

    2002-01-01

    We appreciate this opportunity to provide input to the Health Protection Branch's (HPB's) review of the artificial sweetener saccharin. Concerns with regard to the safety of saccharin are of great public health significance and of great interest to the public because saccharin is consumed by tens of millions of people, including children and fetuses. Any evidence of carcinogenesis--and there is ample such evidence--of such a widely used chemical should spur health officials to minimize human exposure to it. It is worth noting that on October 31, 1997, the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Toxicology Program, a unit of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), voted not to delist saccharin from its Report on Carcinogens. PMID:12412858

  16. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  17. Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health

    PubMed Central

    Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

  18. The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

  19. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  20. A Vision for Better Health: Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Gemperline, Erin; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules from small molecules to large proteins by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. Its usefulness in biomarker discovery towards clinical applications has obtained success by correlating the molecular expression of tissues acquired from MSI with well-established histology. Results To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in clinical applications, such as biomarker diagnostics of different diseases, prognostics of disease severities and metabolic response to drug treatment, etc. These studies have provided significant insight in clinical studies over the years and current technical advances are further facilitating the improvement of this field. Although the underlying concept is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis must be taken into account for successful applications of MSI. Herein, we briefly reviewed these key elements yet focused on the clinical applications of MSI that cannot be addressed by other means. Conclusions Challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed to conclude that the ever-growing applications with continuous development of this powerful analytical tool will lead to a better understanding of the biology of diseases and improvements in clinical diagnostics. PMID:23078851

  1. Mid-ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Profiling of HIV/AIDS Sera for Novel Systems Diagnostics in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Sitole, Lungile; Steffens, Francois; Krüger, Tjaart P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Global health, whether in developed or developing countries, is in need of robust systems diagnostics for major diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, impacting the world populations. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of serum is a quick and reagent-free methodology with which to analyze metabolic alterations such as those caused by disease or treatment. In this study, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy was investigated as a means of distinguishing HIV-infected treatment-experienced (HIVpos ARTpos, n=39) and HIV-infected-treatment-naïve (HIVpos ARTneg, n=16) subjects from uninfected control subjects (n=30). Multivariate pattern recognition techniques, including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), successfully distinguished sample classes, while univariate approaches identified significant differences (p<0.05) after Benjamini-Hochberg corrections. OPLS-DA discriminated between all groups with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of >90%. Compared to uninfected controls, HIVpos ARTpos and HIVpos ARTneg subjects displayed significant differences in spectral regions linked to lipids/fatty acids (3010 cm−1), carbohydrates (1299 cm−1; 1498 cm−1), glucose (1035 cm−1), and proteins (1600 cm−1; 1652 cm−1). These are all molecules shown by conventional biochemical analysis to be affected by HIV/ART interference. The biofluid metabolomics approach applied here successfully differentiated global metabolic profiles of HIV-infected patients and uninfected controls and detected potential biomarkers for development into indicators of host response to treatment and/or disease progression. Our findings therefore contribute to ongoing efforts for capacity-building in global health for robust omics science and systems diagnostics towards major diseases impacting population health. PMID:24937213

  2. Glycine metabolism in animals and humans: implications for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Yang, Ying; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Glycine is a major amino acid in mammals and other animals. It is synthesized from serine, threonine, choline, and hydroxyproline via inter-organ metabolism involving primarily the liver and kidneys. Under normal feeding conditions, glycine is not adequately synthesized in birds or in other animals, particularly in a diseased state. Glycine degradation occurs through three pathways: the glycine cleavage system (GCS), serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and conversion to glyoxylate by peroxisomal D-amino acid oxidase. Among these pathways, GCS is the major enzyme to initiate glycine degradation to form ammonia and CO2 in animals. In addition, glycine is utilized for the biosynthesis of glutathione, heme, creatine, nucleic acids, and uric acid. Furthermore, glycine is a significant component of bile acids secreted into the lumen of the small intestine that is necessary for the digestion of dietary fat and the absorption of long-chain fatty acids. Glycine plays an important role in metabolic regulation, anti-oxidative reactions, and neurological function. Thus, this nutrient has been used to: (1) prevent tissue injury; (2) enhance anti-oxidative capacity; (3) promote protein synthesis and wound healing; (4) improve immunity; and (5) treat metabolic disorders in obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, ischemia-reperfusion injuries, cancers, and various inflammatory diseases. These multiple beneficial effects of glycine, coupled with its insufficient de novo synthesis, support the notion that it is a conditionally essential and also a functional amino acid for mammals (including pigs and humans). PMID:23615880

  3. Acute Phase Response in Animals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase response is a complex systemic early-defense system activated by trauma, infection, stress, neoplasia, and inflammation. Although nonspecific, it serves as a core of the innate immune response involving physical and molecular barriers and responses that serve to prevent infection, clear potential pathogens, initiate inflammatory processes, and contribute to resolution and the healing process. Acute phase proteins, an integral part of the acute phase response, have been a focus of many applications in human diagnostic medicine and recently have been identified in common animal species. Potential applications to diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of animal health, and laboratory animal welfare are readily apparent. PMID:20034426

  4. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day?

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods that first emerged in the mid-1970s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics, whether in humans or in animals, including poultry, are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individual or flock in the shortest time possible. Ease of use, low cost and increased information from a single test (e.g. multiplexing) are also critical areas frequently targeted for improvement. New tests and modifications of current tests are reported often, and diagnostic tests are now commonly developed by commercial companies. As one would expect, most advances in diagnostic technology are applied first to human health, and then may be adapted to animal health if practical. In the present review the trends and novel innovative technologies in primarily viral diagnostics are reviewed and the practicality of these methods and application for poultry health are discussed briefly. Also, influenza will seem to be over-represented in viral diagnostics since it is frequently used as a proof-of-concept target for novel technology due to its importance for animal and public health. Finally, the review is intended to be a brief survey of some of the innovative diagnostic technologies reported in recent years. It is not entirely comprehensive of all technology and the author makes no claims or endorsements of any of the technology or products mentioned. PMID:22702452

  5. Pollution and contamination of the domestic environment leading to detrimental, long run and possible irreversible effects upon human and animal health and longevity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animal health and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.

  6. Comparison of Milk Yield and Animal Health in Turkish Farms with Differing Stall Types and Resting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  7. Comparison of milk yield and animal health in Turkish farms with differing stall types and resting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-02-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  8. Preparation of recombinant proteins in milk to improve human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Soler, Eric; Thépot, Dominique; Rival-Gervier, Sylvie; Jolivet, Geneviève; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2006-01-01

    Milk is a very abundant source of proteins for animal and human consumption. Milk composition can be modified using transgenesis, including exogenous gene addition and endogenous gene inactivation. The study of milk protein genes has provided researchers with regulatory regions capable of efficiently and specifically driving the expression of foreign genes in milk. The projects underway are aimed at modifying milk composition, improving its nutritional value, reducing mammary infections, providing consumers with antipathogen proteins and preparing purified recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical use. The present paper summarises the current progress in this field. PMID:17107647

  9. The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

  10. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture & emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones: Need to assess the impact on public health

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, P.L.; Bhalla, P.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics in human, veterinary medicine and agricultural settings has played a significant role in the emergence of resistant MRSA clones due to selection pressure. MRSA has now become established in human population as well as in various animal species. An animal associated clone, MRSA ST 398 has been reported from animal foods and also from human infections in the community as well as from the health care associated infections. Clonal relationship between strains of animal and human origins are indicators of interspecies transmission of clones. Spread of these organisms may pose a great impact on public health if animal associated strains enter into the community and health care settings. Surveillance is important to correlate the genetic changes associated with their epidemiological shift and expansion to predict its impact on public health. Strict regulations on the use of antibiotics in humans as well as in animal food production are required to control the emergence of drug resistant clones. This article reviews the information available on the role of antibiotics in emergence of MRSA strains, their epidemiological shift between humans and animals and its impact on the public health. PMID:25366200

  11. Does use of an electronic health record with dental diagnostic system terminology promote dental students' critical thinking?

    PubMed

    Reed, Susan G; Adibi, Shawn S; Coover, Mullen; Gellin, Robert G; Wahlquist, Amy E; AbdulRahiman, Anitha; Hamil, Lindsey H; Walji, Muhammad F; O'Neill, Paula; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2015-06-01

    The Consortium for Oral Health Research and Informatics (COHRI) is leading the way in use of the Dental Diagnostic System (DDS) terminology in the axiUm electronic health record (EHR). This collaborative pilot study had two aims: 1) to investigate whether use of the DDS terms positively impacted predoctoral dental students' critical thinking skills measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and 2) to refine study protocols. The study design was a natural experiment with cross-sectional data collection using the HSRT for 15 classes (2013-17) of students at three dental schools. Characteristics of students who had been exposed to the DDS terms were compared with students who had not, and the differences were tested by t-tests or chi-square tests. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome on the overall critical thinking score. The results showed that exposure was significantly related to overall score (p=0.01), with not-exposed students having lower mean overall scores. This study thus demonstrated a positive impact of using the DDS terminology in an EHR on the critical thinking skills of predoctoral dental students in three COHRI schools as measured by their overall score on the HSRT. These preliminary findings support future research to further evaluate a proposed model of critical thinking in clinical dentistry. PMID:26034034

  12. Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

    2008-07-01

    Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

  13. Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Tilman Jakob; Bouyrakhen, Samira; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine Margarete; Wöckel, Lars; Poustka, Fritz; Zepf, Florian Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria) were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10). In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES. PMID:23787053

  14. Alternative antimicrobial supplements that positively impact animal health and food safety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotic usage is a common practice in the livestock industry that has progressively gained attention from consumers of livestock products in regard to human and environmental health. Specifically, sub-therapeutic usage of antibiotics and the belief that prophylactic supplementation leads to anti...

  15. Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

  16. Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;

  17. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Marshall, Katherine L; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Erdman, Matthew M; Kopral, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples collected on sheep operations in the United States. Another objective was to compare the use of composite fecal samples with fecal samples collected from individual sheep as a tool for screening sheep flocks for Salmonella. Sheep fecal samples (individual and composite) were collected on operations in 22 states. Salmonella isolates were characterized with regard to species, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Most operations (72.1%) had at least one positive sample and overall 26.9% of samples were positive. The percentage of positive samples varied by animal age class. Composite and individual samples gave similar results. The majority of the isolates (94%) were Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serotype 61:-:1,5,7. Nearly all of the isolates (91.2%) tested for antimicrobial susceptibility were susceptible to all antimicrobials in the panel. The findings suggest that salmonellae typically associated with foodborne disease transmission are infrequently found on sheep operations in the United States. PMID:26540254

  18. Use of the Child Behavior Checklist as a Diagnostic Screening Tool in Community Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Greeno, Catherine; Marcus, Steven C.; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) can be used as an accurate psychiatric screening tool for children in community mental health settings. Method: Associations, logistic regression models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to test the predictive relationship between the CBCL and…

  19. Listeriosis in animals, its public health significance (food-borne zoonosis) and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infectious and fatal disease of animals, birds, fish, crustaceans and humans. It is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular pathogen with unique potential to spread from cell to cell, thereby crossing blood-brain, intestinal and placental barriers. The organism possesses a pile of virulence factors that help to infect the host and evade from host immune machinery. Though disease occurrence is sporadic throughout the world, it can result in severe damage during an outbreak. Listeriosis is characterized by septicaemia, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal infections and gastroenteritis with the incubation period varying with the form of infection. L. monocytogenes has been isolated worldwide from humans, animals, poultry, environmental sources like soil, river, decaying plants, and food sources like milk, meat and their products, seafood and vegetables. Since appropriate vaccines are not available and infection is mainly transmitted through foods in humans and animals, hygienic practices can prevent its spread. The present review describes etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, pathogenesis, public health significance, and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of this disease. Special attention has been given to novel as well as prospective emerging therapies that include bacteriophage and cytokine therapy, avian egg yolk antibodies and herbal therapy. Various vaccines, including advances in recombinant and DNA vaccines and their modes of eliciting immune response, are also discussed. Due focus has also been given regarding appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for better management of this zoonotic disease. PMID:26073265

  20. Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Wandeler, Alex I; Ribble, Carl S; Rosatte, Rick C; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population. A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of Jodhpur from September to November, 2005 indicated that low body condition score (70%), skin conditions (69%) and tick infestation (68%) were the most common health problems in this population. An observational study of 888 stray dogs on the streets of Jodhpur from March to April, 2006 revealed that sterilized dogs were more likely to have a higher body condition score (BCS) than sexually intact dogs when controlling for age, based on a multinomial regression model. However, sterilized dogs were more likely to have a skin condition than sexually intact dogs, based on a logistic regression model. Our observations of the surgical/kennel facility indicated that an effective tick control program was needed. Additionally, the current parasite control protocol at the kennel/shelter facility was inadequate to treat mange, a contact-transmitted skin disease. This is the first study to evaluate the associations between an ABC program and stray dog health, apart from rabies. PMID:21144606

  1. Impact assessment of a community-based animal health project in Dollo Ado and Dollo Bay districts, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Admassu, B; Nega, S; Haile, T; Abera, B; Hussein, A; Catley, A

    2005-01-01

    Participatory methods were used to assess the impact of a community-based animal health worker (CAHW) project in two remote pastoralist districts of Ethiopia. The CAHW project had been operating for 3 years at the time of the assessment. Participatory methods were standardized and repeated with 10 groups of informants in the project area. The assessment showed significant reductions in disease impact for diseases handled by CAHWs compared with diseases not handled by CAHWs. In camels, there was significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, trypanosomosis, helminthosis, anthrax and non-specific respiratory disease. In cattle there was a signficant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of blackleg, anthrax and helminthosis. In sheep and goats there was a sign reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, helminthosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, orf and non-specific diarrhoea. In order of importance, these reductions in disease impact were attributed to (1) increased use of modern veterinary services provided by CAHWs, (2) vaccination campaigns involving CAHWs, (3) good rainfall and availability of grazing and (4) decreased herd mobility. Decreased herd mobility was also associated with negative impact of tick infestation. Community-based animal health workers were considered to be highly accessible, available, affordable and trustworthy relative to other service providers. They were also perceived to be suppliers of a good quality service. Specific types of positive impact attributed to CAHW activities were increases in milk, meat, income and draught power. PMID:15729896

  2. Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Joshua; Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an image stacking algorithm to decrease the image noise and enhance weak signals, and (2) an optical signal amplifier utilizing a capillary tube array. These approaches were used in a detection system which includes a multi-wavelength LEDs capable of exciting many fluorophores in multiple wavelengths, a mobile phone or a webcam as a detector, and capillary tube array configured with 36 capillary tubes for signal enhancement. The capillary array enables a ~100X increase in signal sensitivity for fluorescein, reducing the limit of detection (LOD) for mobile phones and webcams from 1000 nM to 10 nM. Computational image stacking enables another ~10X increase in signal sensitivity, further reducing the LOD for webcam from 10 nM to 1 nM. To demonstrate the feasibility of the device for the detection of disease-related biomarkers, Adenovirus DNA labeled with SYBR Green or fluorescein was analyzed by both our capillary array and a commercial plate reader. The LOD for the capillary array was 5ug/mL, and that of the plate reader was 1 ug/mL. Similar results were obtained using DNA stained with fluorescein. The combination of the two signal amplification approaches enables a ~1000X increase in LOD for the webcam platform. This brings it into the range of a conventional plate reader while using a smaller sample volume (10ul) than the plate reader requires (100 ul). This suggests that such a device could be suitable for biosensing applications where up to 10 fold smaller sample sizes are needed. The simple optical configuration for mHealth described in this paper employing the combined capillary and image processing signal amplification is capable of measuring weak fluorescent signals without the need of dedicated laboratories. It has the potential to be used to increase sensitivity of other optically based mHealth technologies, and may increase mHealth’s clinical utility, especially for telemedicine and for resource-poor settings and global health applications. PMID:23928092

  3. Ectoparasites of free-roaming and captive animals in South Carolina zoos and an assessment of their threat to animals welfare and public health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasites were collected from free-roaming and captive animals in zoos to document the species present and to determine if they were associated with vertebrate pathogens. We examined 133 animals or their associated nesting and bedding materials for ectoparasites. Fifty-five species of ectoparasi...

  4. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  5. OASIS: an assessment tool of epidemiological surveillance systems in animal health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, P; Gay, E; Chazel, M; Moutou, F; Danan, C; Richomme, C; Boue, F; Souillard, R; Gauchard, F; Dufour, B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized tool for the assessment of surveillance systems on zoonoses and animal diseases. We reviewed three existing methods and combined them to develop a semi-quantitative assessment tool associating their strengths and providing a standardized way to display multilevel results. We developed a set of 78 assessment criteria divided into ten sections, representing the functional parts of a surveillance system. Each criterion was given a score according to the prescription of a scoring guide. Three graphical assessment outputs were generated using a specific combination of the scores. Output 1 is a general overview through a series of pie charts synthesizing the scores of each section. Output 2 is a histogram representing the quality of eight critical control points. Output 3 is a radar chart representing the level reached by ten system attributes. This tool was applied on five surveillance networks. PMID:21385516

  6. Critical windows of exposure for children's health: the reproductive system in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, J L; Hughes, C; Foster, W; Hales, B F; Robaire, B

    2000-01-01

    Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely affect the reproductive system. Currently, available data indicate that the consequences of exposure depend on the nature of the chemical, its target, and the timing of exposure relative to critical windows in development of the reproductive system. The reproductive system is designed to produce gametes in far greater excess than would seem to be necessary for the survival of species. Ten to hundreds of millions of spermatozoa are generated daily by most adult male mammals, yet very few of these germ cells succeed in transmitting their genetic material to the next generation. Although the number of oocytes produced in mammalian females is more limited, and their production occurs only during fetal life, most ovaries contain several orders of magnitude more oocytes than ever will be fertilized. Toxicant exposures may affect critical events in the development of the reproductive system, ranging from early primordial germ cell determination to gonadal differentiation, gametogenesis, external genitalia, or signaling events regulating sexual behavior. Although there are differences between the human reproductive system and that of the usual animal models, such models have been extremely useful in assessing risks for key human reproductive and developmental processes. The objectives for future studies should include the elucidation of the specific cellular and molecular targets of known toxicants; the design of a systematic approach to the identification of reproductive toxicants; and the development of sensitive, specific, and predictive animal models, minimally invasive surrogate markers, or in vitro tests to assess reproductive system function during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10852849

  7. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  8. Companion animals symposium: microbes and gastrointestinal health of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Suchodolski, J S

    2011-05-01

    Recent molecular studies have revealed complex bacterial, fungal, archaeal, and viral communities in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs and cats. More than 10 bacterial phyla have been identified, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria constituting more than 99% of all gut microbiota. Microbes act as a defending barrier against invading pathogens, aid in digestion, provide nutritional support for enterocytes, and play a crucial role in the development of the immune system. Of significance for gastrointestinal health is their ability to ferment dietary substrates into short-chain fatty acids, predominantly to acetate, propionate, and butyrate. However, microbes can have also a detrimental effect on host health. Specific pathogens (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens) have been implicated in acute and chronic gastrointestinal disease. Compositional changes in the small intestinal microbiota, potentially leading to changes in intestinal permeability and digestive function, have been suggested in canine small intestinal dysbiosis or antibiotic-responsive diarrhea. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of canine and feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current theories for the development of IBD favor a combination of environmental factors, the intestinal microbiota, and a genetic susceptibility of the host. Recent studies have revealed a genetic susceptibility for defective bacterial clearance in Boxer dogs with granulomatous colitis. Differential expression of pathogen recognition receptors (i.e., Toll-like receptors) were identified in dogs with chronic enteropathies. Similarly to humans, a microbial dysbiosis has been identified in feline and canine IBD. Commonly observed microbial changes are increased Proteobacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli) with concurrent decreases in Firmicutes, especially a reduced diversity in Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV (i.e., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibacterium spp.). This would indicate that these bacterial groups, important short-chain fatty acid producers, may play an important role in promoting intestinal health. PMID:21075970

  9. Transcription profiling in environmental diagnostics: health assessments in Columbia River basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Connon, Richard E; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Hostetter, Nathan J; Javidmehr, Alireza; Roby, Daniel D; Evans, Allen F; Loge, Frank J; Werner, Inge

    2012-06-01

    The health condition of out-migrating juvenile salmonids can influence migration success. Physical damage, pathogenic infection, contaminant exposure, and immune system status can affect survival probability. The present study is part of a wider investigation of out-migration success in juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and focuses on the application of molecular profiling to assess sublethal effects of environmental stressors in field-collected fish. We used a suite of genes in O. mykiss to specifically assess responses that could be directly related to steelhead health condition during out-migration. These biomarkers were used on juvenile steelhead captured in the Snake River, a tributary of the Columbia River, in Washington, USA, and were applied on gill and anterior head kidney tissue to assess immune system responses, pathogen-defense (NRAMP, Mx, CXC), general stress (HSP70), metal-binding (metallothionein-A), and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1) utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Upon capture, fish were ranked according to visual external physical conditions into good, fair, poor, and bad categories; gills and kidney tissues were then dissected and preserved for gene analyses. Transcription responses were tissue-specific for gill and anterior head kidney with less significant responses in gill tissue than in kidney. Significant differences between the condition ranks were attributed to NRAMP, MX, CXC, and Cyp1a1 responses. Gene profiling correlated gene expression with pathogen presence, and results indicated that gene profiling can be a useful tool for identifying specific pathogen types responsible for disease. Principal component analysis (PCA) further correlated these responses with specific health condition categories, strongly differentiating good, poor, and bad condition ranks. We conclude that molecular profiling is an informative and useful tool that could be applied to indicate and monitor numerous population-level parameters of management interest. PMID:22587496

  10. Decision making for animal health and welfare: integrating risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2014-06-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers' choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers' assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers' management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

  11. Decision Making for Animal Health and Welfare: Integrating Risk-Benefit Analysis with Prospect Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers’ choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers’ assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers’ management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180

  12. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    PubMed

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. PMID:26423384

  13. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification

    PubMed Central

    Vrešak, Martina; Halkjaer Olesen, Merete; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405–970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  14. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification.

    PubMed

    Vrešak, Martina; Halkjaer Olesen, Merete; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405-970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  15. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  16. Health-related quality of life: The impact of diagnostic angiography

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Doering, Lynn V.; Dracup, Kathleen; Evangelista, Lorraine; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of index angiograms on health-related quality of life related to angiographic outcome, that is, positive or negative for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods A longitudinal, comparative design was used. Ninety-three patients underwent initial angiography and completed questionnaires (Cardiac-Quality of Life Index, Short Form-36 mental and physical, and Cardiac Attitudes Index) before, 1 week and 1 year after angiography. Data were evaluated with linear regression and analysis of variance. Results Fifty-five patients were CHD positive (age 65.3 ± 10.7 years, 49% were female), and 38 patients were CHD negative (age 59.5 ± 12 years, 53% were female). Compared with CHD-positive patients over 1 year, CHD-negative patients reported lower scores on the Cardiac-Quality of Life Index (P < .008), Short Form-36 mental and physical measures (P = .004), and Cardiac Attitudes Index (P = .05). Conclusion CHD-negative patients experienced lower health-related quality of life and lower perceived control than CHD-positive patients. After an index angiogram, a negative finding may not be sufficient to relieve negative emotions. PMID:20691477

  17. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health. PMID:20691081

  18. 76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... FR 32391-32400, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0137), and effective October 1, 2009, we established, for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  19. Ebola: Facing a New Transboundary Animal Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, F.; Feldmann, H.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola viruses are zoonotic pathogens with the potential of causing severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Bats have been identified as a reservoir for Ebola viruses but it remains unclear if transmission to an end host involves intermediate hosts. Recently, one of the Ebola species has been found in Philippine pigs raising concerns regarding animal health and food safety. Diagnostics have so far focused on human application, but enhanced pig surveillance and diagnostics, particularly in Asia, for Ebola virus infections seem to be needed to establish reasonable guidelines for public and animal health and food safety. Livestock vaccination against Ebola seems currently not justified but proper preparedness may include experimental vaccine approaches. PMID:23689898

  20. Toxoplasma gondii: history and diagnostic test development.

    PubMed

    Wyrosdick, Heidi M; Schaefer, John J

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that causes toxoplasmosis in people and other animals. It is considered one of the most common parasitic infections in the world due to its impressive range of hosts, widespread environmental contamination and the diverse means by which animals can be infected. Despite its ubiquity and numerous ongoing research efforts into both its basic biology and clinical management, many aspects of diagnosis and management of this disease are poorly understood. The range of diagnostic options that is available for veterinary diagnostic investigators are notably more limited than those available to medical diagnosticians, making accurate interpretation of each test result critical. The current review joins other reviews on the parasite with a particular emphasis on the history and continued development of diagnostic tests that are useful for veterinary diagnostic investigations. An understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of current diagnostic techniques will assist veterinary and public health officials in formulating effective treatment and control strategies in diverse animal populations. PMID:26568360

  1. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  2. Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P N; Fanning, E A; Hopf, H B; Church, T L

    1999-01-01

    This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. PMID:10065319

  3. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions. PMID:26953950

  4. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:23865070

  5. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track. PMID:19435984

  6. The Perceived Value of Passive Animal Health Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Phan, T D; Dao, D C; Nguyen, T T; Truong, B D; Nguyen, X N T; Vu, T D; Nguyen, K V; Le, H T; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-03-01

    Economic evaluations are critical for the assessment of the efficiency and sustainability of animal health surveillance systems and the improvement of their efficiency. Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems (i.e. actors of veterinary authorities and private actors who may report clinical signs) are needed. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) passive surveillance in Vietnam. Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities. A quantitative tool based on stated preference methods and participatory techniques was developed and applied to assess the non-monetary costs and benefits. The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: treatment, sale or destruction of animals. The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices. This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector (feed, chicks and medicine supply). One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread. Private actors of the poultry sector valued information on HPAI suspicions (perceived as a non-monetary benefit) which was mainly obtained from other private actors and media. PMID:26146982

  7. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

  8. [Oral health conditions diagnostic in cerebral palsy individuals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Patrícia Osório; Garcias, Gilberto de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is an encephalic static lesion defined as a non-progressive disorder of movements and posture. It is usually associated with epilepsy, speaking, hearing and sight disorders and also mental retardation. Even though, people who have CP need special care for the prevention of factors linked to oral problems, in the odontological context, the literary information is contradictory when it comes to the incidence of oral diseases on patients who have cerebral palsy. In order to determine the oral health and associated factors conditions, an epidemiological research has been made in 41 children who have cerebral palsy. The variables taken into account were: social-economical aspects, risk factors for the development of oral diseases, access to odontological care, caries index, periodontal disease, malocclusion and dental fluorose. Children who were examined showed a higher level of gingivitis and caries experience, mainly on the primary dentition, and also severe malocclusions, factors that indicate the need of early intervention, whether with educational programs or healing assistance. The study has shown that, in addition to the quantitative necessity of care, it is also necessary to improve the quality of these patients' consultations. PMID:19851607

  9. Graphical display of diagnostic test results in electronic health records: a comparison of 8 systems.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Murphy, Daniel R; Smith, Michael W; Russo, Elise; Wright, Adam; Singh, Hardeep

    2015-07-01

    Accurate display and interpretation of clinical laboratory test results is essential for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. In an attempt to ascertain how well current electronic health records (EHRs) facilitated these processes, we evaluated the graphical displays of laboratory test results in eight EHRs using objective criteria for optimal graphs based on literature and expert opinion. None of the EHRs met all 11 criteria; the magnitude of deficiency ranged from one EHR meeting 10 of 11 criteria to three EHRs meeting only 5 of 11 criteria. One criterion (i.e., the EHR has a graph with y-axis labels that display both the name of the measured variable and the units of measure) was absent from all EHRs. One EHR system graphed results in reverse chronological order. One EHR system plotted data collected at unequally-spaced points in time using equally-spaced data points, which had the effect of erroneously depicting the visual slope perception between data points. This deficiency could have a significant, negative impact on patient safety. Only two EHR systems allowed users to see, hover-over, or click on a data point to see the precise values of the x-y coordinates. Our study suggests that many current EHR-generated graphs do not meet evidence-based criteria aimed at improving laboratory data comprehension. PMID:25792704

  10. An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

    2014-07-16

    Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread. PMID:24629777

  11. Reevaluation of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows: bioavailability, animal health and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Politis, I

    2012-09-01

    Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for almost 80 years, we are far from a complete understanding of all the aspects related to bioavailability and its effects on health and milk quality in dairy cows. Vitamin E is a generic descriptor for two families of lipid-soluble compounds, the tocopherols and the tocotrienols, of which α-tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Commercially available α-tocopherol supplements for dairy cows contain either the natural RRR form or the synthetic (all-rac) form, which contains all the eight possible stereoisomers (four possessing the 2R and four possessing the 2S configuration) in equimolar amounts. Recent data clearly suggest that an almost complete discrimination against the 2S isomers occurs in dairy cows. Thus, 1 g of the all-rac form is essentially equivalent to 0.5 g of the RRR form. With respect to the effect of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows on health and milk quality, the majority of published studies suggests that vitamin E supplementation at the level 1000 to 4000 IU/cow per day during the dry period reduces both the frequency of intramammary infection and that of clinical mastitis and improves milk quality, as shown by a reduction in the levels of somatic cell count (SCC)/ml in milk, decreased plasmin activity and increased oxidative stability of milk. However, a recent study from the Netherlands suggested that vitamin E supplementation at the 3000 IU/cow per day level during the dry period when combined with high levels of plasma vitamin E at dry-off (>14.5 μmol/l) increases the incidence of mastitis. Data from previously unpublished survey studies and those from published vitamin E feeding trials, in which high levels of blood vitamin E were observed, were reanalyzed. All farms selected for the analysis implemented oral administration of vitamin E at the 3000 IU/cow per day level throughout or during the late dry period (4 weeks before the expected day of parturition). Dairy cows were divided into three groups, depending on blood α-tocopherol levels at dry-off: high (>6.25 μg/ml), medium (between 6.25 and 4.25 μg/ml) and low (<4.25 μg/ml). Data indicate that there were no differences in the incidence of mastitis and in the level of SCC/ml of milk between the three groups. Thus, supplementation of 3000 IU vitamin E/cow per day in the late dry period remains recommended because it is generally associated with decreased risk of mastitis. Conditional or opposite effects have not been repeated and require further research before changing recommendations for vitamin E supplementation. PMID:23031515

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Animal Bite Victims Attending an Anti-rabies Health Center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P.; Mor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings Between July 2012 and March 2013 a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 384 bite victims or their guardians in the case of minors (aged <15 years). Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using generalized linear models. Almost all participants (99%) were aware that rabies was transmitted by the bite or lick of a rabid dog, however only 20.1% identified “germs” as the cause of disease. A majority of participants stated rabies could be prevented by avoiding dog bites (64.6%) and confining dogs (53.9%); fewer (41.7%) recognized vaccination of dogs/cats as an important preventive strategy. Regarding attitudes, most (91.1%) agreed that medical evaluation should be sought as soon as possible. However, most (75.0%) also believed that traditional healers could cure rabies. Rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p = 0.015) and Protestant religion (OR = 2.4, p = 0.041) were independently associated with this belief. Among 186 participants who owned dogs, only 9 (4.8%) had ever vaccinated their dog and more than 90% of respondents indicated that their dog was free-roaming or cohabitated with the family. Only 7.0% of participants applied correct first aid following exposure, and the majority (47.7%) reported that the animal was killed by the community following the incident. Female sex and Muslim religion were independently associated with higher and lower practices scores, respectively, due largely to differences in animal management practices following the incident. Conclusions/Significance Although respondents demonstrated reasonably sound knowledge of rabies and its transmission, attitudes and practices were inconsistent with rabies prevention. Culturally- and gender-sensitive activities that promote proper first aid and healthcare seeking behavior as well as appropriate animal management, particularly in rural areas, are needed to prevent deaths associated with rabies in this setting. PMID:26114573

  13. Effects on pulmonary health of neighboring residents of concentrated animal feeding operations: exposure assessed using optimized estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Anja; Römmelt, Horst; Ehrenstein, Vera; van Strien, Rob; Praml, Georg; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors' Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points was optimized using cluster analysis. Individual exposure of 457 nonfarm subjects was interpolated by weighting method. Mean estimated annual ammonia levels varied between 16 and 24 μg/m³. Higher exposed participants were more likely to be sensitized against ubiquitous allergens as compared to lower exposed subjects (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-13.2). In addition, they showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) (adjusted mean difference in % of predicted -8%; 95% CI -13% to -3%). The authors' previous findings that CAFOs may contribute to burden of respiratory diseases were confirmed by this study. PMID:21864103

  14. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  15. 9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic... and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES... Rivanol Test 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.50 7.75 Tube agglutination Test 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.50 7.75 (b)...

  16. 9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic... and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES... Rivanol Test 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.50 7.75 Tube agglutination Test 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.50 7.75 (b)...

  17. 9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic... and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES... Rivanol Test 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.50 7.75 Tube agglutination Test 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.50 7.75 (b)...

  18. Evaluation and delivery of domestic animal health services in remote communities in the Northwest Territories: A case study of status and needs.

    PubMed

    Brook, Ryan K; Kutz, Susan J; Millins, Caroline; Veitch, Alasdair M; Elkin, Brett T; Leighton, Ted

    2010-10-01

    Domestic animal health services are supplied to communities in Canada's Northwest Territories (NT) in diverse ways, including private veterinary practices in 2 of 33 communities, and by mail-order, fly-in, free clinics, and a government-coordinated lay vaccinator program in some of the other 31 communities. We evaluated delivery, needs, and potential uptake of domestic animal health services in the Sahtu Settlement Area, NT by offering free clinics for 225 dogs in 2008 and 2009; and administered questionnaires to 42 dog owners and 67 students in 2008. Owners indicated that 20% of dogs were neutered, 37% had had rabies vaccinations, and 29% had been dewormed. Physical examination of dogs demonstrated that 54% were "thin" and 4% were "emaciated." Owners and youth showed a range of attitudes toward dogs and supported improved domestic animal health services. Future services need to build on existing programs and collaborate with communities to ensure relevance, ownership, and sustainability. PMID:21197203

  19. The organisation and functioning of Veterinary Services: results of a 2005 survey of Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Bénet, J J; Dufour, B; Bellemain, V

    2006-08-01

    A questionnaire was sent to the 167 Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in 2004 and 2005. The organisation and functioning of national Veterinary Services were analysed based on the responses from 85 of these countries. Leaving aside variations between countries, Veterinary Services are very involved in animal health and food safety controls at farm level (including animal feed), and during primary and secondary processing, whether alone or in conjunction with other services. At the lower end of the chain, namely distribution and the food service industry, responsibilities tend to be more widely shared. Veterinary Services have a central responsibility in international trade in animals and animal products. The main weaknesses in the chain of controls concern the logistical and financial resources of Veterinary Services, and insufficient involvement of livestock producers and even of field veterinarians. The many recent reforms are tending to provide a more consistent, integrated approach to animal health and food safety controls 'from the stable to the table'. PMID:17094708

  20. Biologics industry challenges for developing diagnostic tests for the National Veterinary Stockpile.

    PubMed

    Hardham, J M; Lamichhane, C M

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases. Because of the need to deliver a return on the investment, research and development dollars continue to be focused on infectious diseases that have a negative impact on current domestic herd health, production systems, or companion animal health. Overcoming the administrative, legal, fiscal, and technological barriers to provide veterinary diagnostic products for the National Veterinary Stockpile will reduce the threat of natural or intentional spread of foreign diseases and increase the security of the food supply in the US. PMID:23689882

  1. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices. PMID:15737426

  2. Integrating databases for research on health and performance in small animals and horses in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane; Roepstorff, Lars; Bonnett, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In a world of limited resources, using existing databases in research is a potentially cost-effective way to increase knowledge, given that correct and meaningful results are gained.Nordic examples of the use of secondary small animal and equine databases include studies based on data from tumour registries, breeding registries, young horse quality contest results, competition data, insurance databases, clinic data, prescription data and hunting ability tests. In spite of this extensive use of secondary databases, integration between databases is less common. The aim of this presentation is to briefly review key papers that exemplify different ways of utilizing data from multiple sources, to highlight the benefits and limitations of the approaches, to discuss key issues/challenges that must be addressed when integrating data and to suggest future directions. Data from pedigree databases have been individually merged with competition data and young horse quality contest data, and true integration has also been done with canine insurance data and with equine clinical data. Data have also been merged on postal code level; i.e. insurance data were merged to a digitized map of Sweden and additional meteorological information added. In addition to all the data quality and validity issues inherent in the use of a single database, additional obstacles arise when combining information from several databases. Loss of individuals due to incorrect or mismatched identifying information can be considerable. If there are any possible biases affecting whether or not individuals can be properly linked, misinformation may result in a further reduction in power. Issues of confidentiality may be more difficult to address across multiple databases. For example, human identity information must be protected, but may be required to ensure valid merging of data. There is a great potential to better address complex issues of health and disease in companion animals and horses by integrating information across existing databases. The challenges outlined in this article should not preclude the ongoing pursuit of this approach. PMID:21999438

  3. Assessing the Public Health Risk of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Use of a Rapid Diagnostic Screening Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Mithila; Ott, Alewijn; Scheper, Henk R.; Wisselink, Guido J.; Heck, Max E.; Rossen, John W.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an enteropathogen of public health concern because of its ability to cause serious illness and outbreaks. In this prospective study, a diagnostic screening algorithm to categorize STEC infections into risk groups was evaluated. The algorithm consists of prescreening stool specimens with real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of stx genes. The qPCR-positive stool samples were cultured in enrichment broth and again screened for stx genes and additional virulence factors (escV, aggR, aat, bfpA) and O serogroups (O26, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157). Also, PCR-guided culture was performed with sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC) and CHROMagar STEC medium. The presence of virulence factors and O serogroups was used for presumptive pathotype (PT) categorization in four PT groups. The potential risk for severe disease was categorized from high risk for PT group I to low risk for PT group III, whereas PT group IV consists of unconfirmed stx qPCR-positive samples. In total, 5,022 stool samples of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were included. The qPCR detected stx genes in 1.8% of samples. Extensive screening for virulence factors and O serogroups was performed on 73 samples. After enrichment, the presence of stx genes was confirmed in 65 samples (89%). By culture on selective media, STEC was isolated in 36% (26/73 samples). Threshold cycle (CT) values for stx genes were significantly lower after enrichment compared to direct qPCR (P < 0.001). In total, 11 (15%), 19 (26%), 35 (48%), and 8 (11%) samples were categorized into PT groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Several virulence factors (stx2, stx2a, stx2f, toxB, eae, efa1, cif, espA, tccP, espP, nleA and/or nleB, tir cluster) were associated with PT groups I and II, while others (stx1, eaaA, mch cluster, ireA) were associated with PT group III. Furthermore, the number of virulence factors differed between PT groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, a diagnostic algorithm enables fast discrimination of STEC infections associated with a high to moderate risk for severe disease (PT groups I and II) from less-virulent STEC (PT group III). PMID:25740764

  4. Assessing the public health risk of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by use of a rapid diagnostic screening algorithm.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Richard F; Ferdous, Mithila; Ott, Alewijn; Scheper, Henk R; Wisselink, Guido J; Heck, Max E; Rossen, John W; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an enteropathogen of public health concern because of its ability to cause serious illness and outbreaks. In this prospective study, a diagnostic screening algorithm to categorize STEC infections into risk groups was evaluated. The algorithm consists of prescreening stool specimens with real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of stx genes. The qPCR-positive stool samples were cultured in enrichment broth and again screened for stx genes and additional virulence factors (escV, aggR, aat, bfpA) and O serogroups (O26, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157). Also, PCR-guided culture was performed with sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC) and CHROMagar STEC medium. The presence of virulence factors and O serogroups was used for presumptive pathotype (PT) categorization in four PT groups. The potential risk for severe disease was categorized from high risk for PT group I to low risk for PT group III, whereas PT group IV consists of unconfirmed stx qPCR-positive samples. In total, 5,022 stool samples of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were included. The qPCR detected stx genes in 1.8% of samples. Extensive screening for virulence factors and O serogroups was performed on 73 samples. After enrichment, the presence of stx genes was confirmed in 65 samples (89%). By culture on selective media, STEC was isolated in 36% (26/73 samples). Threshold cycle (CT) values for stx genes were significantly lower after enrichment compared to direct qPCR (P < 0.001). In total, 11 (15%), 19 (26%), 35 (48%), and 8 (11%) samples were categorized into PT groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Several virulence factors (stx2, stx2a, stx2f, toxB, eae, efa1, cif, espA, tccP, espP, nleA and/or nleB, tir cluster) were associated with PT groups I and II, while others (stx1, eaaA, mch cluster, ireA) were associated with PT group III. Furthermore, the number of virulence factors differed between PT groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, a diagnostic algorithm enables fast discrimination of STEC infections associated with a high to moderate risk for severe disease (PT groups I and II) from less-virulent STEC (PT group III). PMID:25740764

  5. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny. PMID:23440448

  6. Genomics and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As management in the pig industry changes the range of pathogens to which pigs are exposed is altered, from parasites for pigs raised outdoors and viruses and bacteria for indoor pigs. Moreover, as consumers demand pork products free of antibiotic contamination, it becomes increasingly more importan...

  7. The diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) may be present in 10%–20% of patients in medical settings. Routine depression screening is sometimes recommended to improve depression management. However, studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools have typically used data-driven, exploratory methods to select optimal cutoffs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cutoff points around whatever cutoff score is most accurate in that given study. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cutoff points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each possible cutoff point. As a result, traditional meta-analyses may generate exaggerated estimates of accuracy. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by synthesizing data from all studies for each cutoff score to obtain diagnostic accuracy estimates. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the shorter PHQ-2 and PHQ-8 are commonly recommended for depression screening. Thus, the primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2 to detect MDD among adults across all potentially relevant cutoff scores. Secondary analyses involve assessing accuracy accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, sex, medical comorbidity). Methods/design Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will include studies that included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of MDD based on a validated structured or semi-structured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of the administration of the PHQ. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, perform full article review, and extract study data. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cutoff values. Discussion The proposed IPD meta-analyses will allow us to obtain estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010673 PMID:25348422

  8. Recommendations concerning the new U.S. National Institutes of Health initiative to balance the sex of cells and animals in preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Umans, Jason G

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced last May that steps will be taken to address the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. To further address this announcement, in September 2014, scientists with varying perspectives came together at Georgetown University to discuss the following questions. (1) What metrics should the NIH use to assess tangible progress on policy changes designed to address the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research? (2) How effective can education be in reducing the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research and what educational initiatives sponsored by the NIH would most likely effect change? (3) What criteria should the NIH use to determine rigorously defined exceptions to the future proposal requirement of a balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies? (4) What additional strategies in addition to proposal requirements should NIH use to reduce the overreliance of male cells and animals in preclinical research? The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from researchers not only from diverse disciplines of basic and translational science including biology, cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, neuroscience, cardiology, endocrinology, nephrology, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology, but also from recognized experts in publishing, industry, advocacy, science policy, clinical medicine, and population health. We offer our recommendations to aid the NIH as it selects, implements, monitors, and optimizes strategies to correct the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. PMID:25713032

  9. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  10. CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

  11. TESTING OF SWINE FECES OBTAINED THROUGH THE NATIONAL ANIMAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM'S SWINE 2000 STUDY FOR THE PRESENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national study on the natural occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in swine feces by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), was carried out by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS). With the cooperation of pork producers from 13 of...

  12. Pre-treatment practices among patients attending an Animal Bite Management clinic at a primary health centre in Haryana, North India.

    PubMed

    Salve, Harshal; Rizwan, S A; Kant, Shashi; Rai, Sanjay K; Kharya, Pradip; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Animal Bite Management (ABM) clinic in a primary health centre in the Faridabad district of Haryana. Information about socio-demographic characteristics, animal bite exposure and pre-treatment practices was obtained. Clinical examination determined the severity of the bite. All 619 patients who reported to the ABM clinic during January 2011 to December 2012 were included. Out of the total, 38% had applied chilli-oil paste, and 4% antiseptics to the wound as pre-treatment; only 30.6% had washed the wound with water. There was a direct association between traditional pre-treatment practices and delay in seeking treatment for animal bites which was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Health education of the general population with culturally appropriate Information, Education and Communication material is therefore a necessary strategy to reduce delay in seeking appropriate treatment. PMID:25540164

  13. Wonder world of phages: potential biocontrol agents safeguarding biosphere and health of animals and humans- current scenario and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Kumar, Amit; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3 virophages have been discovered including the Sputnik virophages that are used to study genetic recombination. Virophages also find their application in antiviral therapy; as engineer of ecological system etc. In brief, present review deals with various dimensions of these beneficial viruses that are being used and can be successfully used in future for safeguarding biosphere including animal and human health. PMID:24897785

  14. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Moseholm, Ellen; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    Aim Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact of socio-demographic and medical factors associated with HRQoL at the time of diagnosis. Methods This was a prospective, multicenter survey study that included patients who were referred for a diagnostic evaluation due to non-specific cancer symptoms. Participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality of life scale before and after completing the diagnostic evaluation. The baseline and follow-up EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores were compared with reference populations. The impact of socio-demographic and medical factors on HRQoL at follow-up was explored by bootstrapped multivariate linear regression. Results A total of 838 patients participated in the study; 680 (81%) also completed follow-up. Twenty-two percent of the patients received a cancer diagnosis at the end of follow-up. Patients presented initially with a high burden of symptoms, less role and emotional functioning and a lower global health/QoL. Most domains improved after diagnosis and no clinically important difference between baseline and follow-up scores was found. Patients reported effects on HRQoL both at baseline and at follow-up compared with the Danish reference population and had similar scores as a cancer reference population. Co-morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with non-specific symptoms reported an affected HRQoL while undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer. Morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. PMID:26840866

  15. Influenza: One Health in action.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Kirkland, Peter D

    2011-07-01

    Influenza highlights the relevance of One Health, where experts in animal, human and environmental health combine to solve inter-related problems. Human disease due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and avian and human disease due to influenza A/H5N1 are recent examples of new zoonoses with significant global impact. Management and prevention of influenza and other emerging infectious diseases requires the expansion and continuing support of collaborations between human and animal health experts at the clinical, diagnostic laboratory, public health, research and training levels. PMID:21781620

  16. Getting antimalarials on target: impact of national roll-out of malaria rapid diagnostic tests on health facility treatment in three regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Nchimbi, Happy; Festo, Charles; Taylor, Mark; Thomson, Rebecca; Cairns, Matthew; Thwing, Julie; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment is recommended for patients of all ages, with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) an important tool to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to patients with malaria. To evaluate the impact on case management practices of routine government implementation of mRDTs, we conducted large-scale health facility surveys in three regions of Tanzania before and after mRDT roll-out. Methods Febrile patients at randomly selected health facilities were interviewed about care received at the facility, and blood samples were collected for reference blood smears. Health facility staff were interviewed about their qualifications and availability of malaria diagnostics and drugs. Results The percentage of febrile patients tested for malaria at the facility increased from 15.8% in 2010 to 54.9% in 2012. ACTs were obtained by 65.8% of patients positive by reference blood smear in 2010 and by 50.2% in 2012 (P = 0.0675); no antimalarial was obtained by 57.8% of malaria-negative patients in 2010 and by 82.3% in 2012 (P < 0.0001). Overall, ACT use decreased (39.9–21.3%, P < 0.0001) and antibiotic use increased (31.2–48.5%, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Roll-out of mRDTs in Tanzania dramatically improved diagnostic testing for malaria and reduced overuse of ACTs for patients without parasitemia. However, post–roll-out almost 50% of febrile patients did not receive a diagnostic test, and almost 50% of patients testing positive did not receive ACTs. Stock-outs of ACTs and mRDTs were important problems. Further investigation is needed to determine reasons for not providing ACTs to patients with malaria and potential for inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:23937722

  17. Monitoring and investigating natural disease by veterinary pathologists in diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D

    2010-01-01

    Many emerging diseases in animals are initially recognized by diagnostic pathologists in animal health laboratories using routine laboratory submissions, in conjunction with clinical veterinarians and wildlife biologists. Familiar recent examples are chronic wasting disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile encephalomyelitis in North America, and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs. The recognition of new diseases in animals requires that the curiosity of diagnosticians be articulated with the capacity of animal health laboratories to create effective diagnostic teams, solicit additional cases from the field at minimal cost to clients, and develop relationships with basic researchers. Bovine neosporosis is used as an example to illustrate how a disease investigation triggered by routine clinical accessions can have international ramifications. Between the late 1980s and 1995, diagnosticians with California's animal health laboratory system identified neosporosis as a cause of reproductive wastage in cattle, characterized the lesions, isolated the agent, defined routes of transmission, met Koch's postulates, and developed diagnostic assays. Diagnostic pathologists catalyzed the process. The neosporosis investigation in California suggests useful attributes of veterinary diagnostic laboratories that pursue emerging diseases identified through routine laboratory accessions. PMID:20080483

  18. Health risks associated with animals in different types of urban areas: present status and new ecological conditions due to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Rosický, B

    1978-01-01

    For different reasons urban areas are colonized by numerous animal groups. From the aspect of the incidence of zoonoses the following animal groups are primarily significant: 1) food-producing animals; 2) pets; 3) synanthropic mammals; 4) synanthropic birds; 5) synanthropic arthropods. Certain species live in central parts of urban areas which the A. attempts to classify, and particularly in suburban areas which serve for recreation of town inhabitants. From the aspect of the occurrence of different animal species the A. points out the significance of various parts of urban agglomerations. PMID:756156

  19. An alternative perspective on how laboratory medicine can contribute to solve the health care crisis: a model to save costs by acquiring excellence in diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Mussap, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The rapid escalation in health care costs has led to the idea to deliver better care at lower costs, reshaping the responsibilities of the health care system to achieve the goal of creating value for the patient. The pressure for fiscal containment and the progressive reduction in available health care resources originated very short term strategies consisting of abrupt reductions in expenditure, specifically in the provision of clinical pathology laboratory medicine services. However, the impact of laboratory test results on diagnostic and therapeutic interventions has increased enormously in the past decade, due to advances in personalized medicine and to the strictly correlated requirement to use new biomarkers with increasing sensitivity and specificity in clinical practice. In order to create savings by delivering better care there is the need to invest financial resources in purchasing high technology and new sophisticated tests and to promote the expertise of clinical pathologists and laboratory medicine professionals. This approach to creating value in patient health care is more productive and sustainable ethically, morally and economically as a long-term strategy. It can be successfully achieved by applying defined rules that make public-private cooperation clearer, skipping incompatible solutions such as transforming clinical laboratories to 'industrially productive premises', outsourcing laboratory medicine services and using central acquisition of diagnostic systems. PMID:24080433

  20. Diagnostic performance of body mass index using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standards for body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Lull; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Kyung Mi; Noh, Hye Mi; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-02-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and health risks differ between Asian and European populations. BMI is commonly used to diagnose obesity; however, its accuracy in detecting adiposity in Koreans is unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the accuracy of BMI in determining BF%-defined obesity in 6,017 subjects (age 20-69 yr, 43.6% men) from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We assessed the diagnostic performance of BMI using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standard for BF%-defined obesity by sex and age and identified the optimal BMI cut-off for BF%-defined obesity using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. BMI-defined obesity (≥25 kg/m(2)) was observed in 38.7% of men and 28.1% of women, with a high specificity (89%, men; 84%, women) but poor sensitivity (56%, men; 72% women) for BF%-defined obesity (25.2%, men; 31.1%, women). The optimal BMI cut-off (24.2 kg/m(2)) had 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity. BMI demonstrated limited diagnostic accuracy for adiposity in Korea. There was a -1.3 kg/m(2) difference in optimal BMI cut-offs between Korea and America, smaller than the 5-unit difference between the Western Pacific Regional Office and global World Health Organization obesity criteria. PMID:25653487