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06/24/14 ANIMALHEALTHDIAGNOSTIC LAB-LASP Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Services without a price for a given year: may not be available, the price is pending or it hasn't been selected to be displayed on the web. Service Code Service
Summary Improvement of the methods included in the World Organisation for AnimalHealth (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals and addition of novel techniques are dependent on the continual development and evaluation of both new and existing methods. Although conventional isolation and characterisation techniques for the diagnosis of many diseases still remain the methods of choice there is
A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.
The animalhealth pharmaceutical industry has proactively reported on the volumes of member company antimicrobial active ingredients sold in the U.S. At the individual company level, reporting of finished product distribution data to the FDA is a regulatory requirement, with applications to surveillance and pharmacovigilance. An accounting of product manufactured is done for purposes of good business practices, as well as marketing analyses. Additional applications of antimicrobial usage data might include use in risk assessments, such as for the FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine Guidance for Industry #152 for the evaluation of the microbiological safety of antimicrobials intended for use in food animals. Compilation of national usage data will be a complex undertaking, hindered by issues such as confidentiality, auditing, field use practice variations, population dynamics (e.g. disease incidence, market conditions for poultry and livestock production), and generic usage. The amounts or volumes in pounds should be considered relative to the large number of animals under husbandry in the United States. Large volumes might seem impressive unless put into proper context. Until such time as a clearly defined application of national usage data is agreed, it is recommended that local usage programs will provide more useful information to perpetuate prudent antimicrobial use in animals. PMID:16266763
The fluoroquinolones are a series of synthetic antibacterial agents that are undergoing extensive investigation for both human and veterinary use in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. These agents work through the inhibition of DNA gyrase, interfering with the supercoiling of bacterial chromosomal material. As a result, these agents are rapidly bactericidal primarily against gram-negative bacteria, mycoplasma, and some gram-positive bacteria, with most having little to no activity against group D streptococci and obligate anaerobic bacteria. Resistance develops slowly and is almost always chromosomal and not plasmid-mediated. However, development of resistance to the fluoroquinolones and transfer of that resistance among animal and human pathogens have become a hotly debated issue among microbiologists. The fluoroquinolones are a current antimicrobial class whose use in veterinary medicine is being scrutinized. From a pharmacokinetic perspective, these agents are variably but well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and almost completely absorbed from parenteral injection sites, and they are well distributed to various tissues in the body. The fluoroquinolones are metabolized and renally excreted, with many of them having approximately equal excretion by the hepatic and the renal excretory systems. The primary toxicity observed at therapeutic doses involves the gastrointestinal system and phototoxicity, although at higher doses central nervous system toxicity and ocular cataracts are observed. Administration to immature animals may result in erosive arthropathies at weight-bearing joints, and administration of high doses to pregnant animals results in maternotoxicity and occasionally embryonic death. The fluoroquinolones are approved for indications such as urinary tract infections and soft tissue infections in dogs and cats and colibacillosis in poultry. Approval for bovine respiratory disease in the United States is being sought. Other indications for which the fluoroquinolones have been used in animalhealth include deep-seated infections, prostatitis, and other bacterial infections resistant to standard antimicrobial therapy. PMID:8992019
The report addresses the many components of the U.S. animalhealth infrastructure, animal population demographics, approaches to foreign animal disease surveillance, and new initiatives. As an annual publication, the U.S. AnimalHealth Report is updated a...
This reporta national overview of domestic animalhealth in the United States for 2004is a direct result of an external review of the Nations animalhealth safeguarding system. The AnimalHealth Safeguarding Review assessed the performance, processes, and...
The veterinary diagnostic laboratory's prime role has been diagnosis and/or laboratory findings to assist a diagnosis. Interpretation and evaluation and more involvement with decision-making in monitoring groups of animals and their health status are seen as future roles for diagnostic laboratories. (MLW)
The report discusses the purchasing, distribution, and manufacturing of feed and animalhealth products. Livestock, poultry, and dairy farmers buy significant amounts of their feeds and animalhealth supplies through cooperatives. Farmers' ownership and c...
This is the third such report that provides a wide-ranging review of the health of our Nations domestic animal resources. The report highlights significant epidemiologic events of 2006 and provides insight into the Nations animalhealth surveillance activ...
This is the fifth annual report produced by the U.S. Department of Agricultures Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) on the Nations animalhealth status. This publication highlights APHIS Veterinary Services (VS) programs, events, and initia...
An arc diagnostic system has been developed for analyzing arc motion, structure, and intensity in electrical components such as molded case circuit breakers and contactors. The system utilizes an array of fiber-optic cables and matching photodiode receivers to monitor the light from an arc and convert the light into electrical signals, which are acquired by a high-speed transient digitizing system.
John J. Shea; David Boles; Yun-Ko Chien; Rod Zeigler
This is the fourth annual report produced by the U.S. Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) on the status of animalhealth in the United States. The report includes updates on new and existing programs, condu...
The authors analyse the relationships which exist, in terms of programmes, sectors and institutions, between animalhealth, animal production and veterinary public health on the one hand, and between each of these three sectors and public health in general on the other. The most important common factor is food safety. Undernutrition, which affects some 60 million inhabitants of Latin America and the Caribbean, is still the most important public health problem in this part of the world. While it is known that the major cause of undernutrition is the low gross domestic product and uneven distribution of wealth, increased animal production and productivity would provide the key to an improvement in the situation. The concept of animalhealth, in its broadest sense, implies optimum animal production in a given region and during a specified period of time. Veterinary public health has functions and objectives which are crucial for food safety: protection and hygiene of foods, and control of the use in animal production of substances toxic to human beings (such as heavy metals, hormones and insecticides). Within the area of transmissible diseases, the authors discuss control measures for zoonoses. Besides the specific subject of interdisciplinary relationships in regard to zoonoses, the authors stress the importance of joint work conducted in the research, development and implementation of laboratory diagnostic activities and the production and quality control of antigens and vaccines. The production of laboratory animals is another sphere of common activity and research, and it cannot be said that such work is specific to any one of the three disciplines. Moreover, the fields of health, animalhealth and veterinary public health share the same methods and strategies, and reciprocal benefits could be more significant than the objectives of individual programmes. Reference is made to the organisation of state services and their adaptation to administrative de-centralisation, particularly at the local level. PMID:1840853
Casas Olascoaga, R; Rosenberg, F J; Astudillo, V M
Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animalhealth community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.
Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.
There is an increasing concern over ozone depletion and its effects on the environment and human health. However, the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) that would result from significant losses of ozone is also potentially harmful to animals. Any increase in disease in domestic species would not only have serious animal welfare implications but may also be economically important. The
Modern livestock farming industry practice continues to cause concern about hazardous exposures among workers and nearby residents. Occupational and environmental health nurses can join other advocates and encourage policies that protect workers, communities, and the environment from confined animal feeding operations health hazards. PMID:24806042
The watchword of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is "protection". The APHIS is primarily considered with improving agricultural productivity and also ensuring the health and care of animals and plants. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Hot Issues" section to learn more about some of the most pressing issues that the APHIS addresses. Here they will find fact sheets and news updates on avian influenza, the pesky light brown apple moth, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moving on, visitors can also browse a list of subject headings that include animalhealth, biotechnology, plant health, and wildlife damage management. Finally, the site also contains an area where concerned visitors can report a pest infestation or suspected instances of agricultural smuggling.
Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712
Summary As Veterinary Services and animalhealth organisations attempt to respond to a new era of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, their ability and skill in forming new strategic partnerships will be paramount. While these new partnerships are likely to include many relationships outside traditional Veterinary Services and animal agriculture, none will become more important than the formation of new
The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animalhealth technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
In this review, the importance of molecular genetics for diagnostic applications in animal production and breeding is underlined. Recently, several new techniques and methods based on gene technology have been developed, such as the polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the use of microsatellite polymorphism. The examples include detection of favourable alleles of genes coding for milk proteins, recognition of negative recessive alleles in hereditary syndromes, the use of microsatellite variants for breeding purposes and parentage control, and application of specific DNA-probes for identification of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa and the sex of embryos. It is to be understood that this list is not complete and more applications will undoubtedly show up in the future. For this review, the authors have mainly selected areas where they themselves or their co-workers have gained experience. PMID:9704105
The quality of the laboratory diagnostic approach in farm animals can be severely affected by pre-analytical factors of variation. They induce increase/decrease of biochemical and hematological analyte concentrations and, as a consequence, they may cause unsuitable conclusions and decisions for animalhealth management and research projects. The pre-analytical period covers the preparation of sampling, the sampling procedure itself, as well as all specimen handling until the beginning of the specific laboratory analysis. Pre-analytical factors may have either an animal-related or a technique-related background. Animal-related factors cover daytime/season, meals/fasting, age, gender, altitude, drugs/anesthesia, physical exercise/stress or coinfection. Technique-related factors are the choice of the tube including serum v. plasma, effects of anticoagulants/gel separators, the anticoagulant/blood ratio, the blood collection procedure itself, specimen handling, contamination, labeling, storage and serum/plasma separation, transportation of the specimen, as well as sample preparation before analysis in the laboratory. It is essential to have proper knowledge about the importance and source of pre-analytical factors to alter the entire diagnostic process. Utmost efforts should be made to minimize controllable factors. Analytical results have to be evaluated with care considering that pre-analytical factors of variation are possible causes of misinterpretation. PMID:23031472
Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development.
Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712
Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself among the world's premier animalhealth research centers. Its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the U.S. livestock and poultry industries. Research from NADC has impacted control or management efforts on nearly every major animal disease in the United States since 1961. For example, diagnostic tests and vaccines developed by NADC scientists to detect and prevent hog cholera were integral in the ultimate eradication of this costly swine disease from the U.S. Most major veterinary vaccines for critical diseases such as brucellosis and leptospirosis in cattle, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), porcine parvovirus and influenza in swine had their research origins or were developed and tested at the NADC. Additional discoveries made by NADC scientists have also resulted in the development of a nutritional approach and feed additives to prevent milk fever in transition dairy cattle. More recently, NADC's archive of historic swine influenza viruses combined with an established critical mass of influenza research expertise enabled NADC researchers to lead an effective national research response to the pandemic associated with the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This review commemorates some of the key animalhealth contributions in NADC's first 50 years, recaps the newly completed modernization of the center into new facilities, and offers highlights of the ongoing research that will define NADC's mission going forward. PMID:23642415
Bannantine, John P; Olsen, Steven C; Kehrli, Marcus E; Stanton, Thad B; Casas, Eduardo; Whipple, Diana L; Zuelke, Kurt A
There is an increasing concern over ozone depletion and its effects on the environment and human health. However, the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) that would result from significant losses of ozone is also potentially harmful to animals. Any increase in disease in domestic species would not only have serious animal welfare implications but may also be economically important. The diseases which are likely to increase if ozone depletion continues include the squamous cell carcinomas of the exposed, non-pigmented areas of cats, cattle, sheep and horses. Uberreiter's syndrome in dogs is also associated with exposure to UV-B and may be expected to increase, as may the severity of conditions such as infectious keratoconjunctivitis (New Forest eye) in cattle. Aquaculture systems in which fish often have little or no protection by shading may also be at risk. Cataracts and skin lesions have been associated with the exposure of farmed fish to ultraviolet radiation and have resulted in significant losses. PMID:1529513
Human health and aquatic animalhealth are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity.
Contents: Animalhealth: Our roles in achieving it; Barring the door to foreign diseases; Backyard poultry and pet birds; Dairy and beef cattle; Sheep and goats; Keeping fish healthy; Dogs and cats; Rabbits and other small animals; Horses.
Considering the 'One Health' principles, the links between animal and human health are very strong. Both domestic and wild animals are sources of infectious agents that cause diseases in humans. Poor animalhealth may also indirectly affect human health, through reduced access to food. A large number of infectious diseases of animals, the transboundary animal diseases, spread rapidly across borders. Robust and accurate diagnostic assays are needed to detect the infectious agents rapidly and to limit their spread. A large arsenal of novel assays has been developed during the last three decades, with a tremendous impact on the detection of infectious agents. The new diagnostic methods are mostly laboratory-based and expensive, requiring sophisticated equipment and special skills. However, rapid and cheap field-based assays have also been developed. Herein, the authors give several examples of the development of novel assays, with special focus on the 'One Health' principles. PMID:24547658
Widén, F; Leijon, M; Olsson Engvall, E; Muradrasoli, S; Munir, M; Belák, S
Foresight has been introduced in Canada in the area of animalhealth as a process to broaden thinking about the future and inform policy development. Its initial use and evolution through projects and studies over the past decade are described, demonstrating real action in animalhealth. Despite positive, continuing, and exciting results in animalhealth policy development, foresight’s widespread acceptance and use thus far have been limited. Critical components for success, drawn from the Canadian experience, are described, and recommendations are offered for further action in animalhealth.
Willis, Norman G.; Munroe, Fonda A.; Empringham, R. Edward; Renwick, Shane A.; Van der Linden, Ingrid W.M.; Dunlop, James R.
The Community AnimalHealth Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animalhealth services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animalhealth services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animalhealth service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animalhealth service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animalhealth service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animalhealth services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animalhealth service providers merit policy consideration. PMID:24346862
...2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A...
Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animalhealth issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animalhealth, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture.
In the rapidly changing context of research on animalhealth, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animalhealth, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animalhealth research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animalhealth research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animalhealth research at the level of research teams and programmes.
Summary Potential health risks are always associated with the translocation of wild animals. A formal assessment of these health risks should be conducted in advance of each translocation, and the results of the risk assessment should be incorporated into decisions as to whether or not the translocation should occur or whether changes in the translocation protocol could substantially reduce health
Introduction In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the findings in relation to zoonotic surveillance and the linkage of human and animal data. Methods The Canary Database, an online bibliographic database of animal-sentinel studies was searched and articles were classified according to four linkage categories. Results 465 studies were identified and assigned to linkage categories involving: descriptive, analytic, molecular, or no human outcomes of human and animalhealth. Descriptive linkage was the most common, whereby both animal and human health outcomes were presented, but without quantitative linkage between the two. Rarely, analytic linkage was utilized in which animal data was used to quantitatively predict human risk. The other two categories included molecular linkage, and no human outcomes, which present health outcomes in animals but not humans. Discussion We found limited use of animal data to quantitatively predict human risk and listed the methods from the literature that performed analytic linkage. The lack of analytic linkage in the literature might not be solely related to technological barriers including access to electronic database, statistical software packages, and Geographical Information System (GIS). Rather, the problem might be from a lack of understanding by researchers of the importance of animal data as a 'sentinel' for human health. Researchers performing zoonotic surveillance should be aware of the value of animal-sentinel approaches for predicting human risk and consider analytic methods for linking animal and human data. Qualitative work needs to be done in order to examine researchers' decisions in linkage strategies between animal and human data.
Routine biochemical tests generally include serum enzymes, proteins, and other markers useful for identifying hepatobiliary disease in dogs and cats. Obtaining results outside the reference intervals can occur with direct hepatocellular injury, enzyme induction by hepatocytes or biliary epithelium, or decreased hepatic function. However, detection of biochemical abnormalities does not necessarily indicate clinically significant disease. For a comprehensive approach to detection and treatment of hepatobiliary disease, the laboratory results must be correlated with the history and physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging results, and other assays. PMID:24144086
Modern animal husbandry has been concerned with increasing efficiency by increasing the number of animals raised per unit area; decreasing labor costs by automated animal feeding, watering, and housing; and using antibiotics to increase animal growth rates. These changes in animal production practices have resulted in reduced disease risks in some cases, but also have introduced new risks and challenges to the animal handler. Topics covered here include exposure pathways and health hazards associated with animal excreta, birthing wastes, and carcasses, with emphasis on infectious microbes (e.g., bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens) and airborne hazards (e.g., gases, dust particles, aerosols, and odors). Measures for reducing risks to animal handlers, including the use of waste management and treatment techniques, are reviewed. PMID:10329913
Summary Climate change is expected to have direct and indirect impacts on African livestock. Direct impacts include increased ambient temperature, floods and droughts. Indirect impacts are the result of reduced availability of water and forage and changes in the environment that promote the spread of contagious diseases through increased contact between animals, or increased survival or availability of the agent
A variety of plant species have been genetically modified to accumulate vaccine antigens for human and animalhealth and the\\u000a first vaccine candidates are approaching the market. The regulatory burden for animal vaccines is less than that for human\\u000a use and this has attracted the attention of researchers and companies, and investment in plant-made vaccines for animal infectious\\u000a disease control
Approximately 1.6 billion tons of animal wastes are produced annually in the US. Since a large portion of the wastes is from animals managed under intensive systems, the wastes must be handled in a manner which will cause minimum risk to human health and comfort. The wastes possess substantial nutritional value. Satisfactory performance was obtained when these were fed to
Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060
The commercial use of animal cloning for breeding food producing animals has been limited so far by biological and technical constraints such as adverse effects on the health and welfare of animals, especially high perinatal and postnatal disease and mortality of clones. However, the improvement of the technique may overcome those problems in future and contribute to the spread of cloning in agricultural production, which raises concern not only on health and welfare aspects but also on food safety and ethics. This may cause conflict in international trade. The present article reviews these topics on the basis of up-to-date scientific opinions. PMID:21274831
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...2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability Â§ 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...
...C. 8301 et seq.), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...APHIS operates the National AnimalHealth Monitoring System...and challenges, including animal identification, confinement and handling, care, and disease testing; Describe health...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....
...2014-01-01 false Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents...
Animalhealth is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animalhealth. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animalhealth decisions. We reviewed the 35 animalhealth related scientific opinions adopted by the AnimalHealth and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. PMID:21306779
Human health is related to animal life, health and disease primarily through animal food products and the safety and risks connected to these products. In other terms: the quality of the food produced from animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is important in order to maintain human health and be a safe resource for food. In this paper, food quality
A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283
Australia has implemented a through-chain regulatory framework to address animal welfare issues in the livestock export trade. The framework places the responsibility for ensuring that the welfare of exported animals meets internationally accepted standards on those who hold the licences issued for the export of Australian livestock. It applies to all livestock (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, camels) exported from Australia, either for immediate slaughter or for feeding and eventual slaughter. The development of the framework began when the Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock were implemented in December 2004, to safeguard animal welfare from the point when the animals are selected for export up until the moment when they are offloaded in the destination country. The framework has recently been extended to incorporate animal welfare requirements through to the point of slaughter in the destination country. The requirements draw on, and are consistent with, the animal welfare chapters of the World Organisation for AnimalHealth (OIE) Terrestrial AnimalHealth Code. PMID:24761723
A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches.
van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S
Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animalhealth sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animalhealth sectors are addressed. PMID:21781617
The link between international trade, animalhealth and epidemiology has been recognized for a long time and has taken an additional importance in the aftermath of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and of the inception of the World Trade Organization. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization demands that sanitary and phytosanitary measures be scientifically based, placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related animalhealth and trade. This paper analyses the interactions between international trade of animals (and animal products) and epidemiology with discussion on the inputs of epidemiology in surveillance, risk analysis and regionalization. PMID:11259819
...The extent to which movement of animals and animal products is controlled from regions...quantity and quality of sampling and testing? Diagnostic laboratory capabilities...Policies and infrastructure for animal disease control in the...
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) is charged with monitoring, controlling, and responding to select reportable diseases and all foreign animal diseases. Emergency Management and Diagnostics (EM&D) oversees Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) preparedness and response. In order to effectively prepare for and respond to FADs, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease, VS develops plans, strategies, and policies to effectively combat an intrusion. USDA APHIS VS has made significant gains in preparedness and response planning. However, much remains to be done especially in surveillance, diagnostic tools, and vaccines. There are significant needs for novel medical technologies to improve diagnostic capabilities and offer additional approaches for FAD response. PMID:23689880
Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animalhealth and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animalhealth organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animalhealth and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467
Summary Humans have always polluted their environment and, to an extent, the associated adverse consequences have increased in parallel with the global population. However, in recent decades, entirely novel compounds have been created, for multiple purposes, and some of these have become ubiquitous, damaging pollutants, which interfere with fundamental physiological processes in all animal species, disrupting reproductive and other functions. Understanding of the actions of these chemicals is poor but it is recognised that they can act additively, at low concentrations, and that animals at early stages of development are particularly sensitive to their effects. All species, including domestic and wild animals and humans, can be affected. Thus, there are potential adverse implications of exposure for farm and companion animal productivity and health, and associated economic implications. While anthropogenic pollutants exert subtle, but important, adverse effects on animalhealth and productivity, these should be weighed against the benefits associated with the use of these compounds, particularly in relation to food production and short-term determinants of animalhealth. However, it is suggested that it may be necessary to regulate future production and use of some of these compounds in order to ensure long term sustainability of production systems.
The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animalhealth applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.
Background Health information technology (HIT) systems have the potential to reduce delayed, missed or incorrect diagnoses. We describe and classify the current state of diagnostic HIT and identify future research directions. Methods A multi-pronged literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, backwards and forwards reference searches and contributions from domain experts. We included HIT systems evaluated in clinical and experimental settings as well as previous reviews, and excluded radiology computer-aided diagnosis, monitor alerts and alarms, and studies focused on disease staging and prognosis. Articles were organised within a conceptual framework of the diagnostic process and areas requiring further investigation were identified. Results HIT approaches, tools and algorithms were identified and organised into 10 categories related to those assisting: (1) information gathering; (2) information organisation and display; (3) differential diagnosis generation; (4) weighing of diagnoses; (5) generation of diagnostic plan; (6) access to diagnostic reference information; (7) facilitating follow-up; (8) screening for early detection in asymptomatic patients; (9) collaborative diagnosis; and (10) facilitating diagnostic feedback to clinicians. We found many studies characterising potential interventions, but relatively few evaluating the interventions in actual clinical settings and even fewer demonstrating clinical impact. Conclusions Diagnostic HIT research is still in its early stages with few demonstrations of measurable clinical impact. Future efforts need to focus on: (1) improving methods and criteria for measurement of the diagnostic process using electronic data; (2) better usability and interfaces in electronic health records; (3) more meaningful incorporation of evidence-based diagnostic protocols within clinical workflows; and (4) systematic feedback of diagnostic performance.
Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school's predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization. PMID:21546594
White, Joel M; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C; Ramoni, Rachel L; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F
Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school’s predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization.
White, Joel M.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C.; Ramoni, Rachel L.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.
The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animalhealth, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999
...Advisory Committee on AnimalHealth (the Committee...control, or eradicate animal diseases. The Committee...conservation of national resources, stability of livestock...strategies, prioritizing animalhealth imperatives...are available on the Internet at...
Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)
The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animalhealth. Animalhealth may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animalhealth in Asia. PMID:18819679
Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian AnimalHealth Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009.
Four comprehensive reviews on the available published literature were prepared as monographs on the following mycotoxins in animal feed and grains related to animalhealth: Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Zearalenone and T-2 Toxin and Metabolites. Each review cove...
In this review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875
The diagnostic oligonucleotide microarray for subtyping of human and animal influenza A viruses (IAVs) was developed. We proposed a simple method of the fluorescent labeling of genomic segments of all known IAVs subtypes, the composition of the hybridization buffer, as well as the software of the data processing. 48 IAVs strains of different subtypes were analyzed using our microarray. All of them were identified, while 45 of 48 strains were unambiguously subtyped. PMID:24640169
Vasin, A V; Sandybaev, N T; Plotnikova, M A; Klotchenko, S A; Cherviakova, O V; Strochkov, V M; Ta?lakova, É T; Temkina, O A; Brodskaia, A V; Zabrodskaia, Ia A; Nikulenkov, K P; Egorov, V V; Koshemetov, Zh K; Sancyzba?, A R; Kiselev, O I
...Application for recognition of the animalhealth status of a region. 92.2 Section...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Application for recognition of the animalhealth status of a region. (a) The...
Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs.
Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S.; Kline, Joel N.; Avery, Rachel; B?nl?kke, Jakob H.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Dosman, James A.; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A.
Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782
Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A
A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements.
Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.
A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786
Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S
...mission, APHIS operates the National AnimalHealth Monitoring System (NAHMS...practices and challenges, including animal identification, fencing, animal care and handling, trade and movement, and disease testing; Describe the...
High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure. PMID:12416314
The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 — Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.
Ul'yanov, S. S.; Laskavyi, V. N.; Glova, Alina B.; Polyanina, T. I.; Ul'yanova, O. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Ul'yanov, A. S.
The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.
Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S
In order to support animalhealth care on pig farms a Health Planner Pigs has been developed. In 1998 the practical value of the system was tested under field condition on pig farms. The Health Planner proved to be a valuable instrument for monitoring and evaluating animalhealth on pig farms. Due to the promising results of the field experiment,
Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194
Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export.
Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.
The recent advances in sensor technology, remote communication and computational capabilities, and standardized hardware/software interfaces are creating a dramatic shift in the way the health of vehicles is monitored and managed. These advances facilitate remote monitoring, diagnosis and condition-based maintenance of automotive systems. With the increased sophistication of electronic control systems in vehicles, there is a concomitant increased difficulty in the identification of the malfunction phenomena. Consequently, the current rule-based diagnostic systems are difficult to develop, validate and maintain. New intelligent model-based diagnostic methodologies that exploit the advances in sensor, telecommunications, computing and software technologies are needed. In this paper, we will investigate hybrid model-based techniques that seamlessly employ quantitative (analytical) models and graph-based dependency models for intelligent diagnosis. Automotive engineers have found quantitative simulation (e.g. MATLAB/SIMULINK) to be a vital tool in the development of advanced control systems. The hybrid method exploits this capability to improve the diagnostic system"s accuracy and consistency, utilizes existing validated knowledge on rule-based methods, enables remote diagnosis, and responds to the challenges of increased system complexity. The solution is generic and has the potential for application in a wide range of systems.
Luo, Jianhui; Tu, Fang; Azam, Mohammad S.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter K.; Qiao, Liu; Kawamoto, Masayuki
The contribution of science to farm level disease management is a story of two worlds. The development of effective vaccines has allowed for the control of important salmonid diseases such as furunculosis, yersiniosis and vibriosis and has significantly reduced farmers' reliance on antibiotics. Control of diseases for which cost-effective vaccines have yet to be developed has been achieved through the development of increasingly targeted antibiotics and chemotherapeutants. Increasingly, accurate and rapid diagnostic and water quality tests have allowed farmers to improve farm-level aquatic animalhealth management. In developed countries, these achievements have been possible thanks to the strong link between science and farm management. This link has been assisted by the presence of strong farmer organizations capable of coordinating research projects and hosting meetings at which scientific information is discussed and disseminated. Although Asia is responsible for the production of about 90% of aquaculture products, it presents a rather different picture from the above. Science has indeed made significant progress in health management but the links with farm management are still weak. Management practices capable of preventing important health problems in shrimp and fish farming are still poorly adopted by farmers. This is largely due to constraints in the dissemination of information to the large number of producers involved, the limited resources of both producers and their countries and the lack of effective farmer organizations capable of liaising with the scientific world. Recently, the Asian region has witnessed some successful examples of aquatic animalhealth management through the adoption of simple Better Management Practices. Efforts so far have been largely focused on shrimp farming, although activities have been initiated to adopt a similar approach to other commodities. The need for both observational and experimental epidemiological studies to identify simple and affordable farm practices for the control of aquatic animal diseases is highlighted. PMID:18306517
Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for AnimalHealth (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic AnimalHealth Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic AnimalHealth Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. PMID:22335835
Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F
The challenges to those who regulate the import and export of animals and animal products are escalating, due to the evolving nature of animal and human disease agents. The diseases and agents of interest may include low pathogenic avian influenza, bluetongue, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and foot-and-mouth disease. Fear of an incursion of an unknown or incompletely understood threat can significantly limit risk tolerance. The fear may be that an incursion will affect export trade or tourism. An incomplete knowledge of the animalhealth situation in the exporting country, due to insufficient surveillance for the disease agent of concern, may limit the application of science in import decisions. In addition, the disease agent may be inappropriately considered exotic if it has not been described. As a result, excessive safeguards for disease agents that do not present any new threat may be employed. To confront these challenges, we are striving toward transparency in international reporting. Moreover, regulatory import decisions exceeding the recommendations of the Terrestrial AnimalHealth Code and the Aquatic AnimalHealth Code of the World Organization for AnimalHealth must be fair and science-based. PMID:17135497
The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease. PMID:24569613
Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animalhealth and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animalhealth, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry.
...National AnimalHealth Monitoring System's Dairy 2014 Study to support the dairy industry of the United States. DATES: We will consider...of the health and production of the U.S. dairy industry. We are asking the Office of...
This paper is a product of a larger study conducted between 2002 and 2004 on the state of libraries and use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in research and academic libraries in Zambia. It examines the role of information professionals in enhancing access to animalhealth information under prevailing conditions. Animalhealth is an integral aspect of the agricultural sector,
Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).
The development of the infected or diseased state in an animal following its exposure to grassland which has become contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms following landspreading of infected slurry is dependent on the weight of infection acquired and the health status of the animal itself. The survival of pathogenic microorganisms in numbers sufficient to create a hazard for animals, and for
Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video’s cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants’ ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.
George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A
On March 31, 2010, the North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) was notified by a local public health department that a stray dog found in rural Minnesota and housed during March 9-20 in a North Dakota animal shelter had been found to have rabies. NDDoH, along with the local public health department, the North Dakota Board of AnimalHealth (BOAH), the Minnesota Board of AnimalHealth, and the Minnesota Department of Health, immediately began an investigation to identify persons requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and to prevent further rabies transmission. This report summarizes the public health investigation, which used animal shelter records and public notification to identify possible human and animal contacts of the rabid dog. Among 32 persons who might have been exposed to the rabid dog at the shelter, 21 persons, including nine shelter employees and one volunteer, received PEP. In accordance with 2009 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control guidance, the 25 dogs in the shelter with the rabid dog were euthanized. Among 25 other dogs without an up-to-date rabies vaccination that were adopted or claimed from the shelter and might have been exposed, 11 were euthanized, 13 were isolated for 6 months in their owners' homes, and one was unintentionally killed. No additional cases of rabies in dogs or humans had been identified as of December 2010. This event supports consideration of preexposure vaccination of animal shelter employees and highlights the continued importance of routine rabies vaccination of domestic animals. PMID:21209608
A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and envi- ronmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, \\
Kelley J. Donham; Steven Wing; David Osterberg; Jan L. Flora; Carol Hodne; Kendall M. Thu; Peter S. Thorne
We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania AnimalDiagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978
Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M
Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220
De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R; Petit, Marie-Agnès
Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity.
De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnes
\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,
Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.
Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…
The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes.
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animalhealth.
The report is the hardcopy printout of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Wave 1 Household Survey Diagnostic Program. For use as supplement to the NIMH ECA Wave 1 Household Survey Public Use Data Tape and Documentation.
For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test (“gold standard”) is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect), robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI) and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9) and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3), respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8). For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.
A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...
This paper presents an overview of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a discussion of the methodological research on which the development of the instrument was based. The WMH-CIDI includes a screening module and 40 sections that focus on diagnoses (22 sections), functioning (four sections), treatment
Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animalhealth and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.
Abstract Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animalhealth and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738
Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic
A wide range of management techniques is available to enhance quantity and quality of forage supply to grazing animals throughout the annual production cycle. Within broad limits, dry matter (DM) production is relatively insensitive to management of defoliation frequency, severity and duration. However defoliation management has effects on feed quality which can be enhanced, in particular, by control of pasture
Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…
The contribution of the Panamerican Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Centre (PANAFTOSA), as an OIE (World organisation for animalhealth) regional reference laboratory for the diagnosis of FMD and vesicular stomatitis, and for the control of the FMD vaccine, has been of fundamental importance to the development, implementation and harmonisation of modern laboratory procedures in South America. The significance of the work conducted by PANAFTOSA is particularly obvious when one considers the two pillars on which eradication programmes are based, namely: a well-structured regional laboratory network, and the creation of a system which allows technology and new developments to be transferred to Member Countries as quickly and efficiently as possible. Over the past decade, PANAFTOSA has kept pace with the changing epidemiological situation on the continent, and with developments in the international political and economical situation. This has involved the strengthening of quality policies, and the elaboration and implementation of diagnostic tools that make for more thorough epidemiological analyses. The integration of PANAFTOSA into the network of national laboratories and its cooperation with technical and scientific institutes, universities and the private sector means that local needs can be met, thanks to the design and rapid implementation of methodological tools which are validated using internationally accepted criteria. This collaboration, which ensures harmonisation of laboratory tests and enhances the quality of national Veterinary Services, serves to promote greater equity, a prerequisite for regional eradication strategies and this in turn, helps to increase competitiveness in the region. PMID:15884590
An animal population health and disease software package entitled 'EPIZOO' has been developed. This computer program comprises an integral and complex system of selected indicators contained in ten modules and over one hundred sub-programs, with approximately two hundred methods for use in problem solving, training and simulation. This fully user-friendly software is applicable to any animal disease, and makes analysis and programming easier and quicker. The software includes general methods for use in a number of fields: animal population health and disease situation (structure, dynamics, diagnosis, analysis and consequences) animal population characteristics of epizootiological importance animalhealth programme preparation, cost calculation and evaluation selected sampling other statistical procedures. EPIZOO is a relatively simple tool for field and management veterinarians, as well as veterinary students. PMID:7949341
... Welfare Biotechnology Emergency Response Imports & Exports International Services Plant Health Wildlife Damage Alerts And Announcements USDA Licenses ... feed on the flower or fruit of host plants, most often grapes. It was first detected in ...
The purpose of the report was (1) to study the human health effects of subtherapeutic use of penicillin and tetracycline (chloretracycline and oxytetracycline) in animal feeds; (2) to review and analyze published and unpublished epidemiological data and o...
...and network USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories with the...and address: Chief Information Officer, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health...primarily from USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories and...
The Units covered in this section are: Unit 8 - AnimalHealth and the Environment Unit 9 -Some Biomedical Success Stories Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.
Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381
Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A
Non-regulatory animalhealth issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animalhealth services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animalhealth services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animalhealth issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animalhealth services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands).
...under the International Plant Protection Convention...control and eradication of plant and animal diseases and...the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency...thereof from biological and chemical warfare; and utilization...respect to animal and plant health,...
...under the International Plant Protection Convention...control and eradication of plant and animal diseases and...the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency...thereof from biological and chemical warfare; and utilization...respect to animal and plant health,...
This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animalhealth regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…
Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…
Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. We describe the different roles of gut microbiome activity and their metabolites in regulating distinct host physiology and the molecular mechanisms by which gut metabolites cause physiological homeostasis via regulating specific host signaling pathways. Future studies in this direction using different animal models will provide the key concepts to understanding the evolutionarily conserved chemical dialogues between gut microbiota and metazoan cells and also human diseases associated with gut microbiota and metabolites. PMID:24838170
Plant biologists have long recognized that host defence against parasites and pathogens can be divided into two conceptually different components: the ability to limit parasite burden (resistance) and the ability to limit the harm caused by a given burden (tolerance). Together these two components determine how well a host is protected against the effects of parasitism. This distinction is useful because it recognizes that hosts that are best at controlling parasite burdens are not necessarily the healthiest. Moreover, resistance and tolerance can be expected to have different effects on the epidemiology of infectious diseases and host–parasite coevolution. However, studies of defence in animals have to date focused on resistance, whereas the possibility of tolerance and its implications have been largely overlooked. The aim of our review is to (i) describe the statistical framework for analysis of tolerance developed in plant science and how this can be applied to animals, (ii) review evidence of genetic and environmental variation for tolerance in animals, and studies indicating which mechanisms could contribute to this variation, and (iii) outline avenues for future research on this topic.
A syndemic involves two or more afflictions that, by interacting synergistically, contribute to excess burdens of disease. A syndemic approach to prevention, meanwhile, focuses on connections among health-related problems, considers those connections when developing health policies, and aligns with forces for social change. In this short report, we expand the syndemic concept to acknowledge the extent to which animalhealth connects with human health and, with reference to existing publications, we demonstrate the pertinence of this expanded definition for a syndemic approach to prevention. Our demonstration assumes practical importance in relation to the concept of 'one health', which many prominent veterinary and human health scientists have recently endorsed as a sound basis for redressing human diseases, animal diseases, and environmental degradation worldwide. While social scientists have mostly ignored animalhealth, few 'one health' proponents have emphasized social conditions or involved social scientists. By explicitly accommodating animal-human connections in our expanded conceptualization of a syndemic, we hope to help create a space in which human health, veterinary, and social scientists may learn from one another, collaborate in research, and cooperate to clear the way for innovations in prevention. PMID:19157669
Rock, Melanie; Buntain, Bonnie J; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt
Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. PMID:24897784
SUMMARY In 2007 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on the food safety, animalhealth, animal welfare and environmental implications of animal clones, obtained through somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) technique, of their progeny and of the products obtained from those animals. In view of the multidisciplinary nature of
Sue Barlow; Andrew Chesson; John D. Collins; Albert Flynn; Anthony Hardy; Ada Knaap; Jan Schans; Josef Schlatter; Vittorio Silano; Staffan Skerfving; Philippe Vannier
Organic standards aim at good livestock health and welfare. A literature search on organic animalhealth and welfare was performed in October–November 2001 to investigate how well these aims compare with reality, and to see what areas have been researched. The search also made it apparent that national and historical differences in organic standards and in the way organic farming
Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been well-documented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs. PMID:20010001
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0073...Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0076...Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...
This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animalhealth and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized. PMID:24060567
The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal\\u000a health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a\\u000a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus
Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats) creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animalhealth services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective. PMID:24981914
Most environmental concerns about waste management either have focused on the effects of nutrients, especially N and P, on water quality or have emphasized odor problems and air quality. Microbes from manure are often low on the priority list for control and remediation, despite the fact that several outbreaks of gastroenteritis have been traced to livestock operations. The pathogens discussed in this paper include protozoans (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp.), bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), and some enteric viruses. Clinical symptoms, prospects for zoonotic infection, and control methods other than the use of antimicrobials are considered. Recommendations to avoid disease transmission include taking steps to ensure the provision of clean, unstressful environments to reduce disease susceptibility and the careful handling and spreading of manure from animals at high risk for infection, especially young calves. Composting and drying of manure decrease the number of viable pathogens. Environmental controls, such as filter strips, also reduce the risk of water contamination. PMID:9361239
Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees' performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488
Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people.
This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.
Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate. PMID:24297861
An overview of applied laser-based diagnostics as pursued at the Division of Atomic Physics, Lund University, is given. The fields of application range from environmental monitoring including cultural heritage assessment, to biomedical applications. General aspects of laser-based methods are non-intrusiveness, high spectral- and spatial resolution, and data production in real-time. Different applications are frequently generically very similar irrespective of the particular context, which, however, decides the spatial and temporal scales as well as the size of the optics employed. Thus, volcanic plume mapping by lidar, and optical mammography are two manifestations of the same principle, as is fluorescence imaging of a human bronchus by an endoscope, and the scanning of a cathedral using a fluorescence lidar system. Recent applications include remote laser-induced break-down spectroscopy (LIBS) and gas monitoring in scattering media (GASMAS). In particular, a powerful method for diagnostics of human sinus cavities was developed, where free oxygen and water molecules are monitored simultaneously.
One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in
A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system has been developed for quick non-destructive evaluation and long term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The system consists of three major parts: a diagnostic layer with a network of piezoelectric elements and fiber gratings to offer a simple and efficient way to integrate a large network of transducers onto a structure; diagnostic hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit together with a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input, data collection, and information processing; and diagnostic software to determine the condition of the structure. This paper presents key development issues related to the manufacturing of the hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic layer and integration of a highly portable diagnostic hardware. Validation and proof testing of this integrated diagnostic system are also presented.
The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations’ veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animalhealth and welfare.
Emissions of harmful agents, inherent in the intensive production of pigs, create an important problem concerning the protection of workers' health. Concentration of many animals on relatively small areas contributes to high air contaminations inside swine confinement buildings. They are mostly induced by bioaerosols, such as organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxins, glucans and irritant gases. In view of the health care and safety of people employed in animal farming, it is crucial to conduct research involving a comprehensive evaluation of exposure to occupational hazards, indicating their level determinants and increasing the scientific information on dose-response relations. This article presents the review of the literature on the process of pig farming in Poland, including legislation, occupational hygiene and potential risk for the health of animal-handling workers. PMID:20677432
Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animalhealth and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animalhealth and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animalhealth and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level. PMID:24547646
Many emerging infectious diseases in human populations are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on\\u000a wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic pathogens of recent concern to human health either originate in, or are transferred\\u000a to, human populations from domesticated animals raised for human consumption. Thus, the ecological context of emerging infectious\\u000a disease comprises two overlapping ecosystems: the natural
Jessica H. Leibler; Joachim Otte; David Roland-Holst; Dirk U. Pfeiffer; Ricardo Soares Magalhaes; Jonathan Rushton; Jay P. Graham; Ellen K. Silbergeld
Recent years have seen significant advances in the generation, validation, and implementation of nutritional supplements for food production animals. Examination of their impact on animal performance and health requires collaboration among animal scientists, nutritionists, biochemists, immunologists, veterinarians, and others. Each provides a unique perspective on the mechanisms of action, short and long-term impacts, and most effective strategies for implementation into continuously evolving industrial practices. In this review we provide a comparative immunology perspective on the impact of vitamin D on animal performance and health, describe the differential contributions of vitamin D3 and of a commercial hydroxylated version of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3 or HyD) to swine immunity, and highlight recent advances in the technologies that can be used to dissect the cellular and molecular mechanisms that impact production animal immunity and health. Among others, we pay particular attention to how these novel approaches help decrease the variability often observed in immune-associated datasets. From a practical perspective, this is critical for evaluation of in vivo effects for this nutritional supplement as small but meaningful changes to specific immune responses are typical under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, as the range of reagents and technologies expands for comparative animal models, it is imperative that continued efforts are placed on the capacity to compare results across different experimental platforms. PMID:24665105
Barreda, D R; Konowalchuk, J D; Rieger, A M; Wong, M E; Havixbeck, J J
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is routinely used in diagnostic pathology to detect infectious agents, to immunophenotype neoplastic cells, and to prognosticate neoplastic diseases. Formalin fixation is considered a limiting factor for IHC because formalin can cross-link antigens and mask epitopes. Prolonged formalin fixation is presumed to result in decreased antigen detection; however, this effect has only been evaluated with a few antibodies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged formalin fixation on the immunohistochemical detection of 61 different antigens. Approximately 5-mm-thick tissue slices were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. Tissue slices were removed from formalin, processed, and paraffin-embedded at 1-day, 3-day, and then at approximately 1-week intervals. IHC was performed on all sections in tandem after all tissues were processed. Immunoreactions were evaluated by three pathologists according to a four-tier grading system. Immunoreactivity of cytokeratin 7, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, and laminin was diminished by prolonged formalin fixation. However, immunohistochemical reactivity remained moderate to strong with up to 7 weeks of fixation for all other antibodies. These results suggest that prolonged formalin fixation has minimal effects on antigen detection for most commonly used antibodies. These results further validate the use of IHC in diagnostic pathology. PMID:19398606
Webster, Joshua D; Miller, Margaret A; Dusold, Dee; Ramos-Vara, José
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is routinely used in diagnostic pathology to detect infectious agents, to immunophenotype neoplastic cells, and to prognosticate neoplastic diseases. Formalin fixation is considered a limiting factor for IHC because formalin can cross-link antigens and mask epitopes. Prolonged formalin fixation is presumed to result in decreased antigen detection; however, this effect has only been evaluated with a few antibodies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged formalin fixation on the immunohistochemical detection of 61 different antigens. Approximately 5-mm-thick tissue slices were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. Tissue slices were removed from formalin, processed, and paraffin-embedded at 1-day, 3-day, and then at ?1-week intervals. IHC was performed on all sections in tandem after all tissues were processed. Immunoreactions were evaluated by three pathologists according to a four-tier grading system. Immunoreactivity of cytokeratin 7, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, and laminin was diminished by prolonged formalin fixation. However, immunohistochemical reactivity remained moderate to strong with up to 7 weeks of fixation for all other antibodies. These results suggest that prolonged formalin fixation has minimal effects on antigen detection for most commonly used antibodies. These results further validate the use of IHC in diagnostic pathology. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:753–761, 2009)
Webster, Joshua D.; Miller, Margaret A.; DuSold, Dee; Ramos-Vara, Jose
The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators.
The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565
Background: Two reasons for the inconclusiveness of the literature on the health effects of pet ownership are (1) failure to control\\u000a for other known influences on health, and (2) inadequate consideration of the nature of the emotional relationship between\\u000a owners and their companion animals.Purpose: The main aims were to develop a measure of pet attachment that reflects psychologists’ use of
Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.
The large number of flight critical and maintenance intensive dynamic components in a helicopter has led to the development of diagnostic systems to improve flight safety and reduce operations and support costs. These systems, commonly called health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS), have been used on large commercial helicopters and are now being developed for military helicopters. US Navy embarked
Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.
Summary A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio\\/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery
The release of genetically engineered (GE) varieties of alfalfa, a major livestock feedstuff, raises questions about the effects of feeding this product to food-producing animals. There is a wealth of peer-reviewed studies examining the effects of feeding GE crops to livestock. Hundreds of scientific studies have found no difference in the productive performance or health of livestock that have been
Several classes of pigments impart flamboyant colours on animals, including the red, orange and yellow carotenoids. Carotenoid-based colours have served as ideal models for studying the honesty-reinforcing mechanisms underlying sexually selected traits, because the very pigments used to become colourful also have antioxidant and immunoregulatory properties that allow individuals to signal their superior health to prospective mates. It is unclear,
The units in this section are: Unit 8 - AnimalHealth and The Environment Unit 9 - Some Biomedical Success Stories Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.
Despite the extensive influence of fungi on economic well-being, as well as on human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health, the threats posed by emerging fungal pathogens are often unappreciated and poorly understood. On December 14 and 15, 2010, the Insti...
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment is known to significantly enhance the growth and development of nearly all plants, implying a potential for elevated levels of CO2 to alter the concentrations of plant constituents related to animal and human health. Our review of this subject indicates that increases in the air's CO2 content typically lead to reductions in the nitrogen and protein concentrations
...CONTACT: For information on the Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study, contact...AnimalHealth Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study. OMB...evolved into a collaborative industry and government initiative to...APHIS plans to conduct the Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study...
This paper describes a study on the sustainability of Community-based AnimalHealth Worker (CAHW) services in Mwingi District, Kenya. These services began in 1992 and were supported by the District Veterinary Authority (DVA) with assistance from the Integrated Food Security Programme-Eastern (IFSP-E). Over time and using a process of participatory reviews with multiple stakeholders, the system evolved into a network of CAHWs. The study focused on CAHWs' service sustainability and their relationships with other animalhealth service providers. A mutually beneficial and supportive arrangement existed between the CAHWs and AnimalHealth Assistants (AHAs), based on a private drug supply system, referral and backstopping support. The CAHWs derived sufficient income from their veterinary work to maintain their interest in the system. Seventy percent of CAHWs were continuing to offer adequate animalhealth services 3 years or more after their initial training and the withdrawal of donor support. Ninety-five percent of sampled CAHWs (n = 40) viewed their business as successful and expanding. Considering the agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions of the district, the CAHW system can be viewed as an initial stage in the process of extending quality private sector veterinary services. PMID:15934633
Rubyogo, J C; Murithii, P M; Agumbah, G J O; Obhai, G
This paper describes a study on the sustainability of Community-based AnimalHealth Worker (CAHW) services in Mwingi District, Kenya. These services began in 1992 and were supported by the District Veterinary Authority (DVA) with assistance from the Integrated Food Security Programme – Eastern (IFSP-E). Over time and using a process of participatory reviews with multiple stakeholders, the system evolved into
J. C. Rubyogo; P. M. Murithii; G. J. O. Agumbah; G. Obhai
This study was done to find out about animalhealth service providers and factors that determined demand for community based veterinary service delivery in smallholder sector of Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions and a questionnaire was used to collect data on veterinary services providers and socio-economic factors related to animalhealth from a sample (N=333) smallholder livestock farmers from Gutu district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. Analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, K-mean cluster analysis and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the majority of farmers (45%) obtained services from both Community Based AnimalHealth Workers (CBAHWs) and Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), 25% DVS only, 20% used CBAHWs while 10% did not seek any services. Further analysis showed that distance to CBAHW, distance to AHMC and employment status were significantly related to demand for CBAHWs with coefficients of -1.5, 0.7 and -10.3, respectively. The study thus concluded that CBAHW is an alternative animalhealth service delivery approach already practiced in smallholder farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Socio-economic factors significantly influenced the demand for CBAHW services. Given limited resources by state sponsored veterinary services, it is recommended that the CBAHWs approach should be encouraged as supplementary service provider especially in areas further DVS. These community organizations can be empowered by the state to deliver more improved services based on hygiene and modern science at a relatively low cost to farmers. PMID:23958456
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of disease is often based on the identification and characterization of causative agents derived from phenotypic characteristics. Current methods can be laborious and time-consuming, often requiring many skilled personnel and a large amount of lab space. The objective of our study was to develop a spotted microarray for rapid identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance genes. Our spotted microarray consists of 489 70mer probes that detect 40 bacterial pathogens of medical, veterinary and zoonotic importance (including 15 NIAID Category A, B and C pathogens); associated genes that encode resistance for antimicrobial and metal resistance; and DNA elements that are important for horizontal gene transfer among bacteria. High specificity and reliability of the microarray was achieved for bacterial pathogens of animal and human importance by validating MDR pathogenic bacteria as pure cultures or by following their inoculation in complex and highly organic sample matrices, such as soil and manure. PMID:20035807
Peterson, Greg; Bai, Jianfa; Nagaraja, T G; Narayanan, Sanjeev
One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.
Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.
Health Canada Safety Code 35 brings Canada's diagnostic imaging radiation output and protection standards to an international level. This Safety Code is comprehensive and will have broad implications for most health care facilities. This Safety Code outlines quality control procedures that will ultimately reduce patient dose while providing the best quality diagnostic images, all within a safe working environment. However, the Safety Code has some important omissions and errors of which radiologists should be aware, especially if they act as radiation safety officers. We hope that highlighting these issues will be the beginning of an ongoing dialogue between Health Canada, radiologists, medical physicists, and technologists that will not only bring awareness of Safety Code 35 but will provide a basis for updating, correcting, and improving future revisions of the Safety Code. PMID:22579339
Bjarnason, Thorarin A; Thakur, Yogesh; Aldrich, John E
This article analyzes and theorizes the current knowledge silos at the intersection of omics science, ophthalmology, personalized medicine, and global visual health. Visual disorders represent one of the largest health care expenditures in the United States, costing $139 billion per year. In middle-income and industrialized countries, glaucoma is a World Health Organization priority category eye disease, known for difficulties in its early diagnosis, chronic progressive nature, and large person-to-person differences in drug efficacy and safety. A complex disease, glaucoma is best conceptualized as a syndrome displaying an ostensibly common clinical end-point, but with vastly heterogeneous molecular underpinnings and host-environment interactions. About 12% of all global blindness is attributable to glaucoma. Glaucomics is a term that we coin here so as to introduce omics science and systems diagnostics to ophthalmology, a field that can benefit enormously from personalized medicine, and which has sadly lagged behind in systems diagnostics compared to fields such as oncology. We define glaucomics as the integrated use of multi-omics and systems science approaches towards rational discovery, development, and tandem applications of diagnostics and therapeutics, for glaucoma specifically, and for personalized visual health, more broadly. We propose that glaucoma is one of the neglected lowest hanging fruits and actionable targets for omics and systems diagnostics in 21(st) century ophthalmology for the salient reasons we describe here. Additionally, we offer an analysis on two of the most pertinent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), trachoma and river blindness, which continue to plague visual health in developing countries. We conclude with a call for research on omics applications in glaucoma and personalized visual health. PMID:24730382
Güngör, K?vanç; Hotez, Peter J; Özdemir, Vural; Aynac?o?lu, ?ükrü
Cats are at risk for heartworm infection (Dirofilaria immitis) wherever the disease is endemic in dogs. Diagnosis is more difficult in cats, and little information is available regarding effective palliative and curative treatments for infected cats. In contrast to the challenges of diagnosis and treatment, chemoprophylaxis is highly effective, and current guidelines call for preventive medications to be administered to all cats in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was to survey feline heartworm management protocols used by 400 animal shelters and foster programs in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. Only 23% of shelters performed feline heartworm testing. The most common reasons for not testing were expense (36%), lack of treatment options for infected cats (18%), and because the agency considers heartworm infections in cats to be less important than in dogs (12%). Most agencies (69%) did not provide preventive medication to cats. Reasons included because testing was not performed (36%), expense (35%), and the perception that local heartworm risk was low (10%). When preventive was provided, feline-labeled broad-spectrum products were used more commonly (81%) than livestock products (14%). The survey also indicated that many policy decisions were based on inaccurate knowledge of feline heartworm prevalence and pathogenesis. Issues of cost, feasibility, and education prevent most Southeastern sheltering agencies from adequately protecting cats against heartworm disease. Practical guidelines tailored to the needs of these agencies should be developed. Subsidized testing and preventive products may facilitate implementation of feline heartworm management protocols in sheltering agencies. PMID:21330060
Dunn, Kiri F; Levy, Julie K; Colby, Kathleen N; Michaud, Rachel I
Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.
Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.
A quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases was developed at the national centre for animal and plant health (CENSA), responsible for coordinating the clinical, epizootiological and laboratory diagnosis of causal agents of exotic animal diseases in Cuba. A model was designed on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2000 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999 of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, recommendations of the World Organisation for AnimalHealth (OIE) and other regulatory documents from international and national organisations that deal specifically with the treatment of emerging diseases. Twenty-nine standardised operating procedures were developed, plus 13 registers and a checklist to facilitate the evaluation of the system. The effectiveness of the quality system was confirmed in the differential diagnosis of classical swine fever at an animal virology laboratory in Cuba. PMID:15861883
The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean AnimalHealth Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on both AI risk analysis and on AIV ecology. PMID:20521662
Imaging the basic functional unit (BFU) of small/medium animal - an organ's smallest assembly of diverse cells that functions like the organ itself - is of significance in pre-clinical research. A BFU is usually a spheroid with its horizontal, transverse and vertical radii equal to ~50 ?m and its dimension is virtually the same in small/medium animal and human. Apparently, state-of-the-art diagnostic CT scanners can't image the BFU of small/medium animal directly because of its insufficient spatial resolution. Micro-CT is of sufficient spatial resolution, but its contrast, temporal and spectral resolutions are inferior to its counterparts of diagnostic CT. We propose to image the basic function unit of small/medium animal using diagnostic CT with an adaptor-and-holder assembly (AAHA). In data acquisition, the adaptor rotates in phase with x-ray source, but the animal holder spins at an angular velocity that is opposite to the direction of adaptor rotation. Consequently, the pose of the animal remains unchanged in data acquisition, which can reduce animal's visceral motion substantially. With such an AAHA device, the spatial resolution can be increased more than 2.5 times, while the temporal resolution can potentially be increased 2 times if super-short scan is exercised. In practice, the AAHA device may not align perfectly and rotate rigorously in phase with x-ray source. Hence, motioncompensated reconstruction is needed. With a preliminary evaluation conducted in the feasibility study, it is believed that, a diagnostic CT with the AAHA device may enable imaging small/medium animal at superior spatiotemporal and contrast resolution in comparison to micro-CT.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations. PMID:21213046
In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animalhealth services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village AnimalHealth Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animalhealth system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141
Pastoral herders in Madagascar have limited access to animalhealth workers and veterinary medicines, and more information on their livestock diseases is needed, so that effective animalhealth programmes can be implemented. In this study, participatory epidemiology methods were used to gather such information in the Mandrare Valley. These included pair-wise ranking and matrix scoring. Eleven diseases were deemed to be priorities by pair-wise ranking. Matrix scoring and characterisation showed that the informant groups associated many disease syndromes with the same diseases, indicating agreement and understanding of the key diseases. The Malagasy-named syndromes, Soko, Besorko and Mamany lio, which are gastrointestinal parasitism, clostridial disease and babesiosis, respectively, were identified by every informant group. A greater sample size may be needed to characterise the diseases precisely with matrix scoring because, in this study, the matrices' scores had wide confidence intervals. PMID:23999777
Rio Grande, the southernmost Brazilian port and industrial center, is marked by mercury-polluted ground cover. This pollution varies spatially, with levels exceeding 1,000 ?g kg(-1) in 30% of the urban territory. The risk of Hg impact as a result of deliberate and involuntary geophagy is increased by restrained urban conditions in combination with the large proportion of the population living at low-income levels. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that ingestion of Hg-polluted soil by rats results in significant alterations in animalhealth such as stagnation in body weight increase, and significant mercury accumulation in the liver and kidney. The consumption of Hg-contaminated urban soil also provoked changes in hematological profiles of experimental animals by increasing the number of platelets. The present study indicates the potential for the local population of Rio Grande living in mercury-polluted districts, specifically young children, to experience health disturbances. PMID:21451960
Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza; Mirlean, Nicolai; Carrazzoni, Daniela; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Goulart, Gianni Peraza; Baisch, Paulo
The association of animal-origin food consumption and cooking patterns with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was evaluated in a cohort of 73,224 participants of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. After a mean follow-up time of 7.4 yr, 394 incident cases of CRC (colon = 236; rectal = 158) were diagnosed. Overall, no association was found between the risk of CRC and
Sang-Ah Lee; Xiao Ou Shu; Gong Yang; Honglan Li; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng
The information provided by animal-health surveillance helps to reduce the impact of animal diseases. The widespread movement of animals and their products around the world results in an increasing risk that disease will spread. There is, therefore, a need for exchange between countries of comparable information about disease incidence; the exchange must be based on a common understanding of surveillance approaches and how surveillance systems are designed and implemented. Establishing agreed-upon definitions of surveillance terms would be a first step in achieving this standardisation, and will enhance transparency and confidence. To this end, a workshop was held with the aim of agreeing upon key terms and concepts for animal-health surveillance. In this paper, we describe the methods used at the workshop and summarise the discussions. A complete list of all the proposed definitions including lists of characteristics that can be used to describe surveillance activities and attributes for evaluation of surveillance is available in the workshop report (available at http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/disease-control/surveillance/icahs-workshop/). Some important issues were highlighted during these discussions; of particular note was the importance of economic efficiency as an evaluation attribute. Some remaining inconsistencies in the proposed use of terms are highlighted (including the definition of 'risk-based surveillance' and the use of the term 'event-based surveillance'). PMID:23906392
Hoinville, L J; Alban, L; Drewe, J A; Gibbens, J C; Gustafson, L; Häsler, B; Saegerman, C; Salman, M; Stärk, K D C
Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing have been increasingly used in ecology and epidemiology, providing a spatial approach for animalhealth issues. Recent development of earth environmental satellites--i.e., their growing number, improving sensor resolutions and capabilities--has offered new opportunities to delineate possible habitats and understand animals and associated parasites in their environment, by identifying the nature and structure of land use, hydrological network, soil hydromorphy, and human settlements. Integrated into GIS, remotely sensed and other geo-referenced data allow both spatial and temporal analyses of animal ecology and health. However, a review of their applications has showed the poor quality of data sources and processing used, revealing limitations between theory and practical implementations. As an example, the assessment of the expected distribution of Bandicoot rats, main agricultural pest and vector of zoonoses in Phrae province (North Thailand), illustrates a rational use of spatial analysis, with the choice of relevant data, scales, and processing. Vegetation indices are computed on a TERRA ASTER image and further classified using elevation data. The biotopes of Bandicota indica and Bandicota savilei are delimited, providing a major source of knowledge for rodent and human health analyses. PMID:17135491
Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks. PMID:20838176
Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…
Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.
Background Diagnostic errors in primary care are harmful but difficult to detect. We tested an electronic health record (EHR)-based method to detect diagnostic errors in routine primary care practice. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of primary care visit records “triggered” through electronic queries for possible evidence of diagnostic errors: Trigger 1: A primary care index visit followed by unplanned hospitalization within 14 days; and Trigger 2: A primary care index visit followed by ? 1 unscheduled visit(s) within 14 days. Control visits met neither criterion. Electronic trigger queries were applied to EHR repositories at two large healthcare systems between October 1, 2006 and September 30, 2007. Blinded physician-reviewers independently determined presence or absence of diagnostic errors in selected triggered and control visits. An error was defined as a missed opportunity to make or pursue the correct diagnosis when adequate data was available at the index visit. Disagreements were resolved by an independent third reviewer. Results Queries were applied to 212,165 visits. On record review, we found diagnostic errors in 141 of 674 Trigger 1-positive records (PPV=20.9%, 95% CI, 17.9%-24.0%) and 36 of 669 Trigger 2-positive records (PPV=5.4%, 95% CI, 3.7%-7.1%). The control PPV of 2.1% (95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%) was significantly lower than that of both triggers (P ? .002). Inter-rater reliability was modest, though higher than in comparable previous studies (? = 0.37 [95% CI=0.31-0.44]). Conclusions While physician agreement on diagnostic error remains low, an EHR-facilitated surveillance methodology could be useful for gaining insight into the origin of these errors.
Singh, Hardeep; Giardina, Traber Davis; Forjuoh, Samuel N.; Reis, Michael D.; Kosmach, Steven; Khan, Myrna M.; Thomas, Eric J.
Livestock and animalhealth development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animalhealth, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy or meat) can only be sustainable with adequate marketing, supply of quality feed, veterinary services, labour, management and control of pollution. Animalhealth programmes play a keyrole in the proposed system approach. PMID:1502778
Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D
The pharmaceutical animalhealth industry must be committed to the total life cycle of products, i.e. during both the pre- and post-marketing period. Support of antibacterial agents during the postmarketing period is not restricted to maintaining a well-established distribution and promotion system. Care has to be taken continuously to maintain and/or improve the quality, safety (for user, target animal and environment) and clinical efficacy. The pharmaceutical industry contributes to this by: 1. Introducing antibacterials in different animal species for the most effective disease condition only and by ensuring the veterinary profession is informed about relevant findings on: a. the mechanism of action; b. pharmacodynamic properties; c. pharmacokinetic properties (plasma, target tissue); d. clinical efficacy data and in vitro sensitivity data; e. valid species-specific MIC breakpoints; f. precise dose and treatment regime. 2. Updating on a regular basis on: a. new findings on the mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo); b. the optimal use program in the light of changes in animal husbandry, farm management and epidemiology on national and international level; c. adjustment of species-specific MIC breakpoints when necessary. 3. Providing continuous information in collaboration with animalhealth laboratories about: a. clinical field surveillance for efficacy (national, international); b. in vitro sensitivity/resistance surveillance (national, international); c. use of in vitro data to support prediction of in vivo efficacy. Surveillance of resistance, in vitro, is therefore part of a package of information needed on a routine basis by the pharmaceutical industry to allow the best possible use of antibacterials and to minimize induction of resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8212517
A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans.
A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans. PMID:17384781
Clinical infections attributed to carbapenemase-producing bacteria are a pressing public health concern owing to limited therapeutic options and linked antimicrobial resistance. In recent years, studies have reported the emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their public health impact. This has been closely followed by the global dissemination of highly resistant and virulent zooanthroponotic extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) ST131 clones. It has also been hypothesized that companion animals may act as a reservoir for Gram-negative multidrug-resistant pathogens in the community. Two recent reports have documented the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals. This phenomenon is of great concern because of the close contact between humans and their pets, and the potential for cross-species transmission. This scenario suggests a role for multifaceted control of Gram-negative multidrug-resistant infections in companion animals. This short article addresses this issue and identifies steps that could facilitate this process. PMID:24398342
Abraham, Sam; Wong, Hui San; Turnidge, John; Johnson, James R; Trott, Darren J
In personal interviews, people surrendering their dogs and cats to 12 animal shelters in 4 regions of the country discussed their reasons for relinquishing their companion animals and answered questions about their own characteristics and those of their pet. The interviews identified 71 reasons for relinquishment. Personal issues lead the class of reasons for relinquishment of cats and ranked 3rd
Jennifer M Scarlett; M D Salman; New John C. Jr; Philip Kass
Aims: To investigate the role of animal exposures and wheeze, and to assess whether their impact differs among susceptible subgroups, including atopics, asthmatics, and smokers. Methods: Using the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in 1994–97, wheeze associated with animal production was evaluated and interactions among susceptible subgroups assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine risk factors for wheeze in the past year among 20 468 farmers. Results: Individuals raising animals requiring direct contact had the highest odds ratios (OR) for wheeze (ORdairy = 1.26; OReggs = 1.70). A significant dose response was observed for both the number of poultry and the number of livestock on the farm. Farmers who performed veterinary procedures on a daily basis had an OR of 1.51. The odds of wheeze associated with poultry production was greater among atopic than non-atopic individuals. Milking cows daily increased the odds of wheeze in all individuals, with the largest association observed among atopic asthmatic individuals. The impact of dairy, poultry, and egg production varied among smoking groups. Past smokers had the highest odds ratios, followed by never smokers, and then current smokers. The OReggs was 2.88 among past smokers but only 1.46 for never smokers. The OReggs for current smokers of 0.80 might reflect self selection of exposure among smokers. Conclusions: Results are consistent with animal production and respiratory symptoms, and suggest that subgroups may respond differently to exposure.
Hoppin, J; Umbach, D; London, S; Alavanja, M; Sandler, D
The development of modern technology brings convenience to our lives but removes physical activity from our daily routines, thereby putting our lives at risk. Extended computer use may contribute to symptoms such as visual impairment and musculoskeletal disorders. To help reduce the risk of physical inactivity and promote healthier computer use, this study developed a time-scheduled delivery of health-related animations for users sitting in front of computers for prolonged periods. In addition, we examined the effects that the program had on the computer-related health behavior intentions and actions of participants. Two waves of questionnaires were implemented for data collection before and after intervention. The results showed that the animation program indeed had a positive effect on participants' healthy computer use actions in terms of breathtaking, body massages, and body stretches. It also helped to bridge the intention-action gap of the health behaviors. The development and evaluation were documented, and users' experiences/suggestions were discussed at the end. PMID:23715211
In February 2004, the City of Liberal, Kansas, asked the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for help in evaluating carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of employees that operate two euthanasia chambers at the city-run animal shelter. ...
In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the effects of human-animal interactions and management factors on udder health in 46 Swiss dairy herds living in loose-housing systems on farms that participated in the Swiss dairy farm network "pro-Q." The human-animal relationship was measured by observing milkers' behavior, cows' behavior during milking, and cows' avoidance distance in the barn. Management factors were assessed by questionnaire-guided interviews and observations. Udder health was evaluated using indicators that were calculated from milk recording data over a period of 1 yr before assessment: (1) average somatic cell scores (SCS) per herd and (2) incidence of new infections per herd (NEWINF); and indicators that were calculated from quarter milk samples of all lactating cows at the time of assessment: (3) prevalence of quarters with elevated somatic cell counts (>100,000 cells/mL; %Q>100) and (4) prevalence of mastitis quarters (>100,000 cells/mL and culturally positive; %Qmast). After univariate preselection of associated factors, multivariable linear regression models were calculated at the herd level and a multilevel regression model was calculated at the herd and cow levels for SCS. Among all of the human-animal relationship factors, the most dominant predictor for SCS, %Q>100, and %Qmast was the percentage of positive interactions of milkers with the cows in relation to all of their interactions during milking. Furthermore, a higher prevalence of fearful cows in the herd (with an avoidance distance >1 m) was associated with a higher %Q>100. In herds with a higher NEWINF, incidents of cows kicking during milking occurred more frequently. Concerning management as well as farm and herd characteristics, the following mastitis risk factors were found: (1) breed, especially Holstein with regard to SCS, NEWINF, and %Qmast; (2) high age in terms of lactation number with regard to SCS and %Qmast; (3) high amount of new infections of a cow over 1 yr with regard to SCS; (4) air-adsorption during application of teat-cups with regard to NEWINF; (5) lack of separation of diseased cows with regard to NEWINF; and (6) ample dimensions of lying places with regard to %Qmast. The results suggest that the human-animal relationship is relevant for udder health, especially for cows' reactions to infections expressed as somatic cell count levels. Risk of infection itself appears to be mainly influenced by management factors. Hence, the human-animal relationship may be considered in extension concerning preventive mastitis control. PMID:22118080
E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in a major site of e-waste dumping such as West Africa. Therefore, considerations are also given on data gaps possibly fitting a systematic risk assessment of the e-waste health impacts in different subscenarios as well as possible protective factors for exposed subpopulations.
Frazzoli, Chiara, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Orisakwe, Orish Ebere [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, College of Health Sciences Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Dragone, Roberto [Institute of Nanostructured Materials (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, at the Department of Chemistry of the 'Sapienza' University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health - Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Noodles Onlus, Nutrition and food safety and wholesomeness (Italy)
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to better characterize the problem of hoarding, or pathological collecting, of animals. METHODS: The author summarized data from a convenience sample of 54 case reports from 10 animal control agencies and humane societies across the country. RESULTS: The majority (76%) of hoarders were female, and 46% were 60 years of age or older. About half of the hoarders lived in single-person households. The animals most frequently involved were cats, dogs, farm animals, and birds. The median number of animals per case was 39, but there were four cases of more than 100 animals in a household. In 80% of cases animals were reportedly found dead or in poor condition. Prevalence estimates extrapolated from these data range from 700 to 2000 U.S. cases annually. CONCLUSIONS: Public health authorities should recognize that animal hoarding may be a sentinel for mental health problems or dementia, which merit serious assessment and prompt intervention. Improved cooperation between humane societies and public health authorities could facilitate the resolution of animal hoarding cases.
Composite bridges offer many advantages compared to current steel and aluminum bridges including their lightweight and superior corrosion resistance properties. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive on-going research program to develop innovative Diagnostic Prognostic System (DPS) and a structural evaluation of Composite Army Bridge (CAB) system. The DPS is founded on three technologies, namely; optical fiber sensing, remote data transmission,, and virtual testing. In developing this system, both laboratory and virtual test were used in evaluating different potential damage scenarios. Health monitoring of a composite beam with DPS entailed comparing live strain data to archived strained data in various bridge locations. For temporary field repairs, a family of composite chords was subjected simple ramp loads in search of ultimate strength. As such, composite bridge specimens showcased their strengths, heralded the viability of virtual testing, highlighted the efficacy of field repair, and confirmed the merits of health monitoring.
: Diagnostic medical bacteriology is a conservative discipline. When busy house officers scribble 'M, C & S' on a form, they are requesting two techniques - microscopy and culture of microorganisms - that date back to the late 17th and late 19th century, respectively. The third technique - antibiotic susceptibility testing - has changed little in a half a century. Relatively few front-line diagnostic bacteriology laboratories have embraced molecular methods; on my own campus, the hospital's medical microbiology department does not even possess a thermal cycler!And yet in the research arena, genome sequencing has transformed almost every corner of the biomedical sciences, including the study of bacterial pathogens Furthermore, over the past 5 years, high-throughput (or 'next-generation') sequencing technologies have delivered a step change in our ability to sequence microbial genomes 1. Since arriving in the market place, these technologies have experienced sustained technical improvement, which, twinned with lively competition between alternative platforms, has placed sequencing in a state of 'permanent revolution'.At last, it seems that genomics has come up with a game-changer, a killer app, a disruptive technology that even those long wedded to the Gram stain and the agar plate can no longer ignore. Does this mean we are on the brink of a revolution in diagnostic and public health microbiology, in which high-throughput sequencing usurps the traditional 'M, C & S', or will the discipline's innate conservatism stand firm for decades to come? PMID:21861847
Diagnostic medical bacteriology is a conservative discipline. When busy house officers scribble 'M, C & S' on a form, they are requesting two techniques - microscopy and culture of microorganisms - that date back to the late 17th and late 19th century, respectively. The third technique - antibiotic susceptibility testing - has changed little in a half a century. Relatively few front-line diagnostic bacteriology laboratories have embraced molecular methods; on my own campus, the hospital's medical microbiology department does not even possess a thermal cycler! And yet in the research arena, genome sequencing has transformed almost every corner of the biomedical sciences, including the study of bacterial pathogens Furthermore, over the past 5 years, high-throughput (or 'next-generation') sequencing technologies have delivered a step change in our ability to sequence microbial genomes . Since arriving in the market place, these technologies have experienced sustained technical improvement, which, twinned with lively competition between alternative platforms, has placed sequencing in a state of 'permanent revolution'. At last, it seems that genomics has come up with a game-changer, a killer app, a disruptive technology that even those long wedded to the Gram stain and the agar plate can no longer ignore. Does this mean we are on the brink of a revolution in diagnostic and public health microbiology, in which high-throughput sequencing usurps the traditional 'M, C & S', or will the discipline's innate conservatism stand firm for decades to come?
The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs supports the use of systematic tools for the prioritisation of known and well defined animal diseases to facilitate long and medium term planning of surveillance and disease control activities. The recognition that emerging events were not covered by the existing disease-specific approaches led to the establishment of the Veterinary Risk Group (VRG), constituted of government officials, and supporting structures such as the Risk Management Cycle and the Emerging Threat Highlight Report (ETHiR), to facilitate the identification, reporting and assessment of emerging threats to UK's animalhealth. Since its inception in November 2009 to the end of February 2011, the VRG reviewed 111 threats and vulnerabilities (T&V) reported through ETHiR. In July 2010 a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria-decision-analysis (MCDA) improved ETHiR to allow the systematic prioritisation of emerging T&V. The DSS allows the regular ranking of emerging T&V by calculating a set of measurement indices related to the actual impact, possible impact on public perception and level of available capabilities associated with every T&V. The systematic characterisation of the processes leading to the assessment of T&V by the VRG has led to a consistent, auditable and transparent approach to the identification and assessment of emerging risks. The regular use of MCDA to manage a portfolio of emerging risks represents a different and novel application of MCDA in a health related context. PMID:22954461
Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Voller, Fay; Montibeller, Gilberto; Franco, L Alberto; Sribhashyam, Sumitra; Watson, Eamon; Hartley, Matt; Gibbens, Jane C
In the last decade, mobile technology offered new opportunities and challenges in animalhealth surveillance. It began with the use of basic mobile phones and short message service (SMS) for disease reporting, and the development of smartphones and other mobile tools has expanded the possibilities for data collection. These tools assist in the collection of data as well as geo-referenced mapping of diseases, and mapping, visualization and identification of vectors such as ticks. In this article we share our findings about new technologies in the domain of animalhealth surveillance, based on several projects using a wide range of mobile tools, each with their specific applicability and limitations. For each of the tools used, a comprehensive overview is given about its applicability, limitations, technical requirements, cost and also the perception of the users.The evaluation of the tools clearly shows the importance of selecting the appropriate tool depending on the envisaged data to be collected. Accessibility, visualization and cost related to data collection differ significantly among the tools tested. This paper can thus be seen as a practical guide to the currently available tools. PMID:22717001
Madder, M; Walker, J G; Van Rooyen, J; Knobel, D; Vandamme, E; Berkvens, D; Vanwambeke, S O; De Clercq, E M
Livestock production in the People's Republic of China has expanded at an unprecedented rate over the last decade and this trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Government and private sector investment supports this growth, and the fact that small farmers are incorporating more animal husbandry into their work is expected to mitigate some of the concerns over recent World Trade Organization accession, particularly in the more precarious grain growing regions. Modernisation and intensification of the livestock industry in the People's Republic of China is subject to significant risks as regards both infectious and production-related diseases and within the framework of food safety and public health challenges. Although historically, the veterinary service system in the People's Republic of China has been successful in the eradication and control of major disease outbreaks, domestic and international market concerns are providing the catalyst for significant reforms in the animalhealth delivery system in the country. This paper provides an overview of the existing veterinary system in terms of the education and qualifications of veterinary personnel, delivery mechanisms, and future approaches to reforming the system in the context of a dynamic livestock industry in transition. PMID:15200104
I assessed the satisfaction in July-August 2005 of 889 livestock and poultry owners with animalhealth-care services delivery in peri-urban Ghana and determined factors associated with that satisfaction (and with being the owner of poultry versus of other livestock with or without poultry). Overall, 48% of the respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with service delivery, with only 8% in the very satisfied category. Of the 401 owners of poultry and 488 owners of other livestock, 52% and 45%, respectively, reported being satisfied or very satisfied with veterinary services delivery. I found significant differences between poultry and livestock owners in 11 of 15 indicators of quality of animalhealth-care services; significantly higher proportions of poultry owners gave positive assessments in nine of the indicators. All but one of the 15 indicators tested was significantly and positively associated with satisfaction among all owners, overall. The indicators are proposed as a checklist for Qualitative Rapid Appraisal of Veterinary Services. PMID:19482366
Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population.A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of
Sarah C. Totton; Alex I. Wandeler; Carl S. Ribble; Rick C. Rosatte; Scott A. McEwen
Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors’ Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points
Anja Schulze; Horst Römmelt; Vera Ehrenstein; Rob van Strien; Georg Praml; Helmut Küchenhoff; Dennis Nowak; Katja Radon
After several decades of gradual improvement in its system for managing health risks, France was confronted in 1996 with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis. This triggered a collective questioning, which highlighted the need to reform a system that had shown its limitations. Risk analysis, established as a key principle by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), was cast as the necessary basis of the reform, objectives of which were to better identify priority risks in order to ensure the protection of human and animalhealth, and to improve the quality of measures implemented by the public authorities. The Act of 1 July 1998 founded several independent risk assessment agencies, including the French Agency for Food Safety (AFSSA), with the specific mandate of food safety at every stage of the food chain. Other organisational reforms enhanced the new system, notably the separation between the functions of risk management and economic support for food industries, initially at central level, then in 2002 at the level of field services in the 100 French départements. Lastly, new procedures were introduced. These were designed, in accordance with the principles of risk assessment, to better identify and to individualise the different decision-making sequences. The decision-making process was extended to include submission to the agency in charge of evaluating health risks and examination by the agency of the resulting draft decision. PMID:15884580
The study used logistic regression modelling to determine predictors of satisfaction with delivery of animalhealth care services for 889 clients (livestock and poultry keepers) in periurban Ghana. Of the 15 indicators tested as predictors of satisfaction in this study, 8 were included in the best fit model. These were accessibility, availability of services, service charge, effectiveness, efficiency, quality of services, meeting client needs, and getting help. Efficiency and effectiveness were perceived by the respondents to be synonymous, as were service quality and effectiveness, as suggested by ORs > 10 when cross tabulated. Therefore, one or the other could be used in future studies but not both to avoid collinearity. The identified predictors could be targeted for improvement in quality of service delivery to livestock and poultry keepers in Ghana. PMID:21647393
National veterinary services monitor endemic, emerging and exotic disease situations. They intervene when epidemic tendencies demand. They unravel complex disease situations. They do so as monopolies, in environments of political influence and budgetary restraint. When human, animalhealth and trade protection dictate, they design import or domestic disease control programs. As much as 80% of program expenditures are on surveillance. Their initiatives are scrutinized by treasuries from which they seek funding, industries from which they seek collaboration and trading partners from whom they seek recognition. In democracies, surveillance and control programs are often the products of a complicated consultative process. It involves individuals who have both a commitment to improving an existing animalhealth situation and access to the required resources. The generations that designed traditionally risk-averse national surveillance and control programs have given way to a new one which is more epidemiologically informed. Their successors design programs bearing epidemiologically based improvements. The transition, however, has not been overwhelmingly welcomed. Expenditures on surveillance are tolerated out of fear during outbreaks of foreign or re-emergence of indigenous disease. Between epidemics, they decline at the hands of producers' unwillingness and budgetary restraint. Human nature responds to the high cost of surveillance in forms ranging from naïveté through to conspiracy. While legislation cannot subdue such human frailty, several other opportunities exist. Education can remove the majority of problems caused by ignorance, leaving the minority that arise intentionally. Technology decreases the high cost of testing which tempts individuals to cut corners. International standards assist National Veterinary Services to overcome domestic resistance. PMID:22310236
It is popular in some quarters to say that there is no food crisis; that there is food aplenty; and that the problem is one of distribution or other over-arching technical difficulty. To the starving, however, there is a food crisis; and it neither speaks well nor bodes well for humanity if we dismiss their plight so glibly. The United Nations has called for a large and rapid increase in food production. Veterinary parasitologists and industry leaders can contribute to the production of healthier livestock and the expansion of aquaculture, but enhanced production and better delivery of plant foods may provide faster relief. Although livestock farming is not the most energy-efficient way of producing food, meat will remain a significant component of the global diet for the foreseeable future. New measures for parasite control will be needed, and we must improve our methods of inventing them. They need not act directly against the parasite. In the distant future lie other threats to the inhabitants of planet Earth, and here we must acknowledge the cogency of the no-food-crisis argument. In the long term, the production of animal foods and animal feeds will be revamped in ways that depend on how (or whether) we solve the energy crisis, the environmental crisis, the increasingly dire regional population crises, and the current world financial crisis. Throughout the 20th century, the animalhealth industry had to adapt to industrialization and expansive agribusiness. It will have to adapt to even greater changes in the 21st century and beyond. PMID:19541422
Campbell, William C; Conder, George A; Marchiondo, Alan A
...programs are maintained or the owner of animals involved with animal disease control or surveillance programs; and by animal, flock, herd, or premises numbers...of role-based security and access rights, network firewalls, and...
Model-based reasoning techniques hold much promise in providing comprehensive monitoring and diagnostics capabilities for complex systems. We are exploring the use of one of these techniques, which utilizes multi-signal modeling and the TEAMS-RT real-time diagnostic engine, on the UH-60 Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) flight research aircraft. We focus on the engine and transmission systems, and acquire sensor data across the 1553 bus as well as by direct analog-to-digital conversion from sensors to the QHuMS (Qualtech health and usage monitoring system) computer. The QHuMS computer uses commercially available components and is rack-mounted in the RASCAL facility. A multi-signal model of the transmission and engine subsystems enables studies of system testability and analysis of the degree of fault isolation available with various instrumentation suites. The model and examples of these analyses will be described and the data architectures enumerated. Flight tests of this system will validate the data architecture and provide real-time flight profiles to be further analyzed in the laboratory.
Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hindson, William; Sanderfer, Dwight; Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck
A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.
Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines designed for higher temperature operation, a diagnostic capability for the health and performance of TBCs will be essential to indicate when a mitigating action needs to be taken before premature TBC failure threatens engine performance or safety. In particular, it is shown that rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers can be integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence emission that can be monitored to assess TBC erosion and delamination progression, and to map surface and subsurface temperatures as a measure of TBC performance. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers are presented.
Background In Zambia, there has been a large scaling up of interventions to control malaria in recent years including the deployment of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to improve malaria surveillance data as well as guide malaria treatment in health facilities. The practical challenge is the impact of RDT results on subsequent management of patients. This study explored the role of RDTs in malaria diagnosis and the health workers’ adherence to test results. Methods An observational prospective study was carried out at health centres in four districts, namely Chibombo, Chingola, Chipata, and Choma. Children under the age of five years with history of fever were recruited and the clinicians’ use of RDT results was observed to establish whether prescriptions were issued prior to the availability of parasitological results or after, and whether RDT results influenced their prescriptions. Results Of the 2, 393 recruited children, 2, 264 had both RDT and microscopic results. Two in three (68.6%) children were treated with anti-malarials despite negative RDT results and almost half (46.2%) of these were prescribed Coartem®. Only 465 (19.4%) of the 2,393 children were prescribed drugs before receiving laboratory results. A total of 76.5% children were prescribed drugs after laboratory results. Children with RDT positive results were 2.66 (95% CI (2.00, 3.55)) times more likely to be prescribed anti-malarial drugs. Children who presented with fever at admission (although history of fever or presence of fever at admission was an entry criterion) were 42% less likely to be prescribed an anti-malarial drug compared to children who had no fever (AOR?=?0.58; 95% CI (0.52, 0.65)). It was noted that proportions of children who were RDT- and microscopy-positive significantly declined over the years from 2005 to 2008. Conclusions RDTs may contribute to treatment of febrile illness by confirming malaria cases from non-malaria cases in children under the age of five. However, the adherence of the health workers to prescribing anti-malarials to only RDT-positive cases at health facility level will still require to be explored further as their role is crucial in more precise reporting of malaria cases in this era towards malaria elimination as the target.
Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.
O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.
Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animalhealth will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate change and disease emergence 13 3.4 Outbreak investigations 13 4 Surveillance and surveys 15 4.1 Investigation of disease prevalence 15 4.2 Developments in surveillance methodology 16 4.2.1 Risk-based surveillance and scenario tree modelling 16 4.2.2 Spatial and temporal analysis 16 4.3 Test validation 17 5 Spread, establishment and impact of pathogens 18 5.1 Identifying routes of spread 18 5.1.1 Ex-ante studies of disease spread 19 5.1.2 Ex-post observational studies 21 5.2 Identifying risk factors for disease establishment 23 5.3 Assessing impact at the population level 24 5.3.1 Recording mortality 24 5.3.2 Farm health and production records 26 5.3.3 Assessing the impact of disease in wild populations 27 6 Conclusions 31 7 Competing interests 32 8 Authors' contributions 32 9 Acknowledgements 33 10 References 33
The United States Department of Agriculture's National AnimalHealth Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study was designed to estimate management, health and productivity parameters on pig operations in the United States. Sixteen major swine-producing states that accounted for nearly 91% of June 1, 1995 swine inventory and nearly three-fourths of United States swine producers were included in the study. In the initial phase of the study, National Agricultural Statistics Service enumerators collected information from 1477 producers involved in all phases of swine production (farrowing, nursery, and grower/finisher). Of these, 405 operations with > or = 300 finisher pigs (with at least one finisher pig > or = 54 kg) participated in the subsequent component of the study, which involved on-farm visits by state and federal veterinary medical officers and animalhealth technicians, and which concentrated on the grower/finisher phase of production. Of those eligible to take part in the second phase of the study, participation was higher among independent producers (48.3%) than among contract producers (15.3%). Participation was also higher among operations that used advanced record-keeping systems (such as record cards for individual breeding hogs or a computer-based record-keeping system). Thus, study results could have been influenced by response biases. As a biosecurity measure, 40.5 +/- 2.1% of operations restricted entry to employees only. For operations that permitted non-employees to enter the premises, relatively few enforced other biosecurity measures on visitors (0.4 +/- 0.1% required feed-delivery personnel and livestock handlers to shower before entering the premises; 3.3+/- 0.9% required a footbath; and 7.0 +/- 1.5% required feed-delivery personnel and livestock handlers not to have visited another operation with pigs on that day). The most common method of waste storage (used by 49.9 +/- 3.8% of operations with > or = 300 finisher pigs) was below-floor slurry or deep pit. PMID:9604264
Losinger, W C; Bush, E J; Hill, G W; Smith, M A; Garber, L P; Rodriguez, J M; Kane, G
Whether in an ocean reef, a landfill, or a gastrointestinal tract (GIT), invisible communities of highly active and adaptable microbes prosper. Over time, mammals have developed a symbiosis with microbes that are important inhabitants not only in the GIT, but also in the mouth, skin, and urogenital tract. In the GIT, the number of commensal microbes exceeds the total number of host cells by at least 10 times. The GIT microbes play a critical role in nutritional, developmental, defensive, and physiologic processes in the host. Recent evidence also suggests a role of GIT microbes in metabolic phenotype and disease risk (e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome) of the host. Proper balance is a key to maintaining GIT health. Balanced microbial colonization is also important for other body regions such as the oral cavity, the region with the greatest prevalence of disease in dogs and cats. A significant obstruction to studying microbial populations has been the lack of tools to identify and quantify microbial communities accurately and efficiently. Most of the current knowledge of microbial populations has been established by traditional cultivation methods that are not only laborious, time-consuming, and often inaccurate, but also greatly limited in scope. However, recent advances in molecular-based techniques have resulted in a dramatic improvement in studying microbial communities. These DNA-based high-throughput technologies have enabled us to more clearly characterize the identity and metabolic activity of microbes living in the host and their association with health and diseases. Despite this recent progress, however, published data pertaining to microbial communities of dogs and cats are still lacking in comparison with data in humans and other animals. More research is required to provide a more detailed description of the canine and feline microbiome and its role in health and disease. PMID:21036940
As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this paper, we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children included DC:0-3, a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infant, toddlers, and preschoolers. We will briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Lastly, we will review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children.
The development of countermeasures to support an effective response to Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD) poses a challenge on a global scale and necessitates the coordinated involvement of scientists from government, industry and academia, as well as regulatory entities. The Agricultural Defense Branch under the Chemical and Biological Defense Division (CBD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) supports this important mission within the United States. This article provides an overview of the Agricultural Defense Branch's vaccine and diagnostic TAD project. PMID:23689879
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, whose presence in feed- and foodstuffs is unavoidable. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the known mycotoxins with greatest public health and agro-economic significance. Several toxic effects have been ascribed following exposure, namely nephrotoxicity, as well negative impacts in the performance of farm animals, resulting in major economic implications. Of no less importance for the route of human exposure that can also embody the carry-over of OTA from feed into animal-derived products is also a concern. For all these reasons the present article updates the worldwide occurrence of OTA in different raw ingredients and finished feed destined to food-producing animals. After that a brief characterization of specie susceptibility and the major rationales is made. An historical overview of field outbreaks linked to OTA exposure in farm animals, concerning the implicated feeds, contamination levels and major clinical and productivity effects is presented. Finally a review of the major animalhealth and performance potential impacts of animals being reared on contaminated feed is made allied to a perspective regarding its co-occurrence with other mycotoxins, and simultaneous parasitic and bacterial infections. Ultimately, this article aims to be instructive and draw attention to a mycotoxin so often neglected and elapsed from the list of differential diagnosis in farm practice. For the unpredictability and unavoidability of occurrence, OTA will definitely be an enduring problem in animal production. PMID:21641127
Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1?, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6×) and levels of IFN? were consistently lower (8.7×) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1?, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1?, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential.
Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Schuster, Julie L.; Stevens, Jason; Dawson, Dolph; Kryscio, Richard; Lin, Yushin; Thomas, Mark V.; Miller, Craig S.
Periodontal disease is characterised by proteolytic processes involving enzymes that are released by host immune cells and periodontal bacteria. These enzymes, when detectable in whole saliva, may serve as valuable diagnostic markers for disease states and progression. Because the substrate specificities of salivary proteases in periodontal health and disease are poorly characterised we probed these activities using several relevant substrates: 1) gelatin and collagen type IV; 2) the Arg/Lys–rich human salivary substrate histatin-5; and 3) a histatin-derived synthetic analog benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Gly-Tyr-Arg-methyl cumaryl amide (Z-RGYR-MCA). Substrate degradation was assessed in gel (zymography) and in solution. Whole saliva supernatant enzyme activities directed at gelatin, quantitated from the 42 kDa, 92 kDa and 130 kDa bands in the zymograms, were 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0 fold higher, respectively, in the periodontal patient group (p<0.01), consistent with enhanced activities observed towards collagen type IV. On the other hand, histatin 5 degraded equally fast in healthy and periodontal patients' whole saliva supernatant samples (p>0.10). Likewise, the hydrolysis rates of the Z-RGYR-MCA substrate were the same in the healthy and periodontal patient groups (p>0.10). In conclusion, gelatinolytic/collagenolytic activities but not trypsin-like activities in human saliva differentiate health from periodontal disease, and may thus provide an adjuvant to diagnosis for monitoring of disease activity.
Thomadaki, Konstantina; Bosch, Jos A.; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.
Periodontal disease is characterised by proteolytic processes involving enzymes that are released by host immune cells and periodontal bacteria. These enzymes, when detectable in whole saliva, may serve as valuable diagnostic markers for disease states and progression. Because the substrate specificities of salivary proteases in periodontal health and disease are poorly characterised, we probed these activities using several relevant substrates: (i) gelatin and collagen type IV; (ii) the Arg/Lys-rich human salivary substrate histatin-5; and (iii) a histatin-derived synthetic analog benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Gly-Tyr-Arg-methyl cumaryl amide (Z-RGYR-MCA). Substrate degradation was assessed in gel (zymography) and in solution. Whole saliva supernatant enzyme activities directed at gelatin, quantified from the 42 kDa, 92 kDa and 130 kDa bands in the zymograms, were 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0-fold higher, respectively, in the periodontal patient group (P < 0.01), consistent with enhanced activities observed towards collagen type IV. On the other hand, histatin 5 degraded equally fast in healthy and periodontal patients' whole saliva supernatant samples (P > 0.10). Likewise, the hydrolysis rates of the Z-RGYR-MCA substrate were the same in the healthy and periodontal patient groups (P > 0.10). In conclusion, gelatinolytic/collagenolytic activities but not trypsin-like activities in human saliva differentiate health from periodontal disease and may thus provide an adjuvant to diagnosis for monitoring disease activity. PMID:23379269
Thomadaki, K; Bosch, Ja; Oppenheim, Fg; Helmerhorst, Ej
BackgroundDiagnostic tests are recommended for suspected malaria cases before treatment, but comparative performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at rural health centers has rarely been studied compared to independent expert microscopy.MethodsParticipants (N = 1997) with presumptive malaria were recruited from ten health centers with a range of transmission intensities in Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia during October to
Tekola Endeshaw; Patricia M. Graves; Berhan Ayele; Aryc W. Mosher; Teshome Gebre; Firew Ayalew; Asrat Genet; Alemayehu Mesfin; Estifanos Biru Shargie; Zerihun Tadesse; Tesfaye Teferi; Berhanu Melak; Frank O. Richards; Paul M. Emerson
Anesthetic agents are used extensively in veterinary medicine to facilitate safe restraint of animals and to provide humane conditions for diagnostic procedures and surgery. Animal workers in traditional veterinary practice, as well as those in research institutions, may become chronically exposed to trace levels of waste inhalant anesthetic agents during the daily performance of their duties. Individuals in private or institutional practice, municipal animal control officers, wildlife biologists, and zoological park employees are at risk for accidental exposure to potentially lethal quantities of injectable anesthetic agents during chemical restraint of domestic animals and capture of free-ranging animals. The purpose of this chapter is to review the health risks of anesthetic agents to animal workers and to provide specific recommendations for reducing worker exposure to these agents. PMID:10329903
Waterborne enteric viruses threaten both human and animalhealth. These pathogens are host specific and cause a wide range of diseases and symptoms in humans or other animals. While considerable research has documented the risk of enteric viruses to human health from contact with contaminated water, the current bacterial indicator-based methods for evaluation of water quality are often ineffectual proxies for pathogenic viruses. Additionally, relatively little work has specifically investigated the risk of waterborne viruses to animalhealth, and this risk currently is not addressed by routine water quality assessments. Nonetheless, because of their host specificity, enteric viruses can fulfill a unique role both for assessing health risks and as measures of contamination source in a watershed, yet the use of animal, as well as human, host-specific viruses in determining sources of fecal pollution has received little attention. With improved molecular detection assays, viruses from key host groups can be targeted directly using PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. A multispecies viral analysis would provide needed information for controlling pollution by source, determining human health risks based on assessments of human virus loading and exposure, and determining potential risks to production animalhealth and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic pathogens. While there is a need to better understand the prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, the development of improved methods for specific and sensitive detection will facilitate the use of these microbes for library-independent source tracking and water quality assessment tools.
This paper describes the characteristics of surveillance and the attempts made in the Americas to institute truly integrated surveillance systems that bring together disease surveillance of medically treated clinical populations with disease surveillance for food-production animals. Characteristics of an ideal, integrated food safety system are described. Systematic surveillance programmes in the Americas vary widely in scope and reliability, and none is fully integrated. Estimates of foodborne disease rates, particularly in North America, are becoming increasingly accurate, and programmes such as those promoted by the Pan American Health Organization are gradually leading to improvements in estimates of the foodborne disease burden in Latin America. Linking foodborne diseases to their sources is necessary for reducing disease incidence, and the World Health Organization's Global Foodborne Infections Network is building global capacity in this area. Activities in these areas in the Americas are described in detail. There is now clear recognition that there are dynamic links between infectious diseases occurring in wildlife and livestock and those occurring in humans, and this has led to calls from organisations such as the US National Academy of Sciences and the American Veterinary Medical Association to integrate surveillance programmes for zoonotic and human diseases. Models for the development of such integrated programmes, at local, national and international levels, are described. To be effective, such models must incorporate programmes to capture information from numerous, discrete surveillance systems in a way that allows rapid analysis to identify zoonotic and human disease connections. No effective integration now exists, but there are signals that governments in the Americas are working together towards this goal. PMID:24547656
Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.
DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMALHEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
Weather patterns in northern European regions have changed noticeably over the past several decades, featuring warmer, wetter weather with more extreme events. The climate is projected to continue on this trajectory for the foreseeable future, even under the most modest warming scenarios. Such changes will have a significant impact on livestock farming, both directly through effects on the animals themselves, and indirectly through changing exposure to pests and pathogens. Adaptation options aimed at taking advantage of new opportunities and/or minimising the risks of negative impacts will, in themselves, have implications for animalhealth and welfare. In this review, we consider the potential consequences of future intensification of animal production, challenges associated with indoor and outdoor rearing of animals and aspects of animal transportation as key examples. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the epidemiology of important livestock pathogens, with a particular focus on parasitic infections, and the likely animalhealth consequences associated with selected adaptation options. Finally, we attempt to identify key gaps in our knowledge and suggest future research priorities. PMID:23739475
The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animalhealth, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647
The application of genetic engineering should not be undertaken lightly as it requires extensive infrastructure and inputs before the genetically engineered animal enters a breeding and selection scheme; it does not provide a mechanism for bypassing good animal breeding and selection practices. However, there are instances where GE can provide an opportunity to address a problem in animal agriculture for
A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances. PMID:20128464
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSA’s complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.
Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.
Previous research suggests that many preschoolers meet criteria for psychiatric diagnoses; still, relatively little is known about preschool mental health, particularly emotional problems, in the community. This study investigated the rates of parent-reported DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Five hundred forty-one parents were interviewed with the PAPA. Of the children, 27.4% met criteria for a PAPA/DSM-IV diagnosis; 9.2% met criteria for 2 or more diagnoses. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (9.4%), specific phobia (9.1%), and separation anxiety disorder (5.4%) were the most common diagnoses; depression (1.8%), selective mutism (1.5%), and panic disorder (0.2%) were the least common. In addition, there was significant comorbidity/covariation between depression, anxiety, and ODD and between ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratios = 1.81-18.44; P < .05), and significant associations with measures of psychosocial functioning. The stability and clinical significance of diagnoses and patterns of comorbidity must be elucidated in future research. PMID:21683173
Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N
Tests presently used for the diagnosis of infections by bluetongue virus (BTV) or related orbiviruses are based on the use of 2 types of serological reactions. Those that are considered group-reactive tests are the agar gel diffusion precipitin (AGDP), complement-fixation (CF) and fluorescent antibody tests and those that are considered type-specific are a wide variety of virus neutralization tests (50% and 80% plaque reduction, plaque inhibition and microtiter neutralization) and cross-protection tests. These tests suffer from problems of standardization between laboratories and of specificity. Group-reactive tests (AGDP and CF) for the BTV serogroup also detect cross-reactions with viruses in the epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), Eubenangee (EUB) and Palyam (PAL) serogroups, with the EHDV cross-reactions being of particular concern. Further, multiple infections of cattle with PAL serogroup members can produce antibodies which will react to BTV and EHDV serogroup antigens in serological tests. Multiple infections of animals with related viruses can produce antibodies which will cross-react with orbiviruses in type-specific, virus neutralization tests to a virus which the animal has not previously been exposed. These observations stress the need to evaluate the tests at present being used, to assess the risks of cross-reactions between related orbiviruses and to develop new tests of defined specificity. PMID:2989884
Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene.
Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, many human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks reported during the previous decade have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such infections have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important prevention step for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other critical recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas, venues include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2009 guidelines also emphasize risks associated with baby poultry, reptiles, and rodents in public settings, and information about aquatic animal zoonoses has been incorporated. PMID:19407740
Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, feed stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such outbreaks have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education. PMID:21546893
The authors discuss the mission, organisation and resources of Veterinary Services in the new international trading environment and examine how the standards for Veterinary Services, contained in the OIE (World Organisation for AnimalHealth) International AnimalHealth Code (the Code), help provide the necessary support for Veterinary Services to meet their rights and obligations under the provisions of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The authors describe the challenges of gaining access to international trading markets through surveillance and control of OIE listed diseases. Finally, the approach in the Code to the principles underpinning the quality of Veterinary Services and to guidelines for evaluating Veterinary Services, is discussed. PMID:15884591
The health systems agency that reviews certificate of need applications for replacing or adding diagnostic radiology equipment should benefit from these guidelines. To help determine need for diagnostic radiology equipment, the Health Services Council, In...
Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...
A self diagnostic accelerometer system has been shown to be sensitive to multiple failure modes of charge mode accelerometers. These failures include sensor structural damage, an electrical open circuit and most importantly sensor detachment. In this paper, experimental work that was performed to determine the capabilities of a self diagnostic accelerometer system while operating in the presence of various levels of mechanical noise, emulating real world conditions, is presented. The results show that the system can successfully conduct a self diagnostic routine under these conditions.
Lekki, John; Tokars, Roger; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, M. Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew
The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements\\u000a are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth,\\u000a or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used
Three talks were presented in the session on "Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health". The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from epidemiological studies. The overall conclusion of the three presentations and the following general discussion was that the scientific evidence available to date is weak and contains large gaps in knowledge either due to the poor quality of published studies or because of the lack of published research on certain health-related topics. It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects. PMID:15556663
Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animalhealth were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health.
Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.
Certain venues encourage or permit the public to contact animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, farm tours, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although multiple benefits of human-animal contact exist, infectious diseases, rabies exposures, injuries, and other human health problems associated with these settings are possible. Infectious disease outbreaks reported during the previous decade have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such incidents have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the single most important prevention step for reducing the risk for disease transmission. Other critical recommendations are that venues not allow food in animal areas, venues include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors be educated about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. PMID:17615524
Background Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities and personnel. This study reports on a training programme for CHWs to incorporate RDTs into their management strategy for febrile children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a tropical African setting ravaged by human conflict. Methods Prospective cohort study, satisfaction questionnaire and decision analysis. Results Twelve CHWs were trained to safely and accurately perform and interpret RDTs, then successfully implemented rapid diagnostic testing in their remote community in a cohort of 357 febrile children. CHWs were uniformly positive in evaluating RDTs for their utility and ease of use. However, high malaria prevalence in this cohort (93% by RDTs, 88% by light microscopy) limited the cost-effectiveness of RDTs compared to presumptive treatment of all febrile children, as evidenced by findings from a simplified decision analysis. Conclusions CHWs can safely and effectively use RDTs in their management of febrile children; however, cost-effectiveness of RDTs is limited in zones of high malaria prevalence.
This section contains two Units plus the Glossary and Index: Unit 11 - What Is MSMR? Unit 12 - Careers in Health and Health Research Glossary of Terms Used Index Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.
Since the 1990 National Institutes of Health-sponsored conference on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it has become appreciated that the syndrome encompasses a broader spectrum of signs and symptoms of ovarian dysfunction than those defined by the original diagnostic criteria. The 2003 Rotterdam consensus workshop concluded that PCOS is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction along with the cardinal features hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology. PCOS remains a syndrome, and as such no single diagnostic criterion (such as hyperandrogenism or PCO) is sufficient for clinical diagnosis. Its clinical manifestations may include menstrual irregularities, signs of androgen excess, and obesity. Insulin resistance and elevated serum LH levels are also common features in PCOS. PCOS is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. PMID:14711538
Analatom is developing a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system which provides both corrosion and strain measurements. This combination of data provides critical assessment of structural health, leading to prediction of failure. The SHM system s sensor...
B. C. Laskowski D. Darr J. Morse R. Betti R. Clements
Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen of conservation, livestock, and public health concern, was detected in eight species of wildlife inhabiting protected areas bordering endemic livestock grazing lands. We tested tissues from 179 opportunistically sampled hunter-killed, depredation, road-killed, and live-captured wild animals, representing 30 species, in and adjacent to Ruaha National Park in south-central Tanzania. Tissue culture and PCR were used to detect 12 (8.1%) M. bovis-infected animals and 15 (10.1%) animals infected with non-tuberculosis complex mycobacteria. Kirk's dik-dik, vervet monkey, and yellow baboon were confirmed infected for the first time. The M. bovis spoligotype isolated from infected wildlife was identical to local livestock, providing evidence for livestock-wildlife pathogen transmission. Thus we advocate an ecosystem-based approach for bovine tuberculosis management that improves critical ecological functions in protected areas and grazing lands, reduces focal population density build-up along the edges of protected areas, and minimizes ecological stressors that increase animals' susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis. PMID:23601163
Clifford, D L; Kazwala, R R; Sadiki, H; Roug, A; Muse, E A; Coppolillo, P C; Mazet, J A K
In this really hectic world, quite a number of people are exposed to situations where mental stress Is unavoidable. This leads to people having all kinds of mental health problems that eventually may turn to chronic mental disorders. People with mental health problems normally have the tendency of not admitting their health problems because of the stigma attached to these
Hajar Mat Jani; Jalan Kajang-Puchong; Selangor Darul Ehsan
There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...
Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305
Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some
Trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisins are the major Fusarium mycotoxins occurring on a worldwide basis in cereal grains, animal feeds and forages. Other important Fusarium mycotoxins include moniliformin and fusaric acid. Spontaneous outbreaks of Fusarium mycotoxicoses have been recorded in Europe, Asia, New Zealand and South America and, in addition, chronic exposure occurs on a regular and more widespread scale.
J. P. F. D’Mello; C. M. Placinta; A. M. C. Macdonald
The Units covered in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.
The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the release of radioactive gases and drift from cooling tower plumes) are discussed. Specific case
G. E. Gears; G. LaRoche; J. Cable; B. Jaroslow; D. Smith
The units in this section are: Unit 5 - The Regulation of Biomedical Research Unit 6 - The Housing and Care of Laboratory Animals Unit 7 - Why Must New Drugs Be Tested? Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.
Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from
Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips
Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no\\u000a studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning\\u000a to their home country.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008
Nicolae V Ostrovschi; Martin J Prince; Cathy Zimmerman; Mihai A Hotineanu; Lilia T Gorceag; Viorel I Gorceag; Clare Flach; Melanie A Abas
Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animalhealth and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.
Rabies has one of the highest case-fatality ratios of any infectious disease. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal control officials, and other parties engaged in rabies prevention and control activities ...
The susceptibility to antimicrobials of bacterial species most frequently isolated from companion animals in a veterinary teaching diagnostic laboratory was evaluated retrospectively. A significant decrease between 1990–1992 and 2002–2003 was noted in the susceptibility of dog isolates to the following antimicrobials: Escherichia coli to cephalothin (86% to 61%, P < 0.001); E. coli to ampicillin (85% to 67%, P < 0.001); Proteus spp. to ampicillin (92% to 71%, P < 0.01); coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius) to enrofloxacin (99% to 95%, P < 0.01). Significantly increased susceptibilities were also noted as follows: coagulase-positive staphylococci to erythromycin (78% to 90%, P < 0.001) and tetracycline (61% to 77%, P < 0.001). Despite a limited number of results available for cats, a significant increase in susceptibility was noted for Pseudomonas spp. to gentamicin (40% to 100%, P < 0.05) and for E. coli to tetracycline (59% to 80%, P < 0.05). Regular updates on the resistance to antimicrobials used in veterinary medicine are required.
A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions.
Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited.
A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540
In this paper, we developed non invasive multi parameter sensor and used as a prototype of point-of-care diagnostic devices for cardiologic, tumour and diabetic patients. Integrated platform for data acquisition, data processing and communication to remote networks is being developed on pocket PC.
V. A. Saetchinikov; E. A. Tcherniavskaia; V. F. Zaitsev; L. A. Alexeichuk; G. Schweiger
This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…
Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host.
There is good evidence from in vitro studies that green tea catechins have a role in protection against degenerative diseases. However, the concentrations used in vitro are often higher than those found in animal or human plasma, and so in vivo evidence is required to demonstrate any protective effect of catechins. This article summarizes the most interesting in vivo animal studies on the protective effects of green tea catechins against biomarkers for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative diseases. Generally, most studies using animal models show that consumption of green tea (catechins) provides some protection, although most studies have not examined dose response. Tea catechins could act as antitumorigenic agents and as immune modulators in immunodysfunction caused by transplanted tumors or by carcinogen treatment. Green tea has antiproliferative activity in hepatoma cells and hypolipidemic activity in hepatoma-treated rats, and some studies report that it prevents hepatoxicity. It could act as a preventive agent against mammary cancer postinitiation. Nevertheless, the implications of green tea catechins in preventing metastasis have not been clearly established. Long-term feeding of tea catechins could be beneficial for the suppression of high-fat diet-induced obesity by modulating lipid metabolism, could have a beneficial effect against lipid and glucose metabolism disorders implicated in type 2 diabetes, and could also reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further investigations on mechanisms, the nature of the active compounds, and appropriate dose levels are needed. PMID:15570050
The acute phase response is a complex systemic early-defense system activated by trauma, infection, stress, neoplasia, and inflammation. Although nonspecific, it serves as a core of the innate immune response involving physical and molecular barriers and responses that serve to prevent infection, clear potential pathogens, initiate inflammatory processes, and contribute to resolution and the healing process. Acute phase proteins, an integral part of the acute phase response, have been a focus of many applications in human diagnostic medicine and recently have been identified in common animal species. Potential applications to diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of animalhealth, and laboratory animal welfare are readily apparent.
Since the first production of plutonium in the 1940s, potential health effects from plutonium have been a concern for humans. The few people exposed to plutonium and the relatively small intakes that have occurred, at least in the Western world, have resulted in very little direct information from human population studies. The Manhattan Project workers have been followed for decades, and few health effects have been observed. The situation is similar for the population of workers at the Rocky Flats facility. Some information is now being released from the former Soviet Union on selected worker populations who show biological effects, primarily pulmonary fibrosis and some increase in lung cancers.
Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others
Background The malaria test positivity rate (TPR) is increasingly used as an indicator of malaria morbidity because TPR is based on laboratory-confirmed cases and is simple to incorporate into existing surveillance systems. However, temporal trends in TPR may reflect changes in factors associated with malaria rather than true changes in malaria morbidity. This study examines the effects of age, area of residence and diagnostic test on TPR at two health facilities in regions of Uganda with differing malaria endemicity. Methods The analysis included data from diagnostic blood smears performed at health facilities in Walukuba and Aduku between January 2009 and December 2010. The associations between age and time and between age and TPR were evaluated independently to determine the potential for age to confound temporal trends in TPR. Subsequently, differences between observed TPR and TPR adjusted for age were compared to determine if confounding was present. A similar analysis was performed for area of residence. Temporal trends in observed TPR were compared to trends in TPR expected using rapid diagnostic tests, which were modelled based upon sensitivity and specificity in prior studies. Results Age was independently associated with both TPR and time at both sites. At Aduku, age-adjusted TPR increased relative to observed TPR due to the association between younger age and TPR and the gradual increase in age distribution. At Walukuba, there were no clear differences between observed and age-adjusted TPR. Area of residence was independently associated with both TPR and time at both sites, though there were no clear differences in temporal trends in area of residence-adjusted TPR and observed TPR at either site. Expected TPR with pLDH- and HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was higher than observed TPR at all time points at both sites. Conclusions Adjusting for potential confounders such as age and area of residence can ensure that temporal trends in TPR due to confounding are not mistakenly ascribed to true changes in malaria morbidity. The potentially large effect of diagnostic test on TPR can be accounted for by calculating and adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the test used.
overview of the status of hazard identification as it pertains to children's health. The infor- mation was used as background material for an ILSI-sponsored workshop on developing a framework for assessing risks to children from exposure to environmental agents (Daston 2004). Therefore, this article is not intended to be comprehensive but merely provides an initial overview of hazard identification, particularly
LaRonda L. Morford; Judith W. Henck; William J. Breslin; John M. DeSesso
The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.
Participatory methods were used to assess the impact of a community-based animalhealth worker (CAHW) project in two remote pastoralist districts of Ethiopia. The CAHW project had been operating for 3 years at the time of the assessment. Participatory methods were standardized and repeated with 10 groups of informants in the project area. The assessment showed significant reductions in disease impact for diseases handled by CAHWs compared with diseases not handled by CAHWs. In camels, there was significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, trypanosomosis, helminthosis, anthrax and non-specific respiratory disease. In cattle there was a signficant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of blackleg, anthrax and helminthosis. In sheep and goats there was a sign reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, helminthosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, orf and non-specific diarrhoea. In order of importance, these reductions in disease impact were attributed to (1) increased use of modern veterinary services provided by CAHWs, (2) vaccination campaigns involving CAHWs, (3) good rainfall and availability of grazing and (4) decreased herd mobility. Decreased herd mobility was also associated with negative impact of tick infestation. Community-based animalhealth workers were considered to be highly accessible, available, affordable and trustworthy relative to other service providers. They were also perceived to be suppliers of a good quality service. Specific types of positive impact attributed to CAHW activities were increases in milk, meat, income and draught power. PMID:15729896
We studied how reproducibly neuropathologists assign childhood brain tumors to World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic categories using a subsample from the Childhood Brain Tumor Consortium (CBTC) data. Among the 713 cases, 539 (76%) received the same diagnosis on two different readings by the same team of two neuropathologists. Among the 297 tumors in the supratentorial compartment, 201 (68%) received the same diagnosis on both reviews, whereas among the 392 tumors in the infratentorial compartment, 320 (82%) received the same diagnosis. The eight tumor diagnoses that were the most reliable were craniopharyngioma, germinoma, teratoma, medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, and choroid plexus papilloma, Px, the conditional probability of agreement given that one of the reviews resulted in specific diagnosis 'X', ranged from 0.97 to 0.75 for these diagnoses. In contrast, Px for 16 other childhood brain tumor diagnostic categories ranged from 0.60 to 0.00. Pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, and astrocytoma not otherwise specified (nos) had significantly lower Px values (p less than 0.05) when these tumors were located in the supratentorial compartment than when below the tentorium. Px was not significantly lower for any category when tumors were located in the infratentorial compartment. The array of substituted diagnoses that lowered reproducibility was greater when tumors were located supratentorially. To improve the definitions, eliminate overlapping diagnostic categories, and sharpen the fuzzy boundaries that contribute substantially to limited reproducibility, we suggest: (1) the categories of astrocytoma nos, fibrillary astrocytoma, and protoplasmic astrocytoma be collapsed into a single category of astrocytoma; (2) the diagnostic category of desmoplastic medulloblastoma be combined with medulloblastoma; and (3) the criteria for anaplasia should be further refined to include quantification of critical histologic features, e.g., agreed upon operational definitions for amount of cell density, number of mitoses and pleomorphism for anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic ependymoma. PMID:2795117
We examined stress responses to chronic noise exposure in a popular aquarium fish, the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Thirty-two animals were housed individually in either loud (123.3±1.0dB re: 1?Pa total RMS power at mid-water, 137.3±0.7dB at bottom) or quiet (110.6±0.58dB at mid-water, and 119.8±0.4dB at bottom) tanks for one month. Weekly behavioral observations were scored and compared between treatment means,
Paul A. Anderson; Ilze K. Berzins; Frank Fogarty; Heather J. Hamlin; Louis J. Guillette
Healthfacility ledgers of 11 rural h ealthfacilities in western Kenya wer e reviewed to evaluate diagnostic and prescribing practices. Clinics lacked laboratory facilities. Of 14,267 sick child visits (SCVs), 76% were diagnosed with malaria and\\/or upper respiratory infections. Other diagnoses were recorded in less than 5% of SCVs. Although two- thirds of malaria cases were diagnosed with co-infections, less than
PENELOPE A. PHILLIPS-HOWARD; KATHLEEN A. WANNEMUEHLER; Kuile ter F. O; WILLIAM A. HAWLEY; MARGARETTE S. KOLCZAK; AMOS ODHACHA; JOHN M. VULULE; BERNARD L. NAHLEN
On April 25, 2006, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request for a health hazard evaluation (HHE) from the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals-Cincinnati (SPCA-Cincinnati) in Hamilton County, Ohio. T...
In Italy, 5 millions migrants live and work. Among them, the employment rate is much higher in comparison with the Italians' one (75% versus 62%). The well known "healthy migrant effect" is confirmed by statistics from the National Institute for Statistics: according to it, migrants access the National Health System for pregnancy and delivery and for accidents. The chronic pathology is not a major concern. Moreover, their work ability is generally complete, without any limitation. Nevertheless, migrants seem to represent a vulnerable subgroup with regard to the risk of 1) occupational injuries: this is strongly linked with the risk of Tetanus infection; 2) disorders of the metabolism, like hyperglycaemia and hyperlipemia, which is linked to a higher cardiovascular risk. In this light data from health surveillance carried out by the International centre for Rural Health of the San Paolo University Hospital in agricultural setting in the Region of Lombardy and the participation of the Centre itself to the Promovax EC-cofunded project are presented. PMID:22187923
Somaruga, C; Troja Martinazzoli, M G; Brambilla, G; Colosio, C
Abstract Global health, whether in developed or developing countries, is in need of robust systems diagnostics for major diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, impacting the world populations. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of serum is a quick and reagent-free methodology with which to analyze metabolic alterations such as those caused by disease or treatment. In this study, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy was investigated as a means of distinguishing HIV-infected treatment-experienced (HIV(pos) ART(pos), n=39) and HIV-infected-treatment-naïve (HIV(pos) ART(neg), n=16) subjects from uninfected control subjects (n=30). Multivariate pattern recognition techniques, including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), successfully distinguished sample classes, while univariate approaches identified significant differences (p<0.05) after Benjamini-Hochberg corrections. OPLS-DA discriminated between all groups with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of >90%. Compared to uninfected controls, HIV(pos) ART(pos) and HIV(pos) ART(neg) subjects displayed significant differences in spectral regions linked to lipids/fatty acids (3010?cm(-1)), carbohydrates (1299?cm(-1); 1498?cm(-1)), glucose (1035?cm(-1)), and proteins (1600?cm(-1); 1652?cm(-1)). These are all molecules shown by conventional biochemical analysis to be affected by HIV/ART interference. The biofluid metabolomics approach applied here successfully differentiated global metabolic profiles of HIV-infected patients and uninfected controls and detected potential biomarkers for development into indicators of host response to treatment and/or disease progression. Our findings therefore contribute to ongoing efforts for capacity-building in global health for robust omics science and systems diagnostics towards major diseases impacting population health. PMID:24937213
Sitole, Lungile; Steffens, Francois; Krüger, Tjaart P J; Meyer, Debra
Toxic cyanobacteria are common in Portuguese freshwaters and the most common toxins are microcystins. The occurrence of microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) has been reported since 1990 and a significant number of water reservoirs that are used for drinking water attain high levels of this toxin. Aquatic animals that live in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems may be killed by microcystins but in many cases the toxicity is sublethal and so the animals can survive long enough to accumulate the toxins and transfer them along the food chain. Among these, edible mollusks, fish and crayfish are especially important because they are harvested and sold for human consumption. Mussels that live in estuarine waters and rivers where toxic blooms occur may accumulate toxins without many significant acute toxic effects. In this study data are presented in order to understand the dynamics of the accumulation and depuration of MCYST-LR in mussels. The toxin is readily accumulated and persists in the shellfish for several days after contact. In the crayfish the toxin is accumulated mainly in the gut but is also cleared very slowly. In carps, although the levels of the toxins found in naturally caught specimens were not very high, some toxin was found in the muscle and not only in the viscera. This raises the problem of the toxin accumulation by fish and possible transfer through the food chain. The data gathered from these experiments and from naturally caught specimens are analyzed in terms of risk for human consumption. The occurrence of microcystins in tap water and the incidence of toxic cyanobacteria in fresh water beaches in Portugal are reported. The Portuguese National Monitoring Program of cyanobacteria is mentioned and its implications are discussed. PMID:10347780
Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely affect the reproductive system. Currently, available data indicate that the consequences of exposure depend on the nature of the chemical, its target, and the timing of exposure relative to critical windows in development of the reproductive system. The reproductive system is designed to produce gametes in far greater excess than would seem to be necessary for the survival of species. Ten to hundreds of millions of spermatozoa are generated daily by most adult male mammals, yet very few of these germ cells succeed in transmitting their genetic material to the next generation. Although the number of oocytes produced in mammalian females is more limited, and their production occurs only during fetal life, most ovaries contain several orders of magnitude more oocytes than ever will be fertilized. Toxicant exposures may affect critical events in the development of the reproductive system, ranging from early primordial germ cell determination to gonadal differentiation, gametogenesis, external genitalia, or signaling events regulating sexual behavior. Although there are differences between the human reproductive system and that of the usual animal models, such models have been extremely useful in assessing risks for key human reproductive and developmental processes. The objectives for future studies should include the elucidation of the specific cellular and molecular targets of known toxicants; the design of a systematic approach to the identification of reproductive toxicants; and the development of sensitive, specific, and predictive animal models, minimally invasive surrogate markers, or in vitro tests to assess reproductive system function during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Pryor, J L; Hughes, C; Foster, W; Hales, B F; Robaire, B
Transhumance, or seasonal grazing, in central Italy is a husbandry practice that is over two thousand years old. It involves the seasonal movement of sheep, goats and cattle from the southern lowlands of mainly the Puglia and Lazio regions, to summer pastures in the mountains of Abruzzo and Molise. Bluetongue (BT) made its appearance in Italy in 2000. In the early summer of 2001, disease was present in three regions: Sardinia, Sicily and Calabria. Neither an effective surveillance system nor a vaccination campaign had been implemented. Movement of ruminants to the disease-free regions of Abruzzo and Molise was therefore banned. The Italian Veterinary Services had to meet the challenge of the movement of ruminants from surveillance to disease-free zones, given the impossibility of stopping transhumance. The General Directorate of Veterinary Public Health, Food and Nutrition of the Ministry of Health developed a plan for both the Puglia and Abruzzo regions based on serological, virological and entomological surveillance. The plan was implemented between May and June 2001 when 7,000 animals moved from the Puglia surveillance zone to the infection-free summer pastures. In the early summer of 2002, eight regions were infected (Sardinia, Sicily, Calabria, Basilicata, Puglia, Campania, Lazio and Tuscany). Simultaneously, a nationwide surveillance system and a vaccination campaign, were implemented in infected regions. In the provinces where vaccination was compulsory, deviation from the animal movement ban was allowed if at least 80% of susceptible stock had been vaccinated. However, this objective was not achieved in the provinces of Rome and Viterbo (Lazio) where a large transhumant population was present and where sporadic virus circulation had been detected. A specific control plan to allow transhumance from Lazio to Abruzzo, Marche and Umbria was designed and implemented to increase the number of animals that could be moved. Between May and June 2002, authorisation was granted to move 28,000 head, whereas prohibition of movement was ordered for 12,000 sheep (belonging to 21 flocks). Regional authorities financed feeding, watering and housing for these animals. Transhumance did not spread infection to disease-free areas either in 2001 or in 2002. PMID:20422619
Nannini, D; Calistri, P; Giovannini, A; Di Ventura, M; Cafiero, M A; Ferrari, G; Santucci, U; Caporale, V
The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for AnimalHealth (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animalhealth and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animalhealth feature in the OlE Terrestrial AnimalHealth Code, the Aquatic AnimalHealth Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animalhealth information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648
Background Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules from small molecules to large proteins by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. Its usefulness in biomarker discovery towards clinical applications has obtained success by correlating the molecular expression of tissues acquired from MSI with well-established histology. Results To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in clinical applications, such as biomarker diagnostics of different diseases, prognostics of disease severities and metabolic response to drug treatment, etc. These studies have provided significant insight in clinical studies over the years and current technical advances are further facilitating the improvement of this field. Although the underlying concept is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis must be taken into account for successful applications of MSI. Herein, we briefly reviewed these key elements yet focused on the clinical applications of MSI that cannot be addressed by other means. Conclusions Challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed to conclude that the ever-growing applications with continuous development of this powerful analytical tool will lead to a better understanding of the biology of diseases and improvements in clinical diagnostics.
Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.
The use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become an attractive housing regime of laboratory rodents. The benefits of IVC systems are, reportedly, a high degree of containment combined with relative ease of handling, and a high degree of protection from allergenes. In the present study we tested whether two IVC systems (BioZone VentiRack, IVC1 and Techniplast SealSafe, IVC2S), in which we held mature male NMRI mice, were constructed to maintain a constant differential pressure, positive or negative, during a prolonged period of time. We also measured ammonia (NH3) concentrations after about 2 weeks of use, and CO2 build-up during a 60 min simulated power failure situation. In addition, animal weight development and bite-wound frequency were recorded (Renström et al. 2000). From the present study it is concluded that the IVC1 air handling system provides a more uniform and balanced differential pressure than the IVC2S. Both systems effectively scavenge NH3 when bedding material is not soaked by urine. Although the IVCs are dependent on the continual function of the fans to work properly, it seems unlikely that CO2 concentrations increase to hazardous levels, as a result of a one hour power failure, with the type of cages used in this study. Differences in weight development and bite-wound occurrence were noted between the two IVC systems. Causes for these differences could not be established and need more investigation. PMID:11201288
The bacterial genus Helicobacter contains a number of species which colonize the gastric mucosa of mammals. Natural and/or experimental gastric pathology has been correlated with colonization in humans and a wide variety of animal species. Historical reports in the literature suggest that a high percentage of cats are colonized by large, spiral, gastric helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs). One of these bacteria (Helicobacter felis) has been isolated on artificial media and has experimentally caused gastritis in gnotobiotic dogs. This study surveyed the prevalence of helicobacter colonization in random-source cats by using the urease assay. Histologic examination was performed to determine the degree of associated pathology present. GHLOs associated with chronic gastritis were present in 70% of the juvenile and 97% of the adult cats studied. Although further study is needed to determine specifically what role GHLOs play in feline gastrointestinal disease, these results indicate that helicobacter colonization should be considered in the pathogenesis of feline gastroenteropathy. Furthermore, the high prevalence of feline infection is interesting because cats have recently been implicated as a potential reservoir for human infection by helicobacter-like organisms. Images
Otto, G; Hazell, S H; Fox, J G; Howlett, C R; Murphy, J C; O'Rourke, J L; Lee, A
The role of [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) based diagnostic tests for the detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) has not been fully evaluated. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of p2PSA/free PSA (%p2PSA) and prostate health index (Phi) tests for PCa and to evaluate their ability in discriminating between aggressive and non-aggressive PCa. A total of 16 articles were included in this meta-analysis. For the detection of PCa, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84-0.87), 0.40 (95% CI, 0.39-042) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67-0.77) for %p2PSA respectively, and were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.44-0.47) and 0.70 (95% CI = 0.65-0.74) for Phi, respectively. In addition, the sensitivity for discriminating PCa between higher Gleason score (?7) and lower Gleason score (<7) was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.87-0.92) for %p2PSA and Phi respectively, and the specificity was low, only 0.09 (95% CI, 0.06-0.12) and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14-0.19) for %p2PSA and Phi, respectively. Phi and %p2PSA have a high diagnostic accuracy rates and can be used in PCa diagnosis. Phi and %p2PSA may be useful as tumor markers in predicating patients harboring more aggressive disease and guiding biopsy decisions. PMID:24852453
Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track. PMID:19435984
Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter
This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.
Potential adverse health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which were also shown in the authors' Lower Saxony Lung Study, are of public concern. The authors aimed to investigate pulmonary health effect of neighboring residents assessed using optimized estimation technique. Annual ammonia emission was measured to assess the emission from CAFO and from surrounding fields. Location of sampling points was optimized using cluster analysis. Individual exposure of 457 nonfarm subjects was interpolated by weighting method. Mean estimated annual ammonia levels varied between 16 and 24 ?g/m³. Higher exposed participants were more likely to be sensitized against ubiquitous allergens as compared to lower exposed subjects (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-13.2). In addition, they showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV?) (adjusted mean difference in % of predicted -8%; 95% CI -13% to -3%). The authors' previous findings that CAFOs may contribute to burden of respiratory diseases were confirmed by this study. PMID:21864103
E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct
Chiara Frazzoli; Orish Ebere Orisakwe; Roberto Dragone; Alberto Mantovani
Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention). Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71%) and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%). Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03) and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19) were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.
Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread. PMID:24629777
Few standardized tools are available for time-efficient screening of emotional health status across diagnostic categories, especially in primary care. We evaluated the 45-question Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening (BRISC) and the 15-question mini-BRISC in identifying poor emotional health and coping capacity across a range of diagnostic groups – compared with a detailed clinical assessment – in a large sample of adult outpatients. Participants 18–60 years of age (n = 1079) recruited from 12 medical research and clinical sites completed the computerized assessments. Three index scores were derived from the full BRISC and the mini-BRISC: one for risk (negativity–positivity bias) and two for coping (resilience and social capacity). Summed answers were converted to standardized z-scores. BRISC scores were compared with detailed health assessment and diagnostic interview (for current psychiatric, psychological, and neurological conditions) by clinicians at each site according to diagnostic criteria. Clinicians were blinded to BRISC scores. Clinical assessment stratified participants as having “clinical” (n = 435) or “healthy” (n = 644) diagnostic status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that a z-score threshold of ?1.57 on the full BRISC index of emotional health provided an optimal classification of “clinical” versus “healthy” status (sensitivity: 81.2%, specificity: 92.7%, positive predictive power: 80.2%, and negative predictive power: 93.1%). Comparable findings were revealed for the mini-BRISC. Negativity–positivity bias index scores contributed the most to prediction. The negativity–positivity index of emotional health was most sensitive to classifying major depressive disorder (100%), posttraumatic stress disorder (95.8%), and panic disorder (88.7%). The BRISC and mini-BRISC both offer a brief, clinically useful screen to identify individuals at risk of disorders characterized by poor emotion regulation, from those with good emotional health and coping.
Williams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas J; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gatt, Justine M; Koslow, Stephen H; Kulkarni, Jayashri; DeVarney, Savannah; Gordon, Evian; John Rush, Augustus
Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a 'reference' range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell-cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (C T) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment. ?? 2011.
Bowen, L.; Miles, A. K.; Murray, M.; Haulena, M.; Tuttle, J.; van, Bonn, W.; Adams, L.; Bodkin, J. L.; Ballachey, B.; Estes, J.; Tinker, M. T.; Keister, R.; Stott, J. L.
The socio-economic impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias is enormous, and the potential economic challenges ahead are clear given the projected future numbers of individuals with these conditions. Because of the high prevalence and cost of dementia, it is very important to assess any intervention from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. The diagnostic criteria for preclinical AD suggested by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association workgroups in combination with the goal of effective disease-modifying treatment (DMT) are, however, a challenge for clinical practice and for the design of clinical trials. Key issues for future cost-effectiveness studies include the following: (i) the consequences for patients if diagnosis is shifted from AD-dementia to predementia states, (ii) bridging the gap between clinical trial populations and patients treated in clinical practice, (iii) translation of clinical trial end-points into measures that are meaningful to patients and policymakers/payers and (iv) how to measure long-term effects. To improve cost-effectiveness studies, long-term population-based data on disease progression, costs and outcomes in clinical practice are needed not only in dementia but also in predementia states. Reliable surrogate end-points in clinical trials that are sensitive to detect effects even in predementia states are also essential as well as robust and validated modelling methods from predementia states that also take into account comorbidities and age. Finally, the ethical consequences of early diagnosis should be considered. PMID:24605810
Wimo, A; Ballard, C; Brayne, C; Gauthier, S; Handels, R; Jones, R W; Jonsson, L; Khachaturian, A S; Kramberger, M
This paper presents estimates of the number of diagnostic x-ray examinations performed in the United States, the population dose delivered, the percentage of that dose contributed by credentialed and noncredentialed operators, and one measure of performance: collimation of the x-ray beam. An estimated 82 per cent of medical x-ray examinations are performed by voluntarily certified (ARRT or ARCRT) operators. These procedures contribute 90 per cent of the radiation dose to the population. Data from the Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends (NEXT) program indicate that certified operators collimate the x-ray beam somewhat better than noncertified for chest examinations. They also indicate that differences in collimation practices may be attributed to the type of facility as well as to the credentials of the operators. One-third of the medical x-ray machines are in states presently requiring licensure of operators. It appears from these estimates that instituting operator licensure in the remaining states may reduce population dose by a maximum of one or two per cent.
The health condition of out-migrating juvenile salmonids can influence migration success. Physical damage, pathogenic infection, contaminant exposure, and immune system status can affect survival probability. The present study is part of a wider investigation of out-migration success in juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and focuses on the application of molecular profiling to assess sublethal effects of environmental stressors in field-collected fish. We used a suite of genes in O. mykiss to specifically assess responses that could be directly related to steelhead health condition during out-migration. These biomarkers were used on juvenile steelhead captured in the Snake River, a tributary of the Columbia River, in Washington, USA, and were applied on gill and anterior head kidney tissue to assess immune system responses, pathogen-defense (NRAMP, Mx, CXC), general stress (HSP70), metal-binding (metallothionein-A), and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1) utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Upon capture, fish were ranked according to visual external physical conditions into good, fair, poor, and bad categories; gills and kidney tissues were then dissected and preserved for gene analyses. Transcription responses were tissue-specific for gill and anterior head kidney with less significant responses in gill tissue than in kidney. Significant differences between the condition ranks were attributed to NRAMP, MX, CXC, and Cyp1a1 responses. Gene profiling correlated gene expression with pathogen presence, and results indicated that gene profiling can be a useful tool for identifying specific pathogen types responsible for disease. Principal component analysis (PCA) further correlated these responses with specific health condition categories, strongly differentiating good, poor, and bad condition ranks. We conclude that molecular profiling is an informative and useful tool that could be applied to indicate and monitor numerous population-level parameters of management interest. PMID:22587496
Connon, Richard E; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Hostetter, Nathan J; Javidmehr, Alireza; Roby, Daniel D; Evans, Allen F; Loge, Frank J; Werner, Inge
Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health.
Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 ?A was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P < 0·0001), to 3·5 h current application (r = 0·89, P = 0·007). The linear equations y = 0·24x + 1 and y = 0·21x + 4·63 predicted plasma urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P < 0·0001), with the separation between the two groups becoming more apparent with longer application (P = 0·003). A cathodal urea cut-off of 30 ?M gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring.
Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip
Purpose: Many epidemiological research studies have shown that vital exhaustion and psychosocial factors are associated with the occurrence of cerebrocardiovascular disease (CCVD). Fatigue is thought to induce endothelial dysfunction and may be linked to the occurrence of CCVD; however, no studies have investigated this potential link. We studied to determine the effect of fatigue on endothelial function in healthy subjects with no traditional CCVD risk factors or potential confounding factors to be controlled. Subjects and methods: Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) was used to evaluate endothelial function. The influence of the following parameters on endothelial function was analyzed in 74 office workers without traditional CCVD risk factors at health check-ups: endothelial function before and after work, subjective fatigue, lifestyle factors such as sleeping time, and psychosocial factors such as depression and social support. Results: Twenty-five subjects (33.8%) had low endothelial function; reactive hyperemia (RH)-PAT index <1.67, even though no abnormalities were reported in the health check-ups. There was no significant difference in endothelial function before versus after labor. Of note, endothelial function was associated with the individual’s level of subjective fatigue (t = 2.98, P = 0.008) and showed a daily fluctuation, sometimes to a pathological degree (<1.67). Conclusion: We showed that, even in healthy people, endothelial function fluctuates diurnally, with an interaction between the individual’s cognitive fatigue and the environment, sometimes to a pathological degree. Based on these findings, we suggest that endothelial function is an objective assessment tool of fatigue in healthy individuals.
... Breastfeeding FAQs Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size What's ...
This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: ?Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health? sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...
Guido RÃÂ¶ÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.
Background Intervention and treatment in Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD-dementia) can be cost effective but the majority of patients are not diagnosed in a timely manner. Technology is now available that can enable the earlier detection of cognitive loss associated with incipient dementia, offering the potential for earlier intervention in the UK health care system. This study aimed to determine to what extent the timing of an intervention affects its cost-effectiveness. Methods Using published data describing cognitive decline in the years prior to an AD diagnosis, we modelled the effects on healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life years of hypothetical symptomatic and disease-modifying interventions. Early and standard interventions were assumed to have equal clinical effects, but the early intervention could be applied up to eight years prior to standard diagnosis. Results A symptomatic treatment which immediately improved cognition by one MMSE point and reduced in efficacy over three years, would produce a maximum net benefit when applied at the earliest timepoint considered, i.e. eight years prior to standard diagnosis. In this scenario, the net benefit was reduced by around 17% for every year that intervention was delayed. In contrast, for a disease-modifying intervention which halted cognitive decline for one year, economic benefits would peak when treatment effects were applied two years prior to standard diagnosis. In these models, the maximum net benefit of the disease modifying intervention was fifteen times larger than that of the symptomatic treatment. Conclusion Timeliness of intervention is likely to have an important impact on the cost-effectiveness of both current and future treatments. Healthcare policy should aim to optimise the timing of AD-dementia diagnosis, which is likely to necessitate detecting and treating patients several years prior to current clinical practice.
Objectives To assess the quality and safety of having community health workers (CHWs) in rural Zambia use rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and provide integrated management of malaria and pneumonia. Design/methods In the context of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of two models for community-based management of malaria and/or non-severe pneumonia in children under 5 years old, CHWs in the intervention arm were trained to use RDTs, follow a simple algorithm for classification and treat malaria with artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and pneumonia with amoxicillin. CHW records were reviewed to assess the ability of the CHWs to appropriately classify and treat malaria and pneumonia, and account for supplies. Patients were also followed up to assess treatment safety. Results During the 12-month study, the CHWs evaluated 1017 children with fever and/or fast/difficult breathing and performed 975 RDTs. Malaria and/or pneumonia were appropriately classified 94–100% of the time. Treatment based on disease classification was correct in 94–100% of episodes. Supply management was excellent with over 98% of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL properly accounted for. The use of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL was associated with few minor adverse events. Most febrile children (90%) with negative RDT results recovered after being treated with an antipyretic alone. Conclusions Volunteer CHWs in rural Zambia are capable of providing integrated management of malaria and pneumonia to children safely and at high quality.
Hamer, Davidson H; Brooks, Erin Twohig; Semrau, Katherine; Pilingana, Portipher; MacLeod, William B; Siazeele, Kazungu; Sabin, Lora L; Thea, Donald M; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo
Darwin's theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3 virophages have been discovered including the Sputnik virophages that are used to study genetic recombination. Virophages also find their application in antiviral therapy; as engineer of ecological system etc. In brief, present review deals with various dimensions of these beneficial viruses that are being used and can be successfully used in future for safeguarding biosphere including animal and human health. PMID:24897785
Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months) were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return) and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return). We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table). Results 120/176 (68%) eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alone (16%); co-morbid PTSD (20%); other anxiety or mood disorder (18%). 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Conclusions Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women found to have co-morbid PTSD or other forms of anxiety and depression immediately post-return should be offered evidenced-based mental health treatment for at least the standard 12-month period of rehabilitation.
Concern about Salmonella contamination of food is compounded by fear that antimicrobials traditionally used to combat the infection will become useless due to rising antibiotic resistance. Livestock, in particular swine, often are blamed for illnesses caused by Salmonella and for increasing antibiotic resistance due to use of antibiotics in pigs. As part of the National AnimalHealth Monitoring System Swine 2000 and 2006 studies, swine fecal samples were cultured for Salmonella. These samples were collected from 123 operations in 17 states in 2000 and from 135 operations in 17 states in 2006. At each operation, 50 and 60 fecal samples were collected from late finisher pig pens in 2000 and 2006, respectively. Salmonella isolates were characterized to determine serogroup and serotype and were tested for susceptibility to a panel of 17 and 15 antimicrobial drugs in 2000 and 2006, respectively. A total of 5,470 and 7,788 samples were cultured for Salmonella in 2000 and 2006, respectively. Overall, 6.2% of the samples and 34.2% of the farms were positive for Salmonella in 2000. In 2006, 7.2% of the samples and 52.6% of the farms were positive. Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5- (formerly Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen), and Salmonella Agona were the three serotypes most often recovered in both study years. The most common antimicrobial resistance pattern for Salmonella Derby in the two study years was resistance to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Most isolates were resistant to tetracycline, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin in both study years. The proportion of Salmonella isolates that were susceptible to all antimicrobials (pansusceptible) was 38.1% in 2000 and 20.4% in 2006. The proportion of Salmonella isolates that were resistant to three or more antimicrobials (multidrug resistant) was similar in 2000 and in 2006 (52.8 and 57.7%, respectively). PMID:22410214
Haley, C A; Dargatz, D A; Bush, E J; Erdman, M M; Fedorka-Cray, P J
We aimed to describe the management and productivity of this group of smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya at the beginning of an intervention program and to document relevant observed changes in the 3rd year of the intervention. A 3-year intervention program, focused on management of animalhealth and nutrition, and milk quality, was implemented by one Kenyan and two Canadian non-governmental organizations (one university based) to help improve the milk production and livelihoods of Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers (primarily women). Thirty farmers were enrolled and completed questionnaires at the start and end of the project. Focus groups were also conducted to obtain qualitative information on livelihood effects from the program. In 2004, 70% of the eligible youngstock (more than 15 months of age) were pregnant, and cows had a long average days-in-milk of 240 days. External parasites, poor hygiene, and long claws were not uncommon among cows, and 37% and 20% of the farms reported clinical intestinal parasitism and diarrhea in youngstock. In 2006, there were significant improvements in the proportion of farms planting high-protein forages, farms using better milking procedures, and on-farm milk storage methods. The reported mastitis incidence rate fell from 0.55 to 0.20 cases/cow-year (p < 0.01), and the average number of cows and youngstock significantly increased from 1.5 and 0.9 to 2.9 and 2.6, respectively. There were reported improvements in the livelihoods among the member families. The partnership-based intervention program significantly improved management and productivity of this group of smallholder dairy farmers in rural Kenya, leading to reported livelihood benefits. PMID:22081318
VanLeeuwen, John A; Mellish, Teresa; Walton, Colleen; Kaniaru, Ayub; Gitau, Regina; Mellish, Ken; Maina, Bernard; Wichtel, Jeff
A US Navy strategy was generated and is still evolving to develop and demonstrate diagnostics and prognostics for helicopter drive trains. The SH-60 program was initiated as a proof-of-concept effort to develop, demonstrate, and integrate available and advanced mechanical diagnostic technologies for propulsion and power drive system monitoring. Included in these technologies were various rule based and model based analysis
Over the past few decades, the reported number of children identified as having one of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased exponentially. One proposed reason for the dramatic increase in the prevalence of ASD is diagnostic substitution, whereby children with other disorders incorrectly receive a diagnosis of ASD. Little research has examined whether standardized diagnostic measures of ASD can
Darryn M. Sikora; Sigan L. Hartley; Robin McCoy; Aimee E. Gerrard-Morris; Kameron Dill
... We are a global leader in animalhealth science, and our funding helps more species in more places than that of any other organization in the world. Morris Animal Foundation News “Golden” Leader Nominated for National Veterinary Technician Award Morris Animal Foundation’s Erin Searfoss ...
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward. PMID:18666478
Real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods in the field of molecular diagnostics and research. The potential of this format to provide sensitive, specific and swift detection and quantification of viral RNAs has made it an indispensable tool for state-of-the-art diagnostics of important human and animal viral pathogens. Integration of these
Bernd Hoffmann; Martin Beer; Scott M. Reid; Peter Mertens; Chris A. L. Oura; Piet A. van Rijn; Marek J. Slomka; Jill Banks; Ian H. Brown; Dennis J. Alexander; Donald P. King
The diagnosis of illness is important for quality patient care and patient safety and is greatly aided by diagnostic testing. For diagnostic tests, such as pathology and radiology, to positively impact patient care, the tests must be processed and the physician and patient must be notified of the results in a timely fashion. There are many steps in the diagnostic testing process, from ordering to result dissemination, where the process can break down and therefore delay patient care and reduce patient safety. This study was carried out to examine the diagnostic testing process (i.e. from ordering to result notification) and used a macro-ergonomic work system analysis to uncover system design flaws that contributed to delayed physician and patient notification of results. The study was carried out in a large urban outpatient health-care facility made up of 30 outpatient clinics. Results indicated a number of variances that contributed to delays, the majority of which occurred across the boundaries of different systems and were related to poor or absent feedback structures. Recommendations for improvements are discussed. PMID:16723328
Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.
Modeling of human neuropsychiatric disorders in animals is extremely challenging given the subjective nature of many symptoms, the lack of biomarkers and objective diagnostic tests, and the early state of the relevant neurobiology and genetics. Nonetheless, progress in understanding pathophysiology and in treatment development would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here we review the current state of animal models
Objectives Research in cognition has yielded considerable understanding of the diagnostic reasoning process and its evolution during clinical training. This study sought to determine whether or not this literature could be used to improve the assessment of trainees’ diagnostic skill by manipulating testing conditions that encourage different modes of reasoning. Methods The authors developed an online, vignette-based instrument with two sets of testing instructions. The “first impression” condition encouraged non-analytic responses while the “directed search” condition prompted structured analytic responses. Subjects encountered six cases under the first impression condition, then six cases under the directed search condition. Each condition had three straightforward (simple), and three ambiguous (complex) cases. Subjects were stratified by clinical experience: novice (third and fourth year medical students), intermediate (post graduate year [PGY] 1 and 2 residents), and experienced (PGY 3 residents and faculty). Two investigators scored the exams independently. Mean diagnostic accuracies were calculated for each group. Differences in diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the examination as a function of the predictor variables were assessed. Results The exam was completed by 115 subjects. Diagnostic accuracy was significantly associated with the independent variables of case complexity, clinical experience, and testing condition. Overall, mean diagnostic accuracy and the extent to which the test consistently discriminated between subjects (i.e., yielded reliable scores) was higher when participants were given directed search instructions than when they were given first impression instructions. In addition, the pattern of reliability was found to depend on experience: simple cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between novices, complex cases offered the best reliability for discriminating between intermediate residents, and neither type of case discriminated well between experienced practitioners. Conclusions These results yield concrete guidance regarding test construction for the purpose of diagnostic skill assessment. The instruction strategy and complexity of cases selected should depend on the experience level and breadth of experience of the subjects one is attempting to assess.
Ilgen, Jonathan S.; Bowen, Judith L.; Yarris, Lalena M.; Fu, Rongwei; Lowe, Robert A.; Eva, Kevin
The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.
Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)
Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animalhealth and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, p<0.001). These results open new possibilities for the assessment of animalhealth in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality. PMID:19395045
Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B
Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB.
Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik
Environmental factors play a major part in human health. Environmental pollutants are often as poisonous to humans as the environment. Presently, much time and energy is dedicated to keeping pollution apart from human society, with varying success. But as global population densities rise, current levels of pollution will become inviable due to public health concerns. An emergent example of this
The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...
The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...
During the past 20 years the EU legislation for the notification of chemicals has focussed on new chemicals and at the same time failed to cover the evaluation of existing chemicals in Europe. Therefore, in a new EU chemicals policy (REACH, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) the European Commission proposes to evaluate 30,000 chemicals within a period of 15 years. We are providing estimates of the testing requirements based on our personal experiences during the past 20 years. A realistic scenario based on an in-depth discussion of potential toxicological developments and an optimised "tailor-made" testing strategy shows that to meet the goals of the REACH policy, animal numbers may be significantly reduced below 10 million if industry would use in-house data from toxicity testing, which are confidential, if non-animal tests would be used, and if information from quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) would be applied in substance-tailored testing schemes. The procedures for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have the strongest impact on the total number of animals bred for testing under REACH. We are assuming both an active collaboration with our colleagues in industry and substantial funding of the development and validation of advanced non-animal methods by the EU Commission, specifically in reproductive and developmental toxicity. PMID:15170526
In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.
Background: To validate a brief, self-reported, Teen Symptom Questionnaire–Mental Health (TSQ-M), for identifying adolescents with mental ill-health, designed for conducting epidemiological studies and clinical work in primary-care settings. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study of 146 adolescents, re-cruited six rural and urban schools, the newly developed TSQ-M as the measure for validation and General Health Questionnaire-12 item (GHQ-12) as the gold standard measure were administered by independent trained raters. Tests for diagnostic accuracy and validity were conducted. Results: A TSQ-M score of ?29 (Sn=75.68%, Sp=68.06, +LR=2.37, -LR=0.36, PPV=70.9, NPV=73.1) with the AUC of 0.79, is suggested for screening use in Indian populations. Besides the adequate face and content validity, TSQ-M has moderate internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = .64) suggesting that the construct of mental ill-health as conceptualized by TSQ-M has multiple sub-constructs. The presence of sub-constructs was demonstrated by an 8- factor structure, which explained 60% of variance. Conclusion: The TSQ-M is a psychometrically adequate, yet a brief measure, for clinical and research work in identifying mental ill-health among adolescents in primary-care settings in India.
Over the past few decades, the reported number of children identified as having one of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased exponentially. One proposed reason for the dramatic increase in the prevalence of ASD is diagnostic substitution, whereby children with other disorders incorrectly receive a diagnosis of ASD. Little research has…
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are at the early stages of introduction across malaria endemic countries. This is central to efforts to decrease malaria overdiagnosis and the consequent overuse of valuable anti-malarials and underdiagnosis of alternative causes of fever. Evidence of the effect of introducing RDTs on the overprescription of anti-malarials is mixed. A recent trial in rural
Clare IR Chandler; Christopher JM Whitty; Evelyn K Ansah
Planning for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at the Public Health Laboratory London was based on the requirement to meet potential increased demand with scalable capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services during the Games period. Retrospective cross-sectional time-series data analysis was used to assess the number of gastrointestinal specimens received in the laboratory and the number of positive results. There was no increase in the number of gastrointestinal specimens received during the Games period, thus the Games had no impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the laboratory. There was a decrease in the number of public health specimens received for culture [incidence rate ratio?=?0.34, 95?% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.13-0.86, P?=?0.02] and a decrease in the number of culture positive community specimens (odds ratio?=?0.59, 95?% CI?=?0.40-0.85, P?=?0.005), suggesting a decrease in gastrointestinal illness during the Games period. As previous planning assumptions were not based on actual specimen activity, the results of this study may modify the extent of additional planning for microbiological services required for mass gatherings. PMID:24809387
Since the 1990 NIH-sponsored conference on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it has become appreciated that the syndrome encompasses a broader spectrum of signs and symptoms of ovarian dysfunction than those defined by the original diagnostic criteria. The 2003 Rotterdam consensus workshop concluded that PCOS is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction along with the cardinal features hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology. PCOS remains a syndrome and, as such, no single diagnostic criterion (such as hyperandrogenism or PCO) is sufficient for clinical diagnosis. Its clinical manifestations may include: menstrual irregularities, signs of androgen excess, and obesity. Insulin resistance and elevated serum LH levels are also common features in PCOS. PCOS is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. PMID:14688154
To evaluate the potential for using domestic animals in the surveillance of environmental exposures, we collected serum samples for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis from nine dogs in Monroe County, Indiana, where people had been shown to have been exposed to PCBs. Nine dogs in Atlanta, Georgia, served as comparisons. Results indicated that canine serum PCB levels in contaminated areas (median = 3.0 ppb) tend to be greater than those in uncontaminated areas (median = 1.7 ppb (p = .06, Mann-Whitney U test)). This finding suggests that pet dogs may serve as sentinels of human exposure to environmental PCB contamination.
Background Use of diagnostics in integrated community case management (iCCM) of fever is recognized as an important step in improving rational use of drugs and quality of care for febrile under-five children. This study assessed household access, acceptability and utilization of community health workers (CHWs) trained and provided with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and respiratory rate timers (RRTs) to practice iCCM. Methods A total of 423 households with under-five children were enrolled into the study in Iganga district, Uganda. Households were selected from seven villages in Namungalwe sub-county using probability proportionate to size sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers in selected households. Data were entered into Epidata statistical software, and analysed using SPSS Statistics 17.0, and STATA version 10. Results Most (86%, 365/423) households resided within a kilometre of a CHW’s home, compared to 26% (111/423) residing within 1 km of a health facility (p?0.001). The median walking time by caregivers to a CHW was 10 minutes (IQR 5–20). The first option for care for febrile children in the month preceding the survey was CHWs (40%, 242/601), followed by drug shops (33%, 196/601). Fifty-seven percent (243/423) of caregivers took their febrile children to a CHW at least once in the three month period preceding the survey. Households located 1–3 km from a health facility were 72% (AOR 1.72; 95% CI 1.11–2.68) more likely to utilize CHW services compared to households within 1 km of a health facility. Households located 1–3 km from a CHW were 81% (AOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.10–0.36) less likely to utilize CHW services compared to those households residing within 1 km of a CHW. A majority (79%, 336/423) of respondents thought CHWs services were better with RDTs, and 89% (375/423) approved CHWs’ continued use of RDTs. Eighty-six percent (209/243) of respondents who visited a CHW thought RRTs were useful. Conclusion ICCM with diagnostics is acceptable, increases access, and is the first choice for caregivers of febrile children. More than half of caregivers of febrile children utilized CHW services over a three-month period. However, one-third of caregivers used drug shops in spite of the presence of CHWs.
The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.
... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...
Mobility of pastoralists in arid and semi-arid zones renders access to primary social services difficult. The experiences,\\u000a local concepts and propositions of nomadic communities of Chad were essential to fill the information gaps on how to provide\\u000a adapted health services to mobile communities. In Chad, we have taken an iterative, corkscrew-like research and action strategy:\\u000a a better understanding of the
Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...
Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domestic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacterial in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which of the organisms were culturable, and if the cultured organisms were morphologically similar to the organisms seen in situ; (iii) to identify the isolated organisms; and (iv) to determine if gastric bacteria were associated with gastritis. Three groups of dogs were examined: healthy laboratory dogs, healthy dogs from an animal shelter, and pet dogs with various nongastric illnesses. Of these, 100% of laboratory and shelter dogs and 67% of pet dogs were colonized by large, tightly coiled gastric spiral bacteria morphologically similar to Gastrospirillum hominis or Helicobacter felis (referred to as gastrospirilla). Regardless of the presence or density of gastric bacteria, all of the dogs in the study except one had mild to moderate gastritis. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from only 6 of 39 stomachs cultured, and only three of the organisms isolated were morphologically similar to the bacteria seen in situ. Five helicobacters were identified by 16S rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence analysis. Three were strains of H. felis, one was H. bilis, and one was a novel helicobacter morphologically similar to "Flexispira rappini." Gastrospirilla are almost universal in the stomachs of domestic dogs, and in most infected dogs, they do not appear to be associated with clinical signs or histologic lesions compared with uninfected dogs. Nongastrospirillum helicobacters are rare in dogs and are not histologically detectable. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated from domestic dogs.
Eaton, K A; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Tzellas, N; Coleman, B E; Paola, J; Sherding, R
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when plant reference databases become better established.
Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Daithi C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael
This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.
On the northeastern coast of the United States and Canada, Mya arenaria, the soft shell clam, develops a diffuse, hemopoetic tumor (a fatal leukemia-like cancer) resulting from inactivation of p53-like family member proteins.These malignant cells provide a model for an unrelated set of human cancer cells that are also characterized by mortalin-based cytoplasmic sequestration of wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein (mortalin is the mitochondrial Hsp70 protein). Here we describe methods for mass culture and long-term storage of tumor cells from this cancer. These are the first successful efforts at maintaining malignant cells from any marine invertebrate in vitro. Following passage (subculture), these cultures undergo transition from primary cultures to non-immortalized cell lines that continue to proliferate and do not re-differentiate the normal hemocyte phenotype. We also characterize normal clam hemocytes and the pathology of cancerous clam hemocytes in vitro and in vivo using light and electron microscopy, cyto- and immunocytochemistry, molecular biology, and a phagocytosis assay. Our protocols provide biomedical and environmental researchers with ready access to this naturally occurring cancer model. We discuss the clam cancer model regarding (a) human health and disease; (b) animalhealth, disease, and aquaculture; (c) environmental health monitoring; and (d) future research directions. PMID:19218489
Walker, Charles; Böttger, S Anne; Mulkern, Joseph; Jerszyk, Emily; Litvaitis, Marianne; Lesser, Michael
Surveys of smallholder farmer knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and income were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in five northern provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR; n = 200 farmers). Participating villages were classified as either from a livelihood development project (LV; n = 80 farmers) or a livestock research project that contained both 'high-intervention' (HI; n = 60 farmers) or 'low-intervention' (LI; n = 60 farmers) villages. Farmer training plus a suite of health and productivity interventions were implemented in HI sites; only vaccination was implemented in LI sites, whilst various interventions and limited vaccination were introduced to LV sites. Farmer interviews were conducted with survey questions on socioeconomic variables and KAP of large ruminant health and disease risk management, enabling determination of quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits and comparison of results from HI, LI and LV villages. The average farmer income from sales of large ruminants in HI was USD 621, in LI was USD 547 and in LV was USD 225 (p < 0.001). The predicted mean of total knowledge scores (/42) in the 2012 survey in HI was 28, in LI was 22 and in LV was 17 (p < 0.001). We conclude that improved KAP of large ruminant health and production can be achieved by intensive training, although with some farmers yet to apply their knowledge on husbandry and biosecurity practices, continued learning support and closed linkage of research and development projects to improve extension capacity is recommended. This multiple participatory approach promoting biosecurity in addition to vaccination may provide a more sustainable pathway for the advancement of Lao PDR on the Progressive Control Pathway for foot and mouth disease control. PMID:24310441
Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Rast, Luzia; Windsor, Peter A
Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.
Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...Health Direct Traineeships Â§ 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare....
A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.
In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.
Despite the success of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) of the newborn in preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus), in non-US clinical trials, administering hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) to mothers at the end of pregnancy (in addition to passive-active PEP of the newborn) only partially improved outcomes. That is, a significant percentage of newborns became infected during their first year of life. We used a relevant animal model for human IgG transplacental transfer to study dose, time and subclass dependence of HBV neutralizing antibody (nAb) maternal, and fetal levels at the end of pregnancy. Pregnant guinea pigs received 50 or 100?IU/kg HBIGIV 2-5 days before delivery. Human total IgG, IgG subclasses, and nAb in mothers and their litters were measured. In vitro analyses of guinea pig Fc neonatal receptor binding to HBIGIV, as well as to all human IgG subclasses, were also performed. Our study showed that nAb transferred transplacentally from the pregnant guinea pigs to their litters; no transfer occurred during parturition. The amount of the transferred nAb was dose and time dependent. Thus, selection of an efficacious dose in the clinic is important: microdosing may be underdosing, particularly in cases of high viraemia. PMID:24800066
Ma, Li; Norton, Malgorzata G; Mahmood, Iftekhar; Zhao, Zhong; Zhong, Lilin; Zhang, Pei; Struble, Evi B
Despite the success of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) of the newborn in preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus), in non-US clinical trials, administering hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) to mothers at the end of pregnancy (in addition to passive-active PEP of the newborn) only partially improved outcomes. That is, a significant percentage of newborns became infected during their first year of life. We used a relevant animal model for human IgG transplacental transfer to study dose, time and subclass dependence of HBV neutralizing antibody (nAb) maternal, and fetal levels at the end of pregnancy. Pregnant guinea pigs received 50 or 100?IU/kg HBIGIV 2–5 days before delivery. Human total IgG, IgG subclasses, and nAb in mothers and their litters were measured. In vitro analyses of guinea pig Fc neonatal receptor binding to HBIGIV, as well as to all human IgG subclasses, were also performed. Our study showed that nAb transferred transplacentally from the pregnant guinea pigs to their litters; no transfer occurred during parturition. The amount of the transferred nAb was dose and time dependent. Thus, selection of an efficacious dose in the clinic is important: microdosing may be underdosing, particularly in cases of high viraemia.
Ma, Li; Norton, Malgorzata G.; Mahmood, Iftekhar; Zhao, Zhong; Zhong, Lilin; Zhang, Pei; Struble, Evi B.
In humans, cancer may be caused by genetics and environmental exposures; however, in the majority of instances the identification of the critical time window of exposure is problematic. The evidence for exposures occurring during the preconceptional period that have an association with childhood or adulthood cancers is equivocal. Agents definitely related to cancer in children, and adulthood if exposure occurs in utero, include: maternal exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy and childhood leukemia and certain other cancers, and maternal use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina of their daughters. The list of environmental exposures that occur during the perinatal/postnatal period with potential to increase the risk of cancer is lengthening, but evidence available to date is inconsistent and inconclusive. In animal models, preconceptional carcinogenesis has been demonstrated for a variety of types of radiation and chemicals, with demonstrated sensitivity for all stages from fetal gonocytes to postmeiotic germ cells. Transplacental and neonatal carcinogenesis show marked ontogenetic stage specificity in some cases. Mechanistic factors include the number of cells at risk, the rate of cell division, the development of differentiated characteristics including the ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens, the presence of stem cells, and possibly others. Usefulness for human risk estimation would be strengthened by the study of these factors in more than one species, and by a focus on specific human risk issues. Images Figure 1
Background Both treatment and prevention strategies are recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of malaria during pregnancy in tropical areas. The aim of this study was to assess use of a rapid diagnostic test for prompt management of malaria in pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods A cohort of 76 pregnant women was screened systematically for malaria with ParacheckPf® at each antenatal visit. The usefulness of the method was analysed by comparing the number of malaria episodes requiring treatment in the cohort with the number of prescriptions received by another group of pregnant women followed-up in routine antenatal care. Results In the cohort group, the proportion of positive ParacheckPf® episodes during antenatal clinics visits was 13.8%, while episodes of antimalarial prescriptions in the group which was followed-up routinely by antenatal personnel was estimated at 26.3%. Hence, the relative risk of the cohort for being prescribed an antimalarial drug was 0.53. Therefore, the attributable fraction of presumptive treatment avoided by systematic screening with ParacheckPf® was 47%. Conclusions Use of a rapid diagnostic test is useful, affordable and easy for adequate treatment of malaria in pregnant women. More powerful studies of the usefulness of introducing the test into antenatal care are needed in all heath centres in the country and in other tropical areas.
The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.
In recent years, a series of aviation component health projects have employed a Robust Laser Interferometer. These projects have included turbine engine seeded fault testing at Pratt and Whitney, rotorcraft gearbox measurements in Sikorsky test cells, and rotorcraft gearbox and hanger bearing measurements in U.S. Navy test facilities such as those at Patuxent River, Maryland. Augmenting investigations have also been
BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for
Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a spot on combination product containing imidacloprid 10% and moxidectin 1% (Advocate(®)/Advantage(®) Multi, Bayer AnimalHealth) against A. ceylanicum in experimentally infected cats. Sixteen kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated into control and treatment groups. The kittens in the treatment group were each treated with a spot on combination of 10% (w/v) imidacloprid and 1% (w/v) moxidectin, administered topically at recommended label dose rates. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that based on faecal egg count reduction, the spot on combination containing imidacloprid 10% (w/v) and moxidectin 1% (w/v) (Advocate(®)/Advantage(®) Multi, Bayer AnimalHealth) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:22677133
The environment, the on-going global climate change and the ecology of animal species determine the localisation of habitats and the geographical distribution of the various species in nature. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of such changes on snail species not only of interest to naturalists but also of importance to human and animalhealth. The spatial distribution of freshwater snail intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and paramphistomiasis (i.e. Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis) were modelled by the use of a maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent). Two snail observation datasets from Zimbabwe, from 1988 and 2012, were compared in terms of geospatial distribution and potential distributional change over this 24-year period investigated. Climate data, from the two years were identified and used in a species distribution modelling framework to produce maps of predicted suitable snail habitats. Having both climate- and snail observation data spaced 24 years in time represent a unique opportunity to evaluate biological response of snails to changes in climate variables. The study shows that snail habitat suitability is highly variable in Zimbabwe with foci mainly in the central Highveld but also in areas to the South and West. It is further demonstrated that the spatial distribution of suitable habitats changes with variation in the climatic conditions, and that this parallels that of the predicted climate change. PMID:24893011
Pedersen, Ulrik B; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Soko, White; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K
The missions of the World Organisation for AnimalHealth (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animalhealth and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590
Image-based in silico modeling tools provide detailed velocity and particle deposition data. However, care must be taken when prescribing boundary conditions to model lung physiology in health or disease, such as in emphysema. In this study, the respiratory resistance and compliance were obtained by solving an inverse problem; a 0D global model based on healthy and emphysematous rat experimental data. Multi-scale CFD simulations were performed by solving the 3D Navier-Stokes equations in an MRI-derived rat geometry coupled to a 0D model. Particles with 0.95 ?m diameter were tracked and their distribution in the lung was assessed. Seven 3D-0D simulations were performed: healthy, homogeneous, and five heterogeneous emphysema cases. Compliance (C) was significantly higher (p = 0.04) in the emphysematous rats (C = 0.37 ± 0.14 cm(3)/cmH2O) compared to the healthy rats (C = 0.25 ± 0.04 cm(3)/cmH2O), while the resistance remained unchanged (p = 0.83). There were increases in airflow, particle deposition in the 3D model, and particle delivery to the diseased regions for the heterogeneous cases compared to the homogeneous cases. The results highlight the importance of multi-scale numerical simulations to study airflow and particle distribution in healthy and diseased lungs. The effect of particle size and gravity were studied. Once available, these in silico predictions may be compared to experimental deposition data. PMID:24318192
Oakes, Jessica M; Marsden, Alison L; Grandmont, Celine; Shadden, Shawn C; Darquenne, Chantal; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E
The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) treatise on the classification of hematopoietic tumors lists chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) as a subdivision of myeloid neoplasms that includes the four classic myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs)—chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF)—as well as chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL), chronic eosinophilic leukemia\\/hypereosinophilic syndrome (CEL\\/HES) and ‘CMPD, unclassifiable’. In the
The effects of spray-dried animal plasma in milk replacer without or with the addition of additives containing fructooligosaccharides and spray-dried serum on health, growth, and intake of Holstein calves was measured in two 56-d experiments. In experiment 1, 120 calves were fed milk replacer containing 0 or 20% of crude protein as spray-dried bovine plasma for 42 d and 30 to 60 g/d of additives containing whey protein concentrate or bovine serum for the first 15 d. Commercial calf starter was available from d 29, and water was available at all times. In experiment 2, 120 calves were fed milk replacer containing 0 or 16% of crude protein as spray-dried bovine plasma with 0 or 30 to 60 g/d of additive containing bovine serum for the first 15 d. Additive containing bovine serum also contained fructooligosaccharides, whey, and vitamin/mineral premix. In experiment 1, calves fed additive containing bovine serum tended to have fewer days with diarrhea, lower use of electrolytes, and improved BW gain from d 29 to 56. The addition of spray-dried bovine plasma to milk replacer did not influence any parameter measured. In experiment 2, calves fed additive containing bovine serum or milk replacer containing spray-dried bovine plasma had lower mortality (4.4 vs. 20%) and tended to have improved fecal scores and fewer days with scours. Antibiotic use was lower when calves were fed the additive. Indices of enteric health (incidence of scours and treatment with antibiotics and electrolytes) were improved when plasma was added to milk replacer throughout the milk feeding period or as an additive during the first 15 d of the milk feeding period, when calves were most susceptible to enteric pathogens. The addition of spray-dried animal plasma to milk replacer or the addition of additive containing spray-dried bovine serum and oligosaccharides may be a useful adjunct to animal management during periods of stress. PMID:11913702
Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for AnimalHealth (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803
This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.
This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.
The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This page contains all the animations created for the various learning modules. These include a cantilever array animation, backside pressure sensor etch animation, and pressure sensor process animation. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.
The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.
This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.
A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.
The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.
How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn