Note: This page contains sample records for the topic animal health diagnostic from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Animal personality and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal models are used to study the physiological mechanisms underlying disease progres- sion. In this paper, I examine the benefits of using animal models to study how personality or stable individual differences (in behavior and physiology) influence disease susceptibil- ity and resilience. Such an expansion of animal model use, to study the relationships among personality, physiology, and health, provides

Sonia A. Cavigelli

2005-01-01

2

An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis.  

PubMed

A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring. Specific system components included a quality assurance manual, training program, proficiency panels, inter-laboratory check-sample exchange program, assay critical control points, controls, and audits. The quality assurance system of the diagnostic laboratory was audited according to ISO/IEC Standard 17025 by an international third party accrediting body and accredited as a testing laboratory for the specific parasitology tests. Test results generated from the laboratory were reliable and scientifically defensible according to the defined parameters of the tests and were therefore valid for a variety of purposes, including food safety, international trade, and declaration of disease status in an animal, herd, farm, or region. The system was applicable to various test methods for the detection of parasites in feces or other samples, and a digestion test system developed for Trichinella was used as an example. A modified tissue digestion assay was developed, validated, and implemented by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Centre for Animal Parasitology for efficiency and quality assurance. The details of the method were properly documented for routine testing and consisted of a homogenization process, an incubation at 45+/-2 degrees C, and two sequential sedimentations in separatory funnels to concentrate and clarify final aliquots for microscopic examination. To facilitate consistently reliable test results, 14 critical control points were identified and monitored, analysts were certified, and the test system verified through the use of validation data, proficiency samples, and training modules. PMID:11751008

Gajadhar, Alvin A; Forbes, Lorry B

2002-01-01

3

An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.

Alvin A. Gajadhar; Lorry B. Forbes

2002-01-01

4

World Organisation for Animal Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1924 by a coalition of 28 countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), now composed of 167 member countries, facilitates global awareness of regional animal diseases, and also works to curtail the spread of diseases. The OIE website contains a range of information about animal health issues in three main sections: World Animal Health Situation, Official Animal Health Status, and Animal Diseases Data. The site also offers editorials and press releases, as well as information about a variety of OIE publications. In addition, site visitors will find a calendar of international meetings, job postings (when available), a solid collection of related links; and information about health standards for terrestrial and aquatic animals, OIE Reference Laboratories and Working Groups, internships, and more. This website is available in French, Spanish, and English.

5

Companion animals and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pets, or companion animals, are said to be good for people. Until recently there has been little serious study of the effects on people's health of their interactions with companion animals. This is in spite of the fact that they have shared human lives for centuries and their beneficial effects have been known for at least 200 years. This paper

AT Edney

1992-01-01

6

Diagnostic approach to small animal bleeding disorders.  

PubMed

A well-designed and executed diagnostic approach to patients with bleeding disorders is critical to determine disease etiology and guide therapeutic measures. This systematic process begins with a comprehensive history and physical examination, followed by laboratory tests of primary hemostasis (platelet enumeration, platelet function testing, and von Willebrand factor assays), secondary hemostasis (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, activated clotting time, and individual factor deficiencies), and fibrinolysis (fibrinogen activity, thrombin time, fibrin degradation products, D-dimers), dependent on the clinical picture. Equally valuable are proper specimen collection, handling, and storage methods, which provide reliable and reproducible result interpretation. This review will emphasize the common diagnostic tools and blood sampling techniques important to the workup of hemostatic diseases as well as provide an overview of advanced clinical and research methods and equipment available to assist our bleeding veterinary patients, including thromboelastography/thromboelastometry, calibrated automated thrombogram, and the thrombin-antithrombin assay. PMID:23031459

Herring, Jennifer; McMichael, Maureen

2012-08-28

7

Health Research, Agricultural Domestic Animals (Welzijnsonderzoek Landbouwhuisdieren).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the health aspect and research of agricultural domestic animals. For each species a survey provides the health-limiting factors, and the health research going on at present. For determination of the health of animals, different metho...

L. J. Huisman

1981-01-01

8

The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.  

PubMed

The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. PMID:19967940

Brückner, G K

2009-03-01

9

PMO 2007: Section 8. Animal Health  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... PMO 2007: Section 8. Animal Health. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (2007 Revision). Return to table of contents. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

10

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

2011-01-01

11

Animal Diseases and Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

... cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. Pets can also ... Salmonella bacteria to their owners. You can get rabies from an infected dog or toxoplasmosis from handling ...

12

[Animal production and animal health and their relationship with veterinary public health in Latin America and the Caribbean].  

PubMed

The authors analyse the relationships which exist, in terms of programmes, sectors and institutions, between animal health, animal production and veterinary public health on the one hand, and between each of these three sectors and public health in general on the other. The most important common factor is food safety. Undernutrition, which affects some 60 million inhabitants of Latin America and the Caribbean, is still the most important public health problem in this part of the world. While it is known that the major cause of undernutrition is the low gross domestic product and uneven distribution of wealth, increased animal production and productivity would provide the key to an improvement in the situation. The concept of animal health, in its broadest sense, implies optimum animal production in a given region and during a specified period of time. Veterinary public health has functions and objectives which are crucial for food safety: protection and hygiene of foods, and control of the use in animal production of substances toxic to human beings (such as heavy metals, hormones and insecticides). Within the area of transmissible diseases, the authors discuss control measures for zoonoses. Besides the specific subject of interdisciplinary relationships in regard to zoonoses, the authors stress the importance of joint work conducted in the research, development and implementation of laboratory diagnostic activities and the production and quality control of antigens and vaccines. The production of laboratory animals is another sphere of common activity and research, and it cannot be said that such work is specific to any one of the three disciplines. Moreover, the fields of health, animal health and veterinary public health share the same methods and strategies, and reciprocal benefits could be more significant than the objectives of individual programmes. Reference is made to the organisation of state services and their adaptation to administrative de-centralisation, particularly at the local level. PMID:1840853

Casas Olascoaga, R; Rosenberg, F J; Astudillo, V M

1991-12-01

13

Health and welfare in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

Nordenfelt, Lennart

2011-02-05

14

76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-01-04

15

76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-02-18

16

USDA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The watchword of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is "protection". The APHIS is primarily considered with improving agricultural productivity and also ensuring the health and care of animals and plants. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Hot Issues" section to learn more about some of the most pressing issues that the APHIS addresses. Here they will find fact sheets and news updates on avian influenza, the pesky light brown apple moth, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moving on, visitors can also browse a list of subject headings that include animal health, biotechnology, plant health, and wildlife damage management. Finally, the site also contains an area where concerned visitors can report a pest infestation or suspected instances of agricultural smuggling.

17

[Role of vaccination in animal health].  

PubMed

According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis. PMID:23472348

Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

2012-03-01

18

THE ROLE OF GENETICS ON ANIMAL HEALTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript is a brief review of the challenges and approaches for selecting livestock for disease resistance. Animal health and well being have become increasingly important issues for producers and consumers. Pathogens have often evolved into strains resistant to common vaccines and antibioti...

19

Molecular genetics as a diagnostic tool in farm animals.  

PubMed

In this review, the importance of molecular genetics for diagnostic applications in animal production and breeding is underlined. Recently, several new techniques and methods based on gene technology have been developed, such as the polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the use of microsatellite polymorphism. The examples include detection of favourable alleles of genes coding for milk proteins, recognition of negative recessive alleles in hereditary syndromes, the use of microsatellite variants for breeding purposes and parentage control, and application of specific DNA-probes for identification of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa and the sex of embryos. It is to be understood that this list is not complete and more applications will undoubtedly show up in the future. For this review, the authors have mainly selected areas where they themselves or their co-workers have gained experience. PMID:9704105

Stranzinger, G; Went, D F

1996-01-01

20

Scripts, animal health and biosecurity: The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are conflated resulting in an overly cognitive and asocial understanding of health behaviour with the potential

Gareth Enticott; Frank Vanclay

2011-01-01

21

Improving animal and human health through understanding liver fluke immunology.  

PubMed

Sheep, goats and cattle represent the most numerous and economically important agricultural species worldwide used as sources for milk, fibre and red meat. In addition, in the developing world, these species often represent the sole asset base for small-holder livestock farmers and cattle/buffaloes often provide the majority of draught power for crop production. Production losses caused by helminth diseases of these animals are a major factor in extending the cycle of poverty in developing countries and a major food security issue for developed economies. Fasciola spp. are one of the most important zoonotic diseases with a global economic impact in livestock production systems and a poorly defined but direct effect on human health. Improvements in human and animal health will require a concerted research effort into the development of new accurate and simple diagnostic tests and increased vaccine and drug development against Fasciola infections. Here, the use of definitive natural host breeds with contrasting resistance to Fasciola infections is discussed as a resource to contrast parasite-host interactions and identify parasite immune evasion strategies. Such studies are likely to boost the discovery of new vaccine, drug and diagnostic candidates and provide the foundation for future genetic selection of resistant animals. PMID:20626812

Piedrafita, D; Spithill, T W; Smith, R E; Raadsma, H W

2010-08-01

22

Pre-analytical factors affecting the results of laboratory blood analyses in farm animal veterinary diagnostics.  

PubMed

The quality of the laboratory diagnostic approach in farm animals can be severely affected by pre-analytical factors of variation. They induce increase/decrease of biochemical and hematological analyte concentrations and, as a consequence, they may cause unsuitable conclusions and decisions for animal health management and research projects. The pre-analytical period covers the preparation of sampling, the sampling procedure itself, as well as all specimen handling until the beginning of the specific laboratory analysis. Pre-analytical factors may have either an animal-related or a technique-related background. Animal-related factors cover daytime/season, meals/fasting, age, gender, altitude, drugs/anesthesia, physical exercise/stress or coinfection. Technique-related factors are the choice of the tube including serum v. plasma, effects of anticoagulants/gel separators, the anticoagulant/blood ratio, the blood collection procedure itself, specimen handling, contamination, labeling, storage and serum/plasma separation, transportation of the specimen, as well as sample preparation before analysis in the laboratory. It is essential to have proper knowledge about the importance and source of pre-analytical factors to alter the entire diagnostic process. Utmost efforts should be made to minimize controllable factors. Analytical results have to be evaluated with care considering that pre-analytical factors of variation are possible causes of misinterpretation. PMID:23031472

Humann-Ziehank, E; Ganter, M

2012-07-01

23

76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee on Animal Health (the Committee) advises the Secretary of Agriculture on means...eradicate animal diseases of national importance. In doing so, the...will consider public health, conservation of natural...

2011-05-19

24

The need to include animal protection in public health policies.  

PubMed

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-06-27

25

76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2011-05-17

26

Digital governance for animal health and biosecurity applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project brings together components of animal disease biology, information technology (IT), public policy and social sciences in research that will provide more effective means of ensuring food, animal, and human health biosecurity against intentional disease introductions.Since 9\\/11, policies, protocols and governance in the area of animal health deal primarily with detection and control of disease outbreaks, but must also

Gale Wagner; Arnie Vedlitz; Surya Waghela

2005-01-01

27

Methodology for Evaluation of Research Animal Diagnostic and Investigative Laboratories. Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The details of a project undertaken to design, develop, and test a method for evaluating the effectiveness of research animal diagnostic and investigative laboratories (RADILs) are provided in a supplement to the summary description of the project. The me...

W. F. Glueck J. E. Wagner J. B. Morganstern H. Raneau W. Newsom

1974-01-01

28

General public health considerations for responding to animal hoarding cases.  

PubMed

Animal hoarding is an under-recognized problem that exists in most communities and adversely impacts the health, welfare, and safety of humans, animals, and the environment. These guidelines address public health and worker safety concerns in handling situations where animal hoarding or other dense concentrations of animals have caused unhealthy and unsafe conditions. Because animal hoarding situations are often complex, a full response is likely to be prolonged and require a cross-jurisdictional multiagency effort. Each animal hoarding case has unique circumstances related to the types and numbers of animals involved, the physical structure(s) where they are being kept, and the health status of the animals, among other factors that must be taken into account in planning a response. Some general public health considerations and associated recommendations for personal protective equipment use are presented that apply to all cases, however. PMID:20235404

Castrodale, Louisa; Bellay, Yvonne M; Brown, Catherine M; Cantor, Fredric L; Gibbins, John D; Headrick, Marcia L; Leslie, Mira J; MacMahon, Kathleen; O'Quin, Jeanette M; Patronek, Gary J; Silva, Rodrigo A; Wright, James C; Yu, Diana T

2010-03-01

29

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

2013-01-01

30

A laboratory diagnostic approach to hepatobiliary disease in small animals.  

PubMed

Routine biochemical tests generally include serum enzymes, proteins, and other markers useful for identifying hepatobiliary disease in dogs and cats. Obtaining results outside the reference intervals can occur with direct hepatocellular injury, enzyme induction by hepatocytes or biliary epithelium, or decreased hepatic function. However, detection of biochemical abnormalities does not necessarily indicate clinically significant disease. For a comprehensive approach to detection and treatment of hepatobiliary disease, the laboratory results must be correlated with the history and physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging results, and other assays. PMID:24144086

Chapman, Seth E; Hostutler, Roger A

2013-08-15

31

Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing world does not have access to many of the best medical diagnostic technologies; they were designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. Microfluidic systems allow miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which could move sophisticated diagnostic tools out of

Paul Yager; Thayne Edwards; Elain Fu; Kristen Helton; Kjell Nelson; Milton R. Tam; Bernhard H. Weigl

2006-01-01

32

Human health impact from antimicrobial use in food animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is accumulating evidence that the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has adverse human health consequences. The use of antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant pathogens and resistance genes that may be transferred to humans through the consumption or handling of foods of animal origin. Recent studies have demonstrated that antimicrobial-resistance among foodborne bacteria may cause excess cases

Linda Tollefson; Beth E. Karp

2004-01-01

33

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. Open-admission shelters, which tended to be larger and more likely to perform animal control functions, were less likely (41%) to test all adult dogs than were limited-admission shelters (80%), which tended to be smaller non-profit humane agencies, and foster programs (98%) based out of private residences. Open-admission shelters were more likely to euthanize infected dogs (27%) or to release them without treatment (39%), whereas limited-admission shelters and foster programs were more likely to provide adulticide therapy (82% and 89%, respectively). Of the 319 agencies that treated infections, 44% primarily used a standard two-dose melarsomine protocol, and 35% primarily used a three-dose split-treatment melarsomine protocol. Long-term low-dose ivermectin was the most common treatment used in 22% of agencies. Open-admission shelters were less likely (35%) to provide preventive medications for all dogs than were limited-admission shelters (82%) and foster programs (97%). More agencies used preventives labeled for monthly use in dogs (60%) than ivermectin products labeled for livestock (38%). The most common reason diagnostic testing and preventive medication was not provided was cost. These results indicate a lack of protocol uniformity among agencies and insufficient resources to identify, treat, and prevent infection. Sheltering agencies and companion animal health industries should develop guidelines that are feasible for use in sheltering agencies and provide improved access to preventive and treatment strategies for management of Dirofilaria immitis. PMID:21353743

Colby, Kathleen N; Levy, Julie K; Dunn, Kiri F; Michaud, Rachel I

2011-01-19

34

Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture.

Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

1997-01-01

35

Issues and special features of animal health research  

PubMed Central

In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

2011-01-01

36

Measuring the benefits of farm animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is described to establish the relative financial benefit of farm animal disease prevention (biosecurity). This methodology is demonstrated using the example of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) incursion on beef suckler farms in Scotland. A random sample of 276 herds was taken and a proportion of young stock on each farm tested for previous exposure to BVDV. There

Alistair W. Stott; Franz Brülisauerb; Fiona Fraser; George J. Gunn

2009-01-01

37

A tutorial in estimating the prevalence of disease in humans and animals in the absence of a gold standard diagnostic  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological methods for estimating disease prevalence in humans and other animals in the absence of a gold standard diagnostic test are well established. Despite this, reporting apparent prevalence is still standard practice in public health studies and disease control programmes, even though apparent prevalence may differ greatly from the true prevalence of disease. Methods for estimating true prevalence are summarized and reviewed. A computing appendix is also provided which contains a brief guide in how to easily implement some of the methods presented using freely available software.

2012-01-01

38

Large Animal Model for Health Hazard Assessment of Environmental Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirements of large animals for the experimental assessment of human health hazards associated with inhaled pollutants are discussed. Results from studies designed to elucidate mechanisms controlling pulmonary function at the organismal, cellular an...

A. D. Chanana D. D. Joel D. L. Costa A. Janoff H. Susskind

1984-01-01

39

Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the

Matthew Scotch; Lynda Odofin; Peter Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

40

Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.  

PubMed

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral characterization, and for streamlining the process to update poultry vaccines for avian influenza. PMID:20521664

Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

2010-03-01

41

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

2010-01-01

42

9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ...Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A biological...

2009-01-01

43

The contribution of farm animals to human health.  

PubMed

Farm animals and their products have a longstanding and successful history of providing significant contributions to human nutrition, clothing, facilitation of labour, research, development and medicine and have thus been essential in improving life expectancy and human health. With the advent of transgenic technologies the potential of farm animals for improving human health is growing and many areas remain to be explored. Recent breakthroughs in reproductive technologies, such as somatic cloning and in vitro embryo production, and their merger with molecular genetic tools, will further advance progress in this field. Here, we have summarized the contribution of farm animals to human health, covering the production of antimicrobial peptides, dietary supplements or functional foods, animals used as disease models and the contribution of animals to solving urgent environmental problems and challenges in medicine such as the shortage of human cells, tissues and organs and therapeutic proteins. Some of these areas have already reached the level of preclinical testing or commercial application, others will be further advanced only when the genomes of the animals concerned have been sequenced and annotated. Provided the necessary precautions are being taken, the transmission of pathogens from animals to humans can be avoided to provide adequate security. Overall, the promising perspectives of farm animals and their products warrant further research and development in this field. PMID:15158058

Kues, Wilfried A; Niemann, Heiner

2004-06-01

44

75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2010-08-27

45

76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-11-28

46

78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2013-09-23

47

78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...APHIS-2012-0088] Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2013-01-09

48

76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-03-15

49

76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-08-23

50

78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2013-04-24

51

76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2011-07-19

52

75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2010-06-17

53

78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2013-09-23

54

76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part...From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-12-28

55

75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket...APHIS-2009-0025] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

2010-06-17

56

9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Animal Semen § 98.35 Declaration, health certificate, and other documents...

2013-01-01

57

Use of transgenic animals to improve human health and animal production.  

PubMed

Contents Transgenic animals are more widely used for various purposes. Applications of animal transgenesis may be divided into three major categories: (i) to obtain information on gene function and regulation as well as on human diseases, (ii) to obtain high value products (recombinant pharmaceutical proteins and xeno-organs for humans) to be used for human therapy, and (iii) to improve animal products for human consumption. All these applications are directly or not related to human health. Animal transgenesis started in 1980. Important improvement of the methods has been made and are still being achieved to reduce cost as well as killing of animals and to improve the relevance of the models. This includes gene transfer and design of reliable vectors for transgene expression. This review describes the state of the art of animal transgenesis from a technical point of view. It also reports some of the applications in the medical field based on the use of transgenic animal models. The advance in the generation of pigs to be used as the source of organs for patients and in the preparation of pharmaceutical proteins from milk and other possible biological fluids from transgenic animals is described. The projects in course aiming at improving animal production by transgenesis are also depicted. Some the specific biosafety and bioethical problems raised by the different applications of transgenesis, including consumption of transgenic animal products are discussed. PMID:16008757

Houdebine, L-M

2005-08-01

58

Use of health information technology to reduce diagnostic errors  

PubMed Central

Background Health information technology (HIT) systems have the potential to reduce delayed, missed or incorrect diagnoses. We describe and classify the current state of diagnostic HIT and identify future research directions. Methods A multi-pronged literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, backwards and forwards reference searches and contributions from domain experts. We included HIT systems evaluated in clinical and experimental settings as well as previous reviews, and excluded radiology computer-aided diagnosis, monitor alerts and alarms, and studies focused on disease staging and prognosis. Articles were organised within a conceptual framework of the diagnostic process and areas requiring further investigation were identified. Results HIT approaches, tools and algorithms were identified and organised into 10 categories related to those assisting: (1) information gathering; (2) information organisation and display; (3) differential diagnosis generation; (4) weighing of diagnoses; (5) generation of diagnostic plan; (6) access to diagnostic reference information; (7) facilitating follow-up; (8) screening for early detection in asymptomatic patients; (9) collaborative diagnosis; and (10) facilitating diagnostic feedback to clinicians. We found many studies characterising potential interventions, but relatively few evaluating the interventions in actual clinical settings and even fewer demonstrating clinical impact. Conclusions Diagnostic HIT research is still in its early stages with few demonstrations of measurable clinical impact. Future efforts need to focus on: (1) improving methods and criteria for measurement of the diagnostic process using electronic data; (2) better usability and interfaces in electronic health records; (3) more meaningful incorporation of evidence-based diagnostic protocols within clinical workflows; and (4) systematic feedback of diagnostic performance.

El-Kareh, Robert; Hasan, Omar; Schiff, Gordon D

2013-01-01

59

Evaluating a Dental Diagnostic Terminology in an Electronic Health Record  

PubMed Central

Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school’s predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization.

White, Joel M.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C.; Ramoni, Rachel L.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.

2011-01-01

60

A new model for companion-animal primary health care education.  

PubMed

The majority of graduates from veterinary schools in the United States and Canada join companion-animal practices. In most schools, their clinical learning and client interaction experiences occurred primarily in referral teaching hospitals. These specialty hospitals play an essential role in the veterinary care continuum by providing advanced training, clinically-based research, and sophisticated diagnostics and procedures. However, they are not ideal as the principal setting for preparing veterinarians to bring value to the primary health care practices that they join. A new model for companion-animal primary health care education and service delivery has been developed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The nine integrated programs, which have defined learning objectives and outcome assessments, include communication, nutrition, rehabilitation, behavior, welfare, One Health (ecosystem approach to health), preventive and general medicine, good citizenship, and research. The learning experience begins with first-year student veterinarians and takes place in a practice setting with paying clients from the community. Significantly, the students are learning in an environment that emphasizes the importance of the client experience, teamwork, and practice management while ensuring quality health care for patients. The future of companion-animal primary health care and the optimal preparation of veterinarians are critical issues for the veterinary colleges and profession. Enhanced research into new models for primary health care education and service delivery is urgently needed. PMID:22951456

Stone, Elizabeth A; Conlon, Peter; Cox, Sherri; Coe, Jason B

2012-01-01

61

Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

2008-04-01

62

Ten years' work on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System.  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens. PMID:22947122

Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure

2012-09-01

63

Part 3: Reference of 1996 Dairy Health and Health Management. National Animal Health Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Animal Health Monitoring Systems (NAHMS) Dairy 96 study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on the nations milk cows for education and research. This report is the third in a series of releases document...

1996-01-01

64

An investigation of crankshaft oscillations for cylinder health diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrational characteristics of an internal combustion engine crankshaft are investigated from a cylinder health diagnostics point of view. Experimental results from a six-cylinder industrial diesel engine are presented to demonstrate the effects of cylinder imbalance on the individual harmonic components of the engine speed signal. A crank-angle domain numerical model of the crankshaft dynamics for a six-cylinder industrial diesel engine is also adopted to establish the effects of continuous low-power production in individual cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine. Outline of a diagnostics algorithm that makes use of the properties of crankshaft vibration behaviour is provided. In particular, crank-angle domain notch filters are employed to extact the harmonic components of engine speed. The outlined method can be implemented for individual cylinder health diagnostics across a family of multi-cylinder engines and can be formulated to handle changes in crankshaft characteristics due to replacement of mechanical components and/or wear.

Geveci, Mert; Osburn, Andrew W.; Franchek, Matthew A.

2005-09-01

65

Attitudes to animal-assisted therapy with farm animals among health staff and farmers.  

PubMed

Green care is a concept that involves the use of farm animals, plants, gardens or the landscape in cooperation with health institutions for different target groups of clients. The present study aimed at examining psychiatric therapists' (n = 60) and farmers' (n = 15) knowledge, experience and attitudes to Green care and animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for people with psychiatric disorders. Most respondents had some or large knowledge about Green care, but experience with Green care was generally low in both groups. Both farmers and therapists believed that AAT with farm animals could contribute positively to therapy to a large or very large extent, with farmers being significantly more positive. Most of the therapists thought that AAT with farm animals contributes to increased skills in interactions with other humans, with female therapists being more positive than males. Two-thirds of the therapists believed that AAT with farm animals to a large extent could contribute better to mental health than other types of occupational therapy. There were no differences in attitudes to AAT between psychiatrists/psychologists and psychiatric nurses. This study confirms the marked potential of offering AAT services with farm animals for psychiatric patients by documenting positive attitudes to it among psychiatric therapists. PMID:18768010

Berget, B; Ekeberg, Ø; Braastad, B O

2008-09-01

66

Diagnostic Evaluation of Dementia in the Secondary Health Care Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We conducted a nationwide registry-based study of the quality of diagnostic evaluation for dementia in the secondary health care sector. Method: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from the patient population (4,682 patients) registered for the first time with a dementia diagnosis in the nationwide hospital registries during the last 6 months of 2003. Through medical record review, we

Thien Kieu Thi Phung; Birgitte Bo Andersen; Lars Vedel Kessing; Preben Bo Mortensen; Gunhild Waldemar

2009-01-01

67

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in ovine case submissions to animal health laboratories in New Zealand in 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was undertaken of 177 veterinary diagnostic case submissions to two North Island and two South Island animal health laboratories for faecal egg count reduction testing in sheep during 1993 to provide some comparative data on the frequency of occurrence of anthelmintic resistance. The results suggest that resistance to anthelmintics in sheep nematodes may be more common in the

P. B. McKenna; C. M. Allan; M. J. Taylor; K. G. Townsend

1995-01-01

68

One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice.  

PubMed

Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses. PMID:21872779

Souza, Marcy J

2011-07-02

69

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have

Andrew Cockburn; Gianfranco Brambilla; Maria-Luisa Fernández; Davide Arcella; Luisa R. Bordajandi; Bruce Cottrill; Carlos van Peteghem; Jean-Lou Dorne

70

NCI at Frederick: Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (AHDL) Expertise  

Cancer.gov

This javascript function provides additional and unnecessary visual feedback for when users mouse-over and mouse-out of the main navigation. It has been added here for 'extra punch' but is not necessary for navigating the site.

71

Advances in pasture plant breeding for animal productivity and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding has had a substantial effect on the productivity and health of ruminant animals in New Zealand by improving the quantity, quality and reliability of grazed temperate pastures. Genetic changes have affected annual pasture productivity, seasonal growth, digestibility, protein\\/energy balance, level of rumen undegradable protein, leaf properties affecting intake, resistance to foliar diseases, and reductions in compounds that have

Woodfield; HS Easton

2004-01-01

72

Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)|

Gill, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

73

Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada.  

PubMed

Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009. PMID:24155436

Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

2013-05-01

74

Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A functional model was developed and presented here to identify critical control points in associated biochemical pathways and further understand that how environmental factors impact the immune system to affect animal health.. A general comparison of the differences in cellular responses to mild v...

75

COLLABORATION IN ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY EPIDEMIOLOGY: SWINE DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Collaboration in Animal Health & Food Safety Epidemiology (CAHFSE), a partnership among APHIS, ARS, and FSIS of USDA was established to track food borne pathogens and monitor diseases from farm through plant. Sampling began in July, 2003. By December 31, 2004, 43 farms in 5 states were participa...

76

Approaches to managing aquatic animal health in Australia.  

PubMed

Despite a rapid and continuous expansion in aquaculture industries, Australia has not experienced significant disease emergencies in farmed aquatic animal populations. However, recent events in relation to wild, farmed, native and introduced aquatic animals have provided warning signals. The development of a national response mechanism for fisheries and aquaculture emergencies became a high priority following the pilchard mortality outbreak in 1995. In terms of more general policy, a special Task Force has provided a framework for managing exotic pests, weeds and diseases and identifying key principles and issues. This Task Force also recommended closer consultation between relevant industry organisations and government agencies. The authors describe the framework of the comprehensive five-year national strategic plan for aquatic animal health ('AQUAPLAN') developed by Australia, and the aquatic animal disease veterinary emergency plan developed within this framework ('AQUAVETPLAN'). PMID:10190217

Bernoth, E M; Murray, G; Rickard, M D; Hurry, G

1999-04-01

77

Oral diagnostics: an integral component to geriatric health care.  

PubMed

Abstract Aging is inevitable, every day we live we age. The mouth is referred to as a mirror of overall health, reinforcing that oral health is an integral part of general health. Oral health reflects overall well being for the elderly population. Compromised oral health may be a risk factor for systemic diseases commonly occurring in age. Diagnosis and proper treatment is essential for healthy aging. Timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and regular follow-up of both oral and systemic diseases are a prerequisite for active aging. Oral diagnostics is a revolutionary development with high potential to replace other investigative modalities. Changing demographics, including the increase in life expectancy and the growing numbers of elderly, has focused attention on the need for dental research activities to be expanded for geriatric dentistry. This paper is aimed to shed light on the growing elderly population and their ailments. It also aims to create awareness among health care providers about oral diagnostics and their application in geriatrics. PMID:23617577

Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Choudhary, Ananda; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur; Alok, Abhijeet

2013-04-25

78

[Methodology for analysing toxic chemical risks to animal health].  

PubMed

As a contribution to community-based disaster management, a methodology was designed for analysing toxic chemical risks to animal health, in line with national and international approaches to these issues. The methodology includes: hazard identification, risk assessment of the animal population according to its degree of vulnerability and other communication and risk management tools. Its validation in thirteen Cuban communities shows that the methodology provides the necessary technical basis for formulating and implementing disaster risk mitigation plans in compliance with current legislation. It also facilitates decision-making for disaster risk control in a community by acting as an early warning mechanism for toxic chemical risks to public health and the environment and by promoting multi-sector action in the field of veterinary public health. PMID:18293605

Suárez Fernandez, Y; Cepero Rodríguez, O; Figuero Portal, M; Chávez Quintana, P; Cabrera Pérez, C; Pérez Duarte, N W

2007-12-01

79

Conference on Mycotoxins in Animal Feeds and Grains Related to Animal Health Held at Rockville, Maryland on June 13, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four comprehensive reviews on the available published literature were prepared as monographs on the following mycotoxins in animal feed and grains related to animal health: Ergots, Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, Rubratoxin, Sterigmatoxystin, Stachybotryotoxin, ...

W. Shimoda

1980-01-01

80

Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

2012-05-31

81

Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 — Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S. S.; Laskavyi, V. N.; Glova, Alina B.; Polyanina, T. I.; Ul'yanova, O. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Ul'yanov, A. S.

2012-05-01

82

Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.  

PubMed

Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies. PMID:22516880

Wells, Deborah L

83

Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.  

PubMed

In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East. PMID:21309452

Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

2010-12-01

84

Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.  

PubMed

Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides a sound working platform not only for dealing with immediate questions when new or emerging disease situations arise, but also for more long-term activities, such as policy development, contingency planning and trade negotiations. Animal health issues, which emerged during my eight years as a CVO in Denmark from 1999 to 2007, will be used as examples, including BSE, FMD, HPAI and Trichinella testing. Emphasis will be placed on how science-based surveillance methodology and tools were developed, applied and documented. PMID:22305878

Willeberg, Preben

2012-02-02

85

Concepts of Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Livestock Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) developed four new ethical principles of organic\\u000a agriculture to guide its future development: the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. The key distinctive concept\\u000a of animal welfare in organic agriculture combines naturalness and human care, and can be linked meaningfully with these principles.\\u000a In practice, a number of challenges

Mette VaarstHugo; Hugo F. Alrøe

86

Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S

2006-11-14

87

Food animal and poultry retroviruses and human health.  

PubMed

In summary, studies reported to date have largely failed to demonstrate human infection with animal and poultry retroviruses or an association between human diseases and these viruses. A number of studies, most of them serologic, have attempted to demonstrate human infection with these viruses. The lack of antibodies in apparently exposed groups of persons suggests an absence of infection. However, another possible explanation is that humans may be immunologically unresponsive to infection with these viruses. Although attempts to infect normal human cells in vitro with many of these viruses have not been reported, BLV and BIV appear to grow poorly or not at all. On the other hand, ALSV subgroup D infect and transform human cells in vitro. However, the production of infectious virus in vitro has been low or nonexistent. This may explain the absence of antibodies in human populations. Furthermore, many of the methods used to detect infection, either directly or indirectly, have either low sensitivity or problems with specificity. Several epidemiologic studies have tried to show a relationship between human and animal leukemia or lymphoma. In many of these studies the actual exposure to retroviruses is unknown and exposure to animals may merely represent exposure to other risk factors that are more important but were either not considered or are undefined; alternatively, a common exposure may be responsible for malignancy in humans and animals with no interspecies relationship. Based on the reported studies, these viruses appear unlikely to be responsible for any significant occurrence of human disease, particularly lymphoid malignancies. Although a definitive statement of no risk to human health is probably unwarranted, the evidence to date indicates that the risk is low and perhaps nonexistent. Thus, no specific public health recommendations regarding retrovirus-infected animals or poultry are warranted at this time. PMID:9071753

DiGiacomo, R F; Hopkins, S G

1997-03-01

88

Topics in Mental Health Planning. Part II. A Review of Mental Health nd Mental Retardation Diagnostic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are a great variety of reference diagnostic systems available for mental health and mental retardation. Presented here is a sample designed to facilitate some better understanding of these diagnostic systems and their specific uses, both to mental h...

R. F. Minnehan

1979-01-01

89

Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health.  

PubMed

The phasing out of antibiotic compounds as growth promoters from the animal industry means that alternative practices will need to be investigated and the promising ones implemented in the very near future. Fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is being recognized as having important implications for health of the gut and thus of the host animal. Fermentation in single-stomached animals occurs to the largest extent in the large intestine, mainly because of the longer transit time there. The present review examines the micro-ecology of the GIT, with most emphasis on the large intestine as the most important site of fermentative activity, and an attempt is made to clarify the importance of the microfloral activity (i.e. fermentation) in relation to the health of the host. The differences between carbohydrate and protein fermentation are described, particularly in relation to their endproducts. The roles of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and NH3 in terms of their relationship to gut health are then examined. The large intestine has an important function in relation to the development of diarrhoea, particularly in terms of VFA production by fermentation and its role in water absorption. Suggestions are made as to feeds and additives (particularly those which are carbohydrate-based) which could be, or are, added to diets and which could steer the natural microbial population of the GIT. Various methods are described which are used to investigate changes in microbial populations and reasons are given for the importance of measuring the kinetics of fermentation activity as an indicator of microbial activity. PMID:19087424

Williams, B A; Verstegen, M W; Tamminga, S

2001-12-01

90

[Animal biomonitoring and micropollutants in public health--review].  

PubMed

The aim of the present review is to provide a picture of the current knowledge on animal biomonitoring and on the link between pollution and Public Health. There are various reasons leading to this road: the need of early detection of industrial pollutants, especially micropollutants that have adverse effects in very low concentrations: it is important to disclose the presence of these compounds directly or through certain molecular biomarkers in living organisms rather than in the natural environment, where they are often below the detection threshold; the need to optimize the allocation of resources: some experiences of biomonitoring carried out in wild animals may be useful in the identification of pollution sources; however, biomonitoring of domestic animals appears to be more feasable and effective, because they share with humans the exposure to pollutants. Nowadays, professionals of different disciplines such as doctors and biologists do not share a common set of terms and definitions in animal biomonitoring: this review wants to give a contribution in the consolidation of the current knowledge under a common language. PMID:23139184

Rombolà, Pasquale; Battisti, Sabrina; Scaramozzino, Paola

91

Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health.  

PubMed

The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brownstein, John S; Madoff, Lawrence C; McCraw, Sarah L; Gurr, Sarah J

2012-04-11

92

Potential human health benefits of antibiotics used in food animals: a case study of virginiamycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management of food-animal antibiotics has reached a crucial juncture for public health officials worldwide. While withdrawals of animal antibiotics previously used to control animal bacterial illnesses are being encouraged in many countries, the human health impacts of such withdrawals are only starting to be understood. Increases in animal and human bacterial illness rates and antibiotic resistance levels in humans

2005-01-01

93

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

94

Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.  

PubMed

Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

Deckers, Jan

2013-01-04

95

Respiratory health effects of large animal farming environments.  

PubMed

With increases in large animal-feeding operations to meet consumer demand, adverse upper and lower respiratory health effects in exposed agriculture workers are a concern. The aim of this study was to review large animal confinement feeding operational exposures associated with respiratory disease with a focus on recent advances in the knowledge of causative factors and cellular and immunological mechanisms. A PubMed search was conducted with the keywords airway, farm, swine, dairy, horse, cattle inflammation, organic dust, endotoxin, and peptidoglycan, among items were published between 1980 and now. Articles were selected based on their relevance to environmental exposure and reference to airway diseases. Airway diseases included rhinitis, sinusitis, mucus membrane inflammation syndrome, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome. There is lower prevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated asthma and atopy in farmers and their children, but organic dust worsens existing asthma. Multiple etiologic factors are linked to disease, including allergens, organic dusts, endotoxins, peptidoglycans, and gases. Large animal confinement feeding operations contain a wide diversity of microbes with increasing focus on gram-positive bacteria and archaebacteria as opposed to gram-negative bacteria in mediating disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like innate immune pathways respond to these exposures. Finally, a chronic inflammatory adaptation, tolerance-like response in chronically exposed workers occurs. Large animal confinement farming exposures produce a wide spectrum of upper and lower respiratory tract diseases due to the complex diversity of organic dust, particulates, microbial cell wall components, and gases and resultant activation of various innate immune receptor signaling pathways. PMID:23199220

May, Sara; Romberger, Debra J; Poole, Jill A

2012-01-01

96

Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel.  

PubMed

Prevention of injuries and occupational infections in U.S. laboratories has been a concern for many years. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine. In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories. The members of this panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly. These guidelines promote a culture of safety and include recommendations that supplement BMBL-5 by addressing the unique needs of the diagnostic laboratory. They are not requirements but recommendations that represent current science and sound judgment that can foster a safe working environment for all laboratorians. Throughout these guidelines, quality laboratory science is reinforced by a common-sense approach to biosafety in day-to-day activities. Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. All functions of the human and animal diagnostic laboratory--microbiology, chemistry, hematology, and pathology with autopsy and necropsy guidance--are addressed. A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments. Recommendations for all laboratories include use of Class IIA2 biological safety cabinets that are inspected annually; frequent hand washing; use of appropriate disinfectants, including 1:10 dilutions of household bleach; dependence on risk assessments for many activities; development of written safety protocols that address the risks of chemicals in the laboratory; the need for negative airflow into the laboratory; areas of the laboratory in which use of gloves is optional or is recommended; and the national need for a central site for surveillance and nonpunitive reporting of laboratory incidents/exposures, injuries, and infections. PMID:22217667

Miller, J Michael; Astles, Rex; Baszler, Timothy; Chapin, Kimberle; Carey, Roberta; Garcia, Lynne; Gray, Larry; Larone, Davise; Pentella, Michael; Pollock, Anne; Shapiro, Daniel S; Weirich, Elizabeth; Wiedbrauk, Danny

2012-01-01

97

Companion animals and human health: the view from four paws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of therapy, assistance and even companion animals is important but tends to be overlooked because welfare issues in other animal sectors are so pressing. However, animals are not always guaranteed a good quality of life just because they play meaningful roles in the lives of people. The relatively new area of service animals and animal-assisted therapy is a

Mia Cobb; Pauleen Bennett

2009-01-01

98

Assessment and validation of diagnostic interviewing skills for the mental health professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A behavioral test was developed to assess the quality of diagnostic interviewing skills of (future) mental health professionals. Two aspects of diagnostic interviewing ability are distinguished: process skills, reflecting the interpersonal and communication skills; and content skills, referring to the information-gathering ability of the interviewer. It was found that diagnostic interviewing can be reliably measured with respect to interrater reliability.

S. M. Bögels; C. P. M. Vleuten; G. Blok; R. Kreutzkamp; R. Melles; H. G. Schmidt

1995-01-01

99

Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.  

PubMed

The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model. PMID:22916854

Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

2012-09-01

100

Promoting one health: the University of Missouri Research Center for Human/Animal Interaction.  

PubMed

The University of Missouri's College of Veterinary Medicine is home to the Research Center for Human-Animal Interaction. This center uniquely addresses a growing area of research that focuses on how the human-animal bond impacts health in people and animals. This article highlights the One Health basis for the center, several research projects, and future goals for the center. PMID:23829101

Johnson, Rebecca A

101

Interactive computerized learning program exposes veterinary students to challenging international animal-health problems.  

PubMed

This article describes a computerized case-based CD-ROM (CD) on international animal health that was developed to give veterinary students an opportunity to "virtually" work alongside veterinarians and other veterinary students as they try to solve challenging disease problems relating to tuberculosis in South African wildlife, bovine abortion in Mexico, and neurologic disease in horses in Rapa Nui, Chile. Each of the three case modules presents, in a highly interactive format, a problem or mystery that must be solved by the learner. As well as acquiring information via video clips and text about the specific health problem, learners obtain information about the different countries, animal-management practices, diagnostic methods, related disease-control issues, economic factors, and the opinions of local experts. After assimilating this information, the learner must define the problem and formulate an action plan or make a recommendation or diagnosis. The computerized program invokes three principles of adult education: active learning, learner-centered education, and experiential learning. A medium that invokes these principles is a potentially efficient learning tool and template for developing other case-based problem-solving computerized programs. The program is accessible on the World Wide Web at . A broadband Internet connection is recommended, since the modules make extensive use of embedded video and audio clips. Information on how to obtain the CD is also provided. PMID:18287479

Conrad, Patricia A; Hird, Dave; Arzt, Jonathan; Hayes, Rick H; Magliano, Dave; Kasper, Janine; Morfin, Saul; Pinney, Stephen

2007-01-01

102

Role of import and export regulatory animal health officials in international control and surveillance for animal diseases.  

PubMed

The challenges to those who regulate the import and export of animals and animal products are escalating, due to the evolving nature of animal and human disease agents. The diseases and agents of interest may include low pathogenic avian influenza, bluetongue, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and foot-and-mouth disease. Fear of an incursion of an unknown or incompletely understood threat can significantly limit risk tolerance. The fear may be that an incursion will affect export trade or tourism. An incomplete knowledge of the animal health situation in the exporting country, due to insufficient surveillance for the disease agent of concern, may limit the application of science in import decisions. In addition, the disease agent may be inappropriately considered exotic if it has not been described. As a result, excessive safeguards for disease agents that do not present any new threat may be employed. To confront these challenges, we are striving toward transparency in international reporting. Moreover, regulatory import decisions exceeding the recommendations of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code of the World Organization for Animal Health must be fair and science-based. PMID:17135497

Bokma, Bob H

2006-10-01

103

Administrator's Guide for Animal Facilitated Therapy Programs in Federal Health Care Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Animal facilitated therapy has positively impacted upon a wide variety of both in-patient and outpatient medical treatment programs. This study outlines a variety of issues and answers surrounding the inclusion of animals into health care organizations an...

T. E. Catanzaro

1983-01-01

104

The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.  

PubMed

Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address them. PMID:23413732

Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

2012-08-01

105

Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood. Diagnostic Classification: 0-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multidisciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

Wieder, Serena, Ed.

106

Diagnostic Classification 0-3: Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multi-disciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.

107

Development of diagnostic and prognostic technologies for aerospace health management applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective aerospace health management integrates component, subsystem and system level health monitoring strategies, consisting of anomaly\\/diagnostic\\/prognostic technologies, with an integrated modeling architecture that addresses failure mode mitigation and life cycle costs. Included within such health management systems will be various failure mode diagnostic and prognostic (D\\/P) approaches ranging from generic signal processing and experience-based algorithms to the more complex knowledge

Michael J. Roemer; E. O. Nwadiogbu; G. Bloor

2001-01-01

108

Animal health in the 21st century-a global challenge.  

PubMed

On the occasion of the centenary of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, a conference entitled 'Animal Health in the 21st Century' was held in Greifswald, Germany, on 11-13 October 2010 to discuss current and future challenges regarding the global situation regarding infectious animal diseases and zoonoses, animal breeding, animal nutrition and animal welfare. Particular attention was paid to the impact of recent developments and anticipated future trends on livestock production. PMID:21570729

Conraths, Franz J; Schwabenbauer, Karin; Vallat, Bernard; Meslin, François-Xavier; Füssel, Alf-Eckbert; Slingenbergh, Jan; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

2011-05-13

109

Animal Health Safeguarding Review: Results and Recommendations, October 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. biosecurity is a national, military, and food security issue, and concern is rightly growing over the country's thin line of defense. At the core of concern is the fact that animal diseases affect commercial animals, pets and companion animals, and w...

2001-01-01

110

Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

111

Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

2011-10-01

112

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Right from its inception, a main strength of Flash has been its animation capabilities. Despite the arrival of ActionScript\\u000a programming shifting the focus somewhat, animation (or tweening in Flash authoring terms) is still considered a core feature of Flash. As yet, we have no timeline functionality for animating\\u000a 3D objects aside from some limited 2.5 effects (the “postcards in space”

Rob Bateman; Richard Olsson

113

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

114

Bridging human and animal research: A comparative approach to studies of personality and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates a comparative approach to personality and health research. We (1) review evidence showing that personality exists and can be measured in animals, (2) illustrate the benefits of animal studies for human personality research, (3) illustrate the benefits of human studies for animal personality research, and (4) provide guidelines for making cross-species comparisons. We conclude that a comparative

Pranjal H. Mehta; Samuel D. Gosling

2008-01-01

115

Public Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Food Animals in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of antimicrobial agents in food animals has caused concern regarding the impact these uses have on human health. Use of antimicrobial agents in animals and humans results in the emergence and dissemina- tion of resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria from food animals may be passed through the food chain to hu- mans resulting in resistant infections. Increasing resistance to

Alicia D. Anderson; Jennifer M. Nelson; Shannon Rossiter; Frederick J. Angulo

2003-01-01

116

Fermentation in the monogastric large intestine: its relation to animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phasing out of antibiotic compounds as growth promoters from the animal industry means that alternative practices will need to be investigated and the promising ones implemented in the very near future. Fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is being recognized as having important implications for health of the gut and thus of the host animal. Fermentation in single-stomached animals

B. A. Williams; M. W. A. Verstegen; S. Tamminga

2001-01-01

117

ENHANCING ACCESS TO ANIMAL HEALTH INFORMATION: ROLE OF INFORMATION SPECIALISTS IN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a product of a larger study conducted between 2002 and 2004 on the state of libraries and use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in research and academic libraries in Zambia. It examines the role of information professionals in enhancing access to animal health information under prevailing conditions. Animal health is an integral aspect of the agricultural sector,

Muyoyeta Simui

118

An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in mental health. The techniques and intentions, along with demographic queries, were

Dana M. OCallaghan; Cynthia K. Chandler

2011-01-01

119

National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area. Wave 1. Household Survey Diagnostic Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the hardcopy printout of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Wave 1 Household Survey Diagnostic Program. For use as supplement to the NIMH ECA Wave 1 Household Survey Public Use Data Tape and Documentation.

1988-01-01

120

Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and envi- ronmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, \\

Kelley J. Donham; Steven Wing; David Osterberg; Jan L. Flora; Carol Hodne; Kendall M. Thu; Peter S. Thorne

2006-01-01

121

Relations between companion animals and self-reported health in older women: cause, effect or artifact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large longitudinal dataset on women’s health in Australia provided the basis of analysis of potential positive health effects\\u000a of living with a companion animal. Age, living arrangements, and housing all strongly related to both living with companion\\u000a animals and health. Methodological problems in using data from observational studies to disentangle a potential association\\u000a in the presence of substantial effects

Nancy A. Pachana; Jessica H. Ford; Brooke Andrew; Annette J. Dobson

2005-01-01

122

A look to the future of animal clinical biochemistry: Implications for diagnostics and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing environment in the medical biochemistry arena as a result of new and concerted pressures for cost containment will have and is having its inevitable effect on the field of animal clinical biochemistry. The animal clinical biochemist must be acutely aware of the changes engendered by these pressures and be prepared to respond in a meaningful way. First and

J. J. Kaneko

1996-01-01

123

Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development  

PubMed Central

The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes.

Delwart, Eric

2012-01-01

124

Molecular diagnostics for infectious disease in small animal medicine: an overview from the laboratory.  

PubMed

Molecular diagnostic tests have augmented the way in which veterinary practitioners approach the diagnosis of infectious disease. The technical bases of these tests are explained in addition to the general clinical applications for which they are most aptly suited, as individual assays are best discussed in the context of their respective diseases. In this article, an emphasis is placed on validation of molecular tests so that practitioners can be educated consumers of molecular diagnostics. The relationships between disease prevalence and positive and negative predictive values are discussed. Finally, examples of the pitfalls of multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing are illustrated. PMID:24144096

Daniels, Joshua B

2013-08-08

125

The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a discussion of the methodological research on which the development of the instrument was based. The WMH-CIDI includes a screening module and 40 sections that focus on diagnoses (22 sections), functioning (four sections), treatment

Ronald C. Kessler; T. Bedirhan Üstün

2004-01-01

126

Drugs and diagnostic innovations to improve global health.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Affordable effective drugs and diagnostics are critical for patient management and disease control but the development of new drugs and diagnostics is too slow to keep up with the emergence and spread of infectious diseases around the world. Innovative collaborative research and development involving disease endemic countries and developed countries are urgently needed to accelerate progress along the path from discovery to product adoption. These emerging approaches and the need for increased investment in human and financial resources to support them are discussed. PMID:21896368

Peeling, Rosanna W; Nwaka, Solomon

2011-09-01

127

Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.  

PubMed Central

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health.

1992-01-01

128

Overview of the animal health drug development and registration process: an industry perspective.  

PubMed

Products for animal health commercialization follow a structured progression from initial concept through to regulatory approval. Typically, products are developed for use in either food animals or companion animals. These can be for the intention of disease intervention, productivity enhancement or improvement in a quality of life capacity. The animal health industry is a regulated industry, meaning that a government agency is responsible for oversight of products, both pre- and post-approval. There are three primary US government agencies that ensure quality, safety and effectiveness for the approval of new products and post-marketing compliance. PMID:21644833

Hunter, Robert P; Shryock, Thomas R; Cox, Brian R; Butler, Roger M; Hammelman, Jason E

2011-05-01

129

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

130

[The role of reference laboratories in animal health programmes in South America].  

PubMed

The contribution of the Panamerican Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Centre (PANAFTOSA), as an OIE (World organisation for animal health) regional reference laboratory for the diagnosis of FMD and vesicular stomatitis, and for the control of the FMD vaccine, has been of fundamental importance to the development, implementation and harmonisation of modern laboratory procedures in South America. The significance of the work conducted by PANAFTOSA is particularly obvious when one considers the two pillars on which eradication programmes are based, namely: a well-structured regional laboratory network, and the creation of a system which allows technology and new developments to be transferred to Member Countries as quickly and efficiently as possible. Over the past decade, PANAFTOSA has kept pace with the changing epidemiological situation on the continent, and with developments in the international political and economical situation. This has involved the strengthening of quality policies, and the elaboration and implementation of diagnostic tools that make for more thorough epidemiological analyses. The integration of PANAFTOSA into the network of national laboratories and its cooperation with technical and scientific institutes, universities and the private sector means that local needs can be met, thanks to the design and rapid implementation of methodological tools which are validated using internationally accepted criteria. This collaboration, which ensures harmonisation of laboratory tests and enhances the quality of national Veterinary Services, serves to promote greater equity, a prerequisite for regional eradication strategies and this in turn, helps to increase competitiveness in the region. PMID:15884590

Bergmann, I E

2003-08-01

131

Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

Jonas, Albert M.

1984-01-01

132

Ecology of Disease: The Intersection of Human and Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...

133

Influenza in Animals: Its Possible Public Health Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suggestion of a possible relationship between influenza in people and influenza in animals is perhaps almost as old as recognition of the disease itself. In 1759, Short, writing on an early influenza outbreak in Ireland and England, noted that epidemic human influenza was generally accompanied by an influenza-like respiratory epizootic among horses.\\

W. G. WINKLER

134

Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic

A. Kijlstra; I. A. J. M. Eijck

2006-01-01

135

Animal Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative Approaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poor health remains one of the main factors limiting livestock production in Africa. Many of the major epidemic diseases can be controlled economically and considerable progress has been made in the past. However, during the last decade a progressive dete...

C. de Haan N. J. Nissen

1985-01-01

136

Philosophy, policy and procedures of the World Organisation for Animal Health for the development of standards in animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare was identified as a priority for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the 2001-2005 OIE Strategic Plan. Member Countries recognised that, as animal protection is a complex, multi-faceted public policy issue which includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions, the OIE needed to develop a detailed vision and strategy incorporating and balancing these dimensions. A permanent working group on animal welfare was established in order to provide guidance to the OIE in its work on the development of science-based standards and guidelines. The Working Group decided to give priority to the welfare of animals used in agriculture and aquaculture, and that, within those groups, the topics of transportation, slaughter for human consumption and killing for disease control purposes would be addressed first. Some guiding principles were approved by the International Committee of OIE Member Countries during the 72nd General Session in May 2004, and these have been followed by four specific guidelines on the priority topics listed above. PMID:16358517

Petrini, A; Wilson, D

2005-08-01

137

Prognostic\\/Diagnostic Health Management System (PHM) for Fab Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a prognostic\\/diagnostic approach was made to use knowledge-based system to accelerate the process\\/equipment faults detection and classification. The domain knowledge within the fab environment can be either captured by PHM systems or populated by the experienced engineers. With the implementation of the proposed PHM system, domain knowledge stored in the PHM-equip and PHM-APC (advanced process control) subsystems

Chin Sun; Kevin Nguyen; Long Vu; S. C. Bisland

2006-01-01

138

Lameness and Laminitis in U.S. Horses. National Animal Health Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives for the lameness portion of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Equine 98 study: (1) describe the occurrence of owner reported lameness and laminitis in horses and the proportion of operations with one or more affected horses f...

2000-01-01

139

Effects on Human Health of Subtherapeutic Use of Antimicrobials in Animal Feeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report was (1) to study the human health effects of subtherapeutic use of penicillin and tetracycline (chloretracycline and oxytetracycline) in animal feeds; (2) to review and analyze published and unpublished epidemiological data and o...

1980-01-01

140

Prediction of the Health Effects of Inhaled Transuranium Elements from Experimental Animal Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of animal experiments with transuranium elements is to provide information which can be used to predict the consequences of these alpha emitting elements for human health. However, scientific and technical groups have been hesitant to project ...

W. J. Bair J. M. Thomas

1975-01-01

141

One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.  

PubMed

Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381

Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A

2012-11-01

142

Discussion Guide - Units 8 - 9 - People and Animals: United for Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Units covered in this section are: Unit 8 - Animal Health and the Environment Unit 9 -Some Biomedical Success Stories Each Guide unit provides pedagogical tools for the associated unit in the Reference Manual.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-07-01

143

Human Health Risks with the Subtherapeutic Use of Penicillin or Tetracyclines in Animal Feed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study reviews the human health consequences and risk associated with the use of penicillin and tetracyclines at subtherapeutic concentrations in animal feed. The study discusses the biological impact of resistance to antimicrobial agents; the quantifi...

1988-01-01

144

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia,

Kathleen N. Colby; Julie K. Levy; Kiri F. Dunn; Rachel I. Michaud

2011-01-01

145

Monoclonal antibodies in animal production; their use in diagnostics and passive immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in

P. Booman

1989-01-01

146

Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

Enticott, Gareth

2012-01-01

147

When dogs are man's best friend — the health benefits of companion animals in the modern society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Australian society, like many Western societies, has evolved into a highly urbanised, somewhat hectic community where animal contact for its members is becoming limited. Research in the last few decades has indicated that association with companion animals can have far reaching benefits on the health of the owners of pets. The effects include those of a physical nature, such

Kathryn Wilks

1999-01-01

148

Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

Parshall, Debra Phillips

2003-01-01

149

An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

2011-01-01

150

Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

Parshall, Debra Phillips

2003-01-01

151

Influences of Environment and Its Modification on Dairy Animal Health and Production1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological state of dairy animals is a predisposing factor in environmental influences on animal health. Critical phases of life cycle include neonatal period, postpubertal reproduction, and lactation. Primary effect of environ- ment in neonatal period is increased disease incidence associated with re- duced immunoglobulin content in plasma of calves. Cold stress has little effect on reproduction; in contrast, heat stress

R. J. Collier; D. K. Beede; W. W. Thatcher; L. A. Israel; C. J. Wilcox

1982-01-01

152

A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services  

PubMed Central

Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands).

2008-01-01

153

Integrating the issues of world animal health and world public health into the veterinary curriculum: a Southeast Asian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The authors analysed the curricula of five veterinary schools in Southeast Asia to determine how successfully they integrate the issues of global animal health and global public health into their programmes. Two schools offer a five-year programme while the remaining three offer a six-year programme. The core courses within the curricula range from 145 to 224 credit hours, in

M. Zamri-Saad; A. Kunavongkrit; C. A. Valdez; M. Thien; Selangor Darul Ehsan

154

Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

155

Validation of a Diagnostic PCR Method for Routine Analysis of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a validation study, a comparative study of a PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL-71, for detection\\u000a of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic validation organ for validation of alternative microbiological\\u000a methods (NordVal) on 250 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment

Charlotta Löfström; Charlotta Engdahl Axelsson; Peter Rådström

2008-01-01

156

Human Health Risks Associated with Drug Residues in Animal-Derived Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulteration of food supply by agricultural chemicals has gained national attention as a potential health hazard. Public fears over chemical residues in foods do not appear commensurate with the risks established through experimental or epidemiologic studies. This paper examines the risk to human health from consumption of drug residues in animal-derived foods. In particular, it focuses on antimicrobial residues and

Stephen F. Sundlof

1994-01-01

157

One health-one medicine: unifying human and animal medicine within an evolutionary paradigm.  

PubMed

One health is a concept since early civilization, which promoted the view that there was no major distinction between animal and human medicine. Although persisting through the 19th century, this common vision was then all but forgotten in the early 20th century. It is now experiencing a renaissance, coincident with an awakening of the role that evolutionary biology plays in human and animal health, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A number of STIs in humans have comparable infections in animals; likewise, both humans and animals have STIs unique to each mammalian camp. These similarities and differences offer opportunities for basic medical and public health studies, including evolutionary insights that can be gleaned from ongoing interdisciplinary investigation--especially with the molecular analytical tools available--in what can become a golden age of mutually helpful discovery. PMID:21824162

Currier, Russell W; Steele, James H

2011-08-01

158

A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system for structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system has been developed for quick non-destructive evaluation and long term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The system consists of three major parts: a diagnostic layer with a network of piezoelectric elements and fiber gratings to offer a simple and efficient way to integrate a large network of transducers onto a structure; diagnostic hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit together with a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input, data collection, and information processing; and diagnostic software to determine the condition of the structure. This paper presents key development issues related to the manufacturing of the hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic layer and integration of a highly portable diagnostic hardware. Validation and proof testing of this integrated diagnostic system are also presented.

Qing, Xinlin; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, Chang; Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Guo, Guangping; Chang, Fu-Kuo

2005-06-01

159

Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: A one health paradigm.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherischia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized. PMID:24060567

Monath, Thomas P

2013-09-21

160

One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal\\u000a health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a\\u000a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus

Michael J Day

2011-01-01

161

The role and mandate of the World Organisation for Animal Health in veterinary education.  

PubMed

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), which was created in 1924 under the name Office International des Epizooties, is in charge of setting international standards and guidelines for animal health and welfare. The original aim of the Organisation was to control the international spread of infectious animal diseases, but this aim has expanded over the years and now the OIE has a global mandate to 'improve animal health worldwide' for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. A vital factor in successfully fulfilling this mandate is the quality and performance of both the public and private components of national Veterinary Services, which are increasingly working at the interface between human, animal and environmental health. The OIE considers global veterinary education to be key in maintaining and improving the quality of these Veterinary Services. Consequently, the competencies and continuing education of veterinarians are a priority in the assessment tool that the Organisation has developed to evaluate the performance of Veterinary Services (PVS). Evaluating the abilities and training of veterinarians is an important part of a PVS evaluation, as well-educated veterinarians with appropriate training are essential in improving Veterinary Services worldwide and in helping the OIE to fulfil its mandate. PMID:20128457

Vallat, B; Pastoret, P-P

2009-08-01

162

Advances in pasture management for animal productivity and health.  

PubMed

A wide range of management techniques is available to enhance quantity and quality of forage supply to grazing animals throughout the annual production cycle. Within broad limits, dry matter (DM) production is relatively insensitive to management of defoliation frequency, severity and duration. However defoliation management has effects on feed quality which can be enhanced, in particular, by control of pasture growth in the spring through maintenance of relatively low average pasture masses. Treading damage can have significant immediate and ongoing effects on pasture production and farmers can use a range of management techniques to minimise these. Fertiliser application practices have a potent influence on pasture production and seasonality of that production. Available soil nitrogen is the primary nutrient deficiency limiting production in New Zealand's characteristically grass-dominant pastures. Nitrogen fertiliser usage has increased markedly in recent years, particularly to grow substantially greater amounts of forage during the cool season, and this trend looks set to continue. However, the use of nitrogen fertiliser has important environmental implications. Pasture renewal and forage crop use has also increased in recent years. Care needs to be taken in conducting cost-benefit analyses, selecting the options that best meet the needs, and in establishment and subsequent management practices. Ryegrass (perennial and hybrids) and white clover remain the primary choice for permanent pasture renewal, the availability of safe endophytes having largely alleviated effects of endophyte toxicosis. Special-purpose mixtures are used, especially in dry environments. Italian ryegrasses, brassicas and chicory are common choices for forage crops. A range of management techniques can be used to alleviate deleterious effects of some forages, including ryegrass endophyte toxicosis, facial eczema, and toxins associated with Fusarium fungi. Generally these techniques are not totally effective. More research is required to increase our understanding of these disorders, and in order to develop more effective and reliable management practices. PMID:15768131

Lambert, M G; Clark, D A; Litherland, A J

2004-12-01

163

Diagnostic imaging in 2001 - a health economics perspective.  

PubMed

Factors contributing to the growth and diffusion of new imaging technologies are discussed. The benefits derived from implementing and using new technologies are carefully evaluated against the associated costs to both patients and service providers. The need to invest in early scientific assessment of a new imaging technology in order to prevent wasted acquisition and utilisation later on is highlighted. Such assessment might involve evaluating the ability of the technology to improve diagnosis, positively impact on treatment plans and, above all, improve health. PMID:9370553

Hillman, B J

1997-01-01

164

Community acceptability of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by community health workers in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many malarious countries plan to introduce artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) at community level using community health workers (CHWs) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Use of ACT with reliance on presumptive diagnosis may lead to excessive use, increased costs and rise of drug resistance. Use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could address these challenges but only if the communities will

David Mukanga; James K Tibenderana; Juliet Kiguli; George W Pariyo; Peter Waiswa; Francis Bajunirwe; Brian Mutamba; Helen Counihan; Godfrey Ojiambo; Karin Kallander

2010-01-01

165

Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria—Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood—Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in

Helen L. Egger; Robert N. Emde

2011-01-01

166

[Occupational hygiene and health hazards related to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)].  

PubMed

Emissions of harmful agents, inherent in the intensive production of pigs, create an important problem concerning the protection of workers' health. Concentration of many animals on relatively small areas contributes to high air contaminations inside swine confinement buildings. They are mostly induced by bioaerosols, such as organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxins, glucans and irritant gases. In view of the health care and safety of people employed in animal farming, it is crucial to conduct research involving a comprehensive evaluation of exposure to occupational hazards, indicating their level determinants and increasing the scientific information on dose-response relations. This article presents the review of the literature on the process of pig farming in Poland, including legislation, occupational hygiene and potential risk for the health of animal-handling workers. PMID:20677432

Buczy?ska, Alina; Szadkowska-Sta?czyk, Irena

2010-01-01

167

Use and limitations of malaria rapid diagnostic testing by community health workers in war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities and personnel. This study reports on

Michael Hawkes; Jean Paul Katsuva; Claude K Masumbuko

2009-01-01

168

Organic farming in the Nordic countries--animal health and production.  

PubMed

Organic farming (or ecological agriculture) is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1-10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed. PMID:11995394

Thamsborg, S M

2001-01-01

169

Approximate Entropy as a diagnostic tool for machine health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to machine health monitoring based on the Approximate Entropy (ApEn), which is a statistical measure that quantifies the regularity of a time series, such as vibration signals measured from an electrical motor or a rolling bearing. As the working condition of a machine system deteriorates due to the initiation and/or progression of structural defects, the number of frequency components contained in the vibration signal will increase, resulting in a decrease in its regularity and an increase in its corresponding ApEn value. After introducing the theoretical framework, numerical simulation of an analytic signal is presented that establishes a quantitative relationship between the severity of signal degradation and the ApEn values. The results of the simulation are then verified experimentally, through vibration measurement on a realistic bearing test bed. The study has shown that ApEn can effectively characterise the severity of structural defect, with good computational efficiency and high robustness.

Yan, Ruqiang; Gao, Robert X.

2007-02-01

170

Rising Use Of Diagnostic Medical Imaging In A Large Integrated Health System  

PubMed Central

Little has been published characterizing specific patterns of the dramatic rise in diagnostic imaging during the past decade. In a large health plan, 377,048 patients underwent 4.9 million diagnostic tests from 1997 through 2006. Cross-sectional imaging nearly doubled over those years, rising from 260 to 478 examinations per thousand enrollees per year. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) doubled, and imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tripled. Cross-sectional studies added to existing studies instead of replacing them, and the annual per enrollee cost of radiology imaging more than doubled. The dramatic rise in imaging raises both costs and radiation exposure.

Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Larson, Eric B.

2009-01-01

171

The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science,

Annette M. OConnor; Brent Auvermann; Danelle Bickett-Weddle; Steve Kirkhorn; Jan M. Sargeant; Alejandro Ramirez; Susanna G. Von Essen

2010-01-01

172

Health effects of ownership of and attachment to companion animals in an older population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Two reasons for the inconclusiveness of the literature on the health effects of pet ownership are (1) failure to control\\u000a for other known influences on health, and (2) inadequate consideration of the nature of the emotional relationship between\\u000a owners and their companion animals.Purpose: The main aims were to develop a measure of pet attachment that reflects psychologists’ use of

Helen R. Winefield; Anne Black; Anna Chur-Hansen

2008-01-01

173

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.

Pantosti, Annalisa

2012-01-01

174

Risk analysis and its link with standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.  

PubMed

Among the agreements included in the treaty that created the World Trade Organization (WTO) in January 1995 is the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) that sets out the basic rules for food safety and animal and plant health standards. The SPS Agreement designates the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the organisation responsible for developing international standards for animal health and zoonoses. The SPS Agreement requires that the sanitary measures that WTO members apply should be based on science and encourages them to either apply measures based on the OIE standards or, if they choose to adopt a higher level of protection than that provided by these standards, apply measures based on a science-based risk assessment. The OIE also provides a procedural framework for risk analysis for its Member Countries to use. Despite the inevitable challenges that arise in carrying out a risk analysis of the international trade in animals and animal products, the OIE risk analysis framework provides a structured approach that facilitates the identification, assessment, management and communication of these risks. PMID:21809770

Sugiura, K; Murray, N

2011-04-01

175

Review—Animal Waste Used as Livestock Feed: Dangers to Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foodborne illness remains a common and serious problem, despite efforts to improve slaughterhouse inspection and food preparation practices. A potential contributor to this problem that has heretofore escaped serious public health scrutiny is the feeding of animal excrement to livestock, a common practice in some parts of the United States. In 1994, 18% of poultry producers in Arkansas collectively fed

Eric R. Haapapuro; Neal D. Barnard; Michele Simon

1997-01-01

176

Making Decisions About Our Animals' Health Care: Does It Matter Whether We Are Owners or Guardians?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of opposition has been mounted against legislation that changes the language describing the relationship between people and their animals from “owner” to “guardian.” One of the primary arguments focuses on the claim that pet “guardians” might be faced with more limited health care choices for their pets. Behind these arguments is the premise that no one should

Susan J. Hankin

2009-01-01

177

Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symposium Overview: Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

1995-01-01

178

Public Health Consequences of Macrolide Use in Food Animals: A Deterministic Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential impact on human health from antibiotic-resistant bacteria selected by use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in many reports and recommended actions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has issued Guidance Document 152, which advises veterinary drug sponsors of one potential process for conducting a qualitative risk assessment of drug use in food

H. Scott Hurd; Stephanie Doores; Dermot J. Hayes; Alan Mathew; John Maurer; Peter Silley; Randall S. Singer; Ronald N. Jones

2004-01-01

179

Animal Health Technicians: A Survey of Program Graduates and of Veterinarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles the reports of two surveys conducted by Cosumnes River College to determine the status of graduates of its Animal Health Technician program, and to assess the acceptance and use of such paraprofessionals by area veterinarians. Information concerning type of employment, state certification, salaries, types of duties, length…

Barsaleau, Richard B.; Walters, Henry R.

180

Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

1992-08-01

181

Animal v. plant foods in human diets and health: is the historical record unequivocal?  

PubMed

An ideal diet is one that promotes optimal health and longevity. Throughout history, human societies have developed varieties of dietary patterns based on available food plants and animals that successfully supported growth and reproduction. As economies changed from scarcity to abundance, principal diet-related diseases have shifted from nutrient deficiencies to chronic diseases related to dietary excesses. This shift has led to increasing scientific consensus that eating more plant foods but fewer animal foods would best promote health. This consensus is based on research relating dietary factors to chronic disease risks, and to observations of exceptionally low chronic disease rates among people consuming vegetarian, Mediterranean and Asian diets. One challenge to this consensus is the idea that palaeolithic man consumed more meat than currently recommended, and that this pattern is genetically determined. If such exists, a genetic basis for ideal proportions of plant or animal foods is difficult to determine; hominoid primates are largely vegetarian, current hunter-gatherer groups rely on foods that can be obtained most conveniently, and the archeological record is insufficient to determine whether plants or animals predominated. Most evidence suggests that a shift to largely plant-based diets would reduce chronic disease risks among industrialized and rapidly-industrializing populations. The accomplish this shift, it will be necessary to overcome market-place barriers and to develop new policies that will encourage greater consumption of fruits, vegetables and grains as a means to promote public health. PMID:10466159

Nestle, M

1999-05-01

182

Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.  

PubMed

The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response. PMID:23413743

Black, P F

2012-08-01

183

Risk and the food safety chain: animal health, public health and the environment.  

PubMed

Food safety related to the consumption of animal-derived protein encompasses a wide variety of production and processing procedures which begins with the farm and inputs to the animals on the farm (e.g. feed and water) and includes the environment in which animals are reared. Hazards may be physical, artificial or naturally-occurring chemicals, organisms which cannot reproduce outside a specified life-cycle (e.g., parasites such as tapeworm in pigs) or viruses. Other microbes reproduce in the gastrointestinal tract of food animals as well as on the surface of food and in the environment. Methods of risk assessment for physical and chemical hazards have been used for many years. However, with microbial pathogens which can survive and grow on meat, in soil, water or other media, risk assessment methods are at the early stages of development. Due to the broad habitat range, the role of microbial pathogens in the food safety of meat, poultry, fruit and vegetables is important. The use of antibiotics in livestock species may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microbial pathogens, potentially complicating treatment for both animals and humans. The authors discuss the food chain, risk analysis and hazard analysis and critical control points in relation to foodborne pathogens, and introduce general strategies for improving pathogen control on the farm. PMID:9501344

Ahl, A S; Buntain, B

1997-08-01

184

Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2003-2006, an EU network project 'Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming' (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent:

Mette Vaarst; Susanne Padel; David Younie; Malla Hovi; Albert Sundrum; Caroline Rymer

2008-01-01

185

Bayesian Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis of Human Health Risks from Animal Antimicrobial Use in a Dynamic Model of Emerging Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent qualitative analyses warn of potential future human health risks from emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens due to the use of similar antimicrobial drugs in both food animals and human medicine. While historical data suggest that human health risks from some animal antimicrobials, such as virginiamycin (VM), have remained low (McDonald et al., 2001), there is a widespread

Louis Anthony Cox Jr; Douglas A. Popken

2004-01-01

186

Veterinary public health: Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks for the consumer regarding the acquisition of resistant bacteria and\\/or resistance genes via the consumption of pork are discussed. In general, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli that originate from animals do not easily transfer their resistance genes to the resident intestinal flora of humans. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in humans seems more associated with being a vegetarian

B. R. Berends; A. E. J. M. Van Den Bogaard; F. Van Knapen; J. M. A. Snijders

2001-01-01

187

Regressor Diagnostics for the Errors-in-Variables Model - An Application to the Health Effects of Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostics designed to probe the biases in regressor coefficient estimates due to measurement error in the regressors are applied to two studies of the health effects of pollution exposure. The diagnostics indicate that inferences about the effects of pollution exposure are more sensitive to measurement error in the study with the more accurate measure of pollution exposure. The use of

Klepper Steven; Kamlet Mark S; Frank Richard G

1993-01-01

188

Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

2012-01-01

189

Influence of health insurance status on inclusion of HER2\\/neu testing in the diagnostic workup of breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the prevalence of HER-2\\/neu testing in a community-based health care system shortly after the approval of several laboratory kits for HER-2\\/neu testing for diagnostic purposes by the US Food and Drug Administration and to discern the best discriminating variables for inclusion of the test in the diagnostic workup of breast cancer patients.

AZADEH STARK; GENA KUCERA; MEI LU; SARAH CLAUD; JENNIFER GRIGGS

2004-01-01

190

Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

2012-01-01

191

Institutional Responsibilities in Contamination Control for Research Animals and In Occupational Health and Safety for Animal Handlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms for controlling microbial contamination in research animals are similar to those for preventing expo- sure among animal handlers to naturally occurring patho- gens, research-related biohazards, or animal allergens. Research and resource preservation are the primary goals of each approach, and an appropriate assessment of risk is their foundation. The identification of potential risks enables the implementation of relevant

Benjamin Fontes

192

Use of animal products in traditional Chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly practised in many countries of the world. Some recent textbooks of TCM still recommend formulas containing various animal tissues such as tiger bones, antelope, buffalo or rhino horns, deer antlers, testicles and os penis of the dog, bear or snake bile. Usually, animal tissues are combined with medical herbs. In most of the cases, the medical use of the preparations is justified in terms of the rules of TCM. So far, little research has been done to prove the claimed clinical efficacy of TCM animal products. This paper discusses some related ecological, ethico-legal and health concerns such as hunting, breeding and trade with endangered species, risks of transmission of zoonoses, quality of the products, and alternatives to preparations from endangered species. PMID:12801499

Still, J

2003-06-01

193

Biomarker Discovery in Animal Health and Disease: The Application of Post-Genomic Technologies  

PubMed Central

Summary: The causes of many important diseases in animals are complex and multifactorial, which present unique challenges. Biomarkers indicate the presence or extent of a biological process, which is directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. Identifying biomarkers or biomarker profiles will be an important step towards disease characterization and management of disease in animals. The emergence of post-genomic technologies has led to the development of strategies aimed at identifying specific and sensitive biomarkers from the thousands of molecules present in a tissue or biological fluid. This review will summarize the current developments in biomarker discovery and will focus on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in biomarker discovery for animal health and disease.

Moore, Rowan E.; Kirwan, Jennifer; Doherty, Mary K.; Whitfield, Phillip D.

2007-01-01

194

Globalization, international trade and animal health: the new roles of OIE.  

PubMed

In order for countries and their stakeholders to maximize the benefits of globalization they must become familiar with, and must adhere to, the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). For the purpose of trade in animals and animal products, they must also adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Countries are also encouraged to participate in this standard setting process of the OIE. Only after implementing these requirements and after strengthening the veterinary infrastructures and their surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from these new international trade rules. PMID:15737424

Thiermann, Alejandro B

2005-02-01

195

Health effects of ingestion of mercury-polluted urban soil: an animal experiment.  

PubMed

Rio Grande, the southernmost Brazilian port and industrial center, is marked by mercury-polluted ground cover. This pollution varies spatially, with levels exceeding 1,000 ?g kg(-1) in 30% of the urban territory. The risk of Hg impact as a result of deliberate and involuntary geophagy is increased by restrained urban conditions in combination with the large proportion of the population living at low-income levels. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that ingestion of Hg-polluted soil by rats results in significant alterations in animal health such as stagnation in body weight increase, and significant mercury accumulation in the liver and kidney. The consumption of Hg-contaminated urban soil also provoked changes in hematological profiles of experimental animals by increasing the number of platelets. The present study indicates the potential for the local population of Rio Grande living in mercury-polluted districts, specifically young children, to experience health disturbances. PMID:21451960

Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza; Mirlean, Nicolai; Carrazzoni, Daniela; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Goulart, Gianni Peraza; Baisch, Paulo

2011-03-31

196

Animal Origin Foods and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Report From the Shanghai Women's Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of animal-origin food consumption and cooking patterns with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was evaluated in a cohort of 73,224 participants of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. After a mean follow-up time of 7.4 yr, 394 incident cases of CRC (colon = 236; rectal = 158) were diagnosed. Overall, no association was found between the risk of CRC and

Sang-Ah Lee; Xiao Ou Shu; Gong Yang; Honglan Li; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

2009-01-01

197

Health Is Associated With Antiparasite Behavior and Fear of Disease-Relevant Animals in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary arms races between humans and parasites resulted in a set of behavioral adaptations that serve as parasite-avoidance mechanisms. We investigated associations among reported health of the respondent, antiparasite behavior, and sensitivity to disgust and fear of disease-relevant and irrelevant animals. Ninety-seven participants (15–19 years old) rated their fear and disgust at 25 colorful pictures of disease-relevant and disease-irrelevant invertebrates.

Pavol Prokop; Jana Fan?ovi?ová; Peter Fedor

2010-01-01

198

Peripartal Propylene Glycol Supplementation and Metabolism, Animal Health, Fertility, and Production in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theeffectofperipartalsupplementationwithconcen- trate enriched at 10% propylene glycol (PG) on metabo- lism, animal health, fertility, and milk production was studied using 234 cows from 8 dairy farms with produc- tionaveragesof8019to10,656kg\\/yr.Thefeedingsched- ule for the PG group (n = 117) was as follows: 13 d antepartum: 1.5 kg\\/d (= 150 mL PG); 12 d antepartum until parturition: 3 kg\\/d (= 300 mL PG);

M. Hoedemaker; D. Prange; H. Zerbe; J. Frank; A. Daxenberger; H. H. D. Meyer

2004-01-01

199

Occupational health and safety aspects of animal handling in dairy production.  

PubMed

Livestock handling in dairy production is associated with a number of health and safety issues. A large number of fatal and nonfatal injuries still occur when handling livestock. The many animal handling tasks on a dairy farm include moving cattle between different locations, vaccination, administration of medication, hoof care, artificial insemination, ear tagging, milking, and loading onto trucks. There are particular problems with bulls, which continue to cause considerable numbers of injuries and fatalities in dairy production. In order to reduce the number of injuries during animal handling on dairy farms, it is important to understand the key factors in human-animal interactions. These include handler attitudes and behavior, animal behavior, and fear in cows. Care when in close proximity to the animal is the key for safe handling, including knowledge of the flight zone, and use of the right types of tools and suitable restraint equipment. Thus, in order to create safe working conditions during livestock handling, it is important to provide handlers with adequate training and to establish sound safety management procedures on the farm. PMID:23844794

Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Hagevoort, G Robert; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Douphrate, David I; Pinzke, Stefan; Grandin, Temple

2013-01-01

200

Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.  

PubMed

Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy or meat) can only be sustainable with adequate marketing, supply of quality feed, veterinary services, labour, management and control of pollution. Animal health programmes play a keyrole in the proposed system approach. PMID:1502778

Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

1992-04-01

201

A review of the animal models used to investigate the health benefits of soy isoflavones.  

PubMed

This review considers the recent literature in which animal models were used to investigate the purported health benefits of soy isoflavones. The main conclusions are that our animal models demonstrate minimal effects in breast, prostate, and colon cancer prevention, and that, while some cancers may respond to isoflavones, it would appear that isoflavones do not prevent further development once cancer has become established. Regarding cardiovascular health, the lipid-lowering effects of isoflavones have been established, but their efficacy may be less than original research purported. However, it may be considered a bonus of habitual soy consumption that blood cholesterol levels would be reduced somewhat. With respect to osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms, animal models do not show any consistent benefit of isoflavones in preventing osteoporosis, and calcium fortification or the use of prescribed medications are likely much better approaches to combat bone loss. However, our animal models of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms may not be entirely representative of the human situation. Perhaps the benefit of isoflavones in cognitive skills and in delaying Alzheimer's disease is an area where they can be of some advantage. However, this field is very recent and requires much more research in both humans and animal models before any definitive benefit can be propounded. On the other hand, isoflavones in moderation are probably not dangerous, as few studies have indicated adverse effects. However, large doses have been shown to increase apoptosis and cell degeneration, and in some cancer regimes, once the cancer has progressed beyond the hormone-dependent stage, high doses of isoflavones may be contraindicated. The prospect of mega-dosing from isoflavone supplements opens a new chapter in the risk assessment of isoflavone consumption. PMID:16918038

Cooke, Gerard M

202

Regressor diagnostics for the errors-in-variables model - An application to the health effects of pollution  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostics designed to probe the biases in regressor coefficient estimates due to measurement error in the regressors are applied to two studies of the health effects of pollution exposure. The diagnostics indicate that inferences about the effects of pollution exposure are more sensitive to measurement error in the study with the more accurate measure of pollution exposure. The use of the diagnostics is illustrated by applying them to a study of the health effects of exposure to ozone employing measures of individual pollution exposure based on fixed-site monitors. The findings are contrasted with the results of applying diagnostics to a study of the health effects on children of exposure to lead which employed personal measures of pollution exposure. It is shown how this finding illustrates an often overlooked theme about measurement error: if interest focuses on the sign of the coefficient of a specific regressor, it is measurement error in the other regressors that is of particular concern.

Klepper, S.; Kamlet, M.S. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Frank, R.G. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1993-05-01

203

Use of information on disease diagnoses from databases for animal health economic, welfare and food safety purposes: strengths and limitations of recordings  

PubMed Central

Many animal health, welfare and food safety databases include data on clinical and test-based disease diagnoses. However, the circumstances and constraints for establishing the diagnoses vary considerably among databases. Therefore results based on different databases are difficult to compare and compilation of data in order to perform meta-analysis is almost impossible. Nevertheless, diagnostic information collected either routinely or in research projects is valuable in cross comparisons between databases, but there is a need for improved transparency and documentation of the data and the performance characteristics of tests used to establish diagnoses. The objective of this paper is to outline the circumstances and constraints for recording of disease diagnoses in different types of databases, and to discuss these in the context of disease diagnoses when using them for additional purposes, including research. Finally some limitations and recommendations for use of data and for recording of diagnostic information in the future are given. It is concluded that many research questions have such a specific objective that investigators need to collect their own data. However, there are also examples, where a minimal amount of extra information or continued validation could make sufficient improvement of secondary data to be used for other purposes. Regardless, researchers should always carefully evaluate the opportunities and constraints when they decide to use secondary data. If the data in the existing databases are not sufficiently valid, researchers may have to collect their own data, but improved recording of diagnostic data may improve the usefulness of secondary diagnostic data in the future.

2011-01-01

204

Environmental health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations: anticipating hazards--searching for solutions.  

PubMed

A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans. PMID:17384781

Thorne, Peter S

2006-11-14

205

Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy and in addition produced a viable test stand vehicle health monitor. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data.

Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, T. L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K.

206

Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.  

PubMed

In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines the alternative delivery systems that are emerging in the developing world and their strengths and weaknesses. The implications for food safety and trade are specifically highlighted. Also included are the practical experiences of countries, from all along the development continuum, that have introduced alternative systems. This paper deals with implications for the future, and while the growing importance of veterinary care for companion animals is acknowledged, the focus is on veterinary services for food animals. PMID:15200084

de Haan, C

2004-04-01

207

Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.  

PubMed

For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. PMID:22958252

Levings, Randall L

2012-09-01

208

Using patient management as a surrogate for patient health outcomes in diagnostic test evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Before a new test is introduced in clinical practice, evidence is needed to demonstrate that its use will lead to improvements in patient health outcomes. Studies reporting test accuracy may not be sufficient, and clinical trials of tests that measure patient health outcomes are rarely feasible. Therefore, the consequences of testing on patient management are often investigated as an intermediate step in the pathway. There is a lack of guidance on the interpretation of this evidence, and patient management studies often neglect a discussion of the limitations of measuring patient management as a surrogate for health outcomes. Methods We discuss the rationale for measuring patient management, describe the common study designs and provide guidance about how this evidence should be reported. Results Interpretation of patient management studies relies on the condition that patient management is a valid surrogate for downstream patient benefits. This condition presupposes two critical assumptions: the test improves diagnostic accuracy; and the measured changes in patient management improve patient health outcomes. The validity of this evidence depends on the certainty around these critical assumptions and the ability of the study design to minimise bias. Three common designs are test RCTs that measure patient management as a primary endpoint, diagnostic before-after studies that compare planned patient management before and after testing, and accuracy studies that are extended to report on the actual treatment or further tests received following a positive and negative test result. Conclusions Patient management can be measured as a surrogate outcome for test evaluation if its limitations are recognised. The potential consequences of a positive and negative test result on patient management should be pre-specified and the potential patient benefits of these management changes clearly stated. Randomised comparisons will provide higher quality evidence about differences in patient management using the new test than observational studies. Regardless of the study design used, the critical assumption that patient management is a valid surrogate for downstream patient benefits or harms must be discussed in these studies.

2012-01-01

209

Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.  

PubMed

We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication. PMID:18952731

Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

2008-10-24

210

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

211

The new World Organisation for Animal Health standards on avian influenza and international trade.  

PubMed

In 2002, the World Organisation for Animal Health began a review of the chapter on avian influenza by convening a group of experts to revise the most recent scientific literature. The group drafted the initial text that would provide the necessary recommendations on avian influenza control and prevention measures. The main objectives of this draft were to provide clear notification criteria, as well as commodity-specific, risk-based mitigating measures, that would provide safety when trading and encourage transparent reporting. PMID:17494578

Thiermann, Alex B

2007-03-01

212

Review--animal waste used as livestock feed: dangers to human health.  

PubMed

Foodborne illness remains a common and serious problem, despite efforts to improve slaughterhouse inspection and food preparation practices. A potential contributor to this problem that has heretofore escaped serious public health scrutiny is the feeding of animal excrement to livestock, a common practice in some parts of the United States. In 1994, 18% of poultry producers in Arkansas collectively fed more than 1,000 tons of poultry litter to cattle, and the procedure is also common in some other geographic areas as a means of eliminating a portion of the 1.6 million tons of livestock wastes produced in the United States annually. While heat processing reliably kills bacterial pathogens, its use is limited by expense and other factors. Deep-stacking and ensiling are commonly used by farmers to process animal wastes, but the maximal temperatures achieved in stacked poultry litter are typically in the range of 43 to 60 degrees C (110 to 140 degrees F), below the inactivation temperatures of pathogenic salmonella and Escherichia coli species, and far below the USDA's recommended cooking temperatures of 71 to 77 degrees C (160 to 170 degrees F) for potentially manure-tainted meat products. In addition to the spread of potential pathogens, using animal wastes as feed presents the possibility that antibiotic-resistant bacteria may spread from one animal to another and that antibiotics or other chemicals may be passed between animals. Few research reports have addressed the safety of this practice, and those studies that have been published have generally been in controlled and artificial environments, rather than in on-farm conditions. Further microbiological studies are recommended to assess the extent of risk. PMID:9327465

Haapapuro, E R; Barnard, N D; Simon, M

213

Animal models of Aspergillus infection in preclinical trials, diagnostics and pharmacodynamics: What can we learn from them?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models of aspergillosis, particularly those studied in rodents, are an integral part of antifungal drug development. The capacity to control different variables is beneficial, allowing a well defined model system to be used to address various issues of efficacy with monotherapy, combinations, or immunotherapy. One beneficial aspect of the use of animal models is that they enable us to

Karl V. Clemons; David A. Stevens

2006-01-01

214

Setting priorities for non-regulatory animal health in Ireland: Results from an expert Policy Delphi study and a farmer priority identification survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is a very important contributor to the Irish economy. In Ireland, national animal health services have been a government, rather than an industry, responsibility. In 2009, Animal Health Ireland (AHI) was established to provide a partnership approach to national leadership of non-regulatory animal health issues (those not subject to national and\\/or EU regulation). The objectives of this study were

Simon J. More; Ken McKenzie; Joe O’Flaherty; Michael L. Doherty; Andrew R. Cromie; Mike J. Magan

2010-01-01

215

Evaluation of the utility of diagonal elements of the genomic relationship matrix as a diagnostic tool to detect mislabelled genotyped animals in a broiler chicken population.  

PubMed

This study explored distributions of diagonal elements of genomic relationship matrix (G), evaluated the utility of G as a diagnostic tool to detect mislabelled animals in a genomic dataset and evaluated the effect of mislabelled animals on the accuracy of genomic evaluation. Populations of 10 000 animals were simulated with 60 000 SNP varying in allele frequency at each locus between 0.02 and 0.98. Diagonal elements of G were distributed with a single peak (mean = 1.00 ± 0.03) and ranged from 0.84 through 1.36. Mixed populations were also simulated: 7 000 animals with frequencies of second alleles ranging from 0.02 through 0.98 were combined with 1750 or 7000 animals with frequencies of second alleles ranging from 0.0 through 1.0. The resulting distributions of diagonal elements of G were bimodal. Body weight at 6 weeks was provided by Cobb-Vantress for broiler chickens, of which 3285 were genotyped for 57 636 SNP. Analysis used a combined genomic and pedigree relationship matrix; G was scaled using current allele frequencies. The distribution of diagonal elements was multimodal and ranged from 0.54 to 3.23. Animals with diagonal elements >1.5 were identified as coming from another chicken line or as having low call rates. Removal of mislabelled animals increased accuracy by 0.01. For the studied type of population, diagonal elements of G may be a useful tool to help identify mislabelled animals or secondary populations. PMID:21906184

Simeone, R; Misztal, I; Aguilar, I; Legarra, A

2011-04-20

216

An integrated process and management tools for ranking multiple emerging threats to animal health.  

PubMed

The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs supports the use of systematic tools for the prioritisation of known and well defined animal diseases to facilitate long and medium term planning of surveillance and disease control activities. The recognition that emerging events were not covered by the existing disease-specific approaches led to the establishment of the Veterinary Risk Group (VRG), constituted of government officials, and supporting structures such as the Risk Management Cycle and the Emerging Threat Highlight Report (ETHiR), to facilitate the identification, reporting and assessment of emerging threats to UK's animal health. Since its inception in November 2009 to the end of February 2011, the VRG reviewed 111 threats and vulnerabilities (T&V) reported through ETHiR. In July 2010 a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria-decision-analysis (MCDA) improved ETHiR to allow the systematic prioritisation of emerging T&V. The DSS allows the regular ranking of emerging T&V by calculating a set of measurement indices related to the actual impact, possible impact on public perception and level of available capabilities associated with every T&V. The systematic characterisation of the processes leading to the assessment of T&V by the VRG has led to a consistent, auditable and transparent approach to the identification and assessment of emerging risks. The regular use of MCDA to manage a portfolio of emerging risks represents a different and novel application of MCDA in a health related context. PMID:22954461

Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Voller, Fay; Montibeller, Gilberto; Franco, L Alberto; Sribhashyam, Sumitra; Watson, Eamon; Hartley, Matt; Gibbens, Jane C

2012-09-03

217

Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.  

PubMed

The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

Schillhorn van Veen, T W

2004-04-01

218

Deciphering the Effects of Climate on Animal Populations: Diagnostic Analysis Provides New Interpretation of Soay Sheep Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soay sheep on the island of Hirta exhibit periodic pop- ulation collapses that have been proposed to result from nonlinear interactions between weather, population density, and age structure. Here we employ a diagnostic approach to reanalyze the data from 1985 to 2004 and find that climate mainly affects the equilibrium population size, thus acting as a lateral perturbation. From this,

Alan Berryman; Mauricio Lima

2006-01-01

219

Public health consequences of macrolide use in food animals: a deterministic risk assessment.  

PubMed

The potential impact on human health from antibiotic-resistant bacteria selected by use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in many reports and recommended actions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has issued Guidance Document 152, which advises veterinary drug sponsors of one potential process for conducting a qualitative risk assessment of drug use in food animals. Using this guideline, we developed a deterministic model to assess the risk from two macrolide antibiotics, tylosin and tilmicosin. The scope of modeling included all label claim uses of both macrolides in poultry, swine, and beef cattle. The Guidance Document was followed to define the hazard, which is illness (i) caused by foodborne bacteria with a resistance determinant, (ii) attributed to a specified animal-derived meat commodity, and (iii) treated with a human use drug of the same class. Risk was defined as the probability of this hazard combined with the consequence of treatment failure due to resistant Campylobacter spp. or Enterococcus faecium. A binomial event model was applied to estimate the annual risk for the U.S. general population. Parameters were derived from industry drug use surveys, scientific literature, medical guidelines, and government documents. This unique farm-to-patient risk assessment demonstrated that use of tylosin and tilmicosin in food animals presents a very low risk of human treatment failure, with an approximate annual probability of less than 1 in 10 million Campylobacter-derived and approximately 1 in 3 billion E. faecium-derived risk. PMID:15151237

Hurd, H Scott; Doores, Stephanie; Hayes, Dermot; Mathew, Alan; Maurer, John; Silley, Peter; Singer, Randall S; Jones, Ronald N

2004-05-01

220

Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks\\/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms\\/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The latter effect is related to the phenomenon that a chemical accumulates in species through different trophic

Vries de W; P. F. A. M. Romkens; G. Schutze

2007-01-01

221

The application of probabilistic scenario analysis for risk assessment of animal health in international trade.  

PubMed

Probabilistic scenario analysis (PSA) is a method of risk assessment that has had wide usage in many fields, including engineering, nuclear safety, and financial analysis. It is fast becoming the "gold standard" for risk assessment in many fields, including human health and the environment. It has been successfully applied in animal and plant health issues as well. PSA begins with the identification of a hazard and the development of a step-by-step scenario from some initiating event to the end point at which the hazard occurs. In PSA, the pathway leading to the end point is outlined by a model, called an event tree. Each step leading to the occurrence of the hazard is carefully outlined, called the node on the event tree. At each of these nodes, the probability of the event leading to the end point (hazard occurrence) is evaluated. The evaluation of the probability at each node may be qualitative or quantitative. The evidence used may come from standard epidemiological studies. The model can also accommodate expert opinion, anecdotal evidence, or any other information that can be verified that is pertinent to the event leading to hazard occurrence. The PSA is also quite flexible for it can be quickly revised when new data become available. With careful statement of the evidence and linkage back to bibliographic or other sources, it can provide a transparent, flexible, well-documented approach to risk assessment for animal health. Risk assessment along with regionalization is the key to healthy national herds and free international trade. PMID:8784508

Ahl, A S

1996-07-23

222

Reducing cognitive skill decay and diagnostic error: theory-based practices for continuing education in health care.  

PubMed

Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective cognitive reasoning skills in the clinical education, organizational training, and human factors literatures suggest that continuing education plays a critical role in mitigating and managing diagnostic skill decay. Recent models also underscore the role of system level factors (eg, cognitive decision support tools, just-in-time training opportunities) in supporting clinical reasoning process. The purpose of this manuscript is to offer a multidisciplinary review of cognitive models of clinical decision making skills in order to provide a list of best practices for supporting continuous improvement and maintenance of cognitive diagnostic processes through continuing education. PMID:23280530

Weaver, Sallie J; Newman-Toker, David E; Rosen, Michael A

2012-01-01

223

The use of community-based animal health workers to strengthen disease surveillance systems in Tanzania.  

PubMed

An 18 month trial was conducted in three districts of Arusha region, northern Tanzania, to assess the use of community-based animal health workers (CAHWs) in an official disease surveillance system. Disease reports provided by CAHWs were assessed using six indicators for effective disease surveillance, i.e. sensitivity, specificity, timeliness, representativeness, simplicity and acceptability. To assess sustainability issues and determine the incentives required by CAHWs to report disease, three different incentive models were tested in the trial. None of the incentive models involved direct payments to CAHWs. Before involving CAHWs in disease surveillance in the three trial districts, disease case reports as a proportion of cattle population were 0.13%, 0.20% and 0.12%. During the trial, disease case reports as a proportion of cattle population increased to 5.0%, 5.6% and 6.3%. The CAHWs also improved the spatial and temporal coverage of the disease surveillance system and provided timely reports. During the trial, national-level disease reporting in Tanzania increased by 17% owing to the sensitisation and support activities of the Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics in Tanzania. In Arusha region, disease reporting increased by 118%, and 49% of this improvement was attributable to increased reporting in the three trial districts. Reporting from these districts far exceeded that from any other district in Tanzania. Veterinarians confirmed the CAHWs' clinical diagnosis in 88% of the 170 clinical cases examined. The increase in disease reporting resulting from CAHW activities was sufficient to enable the national epidemiology unit to achieve its target in relation to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines. The authors conclude that the use of CAHWs should be promoted in the national strategy for disease reporting. Additionally, CAHWs must be brought under the control of the Tanzanian veterinary authorities, a process that will include appropriate legislative reform. PMID:16642762

Allport, R; Mosha, R; Bahari, M; Swai, E; Catley, A

2005-12-01

224

[Use of geographical information systems in parasitic diseases and the importance of animal health economics].  

PubMed

In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented. PMID:18985590

Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tando?an, Murat

2008-01-01

225

Impacts of culture-independent diagnostic practices on public health surveillance for bacterial enteric pathogens.  

PubMed

For decades, culture has been the mainstay of diagnostic testing for bacterial enteric pathogens. This paradigm is changing as clinical laboratories adopt culture-independent methods, such as antigen-based tests and nucleic acid-based assays. Public health surveillance for enteric infections addresses 4 interrelated but distinct objectives: case investigation for localized disease control; assessment of disease burden and trends to prioritize and assess impact of population-based control measures; outbreak detection; and microbiologic characterization to improve understanding of pathogens, their virulence mechanisms, and epidemiology. We summarize the challenges and opportunities that culture-independent tests present and suggest strategies, such as validation studies and development of culture-independent tests compatible with subtyping, that could be adopted to ensure that surveillance remains robust. Many of these approaches will require time and resources to implement, but they will be necessary to maintain a strong surveillance system. Public health practitioners must clearly explain the value of surveillance, especially how outbreak detection benefits the public, and collaborate with all stakeholders to develop solutions. PMID:22572666

Cronquist, Alicia B; Mody, Rajal K; Atkinson, Robyn; Besser, John; Tobin D'Angelo, Melissa; Hurd, Sharon; Robinson, Trisha; Nicholson, Cynthia; Mahon, Barbara E

2012-06-01

226

The diagnostic potential of salivary protease activities in periodontal health and disease.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is characterised by proteolytic processes involving enzymes that are released by host immune cells and periodontal bacteria. These enzymes, when detectable in whole saliva, may serve as valuable diagnostic markers for disease states and progression. Because the substrate specificities of salivary proteases in periodontal health and disease are poorly characterised, we probed these activities using several relevant substrates: (i) gelatin and collagen type IV; (ii) the Arg/Lys-rich human salivary substrate histatin-5; and (iii) a histatin-derived synthetic analog benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Gly-Tyr-Arg-methyl cumaryl amide (Z-RGYR-MCA). Substrate degradation was assessed in gel (zymography) and in solution. Whole saliva supernatant enzyme activities directed at gelatin, quantified from the 42 kDa, 92 kDa and 130 kDa bands in the zymograms, were 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0-fold higher, respectively, in the periodontal patient group (P < 0.01), consistent with enhanced activities observed towards collagen type IV. On the other hand, histatin 5 degraded equally fast in healthy and periodontal patients' whole saliva supernatant samples (P > 0.10). Likewise, the hydrolysis rates of the Z-RGYR-MCA substrate were the same in the healthy and periodontal patient groups (P > 0.10). In conclusion, gelatinolytic/collagenolytic activities but not trypsin-like activities in human saliva differentiate health from periodontal disease and may thus provide an adjuvant to diagnosis for monitoring disease activity. PMID:23379269

Thomadaki, K; Bosch, Ja; Oppenheim, Fg; Helmerhorst, Ej

2013-02-04

227

Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. METHODS: The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC) microscopy,

Vincent Batwala; Pascal Magnussen; Fred Nuwaha

2010-01-01

228

Deciphering the effects of climate on animal populations: diagnostic analysis provides new interpretation of Soay sheep dynamics.  

PubMed

Soay sheep on the island of Hirta exhibit periodic population collapses that have been proposed to result from nonlinear interactions between weather, population density, and age structure. Here we employ a diagnostic approach to reanalyze the data from 1985 to 2004 and find that climate mainly affects the equilibrium population size, thus acting as a lateral perturbation. From this, we derive a simple energetic model for a population interacting with its food supply in the presence of variable winter weather. This model explains the strong nonlinearity in the Soay sheep population regulation function and provides a framework for evaluating climatic perturbations. We examined two integrative climatic indexes, one representing effects on forage production and the other representing the severity of winter weather. Results suggest that the latter has the main effect on Soay sheep population dynamics. Models incorporating this variable provided fairly accurate predictions of Soay sheep population fluctuations. The diagnostic approach offers an objective way to develop simple, nonstructured population models that are useful for understanding the causes of population fluctuations and predicting population changes, provided they are based on a careful consideration of the underlying biological and/or ecological mechanisms. PMID:17109320

Berryman, Alan; Lima, Mauricio

2006-10-12

229

The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges  

PubMed Central

Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate change and disease emergence 13 3.4 Outbreak investigations 13 4 Surveillance and surveys 15 4.1 Investigation of disease prevalence 15 4.2 Developments in surveillance methodology 16 4.2.1 Risk-based surveillance and scenario tree modelling 16 4.2.2 Spatial and temporal analysis 16 4.3 Test validation 17 5 Spread, establishment and impact of pathogens 18 5.1 Identifying routes of spread 18 5.1.1 Ex-ante studies of disease spread 19 5.1.2 Ex-post observational studies 21 5.2 Identifying risk factors for disease establishment 23 5.3 Assessing impact at the population level 24 5.3.1 Recording mortality 24 5.3.2 Farm health and production records 26 5.3.3 Assessing the impact of disease in wild populations 27 6 Conclusions 31 7 Competing interests 32 8 Authors' contributions 32 9 Acknowledgements 33 10 References 33

2011-01-01

230

Establishing a Molecular Diagnostic Testing Quality Assurance Program for Detection of Infectious Diseases Validation of Molecular Tests at the North Carolina State Laboratory of Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality clinical laboratory services are critical for public health. Accurate and timely laboratory results are important in identifying, tracking, controlling, and preventing public health threats. For the past 20 years, molecular diagnostic assays have been available for infectious disease detection. These technologies have played and continue to play a critical role in clinical laboratories. Molecular diagnostic testing offers laboratories the

Shermalyn R. Greene

231

Companion animals symposium: role of microbes in canine and feline health.  

PubMed

Whether in an ocean reef, a landfill, or a gastrointestinal tract (GIT), invisible communities of highly active and adaptable microbes prosper. Over time, mammals have developed a symbiosis with microbes that are important inhabitants not only in the GIT, but also in the mouth, skin, and urogenital tract. In the GIT, the number of commensal microbes exceeds the total number of host cells by at least 10 times. The GIT microbes play a critical role in nutritional, developmental, defensive, and physiologic processes in the host. Recent evidence also suggests a role of GIT microbes in metabolic phenotype and disease risk (e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome) of the host. Proper balance is a key to maintaining GIT health. Balanced microbial colonization is also important for other body regions such as the oral cavity, the region with the greatest prevalence of disease in dogs and cats. A significant obstruction to studying microbial populations has been the lack of tools to identify and quantify microbial communities accurately and efficiently. Most of the current knowledge of microbial populations has been established by traditional cultivation methods that are not only laborious, time-consuming, and often inaccurate, but also greatly limited in scope. However, recent advances in molecular-based techniques have resulted in a dramatic improvement in studying microbial communities. These DNA-based high-throughput technologies have enabled us to more clearly characterize the identity and metabolic activity of microbes living in the host and their association with health and diseases. Despite this recent progress, however, published data pertaining to microbial communities of dogs and cats are still lacking in comparison with data in humans and other animals. More research is required to provide a more detailed description of the canine and feline microbiome and its role in health and disease. PMID:21036940

Kil, D Y; Swanson, K S

2010-10-29

232

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal disease is a major social and economic problem across the United States, and throughout the world. Diseases can lead to animal suffering and distress, reduced performance, and possibly even death. Infectious diseases have major negative effects on poultry and livestock production, both in terms of economics and on animal welfare. The costs of animal disease are estimated to be

Alison Van Eenennaam

233

National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few

T. Håstein; M. Binde; M. Hine; S. Johnsen; A. Lillehaug; N. J. Olesen; N. Purvis; A. D. Scarfe; B. Wright

234

Ochratoxin A in feed of food-producing animals: an undesirable mycotoxin with health and performance effects.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, whose presence in feed- and foodstuffs is unavoidable. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the known mycotoxins with greatest public health and agro-economic significance. Several toxic effects have been ascribed following exposure, namely nephrotoxicity, as well negative impacts in the performance of farm animals, resulting in major economic implications. Of no less importance for the route of human exposure that can also embody the carry-over of OTA from feed into animal-derived products is also a concern. For all these reasons the present article updates the worldwide occurrence of OTA in different raw ingredients and finished feed destined to food-producing animals. After that a brief characterization of specie susceptibility and the major rationales is made. An historical overview of field outbreaks linked to OTA exposure in farm animals, concerning the implicated feeds, contamination levels and major clinical and productivity effects is presented. Finally a review of the major animal health and performance potential impacts of animals being reared on contaminated feed is made allied to a perspective regarding its co-occurrence with other mycotoxins, and simultaneous parasitic and bacterial infections. Ultimately, this article aims to be instructive and draw attention to a mycotoxin so often neglected and elapsed from the list of differential diagnosis in farm practice. For the unpredictability and unavoidability of occurrence, OTA will definitely be an enduring problem in animal production. PMID:21641127

Duarte, Sofia C; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

2011-05-11

235

Critical Soil Concentrations of Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in View of Health Effects on Humans and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in\\u000a risks\\/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms\\/processes and plants) and (ii) human health\\u000a or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The latter effect is related to the phenomenon that a chemical accumulates\\u000a in species through different trophic

Wim de Vries; Paul F. A. M. Römkens; Gudrun Schütze

236

Parent-reported mental health in preschoolers: findings using a diagnostic interview.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that many preschoolers meet criteria for psychiatric diagnoses; still, relatively little is known about preschool mental health, particularly emotional problems, in the community. This study investigated the rates of parent-reported DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Five hundred forty-one parents were interviewed with the PAPA. Of the children, 27.4% met criteria for a PAPA/DSM-IV diagnosis; 9.2% met criteria for 2 or more diagnoses. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (9.4%), specific phobia (9.1%), and separation anxiety disorder (5.4%) were the most common diagnoses; depression (1.8%), selective mutism (1.5%), and panic disorder (0.2%) were the least common. In addition, there was significant comorbidity/covariation between depression, anxiety, and ODD and between ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratios = 1.81-18.44; P < .05), and significant associations with measures of psychosocial functioning. The stability and clinical significance of diagnoses and patterns of comorbidity must be elucidated in future research. PMID:21683173

Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

2010-11-03

237

Neural Network Based State of Health Diagnostics for an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer  

SciTech Connect

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSA’s complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.

Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.

2009-05-13

238

Physician-Directed Diagnostic and Therapeutic Plans: a quality cure for America's health-care crisis.  

PubMed

The most effective way to improve quality is to reduce variation in the processes of providing a service. Physician-Directed Diagnostic and Therapeutic (PDDT) Plans are a proven methodology for reducing variation in clinical processes and improving the quality of care. A major part of the PDDT Plan process is the development of a critical pathway. Critical pathways are an application of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to clinical care which have provided clear, tangible results in those hospitals committed to this process. These pathways define the processes, timelines and responsibilities associated with the patient's clinical needs from preadmission to post discharge. Representatives of the various health-care professions involved in treating the specified patient populations work together, led by a physician, to define the processes of care. When completed, everyone involved in treating the patient understands what is to be done, by whom, and when. The pathways allow clinicians to plan ahead and let the patient and family know what to expect. Through establishing standards of care, these critical pathways also reduce the uncertainty of treatment decisions and free physicians from having to practice defensive medicine, and thus reduce cost. While the most visible outcome of this process is the actual PDDT Plan, it is not necessarily the most important. The very process of designing the pathway improves intra- and interdisciplinary communication, and fosters teamwork. PMID:8268471

Musfeldt, C; Hart, R I

1993-01-01

239

Seroprevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic swine based on the National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1990 and 1995 swine surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine sera collected by the US Department of Agriculture's Center for Animal Health Monitoring during 1990 and 1995 was tested for antibodies to Trichinella spiralis using an enzyme immunoassay. From a total of 3048 sera collected from lactating sows in 1990, five sera tested positive for a prevalence of 0.16%. From a total of 7987 sera collected from both finishing

H. R Gamble; E Bush

1999-01-01

240

What is normal? A field approach to characterizing health and management of the nation’s animal populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing demand for information about the health and well-being of animals on farms. Such information has many uses. In some instances such information is used locally by livestock owners and producers to gauge their position relative to their peers. In other instances the information can be used at a national or international level by policy makers and

David A. Dargatz

2009-01-01

241

Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was

A. V. Capuco; C. P. Rice; R. L. Baldwin Vi; D. D. Bannerman; M. J. Paape; W. R. Hare; A. C. W. Kauf; G. W. McCarty; C. J. Hapeman; A. M. Sadeghi; J. L. Starr; L. L. McConnell; C. P. van Tassell

2005-01-01

242

From mice to men: What can animal models tell us about the relationship between mental health and physical activity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity has been associated with numerous benefits that extend to mental health, although how these benefits are accrued is not clear. The notion that animal research can prove useful in this regard may initially seem irrelevant and even inapplicable. However, there is a growing body of evidence, focusing in particular on exercise, to suggest that the biochemical changes induced

Gary Remington

2009-01-01

243

An Overview of the Design, Construction, and Operational Management of the US Department of Agriculture National Centers for Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World-wide interest and demand for high containment, biosecure facilities for veterinary medicine and animal health research is increasing. This demand has been spurred on in part by the recent emergence of potential zoonotic pathogens such as Avian Influenza, West Nile Virus, and Tuberculosis, amo...

244

Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.  

PubMed

The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms. PMID:23031524

Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

2012-09-01

245

An Active Diagnostic System for Structural Health Monitoring of Rocket Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active diagnostic system using built-in piezoelectric actuator\\/sensor networks was developed for monitoring crack growth in a rocket engine pipe. The diagnostic system combines a sensor network, portable diagnostic hardware and data analysis software which allows for real-time in situ monitoring and long term tracking of the structural integrity of pressure vessels. Experimental data shows that the system can detect

Xinlin P. Qing; Hian-Leng Chan; Shawn J. Beard; Amrita Kumar

2006-01-01

246

Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.  

PubMed

A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances. PMID:20128464

Chomel, B B; Marano, N

2009-08-01

247

Diagnostic Radiology Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The health systems agency that reviews certificate of need applications for replacing or adding diagnostic radiology equipment should benefit from these guidelines. To help determine need for diagnostic radiology equipment, the Health Services Council, In...

1978-01-01

248

Secular trends in diagnostic code density in electronic healthcare data from health care systems in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project.  

PubMed

Large observational vaccine safety studies often use automated diagnoses extracted from medical care databases to identify pre-specified potential adverse events following immunization (AEFI). We assessed the secular trends and variability in the number of diagnoses per encounter regardless of immunization status referred as diagnostic code density, by healthcare setting, age, and pre-specified condition in eight large health care systems of the Vaccine Safety Datalink project during 2001-2009. An increasing trend in diagnostic code density was observed in all healthcare settings and age groups, with variations across the sites. Sudden increases in diagnostic code density were observed at certain sites when changes in coding policies or data inclusion criteria took place. When vaccine safety studies use an historical comparator, the increased diagnostic code density over time may generate low expected rates (based on historical data) and high observed rates (based on current data), suggesting a false positive association between a vaccine and AEFI. The ongoing monitoring of the diagnostic code density can provide guidance on study design and choice of appropriate comparison groups. It can also be used to ensure data quality and allow timely correction of errors in an active safety surveillance system. PMID:23267842

Hechter, Rulin C; Qian, Lei; Sy, Lina S; Greene, Sharon K; Weintraub, Eric S; Naleway, Allison L; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Donahue, James G; Daley, Matthew F; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Lugg, Marlene M; Jacobsen, Steven J

2012-12-23

249

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (19) Section 101(d), Organic...20) The Swine Health Protection Act...with respect to public participation in...Epizooties. (41) Public Health Security and Bioterrorism...B and C; of the Public Health Security and...

2013-01-01

250

Using the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) Model to Measure Risk Selection in the Massachusetts State Employee Health Insurance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diagnostic Care Group (DCG) model is applied to data from the Massachusetts Group Insurance Commission from fiscal years 1994-1995 and used to assess the extent of biased selection between one fee-for-service (FFS) plan, one preferred provider organization, and several health maintenance organizations. Average reported covered expenses in the FFS plan are 2.7 time the average of expenses in the

W. Yu; R. P. Ellis; A. Ash

1998-01-01

251

Avian influenza and animal health risk: conservation of endemic threatened wild birds in Sardinia Island.  

PubMed

Sardinia is a Mediterranean island with a long geological history, leading to a separation process from continental Europe during the Miocene. As a consequence, in this insular habitat some wild bird species developed endemic forms, some of which are currently threatened. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible animal health risk associated with a potential avian influenza virus (AIV) circulation in Sardinian wild bird populations. Overall, 147 cloacal swabs were sampled in the Sardinia region from June 2009 to September 2011. Samples were obtained from 12 taxonomic orders, including 16 families and 40 species of birds. Based on the endangered host status or on the ecology of the host-virus interaction, samples were categorized into three groups of species: 1) endemic, endangered, or both (17 species); 2) potential reservoir (21 species); and 3) potential spillover (two species). Cloacal swabs were tested by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for influenza A virus matrix gene amplification. Forty-one serum samples were tested by nucleoprotein-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NP-ELISA) for antibodies against influenza A virus nucleoprotein and by hemagglutination inhibition assay for detection of seropositivity against H5 and H7 AIV subtypes. No cloacal swabs tested RT-PCR positive for AIV, whereas two weak seropositive results were detected by NP-ELISA in a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and in a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). The low or absent AIV circulation detected in Sardinia's wild birds during the study suggests a naïve status in these avian populations. These data provide new information on AIV circulation in Sardinia's wild birds that could be applied to implement conservation strategies for threatened species. PMID:23402132

Delogu, Mauro; Piredda, Isabella; Pintore, Antonio; Cabras, Pierangela; Cotti, Claudia; Ghetti, Giulia; Raffini, Elisabetta; De Marco, Maria A

2012-12-01

252

Physical and mental health outcomes of prenatal maternal stress in human and animal studies: a review of recent evidence.  

PubMed

Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in the offspring through experimental studies using animal models and epidemiological studies of human populations. The purpose of this review article is to establish a parallel between animal and human studies, while focusing on methodological issues and gaps in knowledge. The review examines the quality of recent evidence for prevailing PNMS theoretical models, namely the biopsychosocial model for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the fetal programming model for chronic diseases. The investigators used PubMed (2000-06) to identify recently published original articles in the English language literature. A total of 103 (60 human and 43 animal) studies were examined. Most human studies originated from developed countries, thus limiting generalisability to developing nations. Most animal studies were conducted on non-primates, rendering extrapolation of findings to pregnant women less straightforward. PNMS definition and measurement were heterogeneous across studies examining similar research questions, thus precluding the conduct of meta-analyses. In human studies, physical health outcomes were often restricted to birth complications while mental health outcomes included postnatal developmental disorders and psychiatric conditions in children, adolescents and adults. Diverse health outcomes were considered in animal studies, some being useful models for depression, schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in human populations. The overall evidence is consistent with independent effects of PNMS on perinatal and postnatal outcomes. Intervention studies and large population-based cohort studies combining repeated multi-dimensional and standardised PNMS measurements with biomarkers of stress are needed to further understand PNMS aetiology and pathophysiology in human populations. PMID:18782252

Beydoun, Hind; Saftlas, Audrey F

2008-09-01

253

Implementing ideal health policy in a fragile health system: the example of expanding the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in mainland Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Malaria confirmation before treatment provides an opportunity for improving the quality of malaria case management in endemic regions. However, increased coverage of this strategy is facing many organizational, logistical and technical challenges that threaten its success. Introducing an intervention with system-wide effect, such as the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in areas where malaria is still a public health problem, should be accompanied by system strengthening measures to better attain the goal of improving quality of care.

2011-01-01

254

Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I -- Nonparasitic zoonotic diseases  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene.

Weese, J. S.; Peregrine, A. S.; Armstrong, J.

2002-01-01

255

Animal-assisted therapy: evaluation and implementation of a complementary therapy to improve the psychological and physiological health of critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Animal-assisted therapy has gained widespread support in a variety of health care settings, including critical care units. This article seeks to review some of the current animal-assisted therapy, define a structured program, and evaluate the potential ability of the therapy to enhance the progress and health of our patients. PMID:20703127

DeCourcey, Mary; Russell, Anne C; Keister, Kathy J

256

Use of animal products in traditional Chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly practised in many countries of the world. Some recent textbooks of TCM still recommend formulas containing various animal tissues such as tiger bones, antelope, buffalo or rhino horns, deer antlers, testicles and os penis of the dog, bear or snake bile. Usually, animal tissues are combined with medical herbs. In most of the

J. Still

2003-01-01

257

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Hazards, Environmental and Health Risks as the Latent Products of Late Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAFOs raise tens of thousands of animals in confined cages and feedlots, feed them high calorie diets, and ship them to slaughter in record time. These factory farms (as they are sometimes called) devastate neighboring environments with the releases of toxic methane gas and animal waste. Progress in modernized agricultural production has enabled us to feed the growing population but

Bryan R Clarey

2012-01-01

258

Buddhist Animal Release Practices: Historic, Environmental, Public Health And Economic Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal release has long been a component of Buddhist practice, although it is little studied contemporarily. This paper examines the historical roots of these rituals, arguing that they may ultimately have been adopted into Chinese Buddhist practices. A short survey of contemporary Buddhist practice in various traditions is given, including references to important scriptural authority. Practices involving large-scale, ritualized animal

Henry Shiu; Leah Stokes

2008-01-01

259

International regulations and standards for avian influenza, including the vaccine standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.  

PubMed

For avian influenza the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has laid down international standards on notification, trade, diagnosis, surveillance and the production and use of vaccine. These standards are science- and risk-based to ensure safe trade in poultry and poultry products without unjustified barriers. The European Union, with its 27 Member States, has in place harmonised legislation in line with OIE standards. Early detection, rapid diagnosis, notification and high quality Veterinary Services are crucial for ensuring a rapid response to avian influenza outbreaks and for swiftly reducing the risk of virus spread via trade. Depending on the situation, vaccination may also be a very important tool for disease control. The use of high quality vaccines and postvaccination monitoring are essential for the successful implementation of vaccination. Compliance with international standards is of paramount importance for protecting animal and human health in the global crisis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 subtype. PMID:19618641

Bruschke, C J M; Pittman, M; Laddomada, A

2009-04-01

260

The obligations of Member Countries of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) in the Organisation of Veterinary Services.  

PubMed

The authors discuss the mission, organisation and resources of Veterinary Services in the new international trading environment and examine how the standards for Veterinary Services, contained in the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) International Animal Health Code (the Code), help provide the necessary support for Veterinary Services to meet their rights and obligations under the provisions of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The authors describe the challenges of gaining access to international trading markets through surveillance and control of OIE listed diseases. Finally, the approach in the Code to the principles underpinning the quality of Veterinary Services and to guidelines for evaluating Veterinary Services, is discussed. PMID:15884591

Vallat, B; Wilson, D W

2003-08-01

261

On the photobleaching of native and exogenous (BPD-MA) fluorescence: Quantification of kinetics and its role in diagnostics in tumor and atherosclerotic animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence photobleaching (Phbl) is a process via which molecules, gradually loose their ability to fluoresce. It is present, to a lesser or greater degree, in all fluorescent-based biomedical techniques and thus plays an important role in their reliability and implementation. The purpose of this work was to quantify the dynamics of fluorescence PhBl in two animal models and investigate its role in pertinent fluorescence diagnostics. To this end, we have used a tumor bearing rat model (Prostatic Adenocarcinoma, PA-III) and an atherosclerotic rabbit model. The former model was used to (a) quantify the PhBl dynamics of native and exogenous (BPD-MA) fluorescence, and (b) to examine the relationship of this dynamics with the histopathology. The native and exogenous fluorescence spectrum of four animal sites (primary tumor, mesenteric-I, right and left iliac lymph nodes) were simultaneously monitored during continuous laser irradiation (442 nm). PhBl dynamics were described by biexponential decays. The values of the fast/slow decay parameters differed by approximately an order of magnitude for both the native (˜1 sec/˜10 sec) and BPD-MA fluorescence (˜1.5 sec/˜15 sec). Strong correlation between the PhBl dynamics and histopathology allowed for discrimination between metastatic and normal or inflammatory lymph nodes. The atherosclerotic model was used to (a) quantify the PhBl of native fluorescence of normal and atherosclerotic rabbit arterial wall, and (b) to investigate its influence on the spectro-temporal parameters used for diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions. PhBl was also characterized by second order kinetics and was influenced by both fluence and fluence rate. Within the range of fluences used in this study, the time-dependent characteristics of rabbit arterial fluorescence were unaffected by PhBl. Acceptable excitation levels for optimal tissue interrogation were established.

Papaioannou, Thanassis

262

Evolution of the cooperation between the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.  

PubMed

The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization recognises the international standards adopted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in matters of animal health and zoonoses and those adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the Commission) in matters of food safety. The importance of the production phase in ensuring food safety has been acknowledged and the OIE and the Commission have been working to strengthen their cooperation since 2001, with the intent of promoting a holistic approach to the food chain. Procedures for exchanging information are in place, communication has improved and there is cross-referencing between the respective international standards of the two organisations. Good examples of collaboration in the development of standards include the texts produced by the two organisations regarding meat inspection and animal/product identification and traceability. At the same time, there is still room for improving cooperation and the legal services of the OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization are expected to work together to find options for closer collaboration between the OIE and the Commission. PMID:18293609

Berlingieri, F; Bruno, A; Njeumi, F; Cavirani, S

2007-12-01

263

Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to SUI with the goal of developing prophylactic treatments. Methods of assessing SUI in animals that mimic diagnostic methods used clinically have been developed to evaluate the animal models. Use of these animal models to test innovative treatment strategies has the potential to improve clinical management of SUI. This chapter provides a review of the available animal models of SUI, as well as a review of the methods of assessing SUI in animal models, and potential treatments that have been tested on these models.

Jiang, Hai-Hong

2011-01-01

264

Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

265

Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).  

PubMed

Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula. PMID:20701843

Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

2008-10-27

266

nanoLAB: an ultraportable, handheld diagnostic laboratory for global health.  

PubMed

Driven by scientific progress and economic stimulus, medical diagnostics will move to a stage in which straightforward medical diagnoses are independent of physician visits and large centralized laboratories. The future of basic diagnostic medicine will lie in the hands of private individuals. We have taken significant strides towards achieving this goal by developing an autoassembly assay for disease biomarker detection which obviates the need for washing steps and is run on a handheld sensing platform. By coupling magnetic nanotechnology with an array of magnetically responsive nanosensors, we demonstrate a rapid, multiplex immunoassay that eliminates the need for trained technicians to run molecular diagnostic tests. Furthermore, the platform is battery-powered and ultraportable, allowing the assay to be run anywhere in the world by any individual. PMID:21264375

Gaster, Richard S; Hall, Drew A; Wang, Shan X

2011-01-24

267

Rapporteur report: cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health.  

PubMed

Three talks were presented in the session on "Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health". The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from epidemiological studies. The overall conclusion of the three presentations and the following general discussion was that the scientific evidence available to date is weak and contains large gaps in knowledge either due to the poor quality of published studies or because of the lack of published research on certain health-related topics. It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects. PMID:15556663

Leszczynski, Dariusz

268

Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an imag...

269

Influence of Rapid Malaria Diagnostic Tests on Treatment and Health Outcome in Fever Patients, Zanzibar--A Crossover Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria is being suggested to improve diagnostic efficiency in peripheral health care settings in Africa. Such improved diagnostics are critical to minimize overuse and thereby delay development of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Our objective was to study the influence of RDT-aided malaria diagnosis on drug prescriptions, health outcomes, and costs in primary health care settings. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-over validation clinical trial in four primary health care units in Zanzibar. Patients of all ages with reported fever in the previous 48 hours were eligible and allocated alternate weeks to RDT-aided malaria diagnosis or symptom-based clinical diagnosis (CD) alone. Follow-up was 14 days. ACT was to be prescribed to patients diagnosed with malaria in both groups. Statistical analyses with multilevel modelling were performed. A total of 1,887 patients were enrolled February through August 2005. RDT was associated with lower prescription rates of antimalarial treatment than CD alone, 361/1005 (36%) compared with 752/882 (85%) (odds ratio [OR] 0.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03–0.05, p<0.001). Prescriptions of antibiotics were higher after RDT than CD alone, i.e., 372/1005 (37%) and 235/882 (27%) (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.5–2.2, p<0.001), respectively. Reattendance due to perceived unsuccessful clinical cure was lower after RDT 25/1005 (2.5%), than CD alone 43/882 (4.9%) (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9, p?=?0.005). Total average cost per patient was similar: USD 2.47 and 2.37 after RDT and CD alone, respectively. Conclusions RDTs resulted in improved adequate treatment and health outcomes without increased cost per patient. RDTs may represent a tool for improved management of patients with fever in peripheral health care settings. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00549003 Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary

Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Martensson, Andreas; Rotllant, Guida; Bhattarai, Achuyt; Stromberg, Johan; Kahigwa, Elizeus; Garcia, Montse; Petzold, Max; Olumese, Peter; Ali, Abdullah; Bjorkman, Anders

2009-01-01

270

Role of Veterinary Medicine in Public Health: Antibiotic Use in Food Animals and Humans and the Effect on Evolution of Antibacterial Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary public health is another frontier in the fight against human disease. The veterinary public health scope includes the control and eradication of zoonoses, diseases that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man. These diseases pose a continuous hazard to the health and welfare of the public. More than 100 diseases are categorized as zoonoses, including salmonellosis. It is

Claire M. Lathers

2001-01-01

271

Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no\\u000a studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning\\u000a to their home country.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008

Nicolae V Ostrovschi; Martin J Prince; Cathy Zimmerman; Mihai A Hotineanu; Lilia T Gorceag; Viorel I Gorceag; Clare Flach; Melanie A Abas

2011-01-01

272

Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

273

Space Shuttle Main Engine plume diagnostics: OPAD approach to vehicle health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup, AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), has formed the basis for various efforts in the development

W. T. Powers; A. E. Cooper; T. L. Wallace; W. L. Buntine; K. Whitaker

1993-01-01

274

Impact of new sexually transmitted disease diagnostics on clinical practice and public health policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) offer enhanced sensitivity and excellent specificity for many sexually transmitted\\u000a diseases. For some pathogens for which a practical diagnostic test does not exist, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), NAAT\\u000a are also useful. Further, most NAAT can be applied to less \\

Jeanne M. Marrazzo

2001-01-01

275

Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

2011-01-01

276

Safety and Health Manual: United States Department of Agriculture Marketing and Regulatory Programs, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Safety, Health, and Environmental Staff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The APHIS Safety, Health, and Wellness Manual was developed to help APHIS accomplish its mission safely, healthfully, and efficiently. This Manual is the only APHIS reference employees will need concerning the management of the APHIS Safety, Health, and W...

1998-01-01

277

The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic…

Beavers, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

278

Rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis and drug resistance in the industrialized world: clinical and public health benefits and barriers to implementation  

PubMed Central

In this article, we give an overview of new technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and drug resistance, consider their advantages over existing methodologies, broad issues of cost, cost-effectiveness and programmatic implementation, and their clinical as well as public health impact, focusing on the industrialized world. Molecular nucleic-acid amplification diagnostic systems have high specificity for TB diagnosis (and rifampicin resistance) but sensitivity for TB detection is more variable. Nevertheless, it is possible to diagnose TB and rifampicin resistance within a day and commercial automated systems make this possible with minimal training. Although studies are limited, these systems appear to be cost-effective. Most of these tools are of value clinically and for public health use. For example, whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis offers a powerful new approach to the identification of drug resistance and to map transmission at a community and population level.

2013-01-01

279

Health facility-based malaria surveillance: The effects of age, area of residence and diagnostics on test positivity rates  

PubMed Central

Background The malaria test positivity rate (TPR) is increasingly used as an indicator of malaria morbidity because TPR is based on laboratory-confirmed cases and is simple to incorporate into existing surveillance systems. However, temporal trends in TPR may reflect changes in factors associated with malaria rather than true changes in malaria morbidity. This study examines the effects of age, area of residence and diagnostic test on TPR at two health facilities in regions of Uganda with differing malaria endemicity. Methods The analysis included data from diagnostic blood smears performed at health facilities in Walukuba and Aduku between January 2009 and December 2010. The associations between age and time and between age and TPR were evaluated independently to determine the potential for age to confound temporal trends in TPR. Subsequently, differences between observed TPR and TPR adjusted for age were compared to determine if confounding was present. A similar analysis was performed for area of residence. Temporal trends in observed TPR were compared to trends in TPR expected using rapid diagnostic tests, which were modelled based upon sensitivity and specificity in prior studies. Results Age was independently associated with both TPR and time at both sites. At Aduku, age-adjusted TPR increased relative to observed TPR due to the association between younger age and TPR and the gradual increase in age distribution. At Walukuba, there were no clear differences between observed and age-adjusted TPR. Area of residence was independently associated with both TPR and time at both sites, though there were no clear differences in temporal trends in area of residence-adjusted TPR and observed TPR at either site. Expected TPR with pLDH- and HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was higher than observed TPR at all time points at both sites. Conclusions Adjusting for potential confounders such as age and area of residence can ensure that temporal trends in TPR due to confounding are not mistakenly ascribed to true changes in malaria morbidity. The potentially large effect of diagnostic test on TPR can be accounted for by calculating and adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the test used.

2012-01-01

280

Quantifying Potential Human Health Impacts of Animal Antibiotic Use: Enrofloxacin and Macrolides in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some

Douglas A. Popken

2006-01-01

281

Investigations of reported plant and animal health effects in the Three Mile Island area. Regulatory report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the release of radioactive gases and drift from cooling tower plumes) are discussed. Specific case

G. E. Gears; G. LaRoche; J. Cable; B. Jaroslow; D. Smith

1980-01-01

282

IMMUNOTOXICITY - BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ANIMAL RESEARCH AND HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...

283

The current role of Aspergillus and Penicillium in human and animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus and Penicillium are ubiquitous fungi, usually found as saprophytes. Only a few species are considered to be important in human or animal disease. However, many otherwise benign species are supreme opportunists and have been found increasingly as invaders of the immuno- compromised. This paper first describes with a broad brush modern approaches to the classifi- cation of these genera,

J. I. Pitt

1994-01-01

284

The human health implication of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobials given in subtherapeutic levels in feed are credited with having contributed to lower cost of meat, milk and eggs. The practice often is associated with the acquisition of resistant enteric flora by the involved animals, and this may in turn contribute to the human reservoir of antimicrobial resistant coliforms and salmonellae. Associated farm workers may transiently acquire resistant flora

Herbert L. DuPont; James H. Steele

1987-01-01

285

Human Health Impact and Regulatory Issues Involving Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Animal Production Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from farms and animal carcasses are raising concerns that antibiotic use in agriculture may play a role in selecting for antibiotic resistance among foodborne bacteria. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a very controversial issue. Some contend that the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in agriculture creates a reservoir of resistant microorganisms in the environment that could

Mohamed S. Nawaz; Bruce D. Erickson; Ashraf A. Khan; Saeed A. Khan; Jairaj V. Pothuluri; Fatemeh Rafii; John B. Sutherland; R. Doug Wagner; Carl E. Cerniglia

286

INVESTIGATIONS OF REPORTED PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN THE THREE MILE ISLAND AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the ...

287

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...animal duty-free-entry provision of Tariff Act of June 17, 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1202, part 1, Item 100.01...countries engaged in such activities and the stationing of scientists at national and international institutions in such...

2010-01-01

288

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...animal duty-free-entry provision of Tariff Act of June 17, 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1202, part 1, Item 100.01...countries engaged in such activities and the stationing of scientists at national and international institutions in such...

2009-01-01

289

The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from

Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips

2003-01-01

290

Health Workers' Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) to Guide Clinical Decision Making in Rural Dispensaries, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were developed as an alternative to microscopy for malaria diagnosis. The RDTs detect malaria parasite antigen(s) in whole blood with high sensitivity and specificity. We assessed health worker malaria treatment practices after the introduction of RDTs in peripheral health facilities without microscopy. From December 2007 to October 2008, we introduced histidine-rich protein II (HRP-2)-based ParaHIT RDTs for routine use in 12 health facilities in Rufiji District, Tanzania. Health workers received training on how to perform RDTs for patients 5 years of age or older with fever or suspected malaria. Children < 5 years of age were to be treated empirically per national guidelines. Among the 30,195 patients seen at these 12 health facilities, 10,737 (35.6%) were tested with an RDT for malaria. 88.3% (9,405/10,648) of tested patients reported fever or history of fever and 2.7% (289/10,677) of all tested individuals were children < 5 years of age. The RDT results were recorded for 10,650 patients (99.2%). Among the 5,488 (51.5%) RDT-positive patients, 5,256 (98.6%) were treated with an appropriate first-line antimalarial per national guidelines (artemether-lumefantrine or quinine). Among the 5,162 RDT-negative patients, only 205 (4.0%) were treated with an antimalarial. Other reported treatments included antibiotics and antipyretics. Implementation of RDTs in rural health facilities resulted in high adherence to national treatment guidelines. Patients testing negative by RDT were rarely treated with antimalarials. Unapproved antimalarials were seldom used. Health workers continued to follow guidelines for the empiric treatment of febrile children.

Masanja, M. Irene; McMorrow, Meredith; Kahigwa, Elizeus; Kachur, S. Patrick; McElroy, Peter D.

2010-01-01

291

75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-08-09

292

75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-05-05

293

75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0050] Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2010-06-14

294

Layers '99. Part 1: Reference of 1999 Table Egg Layer Management in the U.S. National Animal Health Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) Layers '99 study was designed to provide both participants and the industry withn formation on the nation's table egg layer population for education and research. NAHMS is sponsored by the USDA:APHIS:...

1999-01-01

295

Layers '99. Part 2: Reference of 1999 Table Egg Layer Management in the U.S. National Animal Health Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) Layers '99 study was designed to provide both participants and the industry within formation on the nation's table egg layer population for education and research. NAHMS is sponsored by the USDA:APHIS...

2000-01-01

296

Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2011. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 60, No. 6, November 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rabies has one of the highest case-fatality ratios of any infectious disease. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal control officials, and other parties engaged in rabies prevention and control activities ...

2011-01-01

297

Rodents on pig and chicken farms - a potential threat to human and animal health  

PubMed Central

Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited.

Backhans, Annette; Fellstrom, Claes

2012-01-01

298

Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host.

Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

2009-01-01

299

Gastric helicobacters in domestic animals and nonhuman primates and their significance for human health.  

PubMed

Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated "H. heilmannii," but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii." These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. "Candidatus Helicobacter bovis" is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

2009-04-01

300

Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be

M. Piñeiro; S. Gymnich; S. Knura; C. Piñeiro; B. Petersen

2009-01-01

301

Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day?  

PubMed

Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods that first emerged in the mid-1970s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics, whether in humans or in animals, including poultry, are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individual or flock in the shortest time possible. Ease of use, low cost and increased information from a single test (e.g. multiplexing) are also critical areas frequently targeted for improvement. New tests and modifications of current tests are reported often, and diagnostic tests are now commonly developed by commercial companies. As one would expect, most advances in diagnostic technology are applied first to human health, and then may be adapted to animal health if practical. In the present review the trends and novel innovative technologies in primarily viral diagnostics are reviewed and the practicality of these methods and application for poultry health are discussed briefly. Also, influenza will seem to be over-represented in viral diagnostics since it is frequently used as a proof-of-concept target for novel technology due to its importance for animal and public health. Finally, the review is intended to be a brief survey of some of the innovative diagnostic technologies reported in recent years. It is not entirely comprehensive of all technology and the author makes no claims or endorsements of any of the technology or products mentioned. PMID:22702452

Spackman, Erica

2012-01-01

302

Human health issues for plutonium inhalation: Perspectives from laboratory animal studies  

SciTech Connect

Since the first production of plutonium in the 1940s, potential health effects from plutonium have been a concern for humans. The few people exposed to plutonium and the relatively small intakes that have occurred, at least in the Western world, have resulted in very little direct information from human population studies. The Manhattan Project workers have been followed for decades, and few health effects have been observed. The situation is similar for the population of workers at the Rocky Flats facility. Some information is now being released from the former Soviet Union on selected worker populations who show biological effects, primarily pulmonary fibrosis and some increase in lung cancers.

Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01

303

Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of...

K. R. Wheeler S. D. Poll T. Kurtoglu

2010-01-01

304

Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

1985-01-01

305

Animal health problems in organic farming: subjective and objective assessments and farmers’ actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health problems associated with organic farming have not yet been fully evaluated. Subjective records (on-farm surveys or expert opinions) are available for most farm species, but their reliability depends on the survey and type of disease concerned, and good records are available only for the most easily diagnosed diseases. Objective information is available mainly for dairy-cattle (metabolic disorders, mastitis

Jacques Cabaret

2003-01-01

306

Human health issues for plutonium inhalation: Perspectives from laboratory animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first production of plutonium in the 1940s, potential health effects from plutonium have been a concern for humans. The few people exposed to plutonium and the relatively small intakes that have occurred, at least in the Western world, have resulted in very little direct information from human population studies. The Manhattan Project workers have been followed for decades,

B. A. Muggenburg; F. F. Hahn; R. A. Guilmette

1997-01-01

307

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute;)

2001-06-01

308

The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘global change’ is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A

Robert W Sutherst

2001-01-01

309

Preparation of recombinant proteins in milk to improve human and animal health.  

PubMed

Milk is a very abundant source of proteins for animal and human consumption. Milk composition can be modified using transgenesis, including exogenous gene addition and endogenous gene inactivation. The study of milk protein genes has provided researchers with regulatory regions capable of efficiently and specifically driving the expression of foreign genes in milk. The projects underway are aimed at modifying milk composition, improving its nutritional value, reducing mammary infections, providing consumers with antipathogen proteins and preparing purified recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical use. The present paper summarises the current progress in this field. PMID:17107647

Soler, Eric; Thépot, Dominique; Rival-Gervier, Sylvie; Jolivet, Geneviève; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

2006-09-23

310

Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2008: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).  

PubMed

Rabies is a fatal viral zoonosis and a serious public health problem. The disease is an acute, progressive encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus. Although the United States has been declared free of canine rabies virus variant transmission, multiple viral variants are maintained in wild mammal populations, and there is always a risk of reintroduction of canine rabies. All mammals are believed to be susceptible to the disease, and for purposes of this document, use of the term "animal" refers to mammals. The recommendations in this compendium serve as a basis for animal rabies-prevention and -control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. The most current version replaces all previous versions. These recommendations do not supersede state and local laws or requirements. Principles of rabies-prevention and -control are detailed in Part I; recommendations for parenteral vaccination procedures are presented in Part II; and all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part III. PMID:18418348

2008-04-18

311

Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

2008-07-01

312

Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people  

PubMed Central

Introduction This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria) were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10). In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES.

Gaber, Tilman Jakob; Bouyrakhen, Samira; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine Margarete; Wockel, Lars; Poustka, Fritz; Zepf, Florian Daniel

2013-01-01

313

Humans as Animal Sentinels for Forecasting Asthma Events: Helping Health Services Become More Responsive  

PubMed Central

The concept of forecasting asthma using humans as animal sentinels is uncommon. This study explores the plausibility of predicting future asthma daily admissions using retrospective data in London (2005–2006). Negative binomial regressions were used in modeling; allowing the non-contiguous autoregressive components. Selected lags were based on partial autocorrelation function (PACF) plot with a maximum lag of 7 days. The model was contrasted with naïve historical and seasonal models. All models were cross validated. Mean daily asthma admission in 2005 was 27.9 and in 2006 it was 28.9. The lags 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were independently associated with daily asthma admissions based on their PACF plots. The lag model prediction of peak admissions were often slightly out of synchronization with the actual data, but the days of greater admissions were better matched than the days of lower admissions. A further investigation across various populations is necessary.

Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.

2012-01-01

314

Hazard identification and predictability of children's health risk from animal data.  

PubMed Central

Children differ from adults both physiologically and behaviorally. These differences can affect how and when exposures to xenobiotics occur and the resulting responses. Testing using animal models may be used to predict whether children display novel toxicities not observed in adults or whether children are more or less sensitive to known toxicities. Historically, evaluation of developmental toxicity has focused on gestational exposures and morphological changes resulting from this exposure. Functional consequences of gestational exposure and postnatal exposure have not been as well studied. Difficulties with postnatal toxicity evaluations include divergent differentiation of structure, function and physiology across species, lack of understanding of species differences in functional ontogeny, and lack of common end points and milestones across species.

Morford, LaRonda L; Henck, Judith W; Breslin, William J; DeSesso, John M

2004-01-01

315

IncA/C plasmids: An emerging threat to human and animal health?  

PubMed

Incompatibility group IncA/C plasmids are large, low copy, theta-replicating plasmids that have been described in the literature for over 40 years. However, they have only recently been intensively studied on the genomic level because of their associations with the emergence of multidrug resistance in enteric pathogens of humans and animals. These plasmids are unique among other enterobacterial plasmids in many aspects, including their modular structure and gene content. While the IncA/C plasmid genome structure has now been well defined, many questions remain pertaining to their basic biological mechanisms of dissemination and regulation. Here, we discuss the history of IncA/C plasmids in light of our recent understanding of their population distribution, genomics, and effects on host bacteria. PMID:22754754

Johnson, Timothy J; Lang, Kevin S

2012-01-01

316

Critical windows of exposure for children's health: the reproductive system in animals and humans.  

PubMed Central

Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely affect the reproductive system. Currently, available data indicate that the consequences of exposure depend on the nature of the chemical, its target, and the timing of exposure relative to critical windows in development of the reproductive system. The reproductive system is designed to produce gametes in far greater excess than would seem to be necessary for the survival of species. Ten to hundreds of millions of spermatozoa are generated daily by most adult male mammals, yet very few of these germ cells succeed in transmitting their genetic material to the next generation. Although the number of oocytes produced in mammalian females is more limited, and their production occurs only during fetal life, most ovaries contain several orders of magnitude more oocytes than ever will be fertilized. Toxicant exposures may affect critical events in the development of the reproductive system, ranging from early primordial germ cell determination to gonadal differentiation, gametogenesis, external genitalia, or signaling events regulating sexual behavior. Although there are differences between the human reproductive system and that of the usual animal models, such models have been extremely useful in assessing risks for key human reproductive and developmental processes. The objectives for future studies should include the elucidation of the specific cellular and molecular targets of known toxicants; the design of a systematic approach to the identification of reproductive toxicants; and the development of sensitive, specific, and predictive animal models, minimally invasive surrogate markers, or in vitro tests to assess reproductive system function during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Pryor, J L; Hughes, C; Foster, W; Hales, B F; Robaire, B

2000-01-01

317

Diagnostic tests for alcoholism in primary health care: compared efficacy of different instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alcoholism is an uncommon diagnosis in normal medical activity despite being a prevalent health problem in Spain. One of the main obstacles that make diagnosis difficult is the lack of valid, reliable instruments of detection. The aim of the present study is to validate different tests for diagnosing alcoholism (CAGE, Alcohol Clinical Index, MCV, GGT, GOTGPT and GGTAP) in

F. Escobar; F. Espí; M. Canteras

1995-01-01

318

Thousand-fold fluorescent signal amplification for mHealth diagnostics.  

PubMed

The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (mHealth) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many mHealth clinical applications. To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an image stacking algorithm to decrease the image noise and enhance weak signals, and (2) an optical signal amplifier utilizing a capillary tube array. These approaches were used in a detection system which includes multi-wavelength LEDs capable of exciting many fluorophores in multiple wavelengths, a mobile phone or a webcam as a detector, and capillary tube array configured with 36 capillary tubes for signal enhancement. The capillary array enables a ?100× increase in signal sensitivity for fluorescein, reducing the limit of detection (LOD) for mobile phones and webcams from 1000nM to 10nM. Computational image stacking enables another ?10× increase in signal sensitivity, further reducing the LOD for webcam from 10nM to 1nM. To demonstrate the feasibility of the device for the detection of disease-related biomarkers, adenovirus DNA labeled with SYBR green or fluorescein was analyzed by both our capillary array and a commercial plate reader. The LOD for the capillary array was 5ug/mL, and that of the plate reader was 1ug/mL. Similar results were obtained using DNA stained with fluorescein. The combination of the two signal amplification approaches enables a ?1000× increase in LOD for the webcam platform. This brings it into the range of a conventional plate reader while using a smaller sample volume (10ul) than the plate reader requires (100ul). This suggests that such a device could be suitable for biosensing applications where up to 10 fold smaller sample sizes are needed. The simple optical configuration for mHealth described in this paper employing the combined capillary and image processing signal amplification is capable of measuring weak fluorescent signals without the need of dedicated laboratories. It has the potential to be used to increase sensitivity of other optically based mHealth technologies, and may increase mHealth's clinical utility, especially for telemedicine and for resource-poor settings and global health applications. PMID:23928092

Balsam, Joshua; Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

2013-07-17

319

[Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].  

PubMed

The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

320

Bipolar II disorder--diagnostic and management lessons for health practitioners from a coronial inquest.  

PubMed

A coronial inquest into the suicide of television newsreader Charmaine Dragun identified that a likely contributory factor to her death was the failure of many health practitioners to diagnose a bipolar II disorder and to provide more specific treatment for her condition. Lack of awareness about bipolar II disorder among practitioners and the public, as well as screening and detection problems, may have contributed to the failure to diagnose this disorder over the course of a decade. Detection and management of bipolar II disorder generally differs from that for a unipolar disorder, in that mood stabilisers rather than antidepressants are more often a priority. The diagnosis therefore has distinctive implications for management and course of the illness. The Coroner recommended "increased awareness by health professionals of the need to exclude a bipolar disorder in all patients presenting with signs and symptoms of depression" and highlighted the need for "readily available" screening tools. PMID:21770877

Parker, Gordon B

2011-07-18

321

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Older Medical Patients: Diagnostic Recognition, Mental Health Management and Service Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Primary care physicians often treat older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Objective To estimate physician diagnosis and recognition of anxiety and compare health service use among older adults with GAD with\\u000a two comparison samples with and without other DSM diagnoses. Methods Participants were 60+ patients of a multi-specialty medical organization. Administrative database and medical records were\\u000a reviewed for a

Jessica Calleo; Melinda A. Stanley; Anthony Greisinger; Oscar Wehmanen; Michael Johnson; Diane Novy; Nancy Wilson; Mark Kunik

2009-01-01

322

Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct

Chiara Frazzoli; Orish Ebere Orisakwe; Roberto Dragone; Alberto Mantovani

2010-01-01

323

Diagnostics and air pollution damage appraisals: Are we being sufficiently careful in appraising our forest health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Numerous forest surveys are conducted annually on a worldwide basis. These surveys have multiple purposes which may include\\u000a estimates of forest growth and productivity, community structure, biodiversity appraisals and\\/or forest condition (health)\\u000a appraisals as examples. Many of these surveys are then utilized by others in developing reports of a more generalized nature.\\u000a Hence, data collected without attention to detail may

J. M. Skelly

1993-01-01

324

The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study  

PubMed Central

Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention). Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71%) and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%). Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03) and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19) were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.

2012-01-01

325

Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the "Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening," a brief pan-diagnostic web screen for emotional health.  

PubMed

Few standardized tools are available for time-efficient screening of emotional health status across diagnostic categories, especially in primary care. We evaluated the 45-question Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening (BRISC) and the 15-question mini-BRISC in identifying poor emotional health and coping capacity across a range of diagnostic groups - compared with a detailed clinical assessment - in a large sample of adult outpatients. Participants 18-60 years of age (n = 1079) recruited from 12 medical research and clinical sites completed the computerized assessments. Three index scores were derived from the full BRISC and the mini-BRISC: one for risk (negativity-positivity bias) and two for coping (resilience and social capacity). Summed answers were converted to standardized z-scores. BRISC scores were compared with detailed health assessment and diagnostic interview (for current psychiatric, psychological, and neurological conditions) by clinicians at each site according to diagnostic criteria. Clinicians were blinded to BRISC scores. Clinical assessment stratified participants as having "clinical" (n = 435) or "healthy" (n = 644) diagnostic status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that a z-score threshold of -1.57 on the full BRISC index of emotional health provided an optimal classification of "clinical" versus "healthy" status (sensitivity: 81.2%, specificity: 92.7%, positive predictive power: 80.2%, and negative predictive power: 93.1%). Comparable findings were revealed for the mini-BRISC. Negativity-positivity bias index scores contributed the most to prediction. The negativity-positivity index of emotional health was most sensitive to classifying major depressive disorder (100%), posttraumatic stress disorder (95.8%), and panic disorder (88.7%). The BRISC and mini-BRISC both offer a brief, clinically useful screen to identify individuals at risk of disorders characterized by poor emotion regulation, from those with good emotional health and coping. PMID:23139903

Williams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas J; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gatt, Justine M; Koslow, Stephen H; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Devarney, Savannah; Gordon, Evian; John Rush, Augustus

2012-07-26

326

Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the "Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening," a brief pan-diagnostic web screen for emotional health  

PubMed Central

Few standardized tools are available for time-efficient screening of emotional health status across diagnostic categories, especially in primary care. We evaluated the 45-question Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening (BRISC) and the 15-question mini-BRISC in identifying poor emotional health and coping capacity across a range of diagnostic groups – compared with a detailed clinical assessment – in a large sample of adult outpatients. Participants 18–60 years of age (n = 1079) recruited from 12 medical research and clinical sites completed the computerized assessments. Three index scores were derived from the full BRISC and the mini-BRISC: one for risk (negativity–positivity bias) and two for coping (resilience and social capacity). Summed answers were converted to standardized z-scores. BRISC scores were compared with detailed health assessment and diagnostic interview (for current psychiatric, psychological, and neurological conditions) by clinicians at each site according to diagnostic criteria. Clinicians were blinded to BRISC scores. Clinical assessment stratified participants as having “clinical” (n = 435) or “healthy” (n = 644) diagnostic status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that a z-score threshold of ?1.57 on the full BRISC index of emotional health provided an optimal classification of “clinical” versus “healthy” status (sensitivity: 81.2%, specificity: 92.7%, positive predictive power: 80.2%, and negative predictive power: 93.1%). Comparable findings were revealed for the mini-BRISC. Negativity–positivity bias index scores contributed the most to prediction. The negativity–positivity index of emotional health was most sensitive to classifying major depressive disorder (100%), posttraumatic stress disorder (95.8%), and panic disorder (88.7%). The BRISC and mini-BRISC both offer a brief, clinically useful screen to identify individuals at risk of disorders characterized by poor emotion regulation, from those with good emotional health and coping.

Williams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas J; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gatt, Justine M; Koslow, Stephen H; Kulkarni, Jayashri; DeVarney, Savannah; Gordon, Evian; John Rush, Augustus

2012-01-01

327

Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health.  

PubMed

Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a 'reference' range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell-cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (C(T)) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment. PMID:21848762

Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; Van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James; Tinker, M Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L

2011-08-17

328

Evaluating diagnostics: STIs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This supplement on evaluating diagnostics for bacterial sexually transmitted infections is the second in a series of user-friendly operational guides explaining how to conduct evaluations of diagnostic tests for infectious diseases that are of public health importance in the developing world. Here, Rosanna Peeling, head of the WHO\\/TDR Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative, introduces the supplement.

Rosanna W. Peeling

2006-01-01

329

Transcription profiling in environmental diagnostics: health assessments in Columbia River basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The health condition of out-migrating juvenile salmonids can influence migration success. Physical damage, pathogenic infection, contaminant exposure, and immune system status can affect survival probability. The present study is part of a wider investigation of out-migration success in juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and focuses on the application of molecular profiling to assess sublethal effects of environmental stressors in field-collected fish. We used a suite of genes in O. mykiss to specifically assess responses that could be directly related to steelhead health condition during out-migration. These biomarkers were used on juvenile steelhead captured in the Snake River, a tributary of the Columbia River, in Washington, USA, and were applied on gill and anterior head kidney tissue to assess immune system responses, pathogen-defense (NRAMP, Mx, CXC), general stress (HSP70), metal-binding (metallothionein-A), and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1) utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Upon capture, fish were ranked according to visual external physical conditions into good, fair, poor, and bad categories; gills and kidney tissues were then dissected and preserved for gene analyses. Transcription responses were tissue-specific for gill and anterior head kidney with less significant responses in gill tissue than in kidney. Significant differences between the condition ranks were attributed to NRAMP, MX, CXC, and Cyp1a1 responses. Gene profiling correlated gene expression with pathogen presence, and results indicated that gene profiling can be a useful tool for identifying specific pathogen types responsible for disease. Principal component analysis (PCA) further correlated these responses with specific health condition categories, strongly differentiating good, poor, and bad condition ranks. We conclude that molecular profiling is an informative and useful tool that could be applied to indicate and monitor numerous population-level parameters of management interest. PMID:22587496

Connon, Richard E; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Hostetter, Nathan J; Javidmehr, Alireza; Roby, Daniel D; Evans, Allen F; Loge, Frank J; Werner, Inge

2012-05-22

330

Use of population health data to refine diagnostic decision-making for pertussis  

PubMed Central

Objective To improve identification of pertussis cases by developing a decision model that incorporates recent, local, population-level disease incidence. Design Retrospective cohort analysis of 443 infants tested for pertussis (2003–7). Measurements Three models (based on clinical data only, local disease incidence only, and a combination of clinical data and local disease incidence) to predict pertussis positivity were created with demographic, historical, physical exam, and state-wide pertussis data. Models were compared using sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC), and related metrics. Results The model using only clinical data included cyanosis, cough for 1?week, and absence of fever, and was 89% sensitive (95% CI 79 to 99), 27% specific (95% CI 22 to 32) with an area under the ROC curve of 0.80. The model using only local incidence data performed best when the proportion positive of pertussis cultures in the region exceeded 10% in the 8–14?days prior to the infant's associated visit, achieving 13% sensitivity, 53% specificity, and AUC 0.65. The combined model, built with patient-derived variables and local incidence data, included cyanosis, cough for 1?week, and the variable indicating that the proportion positive of pertussis cultures in the region exceeded 10% 8–14?days prior to the infant's associated visit. This model was 100% sensitive (p<0.04, 95% CI 92 to 100), 38% specific (p<0.001, 95% CI 33 to 43), with AUC 0.82. Conclusions Incorporating recent, local population-level disease incidence improved the ability of a decision model to correctly identify infants with pertussis. Our findings support fostering bidirectional exchange between public health and clinical practice, and validate a method for integrating large-scale public health datasets with rich clinical data to improve decision-making and public health.

Reis, Ben Y; Nigrovic, Lise E; Goldmann, Donald A; LaPorte, Tracy N; Olson, Karen L; Mandl, Kenneth D

2010-01-01

331

Antimicrobial use in aquaculture re-examined: its relevance to antimicrobial resistance and to animal and human health.  

PubMed

The worldwide growth of aquaculture has been accompanied by a rapid increase in therapeutic and prophylactic usage of antimicrobials including those important in human therapeutics. Approximately 80% of antimicrobials used in aquaculture enter the environment with their activity intact where they select for bacteria whose resistance arises from mutations or more importantly, from mobile genetic elements containing multiple resistance determinants transmissible to other bacteria. Such selection alters biodiversity in aquatic environments and the normal flora of fish and shellfish. The commonality of the mobilome (the total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome) between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria together with the presence of residual antimicrobials, biofilms, and high concentrations of bacteriophages where the aquatic environment may also be contaminated with pathogens of human and animal origin can stimulate exchange of genetic information between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria. Several recently found genetic elements and resistance determinants for quinolones, tetracyclines, and ?-lactamases are shared between aquatic bacteria, fish pathogens, and human pathogens, and appear to have originated in aquatic bacteria. Excessive use of antimicrobials in aquaculture can thus potentially negatively impact animal and human health as well as the aquatic environment and should be better assessed and regulated. PMID:23711078

Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Dölz, Humberto; Millanao, Ana; Buschmann, Alejandro H

2013-05-26

332

Clinicians' understanding of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision diagnostic criteria: F62.0 enduring personality change after catastrophic experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) has included a diagnostic category of “enduring personality change after catastrophic experience” (EPCACE). Preliminary investigation suggests that there is considerable endorsement in principle for this new category among experts in the field of intentional human trauma, yet many aspects of the diagnosis remain contentious. Criticisms leveled at EPCACE

Ruth O. Beltran; Gwynnyth M. Llewellyn; Derrick Silove

2008-01-01

333

Improving community health worker use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Zambia: package instructions, job aid and job aid-plus-training  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has boosted interest in parasite-based malaria diagnosis, leading to increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), particularly in rural settings where microscopy is limited. With donor support, national malaria control programmes are now procuring large quantities of RDTs. The scarcity of health facilities and trained personnel in many sub-Saharan African countries means that

Steven A Harvey; Larissa Jennings; Masela Chinyama; Fred Masaninga; Kurt Mulholland; David R Bell

2008-01-01

334

Reverse iontophoresis of urea in health and chronic kidney disease: a potential diagnostic and monitoring tool?  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 ?A was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P < 0·0001), to 3·5 h current application (r = 0·89, P = 0·007). The linear equations y = 0·24x + 1 and y = 0·21x + 4·63 predicted plasma urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P < 0·0001), with the separation between the two groups becoming more apparent with longer application (P = 0·003). A cathodal urea cut-off of 30 ?M gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring.

Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

2012-01-01

335

Assessment of classical swine fever diagnostics and vaccine performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and accurate diagnosis is of the utmost importance in the control of epizootic diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), and efficacious vaccination can be used as a supporting tool. While most of the recently developed CSF vaccines and diagnostic kits are mostly validated according to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards, not all of the well-established traditional

W. L. A. Loeffen; A. Meindl-Böhmer; B. Thuer; V. Moennig

2006-01-01

336

Antibiotic resistance in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal

Mary D Barton; Rachael Pratt; Wendy S Hart

337

The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.  

PubMed

One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can jeopardise the biosecurity of several countries, an entire region or even the whole world. The reference status of a non-transparent RL could be questioned. PMID:21309446

Ben Jebara, K

2010-12-01

338

The human and animal health impacts of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of West Nile virus in Australia.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases can have substantial impacts on human and animal health, including major epidemics. West Nile virus (WNV) is of particular international importance due to its recent emergence and impact in the Western Hemisphere. Despite the presence of a sub-type of WNV (Kunjin virus, KUN) in Australia, a potential ecological niche could be occupied by an exotic strain of WNV of the North American type. This study assesses the probability an exotic strain of WNV enters Australia via an infected mosquito in an aircraft from the United States (U.S.) landing at Sydney airport, the probability it spreads to susceptible species and the impact of the resulting outbreak on human and animal health. A release, exposure and consequence assessment were conducted using expert opinion and scientific literature to parameterise the inputs for the models (OIE, 2009). Following establishment of WNV in Australia, the spatio-temporal spread of WNV was predicted over a six year period based on the Australian human and equine populations at-risk, the known distribution of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses in Australia, climatic factors, and the spread of WNV in the U.S. following it's incursion in New York City in 1999. The impact of this spread was measured as a multiplier of human and equine demographics using the U.S. incidence and case fatality rates as a reference. For an 8 month period from September to April (considering seasonal impact on mosquito activity during the coldest months in Australia and the U.S.), and assuming WNV is endemic in the U.S., the median probability an infected mosquito is introduced is 0.17, and the median number of infected mosquitoes introduced is predicted to be zero, with a 95th percentile range of one. The overall probability of a WNV outbreak (WNV released into Australia, susceptible hosts exposed and the virus spread) occurring in the human and the horse population during this time period is estimated to be 7.0×10(-6) and 3.9×10(-6), respectively. These values are largely influenced by the presence of mosquitoes in aircrafts and whether the introduced infected mosquito contacts wild birds. Results of this study suggest there is a low risk of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of WNV from the U.S via aircraft, and provides an insight into the magnitude and impact of the spread among human and horse populations. The generic framework presented could be applied to assess the potential introduction of other mosquito-borne diseases (which involve a wild bird transmission cycle) via international aircraft movements. PMID:23098914

Hernández-Jover, Marta; Roche, Sharon; Ward, Michael P

2012-10-23

339

Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health  

PubMed Central

Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months) were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return) and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return). We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table). Results 120/176 (68%) eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alone (16%); co-morbid PTSD (20%); other anxiety or mood disorder (18%). 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Conclusions Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women found to have co-morbid PTSD or other forms of anxiety and depression immediately post-return should be offered evidenced-based mental health treatment for at least the standard 12-month period of rehabilitation.

2011-01-01

340

Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11  

PubMed Central

Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.

Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S. K.

2012-01-01

341

Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11.  

PubMed

Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny. PMID:23440448

Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S K

2012-07-01

342

Dogs, cats and Catholic parochial clergy in England and Wales: Exploring the relationship between companion animals and work-related psychological health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the theory that companion animals may contribute to the work-related psychological health of Catholic parochial clergy in England and Wales as a possible antidote to the personal and social loneliness of single celibate men. Data were provided by a sample of 1,482 Catholic parochial clergy who completed the modified form of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the

Leslie J. Francis; Douglas W. Turton; Stephen H. Louden

2007-01-01

343

Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres?  

PubMed Central

Background Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Methods The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC) microscopy, expert microscopy and a HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test (Paracheck) was compared in predicting malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the gold standard. Three hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria based on fever and or history of fever from a low and high transmission setting in Uganda were consecutively enrolled and provided blood samples for all tests. Accuracy of each test was calculated overall with 95% confidence interval and then adjusted for age-groups and level of transmission intensity using a stratified analysis. The endpoints were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00565071. Results Of the 300 patients, 88(29.3%) had fever, 56(18.7%) were positive by HC microscopy, 47(15.7%) by expert microscopy, 110(36.7%) by Paracheck and 89(29.7%) by PCR. The overall sensitivity >90% was only shown by Paracheck 91.0% [95%CI: 83.1-96.0]. The sensitivity of expert microscopy was 46%, similar to HC microscopy. The superior sensitivity of Paracheck compared to microscopy was maintained when data was stratified for transmission intensity and age. The overall specificity rates were: Paracheck 86.3% [95%CI: 80.9-90.6], HC microscopy 93.4% [95%CI: 89.1-96.3] and expert microscopy 97.2% [95%CI: 93.9-98.9]. The NPV >90% was shown by Paracheck 95.8% [95%CI: 91.9-98.2]. The overall PPV was <88% for all methods. Conclusion The HRP2-based RDT has shown superior sensitivity compared to microscopy in diagnosis of malaria and may be more suitable for screening of malaria infection.

2010-01-01

344

Genomics and Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As management in the pig industry changes the range of pathogens to which pigs are exposed is altered, from parasites for pigs raised outdoors and viruses and bacteria for indoor pigs. Moreover, as consumers demand pork products free of antibiotic contamination, it becomes increasingly more importan...

345

Embedded diagnostics in combat systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostics capability of combat systems shall be compatible with the Army Diagnostic Improvement Program. Present systems are capable of performing health monitoring and health checks using internal embedded resources. They employ standard sensors and data busses that monitor data signals and built-in test (BIT). These devices provide a comprehensive source of data to accomplish an accurate system level diagnostics and

Christopher Miles; Elena N. Bankowski

2004-01-01

346

A REVIEW - THE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN FOOD PRODUCTION ANIMALS - DOES THIS CAUSE PROBLEMS IN HUMAN HEALTH?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the frequent consequences of antibiotic use is the development and spread of resistant bacteria in people and animals. If animals carry resistant bacteria, then food produced from these animals will often be colonised with these bacteria. After ingesting these foods, people can then carry these resistant bacteria and in some cases develop infections from them. Some of this

P. Collignon

347

21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer. (a) Identification. A diagnostic...

2013-04-01

348

Morris Animal Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Resources AnimalNews Share Your Story Veterinary Clinics Order Cards Our Research VetNEWS Researchers Small Animal Studies Large Animal Studies Wildlife Studies Vet Students Grant Report Forms Blog Mobile Site Privacy Policy Sitemap Contact Us 10200 East Girard Ave Suite B430 Denver, ...

349

Positive, accurate animal identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive, accurate identification of animals and their products would be very helpful in livestock commerce, prevention of theft and fraud and in tracing animals and products to origin. Food safety, animal health, and prevention of epidemics, would be enhanced by combining identification with location. Identification may be by electronic chips, iris or retinal scans, antibody or DNA analysis. A cross

Philip Dziuk

2003-01-01

350

Marketing Animal Facilitated Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal Facilitated Therapy (AFT) is the therapeutic use of the human-animal bond to improve a patient's physical and emotional health. It is an emerging treatment modality that is gaining acceptance among medical practitioners and healthcare administrators. Medical care has traditionally focused on the clinical well-being of the patient. But it is now widely recognized that emotional health is an integral

Kristine Howell-Newman; Robert L. Goldman

1994-01-01

351

Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-h detection of Salmonella in animal feeds.  

PubMed

A comparative study of a 20-h, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organisation for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 81 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD50) was found to be 7.19 and 7.24 CFU/sample for the PCR method and NMKL187, respectively. A very good correlation between results obtained by the two methods was found (Cohen's kappa=0.92). The relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were found to be 97.5%, 102.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals. PMID:22437008

Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

2012-02-25

352

Direct analysis of carbohydrates in animal plasma by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and pulsed amperometric detection for use as a non-invasive diagnostic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper demonstrates that electrochemical detection (ECD) coupled to ion chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ECD–ESI\\/MS\\/MS) can be used to rapidly estimate some indications of the health status of organisms. The lactulose to mannitol ratio (L\\/M) is used as a non-invasive assay to investigate small intestinal absorption pathways and mucosal integrity. In the present study, an evaluation

Darja Kotnik; Andrej Šmidovnik; Petra Jazbec-Križman; Mitja Križman; Mirko Prošek

353

Animal welfare: protestors as laboratory animals.  

PubMed

In a test lawsuit brought by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, the Royal College of Surgeons has been fined for causing unnecessary suffering to a macaque monkey at the College's Buckston Browne Research Establishment. Meanwhile, members of the Middlesex animal rights group are challenging the Colindale Public Health Laboratory by offering themselves for antiviral antibody testing, usually done with rabbits. Animal rights groups remain unconvinced that pending government regulations go far enough in setting guidelines for animal experimentation. PMID:11653619

Clarke, Maxine

1985-02-28

354

Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a research project investigating methods to decrease mastitis incidence, farmer groups for participatory\\u000a training in a modified Farmer Field School approach were initiated in order to improve animal health and farmer knowledge\\u000a in mastitis control technologies in smallholder dairy farms in the Jinja district of Uganda. Two peri-urban groups and one\\u000a rural group met for common

M. Vaarst; D. K. Byarugaba; J. Nakavuma; C. Laker

2007-01-01

355

Effects of Spray-Dried Animal Plasma in Milk Replacers or Additives Containing Serum and Oligosaccharides on Growth and Health of Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of spray-dried animal plasma in milk re- placer without or with the addition of additives con- taining fructooligosaccharides and spray-dried serum on health, growth, and intake of Holstein calves was measured in two 56-d experiments. In experiment 1, 120 calves were fed milk replacer containing 0 or 20% of crude protein as spray-dried bovine plasma for 42 d

J. D. Quigley III; C. J. Kost; T. A. Wolfe

2002-01-01

356

Comparable measures of cognitive function in human infants and laboratory animals to identify environmental health risks to children.  

PubMed Central

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studies. Such a comparable test will allow researchers to observe the effect of environmental neurotoxicants in animals and relate those findings to humans. In this article, we present the results of a review of post-1990, peer-reviewed literature and current research examining measures of cognitive function that can be applied to both human infants (0-12 months old) and laboratory animals. We begin with a discussion of the definition of cognitive function and important considerations in cross-species research. We then describe identified comparable measures, providing a description of the test in human infants and animal subjects. Available information on test reliability, validity, and population norms, as well as test limitations and constraints, is also presented.

Sharbaugh, Carolyn; Viet, Susan Marie; Fraser, Alexa; McMaster, Suzanne B

2003-01-01

357

Diagnosing diagnostic error.  

PubMed

Diagnostic errors are the most common errors in primary care. Diagnostic errors have been found to be the leading cause of malpractice litigation, accounting for twice as many claims and settled cases as medication errors. Diagnostic error is common, harmful, costly, and very critical to the patient-safety issues in health care. Diagnostic errors have received relatively little attention, however. Of what is known, diagnostic errors are an important source of preventable harm. Focused research in this area is highly needed because the causes of diagnostic errors are subtle and solutions are less obvious than for other types of errors. As opposed to medication errors, where the factors predisposing to their occurrence and the resultant preventive strategies are better defined, the relationship between factors influencing the diagnostic reasoning or decision making and a diagnostic error are not as clear. This may include any failure in timely access to care; elicitation or interpretation of symptoms, signs, or laboratory results, formulation and weighing of differential diagnosis; and timely follow-up and specialty referral or evaluation. The literature reveals that diagnostic errors are often caused by the combination of cognitive errors and system failure. Increased understanding about diagnostic decision making, sources of errors, and applying some existing strategies into clinical practice would help clinicians reduce these types of errors and encourage more optimal diagnostic processes. PMID:24070579

Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

2013-10-01

358

Diagnostic History and Treatment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs  

MedlinePLUS

... Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs On This Page Key findings One-half ... as having ASD by a range of health care providers. School-aged CSHCN identified as having ASD ...

359

9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal records. Complete...records, if any, and all other pertinent records...

2013-01-01

360

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

361

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

362

How can malaria rapid diagnostic tests achieve their potential? A qualitative study of a trial at health facilities in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are at the early stages of introduction across malaria endemic countries. This is central to efforts to decrease malaria overdiagnosis and the consequent overuse of valuable anti-malarials and underdiagnosis of alternative causes of fever. Evidence of the effect of introducing RDTs on the overprescription of anti-malarials is mixed. A recent trial in rural

Clare IR Chandler; Christopher JM Whitty; Evelyn K Ansah

2010-01-01

363

Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma.  

PubMed

Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, p<0.001). These results open new possibilities for the assessment of animal health in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality. PMID:19395045

Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B

2009-04-22

364

COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

365

HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

366

Prevalence and Varieties ofHelicobacterSpecies in Dogs from Random Sources and Pet Dogs: Animal and Public Health Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domes- tic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacteria in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which

K. A. EATON; F. E. DEWHIRST; B. J. PASTER; N. TZELLAS; B. E. COLEMAN

1996-01-01

367

THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE (IFS) FUNDING ON LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCH IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A three-part study was carried out to evaluate the charac- teristics and impact of the International Foundation for Science (IFS) funding in Latin America between 1975 and 1997. In the first part analysis of the grants awarded by the IFS showed that support peaked in 1990. Countries most frequently favored were Mexico and Argentina with animal diseases and nutrition

C. S. Galina; J. Riveroll; P. Cardenas; M. Aguilar; J. M. Russell

368

Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and

Deborah J. Pain; Ruth L. Cromie; Julia Newth; Martin J. Brown; Eric Crutcher; Pippa Hardman; Louise Hurst; Rafael Mateo; Andrew A. Meharg; Annette C. Moran; Andrea Raab; Mark A. Taggart; Rhys E. Green; Andrew Iwaniuk

2010-01-01

369

Management of uncomplicated malaria in febrile under five-year-old children by community health workers in Madagascar: reliability of malaria rapid diagnostic tests  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis, as well as prompt and effective treatment of uncomplicated malaria, are essential components of the anti-malaria strategy in Madagascar to prevent severe malaria, reduce mortality and limit malaria transmission. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) used by community health workers (CHWs) by comparing RDT results with two reference methods (microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR). Methods Eight CHWs in two districts, each with a different level of endemic malaria transmission, were trained to use RDTs in the management of febrile children under five years of age. RDTs were performed by CHWs in all febrile children who consulted for fever. In parallel, retrospective parasitological diagnoses were made by microscopy and PCR. The results of these different diagnostic methods were analysed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs administered by the CHWs. The stability of the RDTs stored by CHWs was also evaluated. Results Among 190 febrile children with suspected malaria who visited CHWs between February 2009 and February 2010, 89.5% were found to be positive for malaria parasites by PCR, 51.6% were positive by microscopy and 55.8% were positive by RDT. The performance accuracy of the RDTs used by CHWs in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values was greater than 85%. Concordance between microscopy and RDT, estimated by the Kappa value was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.91). RDTs stored by CHWs for 24 months were capable of detecting Plasmodium falciparum in blood at a level of 200 parasites/?l. Conclusion Introduction of easy-to-use diagnostic tools, such as RDTs, at the community level appears to be an effective strategy for improving febrile patient management and for reducing excessive use of anti-malarial drugs.

2012-01-01

370

78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...literature-based health assessments that incorporates systematic review methodology (available at http://ntp.niehs...methodological issues related to OHAT implementing systematic review. The first will focus on the assessment of...

2013-03-08

371

9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...licensed professional practice of veterinary medicine by such veterinarian under a veterinarian-client-patient...available for inspection by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

2013-01-01

372

Clinical calibration of DSM-IV diagnoses in the World Mental Health (WMH) version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the rationale, design, and analysis plan for the WMH-CIDI clinical calibration studies. As no clinical gold standard assessment is available for the DSM-IV disorders assessed in the WMH-CIDI, we adopted the goal of calibration rather than validation; that is, we asked whether WMH-CIDI diagnoses are 'consistent' with diagnoses based on a state-of-the-art clinical research diagnostic

Ronald C. Kessler; Jamie Abelson; Olga Demler; Javier I. Escobar; Miriam Gibbon; Margaret E. Guyer; Mary J. Howes; Robert Jin; William A. Vega; Ellen E. Walters; Philip Wang; Alan Zaslavsky; Hui Zheng

2004-01-01

373

Dermatophytoses in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities,\\u000a high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their\\u000a great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible\\u000a for the majority of the cases,

René Chermette; Laerte Ferreiro; Jacques Guillot

2008-01-01

374

Animal Technical Services- Bethesda  

Cancer.gov

Exportation of rodents is a joint effort between the investigator, facility management, and the receiving institution. Facility and animal colony health information must be faxed to the receiving facility and they must authorize receipt of the shipment before the animals can be shipped.

375

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

376

Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Nutritional therapies to improve health: lessons from companion animals.  

PubMed

Companion animals represent an under-utilised resource. The present paper is designed to encourage collaborative studies. Dogs and cats are out-bred animals that are willing to consume a consistent diet for long periods, so are ideal candidates for prospective studies of naturally-occurring disease. In some studies the effect of diet on survival has been substantial. Food restriction, for example, slows the development of osteoarthritis and increases the lifespan of Labrador retrievers by 2 years, protein and P restriction more than doubles the median survival time of dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease and adding n-3 fats and arginine to the diet of dogs with stage 3 lymphoma improves median survival time by one-quarter. Obesity is also very common in both dogs and cats and is also associated with disease as in human subjects. When interpreting these results, however, it is essential to take into account pathophysiological differences among species. Dogs and cats do not display all the characteristics of metabolic disease in human subjects, they metabolise fat well and atherosclerosis and cardiac infarction are uncommon. Such differences should not, however, preclude further study because differences among species often clarify knowledge. Monitoring of disease in companion animals may also provide a surveillance system for the safety of the food supply, as illustrated by recent outbreaks of acute renal failure and liver failure in cats and dogs in the USA caused respectively by melamine and mycotoxin contamination of pet foods. PMID:19040782

Hill, Richard C

2008-12-01

377

An evaluation of benchmark dose methodology for non-cancer continuous-data health effects in animals due to exposures to dioxin (TCDD).  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted extensive reviews and analyses of health effects associated with exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. Because the carcinogenicity of TCDD has received considerable attention from EPA and others, this paper focuses on animal data for non-cancer health effects that sometimes appear to be almost as sensitive as cancer to TCDD exposures. Benchmark dose (BMD) methodology can be used to identify point-of-departure (POD) estimates for use in derivation of reference doses or evaluation of margins of exposure. However, selection of an appropriate BMD methodology for assessment of non-cancer data, which are usually continuous (non-quantal), needs to be considered. One option available for a benchmark dose is to use a small percentage change in the mean response relative to the estimated maximum effect of TCDD at large doses. The benchmark based on a change estimated to equal 1% of the estimated maximum change from background to the asymptotic response at large doses (denoted as the relative ED01) was used by EPA in a reassessment of TCDD health risks. A lower confidence limit (LED01) could serve as a point of departure for setting a reference dose (RfD). This is a somewhat arbitrary effect level, generally within the background range of variation among unexposed animals, with an unknown risk. An alternative approach is recommended in which the risk of abnormal levels can be estimated. For continuous-data effects, a low and/or high percentile (e.g., 1st and/or 99th) in unexposed control animals can be used to define abnormal (not necessarily adverse) levels. From a dose-response curve and the standard deviation, it is possible to estimate the excess risk (proportion) of animals with abnormal levels as a function of dose for normally distributed levels. With this approach, the risk-based benchmark dose (BMD01) represents the dose with an estimated excess risk of 1% of the animals in the abnormal range rather than an arbitrary change in the value of the measured endpoint. Values for the relative and risk-based benchmark doses are computed from published data for a variety of non-cancer health effects associated with exposure to TCDD. For the 30 cases investigated, the BMD01 tended to vary around the lowest experimental dose tested, whereas the relative ED01 tended to be about a factor of three below the lowest dose, and the BMD01 was more precisely estimated than the ED01 as reflected by narrower confidence intervals. The BMDL01 values were on average more than fivefold higher than the corresponding LED01 values. However, these values still provide a conservative assessment for POD assessment, because the BMDL01 tends to be about an order of magnitude lower (more conservative) than the no-observed-adverse-effect level. This analysis demonstrates the potential impact of alternative choices in benchmark dose methodology. In combination with selection of appropriate adverse health effect endpoint(s) and studies, use of the risk-based BMD results in identification of more valid and meaningful POD estimates for non-cancer effects compared to the use of the relative ED approach. PMID:15265602

Gaylor, David W; Aylward, Lesa L

2004-08-01

378

Polymorphisms in genes of the somatotrophic axis are independently associated with milk production, udder health, survival and animal size in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The somatotrophic axis consisting of pituitary-derived growth hormone and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 has been well established as key regulators of animal health, metabolism, lactation, fertility, body composition and growth rate. The aim of this study was to simultaneously quantify the associations between SNPs in candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis (i.e., IGF-1, GH1 and GHR) with performance traits in Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle. Both novel SNPs identified previously by this group alongside other published SNPs within these genes were analysed for associations with performance in dairy cattle. Multiple regression analyses regressing genetic merit of up to 848 HF sires on novel SNPs (n = 76) and published SNPs (n = 33) were undertaken using weighted animal mixed linear models. Twenty-three SNPs were significantly associated with at least one of 18 traits analysed and involved in milk production, udder health, fertility and growth. Eight traits including milk fat composition, carcass conformation, stature, chest width, body depth, rump width, carcass and cull cow weight were independently associated with SNPs in two genes. Furthermore, for several traits including milk fat yield, somatic cell count, survival and carcass fat, SNPs in all three genes were independently associated with performance. Milk fat yield and carcass fat showed the highest number of independent associations across all three genes with five SNPs associated with both traits. The cumulative effects of the favourable alleles of all five SNPs across GH1, GHR and IGF-1 result in an increase of 5.9 kg and 28.6 units of milk fat and carcass fat, respectively. Cow survival was associated with a single SNP in each of the three genes with a cumulative allele effect of 1.5%. Independent effects of polymorphisms in GH1, GHR and IGF-1 reinforce the central role of the somatotrophic axis on animal development and performance. PMID:22225586

Waters, S M; Berry, D P; Mullen, M P

2011-06-27

379

Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in the US swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006).  

PubMed

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) in 1983 to collect, analyse and disseminate data on animal health, management and productivity in US domestic livestock populations, including swine. The programme includes an on-farm serological sampling component which can be used to monitor seroprevalence of various pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondii. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in grower/finisher pigs using sera collected during NAHMS Swine 2006 and to determine farm level factors associated with differences in seroprevalence on farms where sera was collected during the Swine 2006 survey. Sera and data on management practices for this study were collected from 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for > 90% of US swine production (Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas and Wisconsin). A total of 6238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay (Vet. Parasitol.128, 2005, 177). Seroprevalence in this study, as determined by ELISA, was 2.6%, with a herd prevalence of 21.6% and a mean within-herd prevalence of 2.7%. Analysis of swine management practices indicated that rodent control methods and carcass disposal methods were associated with differences in the number of T. gondii positive samples on farm. These results are consistent with current epidemiological knowledge of the transmission of Toxoplasma on the farm (ingestion of organic matter containing oocysts, or ingestion of infected animal tissues). Production practices which eliminate these sources of exposure can reduce the risk of Toxoplasma infection in pigs, and reduce the likelihood of human infection from consumption of infected pork. PMID:19744304

Hill, D E; Haley, C; Wagner, B; Gamble, H R; Dubey, J P

2009-09-10

380

Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) Predicts Health-Related Quality of Life (HrQoL) over time among men treated for localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer treatment presents multiple challenges that can negatively affect health-related quality of life (HrQoL), and that can be further compromised by maladaptive personality styles and psychological adjustment difficulties. This study examined the utility of a comprehensive psychosocial screening tool to identify psychosocial traits that prospectively predict HrQoL status among men treated for localized prostate cancer. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) was administered to 66 men (M age = 68 years, 59% White) treated by either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy along with standard measures of general and prostate-cancer-specific quality of life assessed at a 12-month follow-up. Higher scores on both summary MBMD Management Guides (Adjustment Difficulties and Psych Referral) and higher scores on personality styles characterized by avoidance, dependency, depression, passive aggressiveness, and self-denigration predicted lower HrQoL (? range = -.21 to -.50). Additionally, higher scores on the MBMD Depression, Tension-Anxiety, and Future Pessimism scales predicted lower HrQoL. Finally, higher scores on the MBMD Intervention Fragility and Utilization Excess scale also consistently predicted poorer mental and physical health functioning over time. These results point to the utility of the MBMD to help screen for potential impairments in mental and physical health functioning in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. PMID:22571442

Cruess, Dean G; Benedict, Catherine; Lattie, Emily G; Molton, Ivan; Kinsinger, Dave; Kava, Bruce; Manoharan, Murugesan; Soloway, Mark; Penedo, Frank J

2012-05-09

381

9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS...of this section. (d) Other animals that are...

2013-01-01

382

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

383

Diagnostic interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents.\\u000a Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating\\u000a biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based)\\u000a measures use a set script and record subject’s responses without

Ileana Calinoiu; Jon McClellan

2004-01-01

384

Interdisciplinary diagnostics in environmental medicine – findings and follow-up in patients with chronic medically unexplained health complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: In patients attributing their chronic, medically unexplained complaints to environmental factors the greatest challenge is to overcome their disabling belief in toxicogenic explanations.Method: Patients presenting with health complaints that they attributed to environmental causes in an environmental outpatient department (EOPD) within a university medical center in Germany were studied. An interdisciplinary review of previously diagnosed medical conditions, current clinical

Caroline E. W. Herr; Ines Kopka; Jens Mach; Bettina Runkel; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Uwe Gieler; Thomas F. Eikmann

2004-01-01

385

Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when plant reference databases become better established. PMID:22511890

Coghlan, Megan L; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C; White, Nicole E; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I; Bunce, Michael

2012-04-12

386

Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when plant reference databases become better established.

Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Daithi C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

2012-01-01

387

Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance  

PubMed Central

The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a “directed mutation” pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

388

[Animal experimentation in Israel].  

PubMed

In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

2002-04-01

389

Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review.  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed for which long-term or multigenerational study data were available. Many parameters have been examined using biochemical analyses, histological examination of specific organs, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. The statistical findings and methods have been considered from each study. Results from all the 24 studies do not suggest any health hazards and, in general, there were no statistically significant differences within parameters observed. However, some small differences were observed, though these fell within the normal variation range of the considered parameter and thus had no biological or toxicological significance. If required, a 90-day feeding study performed in rodents, according to the OECD Test Guideline, is generally considered sufficient in order to evaluate the health effects of GM feed. The studies reviewed present evidence to show that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed. PMID:22155268

Snell, Chelsea; Bernheim, Aude; Bergé, Jean-Baptiste; Kuntz, Marcel; Pascal, Gérard; Paris, Alain; Ricroch, Agnès E

2011-12-03

390

Test-retest repeatability of the National Animal Health monitoring system dairy heifer health report in New York and Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We did a test-retest study on 21 farms to assess the repeatability of the Dairy Heifer Health Report of the National Dairy Heifer Evaluation Project. The median retest interval was 42 days (range 14–63 days), retest interviewers were blinded as to responses on the first visits, and all date-specific questions were anchored to the dates of the first tests. The

H. N. Erb; A. J. Heinrichs; R. E. Woods; W. M. Sischo

1996-01-01

391

Classification and diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms: The 2008 World Health Organization criteria and point-of-care diagnostic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) treatise on the classification of hematopoietic tumors lists chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) as a subdivision of myeloid neoplasms that includes the four classic myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs)—chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF)—as well as chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL), chronic eosinophilic leukemia\\/hypereosinophilic syndrome (CEL\\/HES) and ‘CMPD, unclassifiable’. In the

A Tefferi; J W Vardiman; A Tefferi

2008-01-01

392

21 CFR 178.3120 - Animal glue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Animal glue. 178.3120...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...Aids § 178.3120 Animal glue. Animal...physical or technical effect nor any...

2013-04-01

393

9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

2013-01-01

394

9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.4 Test animals. (a) All test animals shall be examined for...

2013-01-01

395

Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models.  

PubMed Central

In humans, cancer may be caused by genetics and environmental exposures; however, in the majority of instances the identification of the critical time window of exposure is problematic. The evidence for exposures occurring during the preconceptional period that have an association with childhood or adulthood cancers is equivocal. Agents definitely related to cancer in children, and adulthood if exposure occurs in utero, include: maternal exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy and childhood leukemia and certain other cancers, and maternal use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina of their daughters. The list of environmental exposures that occur during the perinatal/postnatal period with potential to increase the risk of cancer is lengthening, but evidence available to date is inconsistent and inconclusive. In animal models, preconceptional carcinogenesis has been demonstrated for a variety of types of radiation and chemicals, with demonstrated sensitivity for all stages from fetal gonocytes to postmeiotic germ cells. Transplacental and neonatal carcinogenesis show marked ontogenetic stage specificity in some cases. Mechanistic factors include the number of cells at risk, the rate of cell division, the development of differentiated characteristics including the ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens, the presence of stem cells, and possibly others. Usefulness for human risk estimation would be strengthened by the study of these factors in more than one species, and by a focus on specific human risk issues. Images Figure 1

Anderson, L M; Diwan, B A; Fear, N T; Roman, E

2000-01-01

396

PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: the potential to change infectious disease diagnostics in clinical and public health laboratories.  

PubMed

During the past 20 years, microbial detection methods that are genetically based, such as real-time PCR and peptide nucleic acid fluorescent hybridization, coexisted with traditional microbiological methods and were typically based on the identification of individual genetic targets. For these methods to be successful, a potential cause of infection must be suspected. More recently, multiplex PCR and multiplex RT-PCR were used to enable more broad-range testing based on panels of suspected pathogens. PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS) has emerged as a technology that is capable of identifying nearly all known human pathogens either from microbial isolates or directly from clinical specimens. Assay primers are strategically designed to target one or more of the broad pathogen categories: bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, or viral. With broad-range amplification followed by detection of mixed amplicons, the method can identify genetic evidence of known and unknown pathogens. This unique approach supports a higher form of inquiry, asking the following question: What is the genetic evidence of known or unknown pathogens in the patient sample? This approach has advantages over traditional assays that commonly target the presence or absence of one or more pathogens with known genetic composition. This review considers the breadth of the published literature and explores the possibilities, advantages, and limitations for implementation of PCR-ESI/MS in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:22584138

Wolk, Donna M; Kaleta, Erin J; Wysocki, Vicki H

2012-05-11

397

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

398

Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

399

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

400

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

401

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

402

Trends in animal use and animal alternatives.  

PubMed

The Third World Congress (1999, Bologna) celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Russell & Burch's The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. There was the general notion that the Three Rs offer a unifying concept that contributes to a progressive reduction and refinement in animal use without compromising the quality of research, human health or the protection of the environment. The Bologna Three Rs Declaration was accepted unanimously, calling upon all parties involved to incorporate the Three Rs into animal-based research. The question is raised, what progress has been made and, in particular, what are the developments in animal use and in the implementation of validated alternative methods. For the present contribution, we requested colleagues from European countries, Canada and the United States to provide information on the numbers of animals currently used for scientific purposes, on the development and implementation of alternative methods and on future perspectives about the issues. Based on the results of this survey, the conclusion is reached that legislative regulations are widely implemented and have become rather strict during the last decade. An exception here is the legislative regulation for rats, mice and birds in the USA. These species are not (yet) protected by the US Animal Welfare Act. The number of animals used has decreased considerably, and the review of protocols by animal ethics committees has become a significant trend. In all countries, there is growing support for the Three Rs concept. PMID:23577430

De Greeve, Paul; De Leeuw, Wim; van Zutphen, Bert F M

2004-06-01

403

Participatory livestock farmer training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda.  

PubMed

Within the framework of a research project investigating methods to decrease mastitis incidence, farmer groups for participatory training in a modified Farmer Field School approach were initiated in order to improve animal health and farmer knowledge in mastitis control technologies in smallholder dairy farms in the Jinja district of Uganda. Two peri-urban groups and one rural group met for common learning and training two hours per fortnight during a 12-month period, facilitated by two local extension agents together with one or two scientists from Makerere University. Farmers rotated each time between farms owned by group participants, which demanded mutual trust, openness and respect. From their own assessment the farmers felt they had improved their milk production and reduced mastitis incidence on their farms. In an evaluation workshop, they articulated how they had built up common knowledge and experience from training in systematic clinical examination of animals, evaluation of the farm environments, and identification of improvements. Much of the acquired new knowledge was about basic dairy cow management and husbandry practices. In addition, they gave examples of how they were now used as resource persons in their local communities. Principles of learning and empowerment are discussed. PMID:17941482

Vaarst, M; Byarugaba, D K; Nakavuma, J; Laker, C

2007-01-01

404

Mascot animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.

Shinji Ameda; Kumiko Arai; Tomonori Isogaya; Taiki Ito; Chihiro Iwamoto; Mari Kameyama; Haruki Kato; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Satoko Matsumaru; Hiroki Matsuoka; Takato Nakai; Moemi Nakano; Kumiko Obora; Naomi Ogura; Koichi Okamura; Yuko Sato; Tetsuro Satomi; Mio Sawaguchi; Nobuhiko Suzuki; Yugo Takahashi; Mai Takayanagi; Keigo Takeshige; Naomi Tanaka; Takeshi Tsuzaki; Yoshihumi Uehiro; Shuhei Yamada; Koji Yamamoto; Melanie Beisswenger; Toru Ogura; Takeshi Saito; Takayuki Sato; Atsushi Sugito; Seiichi Tsuji

2009-01-01

405

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Mcgreevey, Paul

2010-01-01

406

21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ...890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic muscle stimulator is a device...

2013-04-01

407

The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.  

PubMed

The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

2010-08-01

408

Saliva, diagnostics, and dentistry.  

PubMed

Saliva, a scientific and clinical entity familiar to every oral health researcher and dental practitioner, has emerged as a translational and clinical commodity that has reached national visibility at the National Institutes of Health and the President's Office of Science and Technology. "Detecting dozens of diseases in a sample of saliva" was issued by President Obama as one of the 14 Grand Challenges for biomedical research in the 21(st) Century (National Economic Council, 2010). In addition, NIH's 2011 Government Performance Report Act (GPRA) listed 10 initiatives in the high-risk long-term category (Collins, 2011). The mandate is to determine the efficacy of using salivary diagnostics to monitor health and diagnose at least one systemic disease by 2013. The stage is set for the scientific community to capture these national and global opportunities to advance and substantiate the scientific foundation of salivary diagnostics to meet these goals. A specific calling is to the oral, dental, and craniofacial health community. Three areas will be highlighted in this paper: the concept of high-impact diagnostics, the role of dentists in diagnostics, and, finally, an infrastructure currently being developed in the United Kingdom--The UK Biobank--which will have an impact on the translational and clinical utilizations of saliva. PMID:21917745

Urdea, M S; Neuwald, P D; Greenberg, B L; Glick, M; Galloway, J; Williams, D; Wong, D T W

2011-10-01

409

Effects of spray-dried animal plasma in milk replacers or additives containing serum and oligosaccharides on growth and health of calves.  

PubMed

The effects of spray-dried animal plasma in milk replacer without or with the addition of additives containing fructooligosaccharides and spray-dried serum on health, growth, and intake of Holstein calves was measured in two 56-d experiments. In experiment 1, 120 calves were fed milk replacer containing 0 or 20% of crude protein as spray-dried bovine plasma for 42 d and 30 to 60 g/d of additives containing whey protein concentrate or bovine serum for the first 15 d. Commercial calf starter was available from d 29, and water was available at all times. In experiment 2, 120 calves were fed milk replacer containing 0 or 16% of crude protein as spray-dried bovine plasma with 0 or 30 to 60 g/d of additive containing bovine serum for the first 15 d. Additive containing bovine serum also contained fructooligosaccharides, whey, and vitamin/mineral premix. In experiment 1, calves fed additive containing bovine serum tended to have fewer days with diarrhea, lower use of electrolytes, and improved BW gain from d 29 to 56. The addition of spray-dried bovine plasma to milk replacer did not influence any parameter measured. In experiment 2, calves fed additive containing bovine serum or milk replacer containing spray-dried bovine plasma had lower mortality (4.4 vs. 20%) and tended to have improved fecal scores and fewer days with scours. Antibiotic use was lower when calves were fed the additive. Indices of enteric health (incidence of scours and treatment with antibiotics and electrolytes) were improved when plasma was added to milk replacer throughout the milk feeding period or as an additive during the first 15 d of the milk feeding period, when calves were most susceptible to enteric pathogens. The addition of spray-dried animal plasma to milk replacer or the addition of additive containing spray-dried bovine serum and oligosaccharides may be a useful adjunct to animal management during periods of stress. PMID:11913702

Quigley, J D; Kost, C J; Wolfe, T A

2002-02-01

410

Diagnostic and public health dilemma of lactose-fermenting Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in cattle in the Northeastern United States.  

PubMed

The presence of lactose-fermenting Salmonella strains in clinical case materials presented to microbiology laboratories presents problems in detection and identification. Failure to detect these strains also presents a public health problem. The laboratory methods used in detecting lactose-fermenting Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from six outbreaks of salmonellosis in veal calves are described. Each outbreak was caused by a multiply-resistant and lactose-fermenting strain of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. The use of Levine eosin-methylene blue agar in combination with screening of suspect colonies for C8 esterase enzyme and inoculation of colonies into sulfide-indole-motility medium for hydrogen sulfide production was particularly effective for their detection. A hypothesis for the creation of lactose-fermenting salmonellae in the environment is presented. It is proposed that the environment and husbandry practices of veal-raising barns provide a unique niche in which lactose-fermenting salmonellae may arise. PMID:10699026

McDonough, P L; Shin, S J; Lein, D H

2000-03-01

411

A Culture-Proven Case of Community-Acquired Legionella Pneumonia Apparently Classified as Nosocomial: Diagnostic and Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a 78-year-old patient affected by cerebellar haemangioblastoma continuously hospitalised for 24 days prior to the onset of overt symptoms. According to the established case definition, this woman should have been definitely classified as a nosocomial case (patient spending all of the ten days in hospital before onset of symptoms). Water samples from the oncology ward were negative, notably the patient's room and the oxygen bubbler, and the revision of the case history induced us to verify possible contamination in water samples collected at home. We found that the clinical strain had identical rep-PCR fingerprint of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated at home. The description of this culture-proven case of Legionnaires' disease has major clinical, legal, and public health consequences as the complexity of hospitalised patients poses limitations to the rule-of-thumb surveillance definition of nosocomial pneumonia based on 2–10-day incubation period.

Marchegiano, Patrizia; Richeldi, Luca; Cagarelli, Roberto

2013-01-01

412

Diagnostic history and treatment of school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and special health care needs.  

PubMed

Data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services The median age when school-aged children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were first identified as having ASD was 5 years. School-aged CSHCN identified as having ASD at a younger age (under age 5 years) were identified most often by generalists and psychologists, while those identified later (aged 5 years and over) were identified primarily by psychologists and psychiatrists. Nine out of 10 school-aged CSHCN with ASD use one or more services to meet their developmental needs. Social skills training and speech or language therapy are the most common, each used by almost three-fifths of these children. More than one-half of school-aged CSHCN with ASD use psychotropic medication. PMID:23050521

Pringle, Beverly; Colpe, Lisa J; Blumberg, Stephen J; Avila, Rosa M; Kogan, Michael D

2012-05-01

413

A culture-proven case of community-acquired legionella pneumonia apparently classified as nosocomial: diagnostic and public health implications.  

PubMed

We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a 78-year-old patient affected by cerebellar haemangioblastoma continuously hospitalised for 24 days prior to the onset of overt symptoms. According to the established case definition, this woman should have been definitely classified as a nosocomial case (patient spending all of the ten days in hospital before onset of symptoms). Water samples from the oncology ward were negative, notably the patient's room and the oxygen bubbler, and the revision of the case history induced us to verify possible contamination in water samples collected at home. We found that the clinical strain had identical rep-PCR fingerprint of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated at home. The description of this culture-proven case of Legionnaires' disease has major clinical, legal, and public health consequences as the complexity of hospitalised patients poses limitations to the rule-of-thumb surveillance definition of nosocomial pneumonia based on 2-10-day incubation period. PMID:23476661

Bargellini, Annalisa; Marchesi, Isabella; Marchegiano, Patrizia; Richeldi, Luca; Cagarelli, Roberto; Ferranti, Greta; Borella, Paola

2013-02-11

414

Changes in hoof health and animal hygiene in a dairy herd after covering concrete slatted floor with slatted rubber mats: a case study.  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the effect of changing the flooring in the alleys of a barn from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats on hoof disorders and animal hygiene in 44 loose-housed Brown Swiss dairy cows. Cows were examined for disorders of the hind hooves (hemorrhages, white line fissures, ulcers, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis) and for skin lesions. The dirtiness of the animals and of the floor was recorded. Climatic (temperature, humidity) and ammonia gas conditions were measured. Evaluations were carried out when the cows were housed on a concrete slatted floor and after 4 and 10 mo on soft flooring (slatted rubber mats, 29-mm thick). The anatomical portion of claw (medial, lateral), number of lactations (parity), and days in milk were included as covariates in the statistical model. Changing the flooring from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats increased the score for white line fissures [1.0 ± 0.3 (concrete) vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 (10 mo rubber mats)] and influenced air humidity (i.e., the difference in the absolute humidity between the inside and outside of the barn increased from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.2g/m(3)), whereas the other hoof disorders, skin lesions (score of 8.7 ± 0.3), the dirtiness of the animals (score of 5.9 ± 0.3), and the floor (score of 2.1 ± 0.1), and ammonia gas concentration (2.6 ± 0.3mg/kg) were not affected (overall scores or measures; mean ± SE). Lateral claws were more affected (except for heel horn erosion) than medial claws (estimated effects between 1.3 ± 0.2 and 3.0 ± 0.6). Parity influenced hoof disorders (except for hemorrhages) and skin lesions (estimated effects between -0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2). Days in milk influenced hoof disorders, but had no effect on skin lesions and on the dirtiness of the animal. Irrespective of floor type, the slots (2.6 ± 0.1) were dirtier than the slats (1.6 ± 0.1). In conclusion, covering slatted concrete flooring with slatted rubber mats partially impaired hoof health but did not influence skin lesions or the dirtiness of the cows or the floor. Similar results were found for climatic conditions, as ammonia gas concentration was not affected, but absolute humidity increased in the barn when rubber mats were present. PMID:21524523

Ahrens, F; Platz, S; Link, C; Mahling, M; Meyer, H H D; Erhard, M H

2011-05-01

415

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

416

Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic

I. Imbschweiler; M. Kummerfeld; M. Gerhard; I. Pfeiffer; P. Wohlsein

2009-01-01

417

78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2013-0044] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-10-25

418

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

419

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

420

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

421

Principles of animal extrapolation  

SciTech Connect

Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

Calabrese, E.J.

1991-01-01

422

9 CFR 2.31 - Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). 2.31 Section 2.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

2012-01-01

423

9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal products and materials; movement and handling. 94.15 Section 94.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

2012-01-01

424

9 CFR 2.31 - Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). 2.31 Section 2.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

2010-01-01

425

9 CFR 2.31 - Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). 2.31 Section 2.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

2009-01-01

426

Comparison of a multivalent viral vaccine program versus a univalent viral vaccine program on animal health, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot calves  

PubMed Central

A field study was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions at 2 sites in western Canada to determine the relative effects of a univalent viral vaccine (MLV 1) program versus a multivalent viral vaccine (MLV 4) program on animal health; feedlot performance; and carcass characteristic variables of fall-placed, auction market derived, feedlot calves. Five thousand one hundred and sixty-three calves were processed and randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental groups as follows: MLV 1, which received a modified live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus vaccine upon arrival at the feedlot and again at approximately 70 days on feed (DOF); or MLV 4, which received a modified live IBR virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine upon arrival at the feedlot and again at approximately 70 DOF. A total of 20 pens (10 pens at the site located near High River, Alberta and 10 pens at the site located near Vegreville, Alberta) were allocated to the study. On both a live and carcass weight basis, final weight, weight gain, and average daily gain (ADG) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group. However, there were no significant (P ? 0.05) differences in DOF, daily dry matter intake, dry matter intake to gain ratio (DM:G) live, or DM:G carcass between the experimental groups. In addition, there were no significant (P ? 0.05) differences between the experimental groups in any of the carcass characteristic variables measured. The initial undifferentiated fever (UF) treatment rate was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group. There were no significant (P ? 0.05) differences in the other measures of health between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, there was a net advantage of $0.74 CDN per animal in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group due to lower initial UF treatment and improved ADG, even though the cost of the vaccine program was higher in the MLV 4 group.

Schunicht, Oliver C.; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Guichon, P. Timothy; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.

2003-01-01

427

DNA: Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute makes available twenty-five short, narrated animations about DNA at this link. The animations are viewable as video clips and topics include, but are not limited to DNA structure, DNA replication, transcription and translation, mutations in DNA, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and shotgun sequencing.

Institute, Howard H.

2009-09-04

428

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)|

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

429

``Animal Intelligence''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review of my monograph on ``Animal Intelligence,'' in a recent number of NATURE, Mr. Lloyd Morgan credits me with upholding the theory that we have sensations caused by outgoing currents which innervate muscles, and with depending on that theory in some of my own statements about the nature of animals' consciousness. A careless and ambiguous sentence of mine

Edward L. Thorndike

1898-01-01

430

9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.5 Segregation of animals. Animals which have been...

2013-01-01

431

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS...which shows clinical signs or other evidence of disease...

2010-01-01

432

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS...which shows clinical signs or other evidence of disease...

2009-01-01

433

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by António Cidadão.

434

Easy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If a picture is worth 1,000 words, then a good animation islike a classic short story--a simple tale simply told.Animations are particularly effective in the teaching ofmathematics because motion is often fundamental to theconcept at hand, and a well-designed animation is usuallyan excellent way to introduce such a concept. In thischapter, we describe two ways to make animations and postthem on your course websites. Once you master the process,you will be surprised at how easy it is to build and post yourown animations. This is a chapter in the Visualization in Science Education section of the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.

Paul Blanchard (Boston University;)

2004-12-01

435

Diagnostic laparoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

Laparoscopy - diagnostic ... of certain organs. If you are having gynecologic laparoscopy, dye may be injected into your cervix area ... You will probably not stay overnight after a laparoscopy. You will not be allowed to drive home. ...

436

Obesity in companion animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is officially defined as a disease in which excessive body fat has accumulated to such an extent that the health of an animal may be adversely affected. In the past, many veterinary surgeons have not considered obesity as a serious concern, instead believing it to be a cosmetic issue. However, it is now recognised to be an important medical

Alex German

2010-01-01

437

Poxvirus diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the family Poxviridae form a large group of viruses that can infect humans as well as animals including the major domestic animal species (cattle,\\u000a sheep, goat, swine, dog, cat and chicken). Poxviruses can be highly pathogenic for humans (i.e., Variola virus), of zoonotic importance (e.g., Monkeypox virus) or highly contagious among animal populations (e.g., Sheeppox virus). Therefore, laboratory

Martin Pfeffer; Hermann Meyer

438

Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings.  

PubMed

Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion. PMID:21981968

Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

2011-10-07

439

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

440

Reproductive Physiology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These illustrative animations were crafted by staff members at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and can be used by any number of medical professionals and students in the allied health sciences. On the homepage, visitors can get acquainted with the materials by looking through the Recent Submissions area. Here they can find animations that include a brief listing of goals, objectives, and a brief narrative description. Visitors can also perform a full-text search across all of the items here. Currently, there are over 60 animations on the site, including "Origins of Cholesterol," "Steroid Synthesis," and "Chromosomal Sex Determination." One nice feature of these animations is that some of them also have sound. Finally, visitors can browse though collections created by other units of the University, such as the Conservatory of Music and the German Studies department.

2012-06-01

441

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)|

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

442

Animate Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".

443

Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.

2010-05-14

444

Animal bites  

MedlinePLUS

... infected with a virus that can cause rabies. Bats may spread this disease. Rabies is rare but ... and wild animals, such as skunks, raccoons, and bats, also bite thousands of people each year. If ...

445

Animal Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Raising, fattening, and slaughtering the animals needed to produce meat for the increasing United States population generate as much waste as a human population of over 2 billion people. Modern techniques required to produce this much meat efficiently and...

1971-01-01

446

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING frequently observed in your columns accounts of remarkable instances of reasoning power in animals, I am tempted to send you the following notes, which may perhaps be not without interest to the readers of NATURE.

R. J. Harvey Gibson

1884-01-01

447

Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE term `animal husbandry' is gradually becoming more employed by both administrators and scientists concerned with the live stock industry. That it is differently employed by different speakers is the apology for what follows.

A. D. Buchanan Smith

1930-01-01

448

Animal Adaptations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will participate in classroom discussions and visit a website to learn more about animals and how well (or poorly) theyve adapted to satisfying their needs in their natural habitats. This will help move them toward the goal, in later grades, of understanding ecosystems.The Kratts' Creatures website used in this lesson provides students with a simple, visual means for familiarizing themselves with basic world ecosystems as well as some examples of the animals that occupy them.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2002-04-29

449

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

450

Animal experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of animals are used every year in oftentimes extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation\\u000a of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more\\u000a or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context\\u000a correspond to the “3Rs” concept as

Roman Kolar

2006-01-01

451

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

452

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

453

Embedded diagnostics in combat systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostics capability of combat systems shall be compatible with the Army Diagnostic Improvement Program. Present systems are capable of performing health monitoring and health checks using internal embedded resources. They employ standard sensors and data busses that monitor data signals and built-in test (BIT). These devices provide a comprehensive source of data to accomplish an accurate system level diagnostics and fault isolation at line replaceable unit (LRU) level. Prognostics routines provide capability to identify the cause of predicted failure and corrective action to prevent unscheduled maintenance action. Combat system"s health status and prognostic information are displayed to operator, crew, and maintenance personnel. Present systems use common data/information interchange network in accordance with standards defined in the Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) to provide access to vehicle"s health data. The technologies utilized in present systems include embedded diagnostics, combat maintainer, schematic viewer, etc. Implementation of these technologies significantly reduced maintenance hours of combat systems. Health monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics of future systems will utilize federated software and probes approach. Gauges will determine if the system operates within acceptable performance bands by monitoring data provided by the probes. Health monitoring system will use models of missions to make intelligent choices considering tasks criticality.

Miles, Christopher; Bankowski, Elena N.

2004-07-01

454

Animal signals.  

PubMed

The study of animal signals began in earnest with the publication in 1872 of Charles Darwin's The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which laid the basis for a comparative study of signals across all animals, including humans. Yet even before Darwin, the exceptional diversity of animal signals has gripped the attention of natural historians and laymen alike, as these signals represent some of the most striking features of the natural world. Structures such as the long ornamented tail of the peacock, the roaring sounds of howler monkeys, audible kilometers away, and the pheromone trails laid by ants to guide their nestmates to resources are each examples of animal signals (Figure 1). Indeed, because signals evolved for the purpose of communicating (Box 1), their prominence can be hard for even a casual observer to overlook. Animal signals therefore raise many scientific questions: What are their functions? What information do they transmit? How are they produced? And why did they evolve? PMID:24070440

Laidre, Mark E; Johnstone, Rufus A

2013-09-23

455

Caring for Animals. Animal Well-Being, Quality Assurance, Show Ring Ethics. Discussion Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This discussion guide was developed for use in conjunction with the "Caring for Animals" videotape. It includes information for teachers to use in facilitating class discussions about animal care and well-being. The guide covers