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Sample records for animal radionuclide imaging

  1. Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

    2004-02-27

    Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

  2. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  3. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  4. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  5. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections. PMID:26590786

  6. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  7. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  8. Optimized time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in small animal tumor models.

    PubMed

    Haeck, Joost; Bol, Karin; Bison, Sander; van Tiel, Sandra; Koelewijn, Stuart; de Jong, Marion; Veenland, Jifke; Bernsen, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Anti-tumor efficacy of targeted peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) relies on several factors, including functional tumor vasculature. Little is known about the effect of PRRT on tumor vasculature. With dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI, functional vasculature is imaged and quantified using contrast agents. In small animals DCE-MRI is a challenging application. We optimized a clinical sequence for fast hemodynamic acquisitions, time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS), to obtain DCE-MRI images at both high spatial and high temporal resolution in mice and rats. Using TRICKS, functional vasculature was measured prior to PRRT and longitudinally to investigate the effect of treatment on tumor vascular characteristics. Nude mice bearing H69 tumor xenografts and rats bearing syngeneic CA20948 tumors were used to study perfusion following PRRT administration with (177) lutetium octreotate. Both semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters were calculated. Treatment efficacy was measured by tumor-size reduction. Optimized TRICKS enabled MRI at 0.032 mm(3) voxel size with a temporal resolution of less than 5 s and large volume coverage, a substantial improvement over routine pre-clinical DCE-MRI studies. Tumor response to therapy was reflected in changes in tumor perfusion/permeability parameters. The H69 tumor model showed pronounced changes in DCE-derived parameters following PRRT. The rat CA20948 tumor model showed more heterogeneity in both treatment outcome and perfusion parameters. TRICKS enabled the acquisition of DCE-MRI at both high temporal resolution (Tres ) and spatial resolutions relevant for small animal tumor models. With the high Tres enabled by TRICKS, accurate pharmacokinetic data modeling was feasible. DCE-MRI parameters revealed changes over time and showed a clear relationship between tumor size and Ktrans . PMID:25995102

  9. Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution

    DOEpatents

    Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2012-12-18

    A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

  10. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  11. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    increased suicides, as well as modification of preferred nesting sites, reduced hatching success and fecundity in birds that live in the Chernobyl zone. No significant effect from caesium exposure was shown in laboratory experiments with rats, but few studies were conducted. Data on radioactive cadmium are not available in the literature, but the effects of its metallic form have been well studied. Cadmium induces mental retardation and psychomotor alterations in exposed populations and increases anxiety in rats, leading to depression. Cadmium exposure also results in well-documented effects on feeding and burrowing behavior in several invertebrate species (crustaceans, gastropods, annelids, bivalves) and on different kinds of fish behavior (swimming activity, fast-start response, antipredatory behavior). Cobalt induces memory deficits in humans and may be involved in Alzheimer's disease; gamma irradiation by cobalt also decreases fecundity and alters mating behavior in insects. Collectively, data are lacking or are meagre on radionuclide pollutants, and a better knowledge of their actions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control animal behavior is needed. PMID:21170702

  12. Imaging Transgene Expression with Radionuclide Imaging Technologies1

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, SS; Herschman, HR; Cherry, SR; Barrio, JR; Satyamurthy, N; Toyokuni, T; Phelps, ME; Larson, SM; Balaton, J; Finn, R; Sadelain, M; Tjuvajev, J

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A variety of imaging technologies are being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Noninvasive, repetitive and quantitative imaging of gene expression will help both to facilitate human gene therapy trials and to allow for the study of animal models of molecular and cellular therapy. Radionuclide approaches using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most mature of the current imaging technologies and offer many advantages for imaging gene expression compared to optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches. These advantages include relatively high sensitivity, full quantitative capability (for PET), and the ability to extend small animal assays directly into clinical human applications. We describe a PET scanner (micro PET) designed specifically for studies of small animals. We review “marker/reporter gene” imaging approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) genes. We describe and contrast several radiolabeled probes that can be used with the HSV1-tk reporter gene both for SPECT and for PET imaging. We also describe the advantages/disadvantages of each of the assays developed and discuss future animal and human applications. PMID:10933072

  13. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  15. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-06-17

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled “Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy” to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study – the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on α therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  16. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  17. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-03-01

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain. PMID:19200625

  18. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management. PMID:27390160

  19. New Trends in Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Su, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Ko, Chi-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used clinically as one of the major functional imaging modalities for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. Ample evidence has supported the use of MPI as a useful and important tool in the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment planning for CAD. Although popular in the United States, MPI has become the most frequently used imaging modality among all nuclear medicine tests in Taiwan. However, it should be acknowledged that MPI SPECT does have its limitations. These include false-positive results due to certain artifacts, false-negative due to balanced ischemia, complexity and adverse reaction arising from current pharmacological stressors, time consuming nature of the imaging procedure, no blood flow quantitation and relatively high radiation exposure. The purpose of this article was to review the recent trends in nuclear cardiology, including the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) for MPI, new stressor, new SPECT camera with higher resolution and higher sensitivity, dynamic SPECT protocol for blood flow quantitation, new software of phase analysis for evaluation of LV dyssynchrony, and measures utilized for reducing radiation exposure of MPI. PMID:27122946

  20. Somatostatin Receptor Based Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors. PMID:25879040

  1. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  2. Radionuclide-labeled nanostructures for In Vivo imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Kim, Minho; Hartman, Kevin L.; Kang, Keon Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-05-01

    Molecular imaging plays an important role in the non-invasive diagnosis and the guiding or monitoring of disease treatment. Different imaging modalities have been developed, and each method possesses unique strengths. While a variety of molecules have been used previously in nuclear imaging, the exceptional properties of nanostructures in recent research enable the deployment of accurate and efficient diagnostic agents using radionuclide-nanostructures. This review focuses on the radionuclide labeling strategies of various nanostructures and their applications for multimodality tumor imaging.

  3. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  4. Gamma-Ray Focusing Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivovaroff, M. J.; Barber, W. C.; Craig, W. W.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Ramsey, B. D.; Taylor, C.

    2004-01-01

    There is a well-established need for high-resolution radionuclide imaging techniques that provide non-invasive measurement of physiological function in small animals. We, therefore, have begun developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system using grazing incidence mirrors to focus low-energy gamma-rays emitted by I-125, and other radionuclides. Our initial prototype optic, fabricated from thermally-formed glass, demonstrated a resolution of 1500 microns, consistent with the performance predicted by detailed simulations. More recently, we have begun constructing mirrors using a replication technique that reduces low spatial frequency errors in the mirror surface, greatly improving the resolution. Each technique offers particular advantages: e.g., multilayer coatings are easily deposited on glass, while superior resolution is possible with replicated optics. Scaling the results from our prototype optics, which only have a few nested shells, to system where the lens has a full complement of several tens of nested shells, a sensitivity of approx. 1 cps/micro Ci is possible, with the exact number dependent on system magnification and radionuclide species. (Higher levels of efficiency can be obtained with multi-optic imaging systems.) The gamma-ray lens will achieve a resolution as good as 100 microns, independent of the final sensitivity. The combination of high spatial resolution and modest sensitivity will enable in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animals.

  5. Collecting and Animating Online Satellite Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Describes how to generate automated classroom resources from the Internet. Topics covered include viewing animated satellite weather images using file transfer protocol (FTP); sources of images on the Internet; shareware available for viewing images; software for automating image retrieval; procedures for animating satellite images; and storing…

  6. Oncogene mRNA Imaging with Radionuclide-PNA-Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Eric

    2008-03-19

    New cancer gene hybridization probes to carry radionuclides were made. Noninvasive technetium-99m gamma imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated, followed by noninvasive technetium-99m imaging of MYC cancer gene activity. Noninvasive imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated with a positron-emitting copper-64 probe, followed by noninvasive positron imaging of IRS1 cancer gene activity.

  7. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna]. PMID:17728027

  8. Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption: CT and radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Goldstein, S.; Clunie, D.A.; Stevens, J.; Hogan, R.; Monard, J.; Ramsey, F.; Neuwelt, E.A.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare CT and radionuclide imaging of osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption, and to develop a quantitative method for imaging osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption and to see if iopamidol could be safety given intravenously in conjunction with blood-brain barrier disruption. Forty-five blood-brain barrier disruption procedures were imaged with CT and radionuclide scans. The scans were evaluated with visual and quantitative scales. Patients were observed for adverse effects after blood-brain barrier disruption. There was a 4% rate of seizures in this study. There was good agreement between visual CT and radionuclide grading systems. Quantitative disruption did not add useful information to visual interpretations. Nonionic iodine-based contrast medium has a lower incidence of seizures when injected intravenously in conjunction with osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption than ionic contrast material. Contrast-enhanced CT is the preferred method to image disruption because it has better spatial resolution than radionuclide techniques. 34 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer. PMID:17766017

  10. High-resolution, high sensitivity detectors for molecular imaging with radionuclides: The coded aperture option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusanno, F.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Santavenere, F.; Lanza, R. C.; Majewski, S.; Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Orsini Cancelli, V.; De Notaristefani, F.; Bollini, D.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.

    2006-12-01

    Molecular imaging with radionuclides is a very sensitive technique because it allows to obtain images with nanomolar or picomolar concentrations. This has generated a rapid growth of interest in radionuclide imaging of small animals. Indeed radiolabeling of small molecules, antibodies, peptides and probes for gene expression enables molecular imaging in vivo, but only if a suitable imaging system is used. Detecting small tumors in humans is another important application of such techniques. In single gamma imaging, there is always a well known tradeoff between spatial resolution and sensitivity due to unavoidable collimation requirements. Limitation of the sensitivity due to collimation is well known and affects the performance of imaging systems, especially if only radiopharmaceuticals with limited uptake are available. In many cases coded aperture collimation can provide a solution, if the near field artifact effect can be eliminated or limited. At least this is the case for "small volumes" imaging, involving small animals. In this paper 3D-laminography simulations and preliminary measurements with coded aperture collimation are presented. Different masks have been designed for different applications showing the advantages of the technique in terms of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The limitations of the technique are also discussed.

  11. Hybrid Imaging for Patient-Specific Dosimetry in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, Michael; Gleisner, Katarina Sjögreen

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy aims to treat malignant diseases by systemic administration of radiopharmaceuticals, often using carrier molecules such as peptides and antibodies. The radionuclides used emit electrons or alpha particles as a consequence of radioactive decay, thus leading to local energy deposition. Administration to individual patients can be tailored with regards to the risk of toxicity in normal organs by using absorbed dose planning. The scintillation camera, employed in planar imaging or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), generates images of the spatially and temporally varying activity distribution. Recent commercially available combined SPECT and computed tomography (CT) systems have dramatically increased the possibility of performing accurate dose planning by using the CT information in several steps of the dose-planning calculation chain. This paper discusses the dosimetry chain used for individual absorbed-dose planning and highlights the areas where hybrid imaging makes significant contributions. PMID:26854156

  12. Hybrid Imaging for Patient-Specific Dosimetry in Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy aims to treat malignant diseases by systemic administration of radiopharmaceuticals, often using carrier molecules such as peptides and antibodies. The radionuclides used emit electrons or alpha particles as a consequence of radioactive decay, thus leading to local energy deposition. Administration to individual patients can be tailored with regards to the risk of toxicity in normal organs by using absorbed dose planning. The scintillation camera, employed in planar imaging or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), generates images of the spatially and temporally varying activity distribution. Recent commercially available combined SPECT and computed tomography (CT) systems have dramatically increased the possibility of performing accurate dose planning by using the CT information in several steps of the dose-planning calculation chain. This paper discusses the dosimetry chain used for individual absorbed-dose planning and highlights the areas where hybrid imaging makes significant contributions. PMID:26854156

  13. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  14. Development of a triple modality small animal planar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Weisenberger, Z. Lee, S. Majewski, B. Kross, V. Popov, B. Welch, R. Wojcik, C. Zorn

    2006-02-01

    Recently small animal research utilizing nuclear medicine based imaging has been combined with structural anatomical imaging from x-ray radiography providing a powerful tool for animal researchers. The addition of a third modality is the goal of our instrumentation development. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Case Western Reserve University have been collaborating on the development of a planar imaging system which in addition to radiopharmaceutical based functional imaging and x-ray radiography structural imaging also allows for the in vivo bioluminescence imaging thus providing another functional imaging modality. For the gamma camera we use is a Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillator array with individual crystal elements 1 mm × 1 mm × 5 mm in size and a 0.25 mm septum between each element. The gamma camera has a 10 cm diameter active area and can be used for 125I, 99mT and 111In radionuclide imaging. To acquire anatomical information we are using a Rad-Icon Shad-o-Box X-ray detector that provides a field of view of 5 cm × 10 cm. The x-ray source is a Source-Ray compact x-ray generator. We are using a Princeton Instruments cooled CCD based detector for the imaging of the bio-distribution of bioluminescence. All three imaging instruments will be integrated into a single light tight / x-ray tight enclosure.

  15. Approaches to reducing radiation dose from radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Blankstein, Ron; Skali, Hicham; Park, Mi-Ae; Fantony, Jolene; Mauceri, Charles; Semer, James; Moore, Stephen C; Di Carli, Marcelo F

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) plays a vital role in the evaluation and management of patients with coronary artery disease. However, because of a steep growth in MPI in the mid 2000s, concerns about inappropriate use of MPI and imaging-related radiation exposure increased. In response, the professional societies developed appropriate-use criteria for MPI. Simultaneously, novel technology, image-reconstruction software for traditional scanners, and dedicated cardiac scanners emerged and facilitated the performance of MPI with low-dose and ultra-low-dose radiotracers. This paper provides a practical approach to performing low-radiation-dose MPI using traditional and novel technologies. PMID:25766891

  16. Radionuclide cerebral perfusion imaging: Normal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Stritzke, P.; Losonczy, M.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Holan, V.; DaCosta, M.; Muzinic, M.

    1991-12-31

    Regional cerebral perfusion imaging using a new class of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I labeled compounds which traverse the blood brain barrier and SPECT imaging technology provides an opportunity to assess this physiologic phenomenon during normal cerebral function and as a manifestation of disease in the central nervous system disease. These applications pose a challenge to the nuclear medicine physician for several reasons: (a) the complex and somewhat unfamiliar functional anatomy, (b) the marked regional differences in regional cerebral perfusion at rest, (c) the lack of understanding of the effect of variations in ambient conditions on regional cerebral perfusion. The difficulties in interpretation are augmented by the display itself. There is frequently no difficulty in differentiating between gray and white matter. However, the frequently used {open_quotes}hot body{close_quotes} color maps, introduce a good deal of contrast, producing displays with apparent interruption in regional cortical perfusion whereas black and white displays provide minimal contrast in the regional cortical activity. The authors sought to define how much variation in regional cerebral perfusion is {open_quotes}allowed{close_quotes} under controlled conditions, to establish a basis to interpret if changes in the environment, psychological interventions, or disease states are accompanied by a measurable change. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  18. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  19. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-05-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided.

  20. Radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Podoloff, D.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Harle, T.S. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite controversy over its exact role, radionuclide imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. The differentiation between osteomyelitis and cellulitis is best accomplished by using a three-phase technique using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Frequently, it is necessary to obtain multiple projections and magnification views to adequately assess suspected areas. It is recommended that a Ga-67 or In-111 leukocyte scan be performed in those cases where osteomyelitis is strongly suspected clinically and the routine bone scan is equivocal or normal. Repeated bone scan after 48 to 72 h may demonstrate increased radioactivity in the case of early osteomyelitis with the initial photon-deficient lesion. In-111 leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating recent fracture or operation, but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation. The recognition of certain imaging patterns appears helpful to separate osteomyelitis from septic arthritis or cellulitis. 83 references.

  1. Role of radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Demopulos, G.A.; Bleck, E.E.; McDougall, I.R.

    1988-09-01

    Over the last decade, the role of nuclear medicine studies in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis has been discussed in depth in the literature. Yet, the respective roles played in this setting by each of the commonly used radionuclide studies often are confusing. In an attempt to develop a cogent diagnostic strategy, we reviewed the literature published within the last 12 years pertaining to the use of radiophosphate bone scintigraphy as well as gallium and indium WBC imaging in the diagnosis of this condition. Based on our findings, we propose an alternative approach to the evaluation of a patient with suspected acute osteomyelitis. 63 references.

  2. Applications of penetrating radiation for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Wu, Max C.; Iwata, Koji; Hwang, Andrew B.; Wong, Kenneth H.; Barber, William C.; Dae, Michael W.; Sakdinawat, Anne E.

    2002-11-01

    Researchers long have relied on research involving small animals to unravel scientific mysteries in the biological sciences, and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the medical and health sciences. Within the past 2 decades, new techniques have been developed to manipulate the genome of the mouse, allowing the development of transgenic and knockout models of mammalian and human disease, development, and physiology. Traditionally, much biological research involving small animals has relied on the use of invasive methods such as organ harvesting, tissue sampling, and autoradiography during which the animal was sacrificed to perform a single measurement. More recently, imaging techniques have been developed that assess anatomy and physiology in the intact animal, in a way that allows the investigator to follow the progression of disease, or to monitor the response to therapeutic interventions. Imaging techniques that use penetrating radiation at millimeter or submillimeter levels to image small animals include x-ray computed tomography (microCT), single-photon emission computed tomography (microSPECT), and imaging positron emission computed tomography (microPET). MicroCT generates cross-sectional slices which reveal the structure of the object with spatial resolution in the range of 50 to 100 microns. MicroSPECT and microPET are radionuclide imaging techniques in which a radiopharmaceutical is injected into the animal that is accumulated to metabolism, blood flow, bone remodeling, tumor growth, or other biological processes. Both microSPECT and microPET offer spatial resolutions in the range of 1-2 millimeters. However, microPET records annihilation photons produced by a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical using electronic coincidence, and has a sensitivity approximately two orders of magnitude better than microSPECT, while microSPECT is compatible with gamma-ray emitting radiopharmaceuticals that are less expensive and more readily available

  3. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  4. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-26

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  5. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-03-01

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F(f)) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data. PMID:19157656

  6. Imaging quality of (44)Sc in comparison with five other PET radionuclides using Derenzo phantoms and preclinical PET.

    PubMed

    Bunka, Maruta; Müller, Cristina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Haller, Stephanie; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; van der Meulen, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    PET is the favored nuclear imaging technique because of the high sensitivity and resolution it provides, as well as the possibility for quantification of accumulated radioactivity. (44)Sc (T1/2=3.97h, Eβ(+)=632keV) was recently proposed as a potentially interesting radionuclide for PET. The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality, which can be obtained with (44)Sc, and compare it with five other, frequently employed PET nuclides using Derenzo phantoms and a small-animal PET scanner. The radionuclides were produced at the medical cyclotron at CRS, ETH Zurich ((11)C, (18)F), at the Injector II research cyclotron at CRS, PSI ((64)Cu, (89)Zr, (44)Sc), as well as via a generator system ((68)Ga). Derenzo phantoms, containing solutions of each of these radionuclides, were scanned using a GE Healthcare eXplore VISTA small-animal PET scanner. The image resolution was determined for each nuclide by analysis of the intensity signal using the reconstructed PET data of a hole diameter of 1.3mm. The image quality of (44)Sc was compared to five frequently-used PET radionuclides. In agreement with the positron range, an increasing relative resolution was determined in the sequence of (68)Ga<(44)Sc<(89)Zr<(11)C<(64)Cu<(18)F. The performance of (44)Sc was in agreement with the theoretical expectations based on the energy of the emitted positrons. PMID:26774390

  7. Bioluminescence imaging in live cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jack K; Berglund, Ken; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Gross, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The use of bioluminescent reporters in neuroscience research continues to grow at a rapid pace as their applications and unique advantages over conventional fluorescent reporters become more appreciated. Here, we describe practical methods and principles for detecting and imaging bioluminescence from live cells and animals. We systematically tested various components of our conventional fluorescence microscope to optimize it for long-term bioluminescence imaging. High-resolution bioluminescence images from live neurons were obtained with our microscope setup, which could be continuously captured for several hours with no signs of phototoxicity. Bioluminescence from the mouse brain was also imaged noninvasively through the intact skull with a conventional luminescence imager. These methods demonstrate how bioluminescence can be routinely detected and measured from live cells and animals in a cost-effective way with common reagents and equipment. PMID:27226972

  8. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix.

    The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists.

    By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

    1985-07-01

    Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

  10. Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnostic value of radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.; Nichols, K.; Cefola, R.

    1986-11-01

    Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (HPVO) continues to be a diagnostic problem for clinicians due to nonspecific presentation of the disease (1,2). We reviewed our experience of the last 10 years to determine the diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide bone studies in this disease. We found 15 patients whose primary diagnosis was HPVO. Of the 15 patients, 12 had (99mTc)MDP bone scans which were all positive. Five of the 12 patients had positive (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scans and one patient with chronic active HPVO had negative /sup 67/Ga and (/sup 111/In)WBC bone images. At the same time, three patients' spine x-rays and one patient's CT scan of the vertebra were normal. Additionally, in three patients spine x-rays were interpreted as consistent with degenerative joint disease that contributed to the delay of the diagnosis. We conclude that when HPVO is suspected an abnormal (99mTc)MDP bone image increases the probability of the disease, even if the x-rays and CT scans of the spine are normal. An abnormal /sup 67/Ga image following an abnormal 99mTc bone image increases the specificity of the diagnosis. Normal (99mTc)MDP and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate bone images of the vertebra virtually exclude the diagnosis of HPVO.

  11. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included. PMID:25825596

  12. Clinical applications of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation and management of patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Partington, Sara L; Valente, Anne Marie; Landzberg, Michael; Grant, Frederick; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive testing of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) began in the 1950s with the introduction of radionuclide studies to assess shunt fractions, pulmonary blood flow, and ventricular contractile function. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have since replaced radionuclide imaging in many of these roles. Concurrently, percutaneous and surgical repairs of complex CHD evolved, creating new roles for radionuclide imaging. In this paper on applications of radionuclide imaging in CHD, we review the multiple mechanisms for myocardial ischemia in CHD. We critically compare optimal radionuclide imaging techniques to other imaging modalities for assessing ischemia in CHD. We present the current role of nuclear imaging for assessing viability and pulmonary blood flow. We highlight the value added by advances in dedicated cardiac SPECT scanners, novel reconstruction software, and cardiac PET in performing low-dose radionuclide imaging in CHD. Finally, we discuss the emerging clinical indications for radionuclide imaging in CHD including coronary flow reserve assessment and evaluation of cardiovascular prosthesis and device infections. PMID:26129940

  13. A 5 Tesla imaging magnet for imaging laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Carolan, J.L.; Burns, W.A.; Green, M.A.

    1989-03-01

    This is a report on the construction of the first of a series of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) imaging magnets for laboratory animals. The first NCC magnet has a 33 centimeter warm bore with a design central induction of 5.5 T without active shielding and 5.0 T with active shielding. The magnet will be used for both imaging and spectroscopy of living animals. The active shield system is designed so that the 5 Gauss line is less than 3 meters from the magnet center when the magnet operates at design field. This permits the magnet to be used within an experimental space commonly available within a university building.

  14. Imaging regional renal function parameters using radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yi

    A compartmental model is given for evaluating kidney function accurately and noninvasively. This model is cast into a parallel multi-compartment structure and each pixel region (picture element) of kidneys is considered as a single kidney compartment. The loss of radionuclide tracers from the blood to the kidney and from the kidney to the bladder are modelled in great detail. Both the uptake function and the excretion function of the kidneys can be evaluated pixel by pixel, and regional diagnostic information on renal function is obtained. Gamma Camera image data are required by this model and a screening test based renal function measurement is provided. The regional blood background is subtracted from the kidney region of interest (ROI) and the kidney regional rate constants are estimated analytically using the Kuhn-Pucker multiplier method in convex programming by considering the input/output behavior of the kidney compartments. The detailed physiological model of the peripheral compartments of the system, which is not available for most radionuclide tracers, is not required in the determination of the kidney regional rate constants and the regional blood background factors within the kidney ROI. Moreover, the statistical significance of measurements is considered to assure the improved statistical properties of the estimated kidney rate constants. The relations between various renal function parameters and the kidney rate constants are established. Multiple renal function measurements can be found from the renal compartmental model. The blood radioactivity curve and the regional (or total) radiorenogram determining the regional (or total) summed behavior of the kidneys are obtained analytically with the consideration of the statistical significance of measurements using convex programming methods for a single peripheral compartment system. In addition, a new technique for the determination of 'initial conditions' in both the blood compartment and the kidney

  15. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  16. Quantifying the transfer of radionuclides to food products from domestic farm animals.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-09-01

    Databases have been compiled to derive parameter values relevant to the transfer of radionuclides from feedstuffs to domestic animal products to provide a revision to the IAEA Handbook on transfer parameters TRS 364. Significant new data inputs have been incorporated into the databases from an extensive review of Russian language information and inclusion of data published since the early 1990s. Fractional gastrointestinal absorption in adult ruminants presented in the revised handbook are generally similar to those recommended for adult humans by the ICRP. Transfer coefficient values are presented in the handbook for a range of radionuclides to farm animal products. For most animal products, transfer coefficient values for elements additional to those in TRS 364 are provided although many data gaps remain. Transfer coefficients generally vary between species with larger species having lower values than smaller species. It has been suggested that the difference is partly due to the inclusion of dietary dry matter intake in the estimation of transfer coefficient and that whilst dietary intake increases with size nutrient concentrations do not. An alternative approach to quantifying transfer by using concentration ratios (CR), which do not consider dietary intake, has been evaluated. CR values compiled for the handbook vary considerably less between species than transfer coefficient values. The advantage of the CR approach is that values derived for one species could be applied to species for which there are no data. However, transfer coefficients will continue to be used as few studies currently report CR values or give data from which they can be estimated. PMID:19362760

  17. The Value of Radionuclide Bone Imaging in Defining Fresh Fractures Among Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quan-Ming; Gu, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Zhong-Tang; Cheng, Li

    2016-05-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. To perform percutaneous vertebral body cement augmentation, it is essential to accurately identify the affected vertebrae. The study evaluated the role of radionuclide bone imaging in identifying fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. A prospective study of 39 patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was carried out. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide bone imaging to determine if the fractures were fresh, followed by percutaneous kyphoplasty for the fresh fractures. The positive rate on radionuclide bone imaging was 92.1% (82/89), and the positive rate on MRI was 93.3% (83/89), with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Eighty-one vertebrae had the same positive identification by both radionuclide bone imaging and MRI, and 5 of the same vertebrae were diagnosed negative by both techniques. One patient with positive radionuclide bone imaging was negative according to MRI, and 2 patients were entirely positive by MRI but negative by radionuclide bone imaging. A kappa test showed good consistency between the 2 methods for detecting the affected vertebrae (Kappa = 0.751, P < 0.01). Radionuclide bone imaging is as sensitive as MRI in the diagnosis of fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, making it an effective method for detecting affected vertebrae for percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:27159858

  18. Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Kaplan, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22) and included 4 late phase and 1 early testicular torsion (TT), 11 acute epididymitis (AE), 4 subacute epididymitis (SE), 5 malignant tumors, 3 testicular atrophy, 2 intratesticular hematomas, 10 hydroceles or other cystic lesions, and miscellaneous. In pts with scrotal pain, 3/4 with late phase TT were correctly diagnosed, while one pt with early TT and 11/15 with AE or SE were not diagnosed by SU. All of them were correctly diagnosed with RSI except one with scrotal cyst. SU was able to separate cystic masses (n = 10) from solid masses (n = 6), but cannot separate malignant from benign lesions. SU was excellent in detecting 19 hydroceles and 2 intratesticular hematomas, while 3 lesions < 1 cm. were not seen in RSI. The authors concluded that SU is useful in pts with scrotal mass to separate solid from cystic lesions. However, SU is unable to differentiate the acute epididymitis from early testicular torsion. In pts with acute scrotal pain, SU is not helpful and RSI should still be the first study performed.

  19. Imaging of Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Lidija M; Atherton-Woolham, Stephanie D; Adams, Judith E

    2015-01-01

    Human mummies have long been studied by using imaging as a primary investigative method. Mummified animal remains from ancient Egypt are less well researched, yet much can be learned about species diversity and the methods of preservation. Noninvasive imaging methods enable mummy bundles to remain intact, with no detrimental physical effects, thus ensuring protection of a valuable archaeological resource. This article is based on the research experience gathered during 13 years (2000-2012) with 152 animal mummies held in the collections of 17 museums in the United Kingdom. Conventional radiography, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) available in the clinical setting were used to assess the value of each imaging modality in the study of animal mummies and related material. Radiography proved to be an excellent research method that provided initial insight into the contents of the mummy bundle, and CT contributed additional useful detail in some cases. Paleoradiologic analyses enabled information on mummy bundle contents to be proved, including the nature of the skeletal remains and the methods of mummification. An optimum method involving radiography and CT is described. PMID:26562240

  20. Imaging Histone Methylations in Living Animals.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Histone modifications (methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, etc.,) are at the heart of cellular regulatory mechanisms, which control expression of genes in an orderly fashion and control the entire cellular regulatory networks. Histone lysine methylation has been identified as one of the several posttranslational histone modifications that plays crucial role in regulating gene expressions in facultative heterochromatic DNA regions while maintaining structural integrity in constitutive heterochromatic DNA regions. Since histone methylation is dysregulated in various cellular diseases, it has been considered a potential therapeutic target for drug development. Currently there is no simple method available to screen and preclinically evaluate drugs modulating this cellular process, we recently developed two different methods by adopting reporter gene technology to screen drugs and to preclinically evaluate them in living animals. Method detects and quantitatively monitors the level of histone methylations in intact cells, is of a prerequisite to screen small molecules that modulate histone lysine methylation. Here, we describe two independent optical imaging sensors developed to image histone methylations in cells and in living animals. Since we used standard PCR-based cloning strategies to construct different plasmid vectors shown in this chapter, we are not providing any details regarding the construction methods, instead, we focus on detailing various methods used for measuring histone methylation-assisted luciferase quantitation in cells and imaging in living animals. PMID:27424907

  1. Accurate scatter compensation using neural networks in radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Koichi; Nishizaki, N. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The paper presents a new method to estimate primary photons using an artificial neural network in radionuclide imaging. The neural network for [sup 99m]Tc had three layers, i.e., one input layer with five units, one hidden layer with five units, and one output layer with two units. As input values to the input units, the authors used count ratios which were the ratios of the counts acquired by narrow windows to the total count acquired by a broad window with the energy range from 125 to 154 keV. The outputs were a scatter count ratio and a primary count ratio. Using the primary count ratio and the total count they calculated the primary count of the pixel directly. The neural network was trained with a back-propagation algorithm using calculated true energy spectra obtained by a Monte Carlo method. The simulation showed that an accurate estimation of primary photons was accomplished within an error ratio of 5% for primary photons.

  2. [Right ventricular dysplasia and dilated cardiomyopathy observed by radionuclide images].

    PubMed

    Takamura, I; Ando, J; Miyamoto, A; Kobayashi, T; Sakamoto, S; Yasuda, H

    1985-12-01

    Four cases of right ventricular dysplasia (RVD) and 28 cases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were studied. RVD was characterized clinically by syncope, sustained recurrent ventricular tachycardia with left bundle branch block patterns on the surface electrocardiogram, and right heart failure. Furthermore, moderate to severe dilatation of the right ventricle and depressed right ventricular function were apparent on radionuclide angiography. However, left ventricular dilatation and depressed left ventricular function were documented in DCM. Right ventricular volume was proportional to left ventricular volume in DCM, however, right ventricular volume was disproportionately greater in RVD. On the T1-201 perfusion image, left ventricular perfusion defects were delineated in 10 of 26 patients with DCM, and in one of four RVD patients. During two to eight year follow-up periods, six patients died suddenly five of whom had left ventricular perfusion defects. However, in 19 patients without left ventricular perfusion defects, only one sudden death was observed. A connecting link between sudden death and left ventricular perfusion defect is suggested. PMID:3841888

  3. Imaging of Small-Animal Models of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jelicks, Linda A.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Machado, Fabiana S.; Weiss, Louis M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. Noninvasive small-animal imaging has become an important research tool for preclinical studies of infectious diseases. Imaging studies permit enhanced information through longitudinal studies of the same animal during the infection. Herein, we briefly review recent studies of animal models of infectious disease that have used imaging modalities. PMID:23201133

  4. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  5. Radiolabeling strategies for radionuclide imaging of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Esther; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Laere, Koen; Deroose, Christophe M

    2015-04-01

    The interest in the use of stem cells as a source for therapy has increased dramatically over the last decades. Different stem cell types have been tested in both in vitro and in vivo models, because of their properties such as differentiation potential, trophic effects and immune modulatory properties. To further optimize the use of different stem cell types for the treatment of disease in a clinical setting, it is necessary to know more about the in vivo behavior of these cells following engraftment. Until now, the golden standard to preclinically evaluate cell therapy was histology, which is an invasive method as the animals need to be sacrificed. This hampers the generation of dynamic information and results in only one single point in time available for analysis per animal. For more information regarding cell migration, in situ persistence, viability, proliferation and differentiation, molecular imaging can be used for imaging cells after transplantation dynamically and longitudinally, in a noninvasive way. With this technology, it becomes possible to track cells within the same subjects over a long period of time. PMID:25534590

  6. Progress of Focusing X-ray and Gamma-ray Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, M J; Funk, T; Barber, W C; Ramsey, B D; Hasegawa, B H

    2005-08-05

    Significant effort is currently being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. Ideally, one would like to discern these functional and metabolic relationships with in vivo radionuclide imaging at spatial resolutions approaching those that can be obtained using the anatomical imaging techniques (i.e., <100 {micro}m), which would help to answer outstanding questions in many areas of biomedicine. In this paper, we report progress on our effort to develop high-resolution focusing X-ray and gamma-ray optics for small-animal radionuclide imaging. The use of reflective optics, in contrast to methods that rely on absorptive collimation like single- or multiple-pinhole cameras, decouples spatial resolution from sensitivity (efficiency). Our feasibility studies have refined and applied ray-tracing routines to design focusing optics for small animal studies. We also have adopted a replication technique to manufacture the X-ray mirrors, and which in experimental studies have demonstrated a spatial resolution of {approx}190 {micro}m. We conclude that focusing optics can be designed and fabricated for gamma-ray energies, and with spatial resolutions, and field of view suitable for in vivo biological studies. While the efficiency of a single optic is limited, fabrication methods now are being developed that may make it possible to develop imaging systems with multiple optics that could collect image data over study times that would be practical for performing radionuclide studies of small animals.

  7. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  8. Small animal cardiovascular MR imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bakermans, Adrianus J; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Moonen, Rik P M; Motaal, Abdallah G; Prompers, Jeanine J; Strijkers, Gustav J; Vandoorne, Katrien; Nicolay, Klaas

    2015-08-01

    The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy for studying cardiovascular disease processes in small animals has increased tremendously over the past decade. This is the result of the remarkable advances in MR technologies and the increased availability of genetically modified mice. MR techniques provide a window on the entire timeline of cardiovascular disease development, ranging from subtle early changes in myocardial metabolism that often mark disease onset to severe myocardial dysfunction associated with end-stage heart failure. MR imaging and spectroscopy techniques play an important role in basic cardiovascular research and in cardiovascular disease diagnosis and therapy follow-up. This is due to the broad range of functional, structural and metabolic parameters that can be quantified by MR under in vivo conditions non-invasively. This review describes the spectrum of MR techniques that are employed in small animal cardiovascular disease research and how the technological challenges resulting from the small dimensions of heart and blood vessels as well as high heart and respiratory rates, particularly in mice, are tackled. PMID:26282195

  9. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  10. A review of small animal imaging planar and pinhole spect Gamma camera imaging.

    PubMed

    Peremans, Kathelijne; Cornelissen, Bart; Van Den Bossche, Bieke; Audenaert, Kurt; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphy (positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques) allows qualitative and quantitative measurement of physiologic processes as well as alterations secondary to various disease states. With the use of specific radioligands, molecular pathways and pharmaco-kinetic processes can be investigated. Radioligand delivery can be (semi)quantified in the region of interest in cross-sectional and longitudinal examinations, which can be performed under the same conditions or after physiologic or pharmacologic interventions. Most preclinical pharmacokinetic studies on physiological and experimentally altered physiological processes are performed in laboratory animals using high-resolution imaging systems. Single photon emission imaging has the disadvantage of decreased spatial and temporal resolution compared with PET. The advantage of SPECT is that equipment is generally more accessible and commonly used radionuclides have a longer physical half-life allowing for investigations over a longer time interval. This review will focus on single photon emission scintigraphy. An overview of contemporary techniques to measure biodistribution and kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in small animal in vivo is presented. Theoretical as well as practical aspects of planar gamma camera and SPECT pinhole (PH) imaging are discussed. Current research is focusing on refining PH SPECT methodology, so specific regarding technical aspects and applications of PH SPECT will be reviewed. PMID:15869162

  11. First Results of Small Animal Imaging Spect Detector for Cardiovascular Disease Studies on Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliozzi, M. L.; Ballerini, M.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Veneroni, P.; Majewsky, S.; Mok, S. P. G.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Wang, Y.; Marano, G.; Musumeci, M.; Palazzesi, S.; Ciccariello, G.; de Vincentis, G.; Accorsi, R.

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a compact, open, Dual Head pinhole SPECT system for high resolution molecular imaging with radionuclides of mice, dedicated mainly to preclinical study of stem cells capability to recover myocardial infarction. The gamma detector is made of pinhole tungsten collimators, pixellated scintillators, matrix of multi-anode PMTs and individual channel readout. Measurements have been performed on phantoms and live mice devoted initially to test and calibrate the system and to optimize protocols. The implemented system and the first results will be presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of our dedicated SPECT detector for small animal imaging.

  12. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1984-06-04

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  13. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of renal transplant failure

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.S.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Waxman, A.D.; Crues, J.V. III

    1988-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with radionuclide scintigraphy (RNS) in 16 patients with renal transplants undergoing renal failure to determine which modality could best discriminate between rejection, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity (CN). Although all rejecting transplants had reduced corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) on T1-weighted MR images, four of five cases of ATN had appearances that could not be distinguished from rejection. A normal CMD suggests nonrejection, but diminished CMD is nonspecific. Tc-99m DTPA/I-131 hippuran RNS was superior to MRI in differentiating rejection from ATN. Although ATN and CN have similar RNS patterns, this distinction can usually be made based on the clinical time course. Other potential uses of MRI in the evaluation of the renal transplants are discussed.

  14. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver.

    PubMed

    Elyaderani, M K; Gabriele, O F

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in hepatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys. PMID:6823576

  15. Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice

    SciTech Connect

    Schall, G.L.; Smith, R.R.; Barsocchini, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices.

  16. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  17. Should single-phase radionuclide bone imaging be used in suspected osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fihn, S.D.; Larson, E.B.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.; Gerber, F.H.

    1984-10-01

    The records of 69 patients who had 86 delayed, static radionuclide bone images for suspected osteomyelitis were studied to determine the effects of this procedure on diagnosis and treatment. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were lower than reported in several other studies. When osteomyelitis was unlikely, imaging was either negative or falsely positive and rarely affected treatment. In 46 cases where osteomyelitis was more likely, imaging potentially changed therapy in 19 but was unhelpful or misleading in 15. Static-phase images with ''definite'' interpretations, particularly when negative, are specific, but ''equivocal'' studies may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic errors. When ostemyelitis is improbable, imaging rarely changes diagnosis or therapy.

  18. Physiological considerations in radionuclide imaging of the penis during impotence therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.; Burger, R.H.; Netto, I.C.; Palmer, J.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of intracorporeal drugs in the treatment of impotence has advanced our understanding of erectile physiology. Radionuclide imaging of the penis (nuclear penogram) has provided clinicians with a noninvasive, objective measure of blood flow and blood pool changes during erection and with assistance in the quantitative documentation of therapeutic effect. 39 references.

  19. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields. PMID:24610652

  20. New Strategies for 0.5 mm Resolution, High Sensitivity, Multi- Radionuclide Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Craig S.

    2015-02-28

    This project constitutes a 0.5-millimeter resolution radionuclide detector system built from CZT. (1) A novel dual-crystal photon detector module design with cross-strip electrode patterns was developed; (2) The module mechanical assembly was built; (3) A data acquisition (DAQ) chain for the module was produced; (4) A software tool was developed to incorporate novel time and energy measurement calibration techniques. (5) A small multi-detector prototype of the radionuclide imaging system was built from this module for system-level characterizations.

  1. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Imaging in Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Esmail, Abdulredha A H; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    Several different techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging modalities are commonly used in nuclear medicine for studies of endocrine organs. Nuclear medicine is used in the management of benign and malignant thyroid, parathyroid, and neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, it is essential to acknowledge pitfalls and the limitations of nuclear medicine imaging for accurate diagnosis and patient management. PMID:26278855

  2. Differential optical imaging in animal models using infrared transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Sanhita; Le, Theresamai; Amin, Khalid; Faris, Gregory W.

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of diffuse optical imaging via transillumination to detect cancerous tissue in a rat animal model. In this imaging modality infrared radiation is transmitted through whole animal tissue. The radiation is nonionizing and uses endogenous contrast: namely deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO). Differential image analysis is performed to visualize the presence of cancerous tissue. Varying levels of inspired air and carbogen gases ensure a differential response in absorption by blood due to changing levels of Hb and HbO. We believe that this response may be sufficient to provide contrast in differential image analysis. The present method also sheds light on physiological challenges in whole animal imaging especially with respect to significant optical signals from healthy tissue. Specifically, we have seen strong signals from abdominal regions in normal rats indicative of diet related anomalous transmission. We have also been able to track the changes in optical signal during animal death.

  3. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  4. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-07-23

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 {mu}m and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  5. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mm×1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 μm and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice. There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging. Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  6. Hyperparathyroidism: comparison of MR imaging with radionuclide scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.W.; Higgins, C.B.; Fisher, M.R.; Ling, M.; Okerlund, M.D.; Clark, O.H.

    1987-05-01

    Twenty-three patients with hyperparathyroidism were evaluated preoperatively with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty patients also underwent thallium-201/technetium-99m scintigraphy. Of 22 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 12 had persistent or recurrent disease. One had secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal disease. MR imaging allowed accurate localization of abnormal parathyroid glands in 64% evaluated prospectively and 82% evaluated retrospectively. Scintigraphy allowed localization of 60% evaluated prospectively and 70% retrospectively. The two imaging modalities together allowed detection of 68% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively. MR imaging allowed detection of two of five mediastinal adenomas evaluated prospectively and four of five retrospectively. In patients who underwent both imaging studies, MR was more successful in those with previous neck surgery (73% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively) than in those with no prior surgery (57% prospectively and 71% retrospectively). Scintigraphy allowed accurate localization in 64% evaluated prospectively and 64% retrospectively in patients with previous surgery versus 57% prospectively and 86% retrospectively in patients with no prior neck surgery. Four false-positive results were obtained with MR imaging and three with scintigraphy. MR imaging was useful for parathyroid localization in patients with hyperparathyroidism, particularly in patients requiring additional surgery.

  7. ECG Gated Ultrasonic Small Animal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Hung; Jeng, Geng-Shi; Wu, Tung-Ke; Li, Pai-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Echocardiography is a routine clinical procedure to diagnose cardiac functions. The organic structure of the mouse is similar to that of human so that murine echocardiography has potentially become an effective tool for the assessment of human cardiovascular disease. However, clinical ultrasonic imaging systems are not suitable for murine cardiac imaging due to its limited spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, high frequency ultrasonic imaging (≥ 20 MHz) is necessary in order to provide spatial resolution at the order of 100 μm. Furthermore, due to the lack of transducer arrays at such a high frequency, single-element transducer with mechanical scanning is typically used. Thus the frame rate is insufficient for imaging the quick motion of the mouse. In this paper, a high frequency ultrasonic imaging system with electrocardiography gating is built in order to provide both high spatial resolution and high temporal effecting resolution. The system utilizes the R-wave trigger signal from murine electrocardiography. Image data are acquired in either the block scanning mode or the line scanning mode. In block scanning, murine cardiac images in systole and diastole can be retrospectively reconstructed with a short data acquisition time. In line scanning, on the other hand, images during the entire cardiac cycle can be obtained. It is demonstrated that the effective frame rate can be up to 2 kHz, which is only limited by the pulse repetition rate of the system. PMID:17282556

  8. An image guided small animal stereotactic radiotherapy system.

    PubMed

    Sha, Hao; Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S; Johnson, Perry B; Dogan, Nesrin; Pollack, Alan; Yang, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Small animal radiotherapy studies should be performed preferably on irradiators capable of focal tumor irradiation and healthy tissue sparing. In this study, an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART) was developed which can achieve highly precise radiation targeting through the utilization of onboard cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The iSMAART employs a unique imaging and radiation geometry where animals are positioned upright. It consists of a stationary x-ray tube, a stationary flat panel detector, and a rotatable and translational animal stage. System performance was evaluated in regards to imaging, image guidance, animal positioning, and radiation targeting using phantoms and tumor bearing animals. The onboard CBCT achieved good signal, contrast, and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The iodine contrast CBCT accurately delineated orthotopic prostate tumors. Animal positioning was evaluated with ~0.3 mm vertical displacement along superior-inferior direction. The overall targeting precision was within 0.4 mm. Stereotactic radiation beams conformal to tumor targets can be precisely delivered from multiple angles surrounding the animal. The iSMAART allows radiobiology labs to utilize an image guided precision radiation technique that can focally irradiate tumors while sparing healthy tissues at an affordable cost. PMID:26958942

  9. An image guided small animal stereotactic radiotherapy system

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Hao; Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S.; Johnson, Perry B.; Dogan, Nesrin; Pollack, Alan; Yang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Small animal radiotherapy studies should be performed preferably on irradiators capable of focal tumor irradiation and healthy tissue sparing. In this study, an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART) was developed which can achieve highly precise radiation targeting through the utilization of onboard cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The iSMAART employs a unique imaging and radiation geometry where animals are positioned upright. It consists of a stationary x-ray tube, a stationary flat panel detector, and a rotatable and translational animal stage. System performance was evaluated in regards to imaging, image guidance, animal positioning, and radiation targeting using phantoms and tumor bearing animals. The onboard CBCT achieved good signal, contrast, and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The iodine contrast CBCT accurately delineated orthotopic prostate tumors. Animal positioning was evaluated with ∼0.3 mm vertical displacement along superior-inferior direction. The overall targeting precision was within 0.4 mm. Stereotactic radiation beams conformal to tumor targets can be precisely delivered from multiple angles surrounding the animal. The iSMAART allows radiobiology labs to utilize an image guided precision radiation technique that can focally irradiate tumors while sparing healthy tissues at an affordable cost. PMID:26958942

  10. Radionuclide imaging of the liver in human fascioliasis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J.V.; Bermudez, R.H.

    1984-08-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and scintigraphic findings in four cases of human fascioliasis are described. Acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss in a person who has ingested watercress constitutes the clinical syndrome often seen. Eosinophilia and alteration in liver function tests, particularly alkaline phosphatase are frequent. Tc-99m sulfur colloid images showed hepatomegaly in four patients, focal defects in two, splenomegaly in three, and increased splenic uptake in two. Gallium citrate (Ga 67) images show increased uptake in the focal lesions in two of two. Sonographic imaging showed focal lucent abnormality in one of three. Liver biopsy findings were nonspecific. The differential diagnosis from other invasive parasitic diseases is discussed. A possible role of hepatic imaging in the evaluation of fascioliasis is suggested.

  11. [The role of trace elements in radiation protection of plants and animals on radionuclide contaminated territories of Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Grusha, V V; Bidenko, V N

    2011-01-01

    The retrospective review and analysis of works on some physiologically active trace elements influence on the radionuclides transfer from soil to plants and with forage to animals are presented. Also reviewed is their radioresistance in the contaminated territories. It is shown that some elements--zinc, manganese, cobalt--being appled to the soil at seeding or spraying plants with aqueous solutions and also in complex compounds are capable of reducing significantly the 90Sr and 137Cs transit to agricultural plants, and with forage--into the animals bodies. We have also shown that trace elements reduce the effects of radiation injury. The mechanisms of the radioprotective action of trace elements are also discussed in the paper. PMID:21520614

  12. Chemical methods for reduction of the transfer of radionuclides to farm animals in semi-natural environments.

    PubMed

    Hove, K

    1993-09-24

    The same chemicals can be used for reduction of radionuclide transfer to animals whether kept on farms or grazing in semi-natural and natural habitats. However, different techniques are required for administration of the active compounds. Dairy ruminants may be treated effectively by inclusion of chemicals in supplemental concentrates. Practical experience gained after the Chernobyl accident has shown that both clay minerals and hexacyanoferrates are effective in preventing high radiocaesium levels in animal products. Chemicals such as bentonite clays and CaCO3, used for reduction of 137Cs and 90Sr transfer respectively, must be fed in hectogram quantities and are only practical for dairy animals in semi-natural ecosystems. Salt licks and sustained release boli with hexacyanoferrates as caesium binders have been developed and used successfully after the Chernobyl accident for meat producing cattle, sheep and reindeer which graze freely for extended periods. Daily doses of 25-300 mg in sheep and 250-2000 mg in cows reduces 137Cs accumulation 2-10-fold. Binders for 90Sr have not been tested in grazing animals. Stable iodine could be provided in salt licks and indwelling rumen boli at rates required to block radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Boli and salt licks are highly cost effective in reducing doses to man when compared to interdiction of food from farm animals. PMID:8248770

  13. Comparison of ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; McGahan, J.P.

    1982-12-01

    Seventy-five patients with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant who were subsequently confirmed operatively and histologically to have acute or chronic cholecystitis underwent radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree, ultrasonography, and/or computerized tomography before operation. fifty-eight of the patients had acute cholecystitis and 17 had chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Analysis of our data indicates that ultrasonography is an accurate and better screening test than cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, but it is less accurate in the detection of acute cholecystitis. On the other hand, radionuclide imaging is highly sensitive and specific in the early diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but it is poor in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis unless the cystic duct is obstructed. CT scanning is more expensive than ultrasonography but may be extremely helpful in problematic cases such as the diagnosis of the cause in biliary obstruction or in imaging of the pancreas.

  14. Need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent systic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  15. Radionuclide imaging and ultrasound in liver/spleen trauma: a prospective comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Simeone, J.F.; McKusick, K.A.; Winzelberg, G.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    In a prospective blind study of liver/spleen trauma, 32 consecutive patients were evaluated by radionuclide imaging (/sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid) and gray-scale ultrasound. Six patients (19%) had inadequate sonograms due to injuries and pain. Thirteen (41%) were normal, 13 (41%) were abnormal with one technique or the other, and there was a discrepancy in 2 (6%). Of the 13 abnormal patients, 1 had a lacerated spleen, 2 had angiographic confirmation of a subcapsular hematoma, and 10 showed resolution on follow-up. Two patients with left-sided trauma had abnormal radionuclide scans of the liver; sonograms were initially normal in one of them, but subsequent imaging confirmed the abnormality. The authors feel that imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid should be the primary screening examination for liver/spleen trauma.

  16. Ventilation perfusion radionuclide imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Bourke, S J; Hawkins, T; Keavey, P M; Gascoigne, A D; Corris, P A

    1993-06-01

    There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. However, the full spectrum of V/Q abnormalities in this disease is poorly defined. We therefore analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and 'washout delay' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving > 60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO2 or A-aO2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. V/Q images in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis show a diverse range of appearances and may mimic pulmonary embolism. V/Q imaging complements the data obtained from lung function tests and is particularly useful in defining the differential function of each lung which is particularly important in the assessment of patients for single lung transplantation. PMID:8321484

  17. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine. PMID:26278854

  18. Role of radionuclide cardiac imaging in coronary artery bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Mostel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The main applications of cardiac nuclear imaging in coronary artery bypass surgery include: patient selection, prediction of improvement in resting LV function after revascularization, diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction, assessment of the results of revascularization, evaluation of new or recurrent symptoms, and in risk stratification. Proper understanding of which test to be used, when, and why may be important to optimize patient management.

  19. Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2008-01-01

    Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions. PMID:18582628

  20. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A.; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models. PMID:26539113

  1. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  2. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  3. Cross-bridged Macrocyclic Chelators for Stable Complexation of Copper Radionuclides for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Wong, Edward H.; Weisman, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Copper-64 (t1/2 = 12.7 h, β+: 17.4%, Eβ+max = 656 keV; β−: 39%, Eβ-max = 573 keV) has emerged as an important non-standard positron-emitting radionuclide for PET imaging of diseased tissues. A significant challenge of working with copper radionuclides is that they must be delivered to the living system as a stable complex that is attached to a biological targeting molecule for effective imaging and therapy. Significant research has been devoted to the development of ligands that can stably chelate 64Cu, in particular, the cross-bridged macrocyclic chelators. This review describes the coordination chemistry and biological behavior of 64Cu-labeled cross-bridged complexes. PMID:18043536

  4. Synthetic copolymer kit for radionuclide blood-pool imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, A.A. Jr.; Callahan, R.J.; Wilkinson, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    A synthetic blood pool imaging agent labeled with {sup 99m}Tc is reported. The agent, methoxypolyethylene glycolpoly-L-Iysyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate monoamide was synthesized from a covalent graft copolymer of methoxypolyethylene glycol succinate (molecular weight 5.1 kD) with subsequent modification of the product with diethylenetriamineacetyl residues. The polymer was formulated into a kit that contained Sn(II) and sodium acetate for radiolabeling with {sup 99m}Tc. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats. Blood-pool imaging and blood clearance determination was carried out in rabbits and in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled agent [specific activity greater than 3.7 GBq/mg; radiochemical purity more than 98% by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] demonstrated remarkable stability in solution (pH 5.5-6.5) with no radioactive products of degradation detectable by HPLC even at 24 hr postlabeling. The agent exhibited prolonged circulation in the blood with a half-life of 31.5 hr in rabbits. Bio-distribution in rats showed a lack of substantial accumulation of the agent in the reticuloendothelial system. Sequential acquisitions were performed in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled polymer kit was compared with the {sup 99m}Tc-red blood cells (RBCs) labeled in vitro. Both methods produced similar heart-to-lung ratios. The ratios remained essentially unchanged for up to 15 hr postinjection. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled methaxypolyethylene glycol-poly-L-lysyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate monoamide is an attractive alternative to radiolabeled RBCs for blood pool imaging applications. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Radionuclide Tracers for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and Blood Flow Quantification.

    PubMed

    deKemp, Robert A; Renaud, Jennifer M; Klein, Ran; Beanlands, Rob S B

    2016-02-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging is performed most commonly using Tc-99m-sestamibi or tetrofosmin SPECT as well as Rb-82-rubidium or N-13-ammonia PET. Diseased-to-normal tissue contrast is determined by the tracer retention fraction, which decreases nonlinearly with flow. Reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced tracer retention, but the severity of perfusion defects is typically underestimated by 20% to 40%. Compared to SPECT, retention of the PET tracers is more linearly related to flow, and therefore, the perfusion defects are measured more accurately using N-13-ammonia or Rb-82. PMID:26590778

  6. Comparative placental transfer, localization, and effects of radionuclides in experimental animal and human pregnancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.; Meznarich, H.K.; Traub, R.J.

    1991-11-01

    Estimating radiation doses to the human embryo/fetus from radionuclides and predicting effects requires extrapolation of data from studies of laboratory species, with scaling for species-specific developmental stage and gestational time relationships and maturities at birth. Combinations of fetal-to-maternal ratios of concentrations, patterns of deposition, transfer kinetics, and compartmental and physiologic models are used to predict radioactivity levels and radiation doses to the conceptus. There is agreement between values expressing fractional transfer across the placenta ({theta}) with tabulated values for fractional absorption (f{sub 1}) from gastrointestinal (GI) tract or lung for most substances commonly involved in metabolic processes. A tendency toward disagreement for some other materials is thought to involve explanations based on their physicochemistry, toxicity, or the influence of target tissue development on placental transfer kinetics.

  7. It's Not Easy Being Green: Student Recall of Plant and Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Olzak, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that people are less interested in studying plants than animals. We tested whether university students would selectively recall more animal images than plant images even when equally-nameable plant and animal images were presented for equal lengths of time. Animal and plant images were pre-tested and 14 animal-plant pairs…

  8. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 1. Goat milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L

    2016-04-01

    Under the MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency), there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides. The approach taken for animal products is outlined here and the first revised table for goat milk is provided. Data from some references used in TRS 472 were removed and reasons given for removal. Particular efforts were made to improve the number of CR (concentration ratio) values which have some advantages over transfer coefficients. There is little difference in most of the new CR and Fm (transfer coefficient) values for goat milk compared with those in TRS 472. In TRS 472, 21 CR values were reported for goat milk. In the 2015 dataset for goat milk CR values for a further 14 elements are now included. The CR and Fm values for only one element (Co) were removed. PMID:26845198

  9. Intravital Fluorescence Excitation in Whole-Animal Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Joel N.; Kong, Ying; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-animal fluorescence imaging with recombinant or fluorescently-tagged pathogens or cells enables real-time analysis of disease progression and treatment response in live animals. Tissue absorption limits penetration of fluorescence excitation light, particularly in the visible wavelength range, resulting in reduced sensitivity to deep targets. Here, we demonstrate the use of an optical fiber bundle to deliver light into the mouse lung to excite fluorescent bacteria, circumventing tissue absorption of excitation light in whole-animal imaging. We present the use of this technology to improve detection of recombinant reporter strains of tdTomato-expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) bacteria in the mouse lung. A microendoscope was integrated into a whole-animal fluorescence imager to enable intravital excitation in the mouse lung with whole-animal detection. Using this technique, the threshold of detection was measured as 103 colony forming units (CFU) during pulmonary infection. In comparison, the threshold of detection for whole-animal fluorescence imaging using standard epi-illumination was greater than 106 CFU. PMID:26901051

  10. Radionuclide imaging of the injured spleen and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzker, L.G.

    1983-07-01

    After the introduction of Tc-99m sulfur colloid and the gamma camera, radiocolloid liver-spleen imaging displaced angiography as the primary modality for diagnosing injury because of its sensitivity and non-invasiveness. A splenic defect may be nonspecific since it can be caused by a congenital variant. Specificity can be increased by awareness of common morphologic variations and judicious use of detector angulation to separate an overlapping left lobe. An increased incidence of overwhelming sepsis in postsplenectomy patients led to a more conservative approach to splenic injury, aided by sequential scintigraphy to demonstrate healing of traumatic defects. This decreased the significance of an initial false-positive scan that was caused by congenital variation, since the clinical ''bottom line'' was failure of a defect to enlarge or cause delayed rupture. Computed tomography (CT) is also a sensitive method of diagnosing injury or spleen and liver as well as other intraabdominal organs such as the kidneys. Its performance has not been compared to simultaneous multiorgan scintigraphy, an underutilized but very useful approach.

  11. Development of a combined microSPECT/CT system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingshan

    Modern advances in the biomedical sciences have placed increased attention on small animals such as mice and rats as models of human biology and disease in biological research and pharmaceutical development. Their small size and fast breeding rate, their physiologic similarity to human, and, more importantly, the availability of sophisticated genetic manipulations, all have made mice and rats the laboratory mammals of choice in these experimental studies. However, the increased use of small animals in biomedical research also calls for new instruments that can measure the anatomic and metabolic information noninvasively with adequate spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity to facilitate these studies. This dissertation describes the engineering development of a combined single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) system dedicated for small animals imaging. The system aims to obtain both the anatomic and metabolic images with submillimeter spatial resolution in a way that the data can be correlated to provide improved image quality and to offer more complete biological evaluation for biomedical studies involving small animals. The project requires development of complete microSPECT and microCT subsystems. Both subsystems are configured with a shared gantry and animal bed with integrated instrumentation for data acquisition and system control. The microCT employs a microfocus X-ray tube and a CCD-based detector for low noise, high resolution imaging. The microSPECT utilizes three semiconductor detectors coupled with pinhole collimators. A significant contribution of this dissertation project is the development of iterative algorithms with geometrical compensation that allows radionuclide images to be reconstructed at submillimeter spatial resolution, but with significantly higher detection efficiency than conventional methods. Both subsystems are capable of helical scans, offering lengthened field of view and improved

  12. Visual images in Luigi Galvani's path to animal electricity.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The scientific endeavor that led Luigi Galvani to his hypothesis of "animal electricity," i.e., of an electricity present in a condition of disequilibrium between the interior and the exterior of excitable animal fibers, is reviewed here with particular emphasis to the role played by visual images in Galvani's path of discovery. In 1791 Galvani formulated his model of neuromuscular physiology on the base of the image of a muscle and a nerve fiber together as in a "minute animal Leyden jar." This was the last instance of a series of physical models that accompanied Galvani's experimental efforts in the search of a theory capable of accounting for the electric nature of nerve conduction in spite of the many objections formulated in the eighteenth century against a possible role of electricity in animal physiology. PMID:18629700

  13. Small animal radiation research platform: imaging, mechanics, control and calibration.

    PubMed

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Gray, Owen; Iordachita, Iulian; Kennedy, Chris; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; Taylor, Russell H; Kazanzides, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In cancer research, well characterized small animal models of human cancer, such as transgenic mice, have greatly accelerated the pace of development of cancer treatments. The goal of the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is to make those same models available for the development and evaluation of novel radiation therapies. In combination with advanced imaging methods, small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression, and response to therapy, with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The SARRP will realistically model human radiation treatment methods in standard animal models. In this paper, we describe the mechanical and control structure of the system. This system requires accurate calibration of the x-ray beam for both imaging and radiation treatment, which is presented in detail in the paper. PMID:18044657

  14. The need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Fourteen of these 43 patients (33%) had gallbladder visualization at later than one hour after radiotracer administration, and seven of these 14 required imaging from four to 24 hours. Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. Images of nine of the remaining 13 patients with gallbladder nonvisualization were not obtained for 24 hours. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent cystic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  15. An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

  16. Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kenneth W.; Sutton, Timothy A.; Sandoval, Ruben M.

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney. Fluorescent probes are administered to an anesthetized, surgically prepared animal, followed by image acquisition for up to 3 hr. Images are transferred via a high-speed network to specialized computer systems for digital image analysis. This general approach can be used with different combinations of fluorescent probes to evaluate processes such as glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, microvascular flow, vascular permeability, mitochondrial function, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:23042524

  17. CNS Animal fMRI imaging in Pain and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2010-01-01

    Animal imaging of brain systems offers exciting opportunities to better understand the neurobiology of pain and analgesia. Overall functional studies have lagged behind human studies as a result of technical issues including the use of anesthesia. Now that many of these issues have been overcome including the possibility of imaging awake animals, there are new opportunities to study whole brain systems neurobiology of acute and chronic pain as well as analgesic effects on brain systems de novo (using pharmacological MRI) or testing in animal models of pain. Understanding brain networks in these areas may provide new insights into translational science, and use neural networks as a “language of translation” between preclinical to clinical models. In this review we evaluate the role of functional and anatomical imaging in furthering our understanding in pain and analgesia. PMID:21126534

  18. Photoacoustic Imaging of Animals with an Annular Transducer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Di-Wu; Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Zeng, Lv-Ming; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Xing-Hui

    2014-07-01

    A photoacoustic system with an annular transducer array is presented for rapid, high-resolution photoacoustic tomography of animals. An eight-channel data acquisition system is applied to capture the photoacoustic signals by using multiplexing and the total time of data acquisition and transferring is within 3 s. A limited-view filtered back projection algorithm is used to reconstruct the photoacoustic images. Experiments are performed on a mouse head and a rabbit head and clear photoacoustic images are obtained. The experimental results demonstrate that this imaging system holds the potential for imaging the human brain.

  19. High-Resolution and Animal Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, AlbertoDel

    During the last decade we have observed a growing interest in "in vivo" imaging techniques for small animals. This is due to the necessity of studying biochemical processes at a molecular level for pharmacology, genetic, and pathology investigations. This field of research is usually called "molecular imaging."Advances in biological understanding have been accompanied by technological advances in instrumentation and techniques and image-reconstruction software, resulting in improved image quality, visibility, and interpretation. The main technological challenge is then the design of systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity.

  20. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status.

    PubMed

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S; Poeppel, Thorsten D; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A M W; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided. PMID:26681984

  1. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status

    PubMed Central

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S.; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A. M. W.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided. PMID:26681984

  2. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Tsuji, Osahiko; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James; and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  3. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn2+, which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide 131I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-131I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with 131I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities. PMID:27570554

  4. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn(2+), which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide (131)I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-(131)I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with (131)I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities. PMID:27570554

  5. Fluorescence and Cerenkov luminescence imaging. Applications in small animal research.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, J; Fuchs, K; Eilenberger, S H L; Rolle, A-M; Castaneda Vega, S; Thaiss, W M; Maier, F C

    2016-04-12

    This review addresses small animal optical imaging (OI) applications in diverse fields of basic research. In the past, OI has proven to be cost- and time-effective, allows real-time imaging as well as high-throughput analysis and does not imply the usage of ionizing radiation (with the exception of Cerenkov imaging applications). Therefore, this technique is widely spread - not only geographically, but also among very different fields of basic research - and is represented by a large body of publications. Originally used in oncology research, OI is nowadays emerging in further areas like inflammation and infectious disease as well as neurology. Besides fluorescent probe-based contrast, the feasibility of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has been recently shown in small animals and thus represents a new route for future applications. Thus, this review will focus on examples for OI applications in inflammation, infectious disease, cell tracking as well as neurology, and provides an overview over CLI. PMID:27067794

  6. Beta camera for static and dynamic imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in biologic samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ljunggren, K.; Strand, S.E. )

    1990-12-01

    A detection system based on microchannel plates has been constructed to image charged particles emitted by radionuclides in biomedical samples. This technique has significant advantages over conventional film autoradiography for investigating the distribution of radiolabeled compounds: shorter acquisition times due to the high sensitivity, easier sample handling, direct quantification and the ability to perform dynamic studies. The detector performance shows a spatial resolution of 0.9 mm for carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) (0.156 MeV), good linearity and homogeneity. The noise level is below 50/(cm{sup 2}.sec). Successful imaging with this system has been performed with beta-emitters {sup 14}C, sulfur-35 ({sup 35}S), iodine-131 ({sup 131}I), yttrium-90 (90Y), and positron emitters gallium-68 ({sup 68}Ga), and fluorine-18 ({sup 18}F). Dynamic studies of axonal transport of {sup 35}S-methionine in a nerve, and static images of 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies in slices of tumors are presented. The system shows promise for rapid quantitative imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in small biologic samples.

  7. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias; Agger, Peter; Andersen, Jonas L.; Knudsen, Peter S.; Rasmussen, Anne S.; Uhrenholt, Lars; Pedersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI, CT and μCT to create advanced representation of animal anatomy, including bones, inner organs and blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different angles. Given that clinical scanners found in the majority of larger hospitals are fully suitable for these purposes, we encourage biologists to take advantage of these imaging techniques in creation of three-dimensional graphical representations of internal structures. PMID:21445356

  8. Image analysis for estimating the weight of live animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, C. P.; Marchant, John A.

    1991-02-01

    Many components of animal production have been automated. For example weighing feeding identification and yield recording on cattle pigs poultry and fish. However some of these tasks still require a considerable degree of human input and more effective automation could lead to better husbandry. For example if the weight of pigs could be monitored more often without increasing labour input then this information could be used to measure growth rates and control fat level allowing accurate prediction of market dates and optimum carcass quality to be achieved with improved welfare at minimum cost. Some aspects of animal production have defied automation. For example attending to the well being of housed animals is the preserve of the expert stockman. He gathers visual data about the animals in his charge (in more plain words goes and looks at their condition and behaviour) and processes this data to draw conclusions and take actions. Automatically collecting data on well being implies that the animals are not disturbed from their normal environment otherwise false conclusions will be drawn. Computer image analysis could provide the data required without the need to disturb the animals. This paper describes new work at the Institute of Engineering Research which uses image analysis to estimate the weight of pigs as a starting point for the wider range of applications which have been identified. In particular a technique has been developed to

  9. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool. PMID:21096766

  10. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  11. Measurements of natural radionuclides in human teeth and animal bones as markers of radiation exposure from soil in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almayahi, B. A.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate the radioactive accumulation of the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th in extracted human teeth, animal bones, and soil. The natural radionuclides were measured by high-purity germanium spectroscopy in extracted human teeth and animal bones from people and animals living in different states in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula. The average 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th concentrations in teeth were found to be 12.31±7.27 Bq g-1, 0.48±0.21 Bq g-1, 0.56±0.21 Bq g-1, 0.55±0.23 Bq g-1, 1.82±1.28 Bq g-1, and 0.50±0.14 Bq g-1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations in bones were found to be 3.79±0.81 Bq g-1, 0.07±0.02 Bq g-1, 0.08±0.02 Bq g-1, 0.16±0.04 Bq g-1, 0.51±1.08 Bq g-1, and 0.06±0.02 Bq g-1, respectively. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations in teeth from smokers were higher than those in non-smokers, and the corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in female teeth than in male teeth. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in teeth than in bones. A positive correlation was found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone samples.

  12. Femoral head viability following hip fracture. Prognostic role of radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Rudd, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    A retrospective study was made of all radionuclide (RN) bone images performed at our institution over a two-year period to evaluate femoral head viability after nonpathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Twelve patients had avascular femoral heads during the perioperative period, of which nine had adequate follow-up. Seven of these nine patients had follow-up bone images. Revascularization occurred in four patients, while three had persistent absence of femoral head uptake. With clinical follow-up ranging from four to 29 months (median: 14 months), only two of these nine patients developed clinical or radiographic evidence of osteonecrosis. RN bone imaging performed in the perioperative period does not reliably predict the development of post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head and, at present, should not be used to determine prospectively method of treatment of femoral neck fracture.

  13. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

    1989-07-18

    Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-03-03

    Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

  15. Compact CT/SPECT Small-Animal Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Kastis, George A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality CT/SPECT imaging system for small-animal imaging applications. The X-ray system comprises a commercially available micro-focus X-ray tube and a CCD-based X-ray camera. X-ray transmission measurements are performed based on cone-beam geometry. Individual projections are acquired by rotating the animal about a vertical axis in front of the CCD detector. A high-resolution CT image is obtained after reconstruction using an ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction algorithm. The SPECT system utilizes a compact semiconductor camera module previously developed in our group. The module is mounted perpendicular to the X-ray tube/CCD combination. It consists of a 64×64 pixellated CdZnTe detector and a parallel-hole tungsten collimator. The field of view is 1 square inch. Planar projections for SPECT reconstruction are obtained by rotating the animal in front of the detector. Gamma-ray and X-ray images are presented of phantoms and mice. Procedures for merging the anatomical and functional images are discussed. PMID:26538684

  16. In vivo imaging of small animal models by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shuoqi; Yang, Ran; Xiong, Jingwei; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Li, Changhui; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-02-01

    Small animal models, such as zebrafish, drosophila, C. elegan, is considered to be important models in comparative biology and diseases researches. Traditional imaging methods primarily employ several optical microscopic imaging modalities that rely on fluorescence labeling, which may have potential to affect the natural physiological progress. Thus a label-free imaging method is desired. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) is an emerging biomedical imaging method that combines optical contrast with ultrasonic detection, which is highly sensitive to the optical absorption contrast of living tissues, such as pigments, the vasculature and other optically absorbing organs. In this work, we reported the whole body label-free imaging of zebrafish larvae and drosophila pupa by PAM. Based on intrinsic optical absorption contrast, high resolution images of pigments, microvasculature and several other major organs have been obtained in vivo and non-invasively, and compared with their optical counterparts. We demonstrated that PAM has the potential to be a powerful non-invasive imaging method for studying larvae and pupa of various animal models.

  17. Registration of serial SPECT/CT images for three-dimensional dosimetry in radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Sjögreen-Gleisner, K; Rueckert, D; Ljungberg, M

    2009-10-21

    For radionuclide therapy, individual patient pharmacokinetics can be measured in three dimensions by sequential SPECT imaging. Accurate registration of the time series of images is central for voxel-based calculations of the residence time and absorbed dose. In this work, rigid and non-rigid methods are evaluated for registration of 6-7 SPECT/CT images acquired over a week, in anatomical regions from the head-and-neck region down to the pelvis. A method for calculation of the absorbed dose, including a voxel mass determination from the CT images, is also described. Registration of the SPECT/CT images is based on a CT-derived spatial transformation. Evaluation is focused on the CT registration accuracy, and on its impact on values of residence time and absorbed dose. According to the CT evaluation, the non-rigid method produces a more accurate registration than the rigid one. For images of the residence time and absorbed dose, registration produces a sharpening of the images. For volumes-of-interest, the differences between rigid and non-rigid results are generally small. However, the non-rigid method is more consistent for regions where non-rigid patient movements are likely, such as in the head-neck-shoulder region. PMID:19794243

  18. Intrinsic Feature Pose Measurement for Awake Animal SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; Stolin, A; McKisson, J; Smith, M F

    2009-01-01

    New developments have been made in optical motion tracking for awake animal imaging that measures 3D position and orientation (pose) for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system. Ongoing SPECT imaging research has been directed towards head motion measurement for brain studies in awake, unrestrained mice. In contrast to previous results using external markers, this work extracts and tracks intrinsic features from multiple camera images and computes relative pose from the tracked features over time. Motion tracking thus far has been limited to measuring extrinsic features such as retro-reflective markers applied to the mouse s head. While this approach has been proven to be accurate, the additional animal handling required to attach the markers is undesirable. A significant improvement in the procedure is achieved by measuring the pose of the head without extrinsic markers using only the external surface appearance. This approach is currently being developed with initial results presented here. The intrinsic features measurement extracts discrete, sparse natural features from 2D images such as eyes, nose, mouth and other visible structures. Stereo correspondence between features for a camera pair is determined for calculation of 3D positions. These features are also tracked over time to provide continuity for surface model fitting. Experimental results from live images are presented.

  19. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-02-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for /sup 99/Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for /sup 99/Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for /sup 133/Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude.

  20. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions in living animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luker, Gary D.; Sharma, Vijay; Pica, Christina M.; Dahlheimer, Julie L.; Li, Wei; Ochesky, Joseph; Ryan, Christine E.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2002-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions control transcription, cell division, and cell proliferation as well as mediate signal transduction, oncogenic transformation, and regulation of cell death. Although a variety of methods have been used to investigate protein interactions in vitro and in cultured cells, none can analyze these interactions in intact, living animals. To enable noninvasive molecular imaging of protein-protein interactions in vivo by positron-emission tomography and fluorescence imaging, we engineered a fusion reporter gene comprising a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein for readout of a tetracycline-inducible, two-hybrid system in vivo. By using micro-positron-emission tomography, interactions between p53 tumor suppressor and the large T antigen of simian virus 40 were visualized in tumor xenografts of HeLa cells stably transfected with the imaging constructs. Imaging protein-binding partners in vivo will enable functional proteomics in whole animals and provide a tool for screening compounds targeted to specific protein-protein interactions in living animals.

  1. U-SPECT-BioFluo: an integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a fully integrated bioluminescence-fluorescence-SPECT platform. Next to an optimization in logistics and image fusion, this integration can help improve understanding of the optical imaging (OI) results. Methods An OI module was developed for a preclinical SPECT system (U-SPECT, MILabs, Utrecht, the Netherlands). The applicability of the module for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging was evaluated in both a phantom and in an in vivo setting using mice implanted with a 4 T1-luc + tumor. A combination of a fluorescent dye and radioactive moiety was used to directly relate the optical images of the module to the SPECT findings. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was compared to the localization of the fluorescence signal in the tumors. Results Both the phantom and in vivo mouse studies showed that superficial fluorescence signals could be imaged accurately. The SPECT and bioluminescence images could be used to place the fluorescence findings in perspective, e.g. by showing tracer accumulation in non-target organs such as the liver and kidneys (SPECT) and giving a semi-quantitative read-out for tumor spread (bioluminescence). Conclusions We developed a fully integrated multimodal platform that provides complementary registered imaging of bioluminescent, fluorescent, and SPECT signatures in a single scanning session with a single dose of anesthesia. In our view, integration of these modalities helps to improve data interpretation of optical findings in relation to radionuclide images. PMID:25386389

  2. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  3. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  4. Imaging, Mapping and Monitoring Environmental Radionuclide Transport Using Compton-Geometry Gamma Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, J. W.; Dormand, J.; Cooper, J.; Judson, D.; Boston, A. J.; Bankhead, M.; Onda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The legacy to-date of the nuclear disaster at Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan, has emphasised the fundamental importance of high quality radiation measurements in soils and plant systems. Current-generation radiometers based on coded-aperture collimation are limited in their ability to locate sources of radiation in three dimensions, and require a relatively long measurement time due to the poor efficiency of the collimation system. The quality of data they can provide to support biogeochemical process models in such systems is therefore often compromised. In this work we report proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the potential of an alternative approach in the measurement of environmentally-important radionuclides (in particular 137Cs) in quartz sand and soils from the Fukushima exclusion zone. Compton-geometry imaging radiometers harness the scattering of incident radiation between two detectors to yield significant improvements in detection efficiency, energy resolution and spatial location of radioactive sources in a 180° field of view. To our knowledge we are reporting its first application to environmentally-relevant systems at low activity, dispersed sources, with significant background radiation and, crucially, movement over time. We are using a simple laboratory column setup to conduct one-dimensional transport experiments for 139Ce and 137Cs in quartz sand and in homogenized repacked Fukushima soils. Polypropylene columns 15 cm length with internal diameter 1.6 cm were filled with sand or soil and saturated slowly with tracer-free aqueous solutions. Radionuclides were introduced as 2mL pulses (step-up step-down) at the column inlet. Data were collected continuously throughout the transport experiment and then binned into sequential time intervals to resolve the total activity in the column and its progressive movement through the sand/soil. The objective of this proof-of-concept work is to establish detection limits, optimise image reconstruction

  5. Dual-headed SPECT for awake animal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; McKisson, J; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Smith, M F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract- Motion-corrected awake animal imaging is needed for normal-state investigations of models of neurological disease and brain activity. The awake animal brain SPECT/CT system, AwakeSPECT at Johns Hopkins University has in the past used a single gamma camera for imaging. Enhancements have been made by adding a pinhole collimator to the second gamma camera at the opposite side which has been previously equipped parallel hole collimator. Geometry calibration was performed using a custom built quality control phantom containing three Co-57 point sources and applied to the tomographic reconstruction code. Hot-rod phantom scans with Tc-99m were performed to test sensitivity and resolution improvements. The reconstruction results show significant resolution and sensitivity improvements.

  6. Dual-headed SPECT for awake animal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lee, B. Kross, D. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, J.S. Goddard, J.S. Baba, M.S. Smith

    2012-02-01

    Motion-corrected awake animal imaging is needed for normal-state investigations of models of neurological disease and brain activity. The awake animal brain SPECT/CT system, AwakeSPECT at Johns Hopkins University has in the past used a single gamma camera for imaging. Enhancements have been made by adding a pinhole collimator to the second gamma camera at the opposite side which has been previously equipped parallel hole collimator. Geometry calibration was performed using a custom built quality control phantom containing three Co-57 point sources and applied to the tomographic reconstruction code. Hot-rod phantom scans with Tc-99m were performed to test sensitivity and resolution improvements. The reconstruction results show significant resolution and sensitivity improvements.

  7. Imaging of cerebrovascular pathology in animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966

  8. A Time Domain Fluorescence Tomography System for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Scott B.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the application of a time domain diffuse fluorescence tomography system for whole body small animal imaging. The key features of the system are the use of point excitation in free space using ultrashort laser pulses and noncontact detection using a gated, intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Mouse shaped epoxy phantoms, with embedded fluorescent inclusions, were used to verify the performance of a recently developed asymptotic lifetime-based tomography algorithm. The asymptotic algorithm is based on a multiexponential analysis of the decay portion of the data. The multiexponential model is shown to enable the use of a global analysis approach for a robust recovery of the lifetime components present within the imaging medium. The surface boundaries of the imaging volume were acquired using a photogrammetric camera integrated with the imaging system, and implemented in a Monte-Carlo model of photon propagation in tissue. The tomography results show that the asymptotic approach is able to separate axially located fluorescent inclusions centered at depths of 4 and 10 mm from the surface of the mouse phantom. The fluorescent inclusions had distinct lifetimes of 0.5 and 0.95 ns. The inclusions were nearly overlapping along the measurement axis and shown to be not resolvable using continuous wave (CW) methods. These results suggest the practical feasibility and advantages of a time domain approach for whole body small animal fluorescence molecular imaging, particularly with the use of lifetime as a contrast mechanism. PMID:18672432

  9. Improvements in intrinsic feature pose measurement for awake animal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Goddard, J.S. Baba, S.J. Lee, A.G. Weisenberger, A. Stolin, J. McKisson, M.F. Smith

    2011-06-01

    Development has continued with intrinsic feature optical motion tracking for awake animal imaging to measure 3D position and orientation (pose) for motion compensated reconstruction. Prior imaging results have been directed towards head motion measurement for SPECT brain studies in awake unrestrained mice. This work improves on those results in extracting and tracking intrinsic features from multiple camera images and computing pose changes from the tracked features over time. Previously, most motion tracking for 3D imaging has been limited to measuring extrinsic features such as retro-reflective markers applied to an animal's head. While this approach has been proven to be accurate, the use of external markers is undesirable for several reasons. The intrinsic feature approach has been further developed from previous work to provide full pose measurements for a live mouse scan. Surface feature extraction, matching, and pose change calculation with point tracking and accuracy results are described. Experimental pose calculation and 3D reconstruction results from live images are presented.

  10. Improvements in Intrinsic Feature Pose Measurement for Awake Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; McKisson, J; Smith, M F; Stolin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Development has continued with intrinsic feature optical motion tracking for awake animal imaging to measure 3D position and orientation (pose) for motion compensated reconstruction. Prior imaging results have been directed towards head motion measurement for SPECT brain studies in awake unrestrained mice. This work improves on those results in extracting and tracking intrinsic features from multiple camera images and computing pose changes from the tracked features over time. Previously, most motion tracking for 3D imaging has been limited to measuring extrinsic features such as retro-reflective markers applied to an animal s head. While this approach has been proven to be accurate, the use of external markers is undesirable for several reasons. The intrinsic feature approach has been further developed from previous work to provide full pose measurements for a live mouse scan. Surface feature extraction, matching, and pose change calculation with point tracking and accuracy results are described. Experimental pose calculation and 3D reconstruction results from live images are presented.

  11. Animal models and high field imaging and spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Öz, Gülin; Tkáč, Ivan; Uğurbil, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    A plethora of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques developed in the last two decades provide unique and noninvasive measurement capabilities for studies of basic brain function and brain diseases in humans. Animal model experiments have been an indispensible part of this development. MR imaging and spectroscopy measurements have been employed in animal models, either by themselves or in combination with complementary and often invasive techniques, to enlighten us about the information content of such MR methods and/or verify observations made in the human brain. They have also been employed, with or independently of human efforts, to examine mechanisms underlying pathological developments in the brain, exploiting the wealth of animal models available for such studies. In this endeavor, the desire to push for ever-higher spatial and/or spectral resolution, better signal-to-noise ratio, and unique image contrast has inevitably led to the introduction of increasingly higher magnetic fields. As a result, today, animal model studies are starting to be conducted at magnetic fields ranging from ~ 11 to 17 Tesla, significantly enhancing the armamentarium of tools available for the probing brain function and brain pathologies. PMID:24174899

  12. Image guidance, treatment planning and evaluation of cancer interstitial focal therapy using liposomal radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Steve William

    Focally ablative therapy of cancer has gained significant interest recently. Improvements in diagnostic techniques have created possibilities for treatment which were once clinically unfeasible. Imaging must be capable of allowing accurate diagnosis, staging and planning upon initiation of therapy. Recent improvements in MRI and molecular imaging techniques have made it possible to accurately localize lesions and in so doing, improve the accuracy of proposed focal treatments. Using multimodality imaging it is now possible to target, plan and evaluate interstitial focal treatment using liposome encapsulated beta emitting radionuclides in a variety of cancer types. Since most absorbed dose is deposited early and heterogeneously in beta-radionuclide therapy, investigation of the resultant molecular and cellular events during this time is important for evaluating treatment efficacy. Additionally, investigating a multifocal entity such as prostate cancer is helpful for determining whether MRI is capable of discriminating the proper lesion for therapy. Correlation of MRI findings with histopathology can further improve the accuracy of interstitial focal radionuclide therapy by providing non-invasive surrogates for tissue compartment sizes. In the application of such therapies, compartmental sizes are known to heavily influence the distribution of injected agents. This has clear dosimetric implications with the potential to significantly alter the efficacy of treatment. The hypothesis of this project was that multimodality imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), autoradiography (AR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be used to target, plan, and evaluate interstitial focal therapy with non-sealed source, liposome-encapsulated 186Re beta emitting radionuclides. The specific aims of this project were to 1) Identify suitable targets for interstitial focal therapy. This was done by retrospectively analyzing MRI data to characterize the tumor

  13. Quantum Dots for In Vivo Small-Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bentolila, Laurent A.; Ebenstein, Yuval; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is poised to transform research, prevention, and treatment of cancer through the development of novel diagnostic imaging methods and targeted therapies. In particular, the use of nanoparticles for imaging has gained considerable momentum in recent years. This review focuses on the growing contribution of quantum dots (QDs) for in vivo imaging in small-animal models. Fluorescent QDs, which are small nanocrystals (1–10 nm) made of inorganic semiconductor materials, possess several unique optical properties best suited for in vivo imaging. Because of quantum confinement effects, the emission color of QDs can be precisely tuned by size from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. QDs are extremely bright and photostable. They are also characterized by a wide absorption band and a narrow emission band, which makes them ideal for multiplexing. Finally, the large surface area of QDs permits the assembly of various contrast agents to design multimodality imaging probes. To date, biocompatible QD conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Here we consider these novel breakthroughs in light of their potential clinical applications and discuss how QDs might offer a suitable platform to unite disparate imaging modalities and provide information along a continuum of length scales. PMID:19289434

  14. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  15. Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Darvas, Felix; Bading, James R; Moats, Rex A; Conti, Peter S; Smith, Desmond J; Cherry, Simon R; Leahy, Richard M

    2005-12-01

    For bioluminescence imaging studies in small animals, it is important to be able to accurately localize the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the underlying bioluminescent source. The spectrum of light produced by the source that escapes the subject varies with the depth of the emission source because of the wavelength-dependence of the optical properties of tissue. Consequently, multispectral or hyperspectral data acquisition should help in the 3D localization of deep sources. In this paper, we describe a framework for fully 3D bioluminescence tomographic image acquisition and reconstruction that exploits spectral information. We describe regularized tomographic reconstruction techniques that use semi-infinite slab or FEM-based diffusion approximations of photon transport through turbid media. Singular value decomposition analysis was used for data dimensionality reduction and to illustrate the advantage of using hyperspectral rather than achromatic data. Simulation studies in an atlas-mouse geometry indicated that sub-millimeter resolution may be attainable given accurate knowledge of the optical properties of the animal. A fixed arrangement of mirrors and a single CCD camera were used for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral imaging data over most of the surface of the animal. Phantom studies conducted using this system demonstrated our ability to accurately localize deep point-like sources and show that a resolution of 1.5 to 2.2 mm for depths up to 6 mm can be achieved. We also include an in vivo study of a mouse with a brain tumour expressing firefly luciferase. Co-registration of the reconstructed 3D bioluminescent image with magnetic resonance images indicated good anatomical localization of the tumour. PMID:16306643

  16. Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Darvas, Felix; Bading, James R.; Moats, Rex A.; Conti, Peter S.; Smith, Desmond J.; Cherry, Simon R.; Leahy, Richard M.

    2005-12-01

    For bioluminescence imaging studies in small animals, it is important to be able to accurately localize the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the underlying bioluminescent source. The spectrum of light produced by the source that escapes the subject varies with the depth of the emission source because of the wavelength-dependence of the optical properties of tissue. Consequently, multispectral or hyperspectral data acquisition should help in the 3D localization of deep sources. In this paper, we describe a framework for fully 3D bioluminescence tomographic image acquisition and reconstruction that exploits spectral information. We describe regularized tomographic reconstruction techniques that use semi-infinite slab or FEM-based diffusion approximations of photon transport through turbid media. Singular value decomposition analysis was used for data dimensionality reduction and to illustrate the advantage of using hyperspectral rather than achromatic data. Simulation studies in an atlas-mouse geometry indicated that sub-millimeter resolution may be attainable given accurate knowledge of the optical properties of the animal. A fixed arrangement of mirrors and a single CCD camera were used for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral imaging data over most of the surface of the animal. Phantom studies conducted using this system demonstrated our ability to accurately localize deep point-like sources and show that a resolution of 1.5 to 2.2 mm for depths up to 6 mm can be achieved. We also include an in vivo study of a mouse with a brain tumour expressing firefly luciferase. Co-registration of the reconstructed 3D bioluminescent image with magnetic resonance images indicated good anatomical localization of the tumour.

  17. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  18. Imaging of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptors by radionuclide scintiscanning in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huettinger, M; Corbett, J R; Schneider, W J; Willerson, J T; Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L

    1984-12-01

    The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mediates the cellular uptake of plasma lipoproteins that are derived from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Most of the functional LDL receptors in the body are located in the liver. Here, we describe a radionuclide scintiscanning technique that permits the measurement of LDL receptors in the livers of intact rabbits. 123I-labeled VLDL were administered intravenously, and scintigraphic images of the liver and heart were obtained at intervals thereafter. In seven normal rabbits, radioactivity in the liver increased progressively between 1 and 20 min after injection, while radioactivity in the heart (reflecting that in plasma) decreased concomitantly. In Watanabe-heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, which lack LDL receptors on a genetic basis, there was little uptake of 123I-labeled VLDL into the liver and little decrease in cardiac radioactivity during this interval. These findings demonstrate that the LDL receptor is necessary for the hepatic uptake of VLDL-derived lipoproteins in the rabbit. Two conditions that diminish hepatic LDL receptor activity, cholesterol-feeding and prolonged fasting, also reduced the uptake of 123I-labeled VLDL in the liver as measured by scintiscanning. The data suggest that radionuclide scintiscanning can be used as a noninvasive method to quantify the number of LDL receptors expressed in the liver in vivo. PMID:6594702

  19. Radionuclide scrotal imaging: further experience with 210 patients. Part I. Anatomy, pathophysiology, and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.

    1983-08-01

    Ten years' experience with radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) to evaluate perfusion of the scrotal contents has confirmed the value of this examination. In 1973, Nadel et al. first proposed using sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) to diagnose testicular torsion. By the end of 1982, more than thirty articles have been published on this topic, with most emphasizing the usefulness of RSI in managing patients with acute scrotal pain. The present communication describes our findings in 210 patients, not previously reported. There were four groups with relatively distinct clinical presentations: (a) acute scrotal pain, (b) chronic scrotal pain, (c) scrotal injury, and (d) scrotal mass. The anatomic and pathophysiologic bases for the scan findings will be emphasized. We discuss the staging of testicular torsion; viability of the compromised testicle; variability in the presentation of acute infection; anatomy of trauma, varicocele, and inguinal hernia; and the correlation with scrotal sonography.

  20. Analysis of serial radionuclide bone images in osteosarcoma and breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, B.J.; Hanley, J.

    1980-04-01

    The authors first describe and illustrate didactically the use of the Kaplan-Meier actuarial technique for serial diagnostic studies. They then present an analysis of previously published data on the results of serial radionuclide bone images in patients with osteosarcoma or breast carcinoma, using this technique. The data indicate that patients with osteosarcoma show an almost linear increase in the occurrence of bone metastates between 5 and 29 months after diagnosis; the rate is approximately 1% per month. Patients with breast cancer, on the other hand, show a biphasic rate of development, averaging only 0.5% per month during the first year after diagnosis but increasing rapidly to approximately 2% per month after 15 months.

  1. Whole-animal imaging with high spatio-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhetri, Raghav; Amat, Fernando; Wan, Yinan; Höckendorf, Burkhard; Lemon, William C.; Keller, Philipp J.

    2016-03-01

    We developed isotropic multiview (IsoView) light-sheet microscopy in order to image fast cellular dynamics, such as cell movements in an entire developing embryo or neuronal activity throughput an entire brain or nervous system, with high resolution in all dimensions, high imaging speeds, good physical coverage and low photo-damage. To achieve high temporal resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time, IsoView microscopy rapidly images large specimens via simultaneous light-sheet illumination and fluorescence detection along four orthogonal directions. In a post-processing step, these four views are then combined by means of high-throughput multiview deconvolution to yield images with a system resolution of ≤ 450 nm in all three dimensions. Using IsoView microscopy, we performed whole-animal functional imaging of Drosophila embryos and larvae at a spatial resolution of 1.1-2.5 μm and at a temporal resolution of 2 Hz for up to 9 hours. We also performed whole-brain functional imaging in larval zebrafish and multicolor imaging of fast cellular dynamics across entire, gastrulating Drosophila embryos with isotropic, sub-cellular resolution. Compared with conventional (spatially anisotropic) light-sheet microscopy, IsoView microscopy improves spatial resolution at least sevenfold and decreases resolution anisotropy at least threefold. Compared with existing high-resolution light-sheet techniques, such as lattice lightsheet microscopy or diSPIM, IsoView microscopy effectively doubles the penetration depth and provides subsecond temporal resolution for specimens 400-fold larger than could previously be imaged.

  2. Review of Russian-language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 4. Transfer to poultry.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-10-01

    Data on radionuclide transfer to domestic chickens and ducks obtained from research performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to provide transfer coefficient values (Ff) to poultry and edible egg contents. The majority of the data are from experiments with (90)Sr and (137)Cs, reflecting the importance of these radionuclides after global fallout and major radiation accidents. Data for (3)H, (54)Mn, (59)Fe, (60)Co, (22)Na (65)Zn, (131)I and U are also given. The values derived have been compared with those in the current IAEA Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) and the recent revision which incorporates the values from this paper. The Russian-language data give improved estimates for many radionuclides and the revised handbook is now based on the better quality data given for chronic administration. PMID:19632750

  3. Television image compression and small animal remote monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Jackson, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    It was shown that a subject can reliably discriminate a difference in video image quality (using a specific commercial product) for image compression levels ranging from 384 kbits per second to 1536 kbits per second. However, their discriminations are significantly influenced by whether or not the TV camera is stable or moving and whether or not the animals are quiescent or active, which is correlated with illumination level (daylight versus night illumination, respectively). The highest video rate used here was 1.54 megabits per second, which is about 18 percent of the so-called normal TV resolution of 8.4MHz. Since this video rate was judged to be acceptable by 27 of the 34 subjects (79 percent), for monitoring the general health and status of small animals within their illuminated (lights on) cages (regardless of whether the camera was stable or moved), it suggests that an immediate Space Station Freedom to ground bandwidth reduction of about 80 percent can be tolerated without a significant loss in general monitoring capability. Another general conclusion is that the present methodology appears to be effective in quantifying visual judgments of video image quality.

  4. Television image compression and small animal remote monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Jackson, Robert W.

    1990-04-01

    It was shown that a subject can reliably discriminate a difference in video image quality (using a specific commercial product) for image compression levels ranging from 384 kbits per second to 1536 kbits per second. However, their discriminations are significantly influenced by whether or not the TV camera is stable or moving and whether or not the animals are quiescent or active, which is correlated with illumination level (daylight versus night illumination, respectively). The highest video rate used here was 1.54 megabits per second, which is about 18 percent of the so-called normal TV resolution of 8.4MHz. Since this video rate was judged to be acceptable by 27 of the 34 subjects (79 percent), for monitoring the general health and status of small animals within their illuminated (lights on) cages (regardless of whether the camera was stable or moved), it suggests that an immediate Space Station Freedom to ground bandwidth reduction of about 80 percent can be tolerated without a significant loss in general monitoring capability. Another general conclusion is that the present methodology appears to be effective in quantifying visual judgments of video image quality.

  5. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Hein J; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; De Bondt, Pieter; Buechel, Ronny R; Cuocolo, Alberto; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L F; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Kaufmann, Philip A; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Trägårdh, Elin; de Wit, Tim C; Hesse, Birger

    2015-11-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/publications/guidelines/2015_07_EANM_FINAL_myocardial_perfusion_guideline.pdf . PMID:26290421

  6. A Gamma Ray Imaging Device for Small-Animal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Robert; Bradley, Eric; Majewski, Stan; Saha, Margaret S.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, modular nuclear imaging device for in vivo imaging of small animals is described. A segmented scintillator is coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier. This combination is used to view the living system under study with a variety of collimators employed to limit the angular acceptance. A personal computer is coupled to a CAMAC electronic system for event-by-event data acquisition and subsequent selective data analysis. The system has been designed to exploit the availability of a wide range of ligands tagged with the isotope 125I. It has most recently been employed for a study of the transport of the cocaine analog, RTI-55, to the brain of a mouse. Results of studies to date and options for future expansion of the system will be described.

  7. Effect of Radionuclide Activity Concentration on PET-CT Image Uniformity

    PubMed Central

    Hasford, Francis; Wyk, Bronwin Van; Mabhengu, Thulani; Vangu, Mboyo Di Tamba; Kyere, Augustine Kwame; Amuasi, John Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of radionuclide activity concentration on positron emission tomography-computedr tomography (PET-CT) image uniformity has been carried out quantitatively. Tomographic PET-CT images of cylindrical phantom containing F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) activity concentration was acquired and used for the assessment. Activity concentrations were varied and PET-CT images were acquired at the constant acquisition parameters of time, matrix size, and reconstruction algorithm, respectively. Using midtransaxial image slices, quantitative index of nonuniformity (NU), and coefficient of uniformity variation were estimated for the different activity concentrations. Maximum NUs of 17.6%, 26.3%, 32.7%, 36.2%, and 38.5% were estimated for activity concentrations of 16.87 kBq/mL, 14.06 kBq/mL, 11.25 kBq/mL, 8.43 kBq/mL, and 5.62 kBq/mL, respectively. The coefficient of uniformity variation established an inverse quadratic relationship with activity concentration. Activity concentrations of 16.87 kBq/mL, 14.06 kBq/mL, 11.25 kBq/mL, 8.43 kBq/mL, and 5.62 kBq/mL produced uniformity variations of 1.47%, 2.52%, 4.23%, 5.12%, and 4.98%, respectively. Increasing activity concentration resulted in decreasing coefficient of uniformity and hence, an increase in image uniformity. The uniformity estimates compared well with the standards set internationally. PMID:27134558

  8. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mutian; Huang, Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S.; Martin, Kyle; Ling, C. Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A.; Humm, John L.

    2008-10-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ~0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ~0.8 mm could be obtained.

  9. Quantitative tomographic imaging of intermolecular FRET in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a nonradiative transfer of energy between two fluorescent molecules (a donor and an acceptor) in nanometer range proximity. FRET imaging methods have been applied to proteomic studies and drug discovery applications based on intermolecular FRET efficiency measurements and stoichiometric measurements of FRET interaction as quantitative parameters of interest. Importantly, FRET provides information about biomolecular interactions at a molecular level, well beyond the diffraction limits of standard microscopy techniques. The application of FRET to small animal imaging will allow biomedical researchers to investigate physiological processes occurring at nanometer range in vivo as well as in situ. In this work a new method for the quantitative reconstruction of FRET measurements in small animals, incorporating a full-field tomographic acquisition system with a Monte Carlo based hierarchical reconstruction scheme, is described and validated in murine models. Our main objective is to estimate the relative concentration of two forms of donor species, i.e., a donor molecule involved in FRETing to an acceptor close by and a nonFRETing donor molecule. PMID:23243567

  10. Bioluminescence imaging of fungal biofilm development in live animals.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, Greetje; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Fungal biofilms formed on various types of medical implants represent a major problem for hospitalized patients. These biofilms and related infections are usually difficult to treat because of their resistance to the classical antifungal drugs. Animal models are indispensable for investigating host-pathogen interactions and for identifying new antifungal targets related to biofilm development. A limited number of animal models is available that can be used for testing novel antifungal drugs in vivo against C. albicans, one of the most common pathogens causing fungal biofilms. Fungal load in biofilms in these models is traditionally analyzed postmortem, requiring host sacrifice and enumeration of microorganisms from individual biofilms in order to evaluate the amount of colony forming units and the efficacy of antifungal treatment. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) made compatible with small animal models for in vivo biofilm formation is a valuable noninvasive tool to follow-up biofilm development and its treatment longitudinally, reducing the number of animals needed for such studies. Due to the nondestructive and noninvasive nature of BLI, the imaging procedure can be repeated in the same animal, allowing follow-up of the biofilm growth in vivo without removing the implanted device or detaching the biofilm from its substrate. The method described here introduces BLI of C. albicans biofilm formation in vivo on subcutaneously implanted catheters in mice. One of the main challenges to overcome for BLI of fungi is the hampered intracellular substrate delivery through the fungal cell wall, which is managed by using extracellularly located Gaussia luciferase. Although detecting a quantifiable in vivo BLI signal from biofilms formed on the inside of implanted catheters is challenging, BLI proved to be a practical tool in the study of fungal biofilms. This method describing the use of BLI for in vivo follow-up of device-related fungal biofilm formation has the potential for

  11. Improved dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy using nonrigid registration on sequential SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Edwin C. I.; Mok, Greta S. P.; Wu, Nien-Yun; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Song, Na

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Voxel-level and patient-specific 3D dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) typically involves serial nuclear medicine scans. Misalignment of the images can result in reduced dosimetric accuracy. Since the scans are typically performed over a period of several days, there will be patient movement between scans and possible nonrigid organ deformation. This work aims to implement and evaluate the use of nonrigid image registration on a series of quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) images for TRT dosimetry. Methods: A population of 4D extended cardiac torso phantoms, comprised of three In-111 Zevalin biokinetics models and three anatomical variations, was generated based on the patient data. The authors simulated QSPECT acquisitions at five time points. At each time point, individual organ and whole-body deformation between scans were modeled by translating/rotating organs and the body up to 5°/voxels, keeping ≤5% difference in organ volume. An analytical projector was used to generate realistic noisy projections for a medium energy general purpose collimator. Projections were reconstructed using OS-EM algorithm with geometric collimator detector response, attenuation, and scatter corrections. The QSPECT images were registered using organ-based nonrigid image registration method. The cumulative activity in each voxel was obtained by integrating the activity over time. Dose distribution images were obtained by convolving the cumulative activity images with a Y-90 dose kernel. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) for organs-of-interest were analyzed. Results: After nonrigid registration, the mean differences in organ doses compared to the case without misalignment were improved from (−15.50 ± 5.59)% to (−2.12 ± 1.05)% and (−7.28 ± 2.30)% to (−0.23 ± 0.71)% for the spleen and liver, respectively. For all organs, the cumulative DVHs showed improvement after nonrigid registration and the normalized absolute error of differential DVHs ranged from 6.79% to

  12. Angle correction for small animal tumor imaging with spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Piracha, Shaheer; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Viapiano, Mariano; Roblyer, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a widefield imaging technique that allows for the quantitative extraction of tissue optical properties. SFDI is currently being explored for small animal tumor imaging, but severe imaging artifacts occur for highly curved surfaces (e.g. the tumor edge). We propose a modified Lambertian angle correction, adapted from the Minnaert correction method for satellite imagery, to account for tissue surface angles up to 75°. The method was tested in a hemisphere phantom study as well as a small animal tumor model. The proposed method reduced µa and µs` extraction errors by an average of 64% and 16% respectively compared to performing no angle correction, and provided more physiologically agreeable optical property and chromophore values on tumors. PMID:27375952

  13. Scintillating Balloon-Enabled Fiber-Optic System for Radionuclide Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Raiyan T.; Kosuge, Hisanori; Carpenter, Colin; Sun, Conroy; McConnell, Michael V.; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis underlies coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. Detection of coronary plaque inflammation remains challenging. In this study, we developed a scintillating balloon-enabled fiber-optic radio-nuclide imaging (SBRI) system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of plaque imaging using 18F-FDG, a marker of vascular inflammation, and tested it in a murine model. Methods The fiber-optic system uses a Complementary Metal-Oxide Silicon (CMOS) camera with a distal ferrule terminated with a wide-angle lens. The novelty of this system is a scintillating balloon in the front of the wide-angle lens to image light from the decay of 18F-FDG emission signal. To identify the optimal scintillating materials with respect to resolution, we calculated the modulation transfer function of yttrium–aluminum–garnet doped with cerium, anthracene, and calcium fluoride doped with europium (CaF2:Eu) phosphors using an edge pattern and a thin-line optical phantom. The scintillating balloon was then fabricated from 10 mL of silicone RTV catalyst mixed with 1 mL of base and 50 mg of CaF2:Eu per mL. The addition of a lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillating crystal (500 μm thick) to the balloon was also investigated. The SBRI system was tested in a murine atherosclerosis model: carotid-ligated mice (n = 5) were injected with 18F-FDG, followed by ex vivo imaging of the macrophage-rich carotid plaques and nonligated controls. Confirmatory imaging of carotid plaques and controls was also performed by an external optical imaging system and autoradiography. Results Analyses of the different phosphors showed that CaF2:Eu enabled the best resolution of 1.2 μm. The SBRI system detected almost a 4-fold-higher radioluminescence signal from the ligated left carotid artery than the nonligated right carotid: 1.63 × 102 ± 4.01 × 101 vs. 4.21 × 101 ± 2.09 × 100 (photon counts), P = 0.006. We found no significant benefit to adding a

  14. Image animation for theme enhancement and change detection. [LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Animated displays are useful in enhancing subtle temporally related changes in scenes viewed by satellites capable of providing repetitive coverage. The detectability of fixed features is also improved through the help of the powerful visual integration process. To expedite the process of assembling and displaying well-registered, time-lapse sequences and to provide means for making quantitative measurements of radiances, displacements, and areas, an electronic satellite image analysis console was constructed. During the LANDSAT-1 program, this equipment was applied to the needs of a number of earth resource investigators with interests principally related to dynamic hydrology. The measurement of the areal extent of snow cover within defined drainage basins is discussed as a representative applications example.

  15. Bioluminescence Imaging of an Immunocompetent Animal Model for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Aaron J.; Fakurnejad, Shayan; Ma, Quanhong; Hashizume, Rintaro

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to commonly reported human glioma xenograft animal models, GL261 murine glioma xenografts recapitulate nearly all relevant clinical and histopathologic features of the human disease. When GL261 cells are implanted intracranially in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, the model has the added advantage of maintaining an intact immune microenvironment. Stable expression of luciferase in GL261 cells allows non-invasive cost effective bioluminescence monitoring of intracranial tumor growth. We have recently demonstrated that luciferase expression in GL261 cells does not affect the tumor growth properties, tumor cell immunomodulatory cytokine expression, infiltration of immune cells into the tumor, or overall survival of animals bearing the intracranial tumor. Therefore, it appears that the GL261 luciferase glioma model can be useful in the study of novel chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic modalities. Here we report the technique for generating stable luciferase expression in GL261 cells and how to study the in vitro and in vivo growth of the tumor cells by bioluminescence imaging. PMID:26863490

  16. Identification of hip surface arthroplasty failures with TcSC/TcmDP radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.J.; Amstutz, H.C.; Mai, L.L.; Webber, M.M.

    1982-07-01

    The roentgenographic identification of femoral component loosening after hip surface arthroplasty is often impossible because the metallic femoral component obscures the bone-cement interface. The use of combined technetium sulfur colloid and technetium methylene diphosphonate radionuclide imaging has been especially useful in the diagnosis of loosening. In 40 patients, follow-up combined TcSC and TcmDP scans at an average of three, nine, and 27 months postoperation revealed significant differences in the isotope uptakes in patients who had loose prostheses compared with those without complications. Scans were evaluated by first dividing them into eight anatomical regions and then rating the uptake in each region or 'zone' on a five-point scale. Results were compared using the Student's t-test and differences were noted between normal controls and patients who had femoral component loosening. Combining both TcSC and TcmDP studies increased the statistical significance obtained when comparing patients who had complications to those in the control group.

  17. A method of image registration for small animal, multi-modality imaging.

    PubMed

    Chow, Patrick L; Stout, David B; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2006-01-21

    Many research institutions have a full suite of preclinical tomographic scanners to answer biomedical questions in vivo. Routine multi-modality imaging requires robust registration of images generated by various tomographs. We have implemented a hardware registration method for preclinical imaging that is similar to that used in the combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners in the clinic. We designed an imaging chamber which can be rigidly and reproducibly mounted on separate microPET and microCT scanners. We have also designed a three-dimensional grid phantom with 1288 lines that is used to generate the spatial transformation matrix from software registration using a 15-parameter perspective model. The imaging chamber works in combination with the registration phantom synergistically to achieve the image registration goal. We verified that the average registration error between two imaging modalities is 0.335 mm using an in vivo mouse bone scan. This paper also estimates the impact of image misalignment on PET quantitation using attenuation corrections generated from misregistered images. Our technique is expected to produce PET quantitation errors of less than 5%. The methods presented are robust and appropriate for routine use in high throughput animal imaging facilities. PMID:16394345

  18. A High Spatial Resolution CT Scanner for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicalini, E.; Baldazzi, G.; Belcari, N.; Del Guerra, A.; Gombia, M.; Motta, A.; Panetta, D.

    2006-01-01

    We have built a micro-CT system that will be integrated with a small animal PET scanner. The components are: an X-ray source with a peak voltage of up to 60 kV, a power of 10 W and a focal spot size of 30 μm; a CCD coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillator, subdivided into 128×3072 square pixels, each with a size of 48 μm; stepping motors for the sample roto-translation; a PCI acquisition board; electronic boards to control and read-out the CCD. A program in Lab VIEW controls the data acquisition. Reconstruction algorithms have been implemented for fan-beam and cone-beam configurations. Images of a bar pattern have been acquired to evaluate the detector performance: the CTF curve has been extracted from the data, obtaining a value of 10 % at 5 lp/mm and about 3 % at 10 lp/mm. Tomographic acquisitions have been performed with a test phantom consisting of a Plexiglas cylinder, 3 cm in diameter, with holes ranging from 3 mm down to 0.6 mm in diameter, filled with different materials. The contrast resolution has been extracted from the reconstructed images: a value of 6 % (in water) for a cubic voxel size of 80 μm has been obtained.

  19. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Fbn1C1039G(+/-) mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  20. Assessment of single vessel coronary artery disease: results of exercise electrocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Port, S.C.; Oshima, M.; Ray, G.; McNamee, P.; Schmidt, D.H.

    1985-07-01

    The sensitivity of the commonly used stress tests for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was analyzed in 46 patients with significant occlusion (greater than or equal to 70% luminal diameter obstruction) of only one major coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction. In all patients, thallium-201 perfusion imaging (both planar and seven-pinhole tomographic) and 12 lead electrocardiography were performed during the same graded treadmill exercise test and radionuclide angiography was performed during upright bicycle exercise. Exercise rate-pressure (double) product was 22,307 +/- 6,750 on the treadmill compared with 22,995 +/- 5,622 on the bicycle (p = NS). Exercise electrocardiograms were unequivocally abnormal in 24 patients (52%). Qualitative planar thallium images were abnormal in 42 patients (91%). Quantitative analysis of the tomographic thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (89%). An exercise ejection fraction of less than 0.56 or a new wall motion abnormality was seen in 30 patients (65%). Results were similar for the right (n = 11) and left anterior descending (n = 28) coronary arteries while all tests but the planar thallium imaging showed a lower sensitivity for isolated circumflex artery disease (n = 7). The specificity of the tests was 72, 83, 89 and 72% for electrocardiography, planar thallium imaging, tomographic thallium imaging and radionuclide angiography, respectively. The results suggest that exercise thallium-201 perfusion imaging is the most sensitive noninvasive stress test for the diagnosis of single vessel coronary artery disease.

  1. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  2. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  3. Synthesis, radiolabeling and preliminary in vivo evaluation of multimodal radiotracers for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of pigmented melanoma.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Emilie M F; Maisonial-Besset, Aurélie; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Béquignat, Jean-Baptiste; Decombat, Caroline; Degoul, Françoise; Audin, Laurent; Deloye, Jean-Bernard; Dollé, Frédéric; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Tarrit, Sébastien; Galmier, Marie-Josèphe; Borel, Michèle; Auzeloux, Philippe; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    Melanin pigment represents an attractive target to address specific treatment to melanoma cells, such as cytotoxic radionuclides. However, less than half of the patients have pigmented metastases. Hence, specific marker is required to stratify this patient population before proceeding with melanin-targeted radionuclide therapy. In such a context, we developed fluorinated analogues of a previously studied melanin-targeting ligand, N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-6-iodoquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (ICF01012). These latter can be labeled either with (18)F or (131)I/(125)I for positron emission tomography imaging (melanin-positive patient selection) and targeted radionuclide therapy purposes. Here we describe the syntheses, radiosyntheses and preclinical evaluations on melanoma-bearing mice model of several iodo- and fluoro(hetero)aromatic derivatives of the ICF01012 scaffold. After preliminary planar gamma scintigraphic and positron emission tomography imaging evaluations, [(125)I]- and [(18)F]-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-4-fluoro-3-iodobenzamides ([(125)I]4, [(18)F]4) were found to be chemically and biologically stable with quite similar tumor uptakes at 1 h p.i. (9.7 ± 2.6% ID/g and 6.8 ± 1.9% ID/g, respectively). PMID:25637883

  4. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  5. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  6. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  7. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  8. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively

  9. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Kang-Hsin Wang, Ken; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry

  10. Molecular imaging with radionuclides, a powerful technique for studying biological processes in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisbani, E.; Cusanno, F.; Garibaldi, F.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Majewski, S.; Torrioli, S.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2007-02-01

    Our team is carrying on a systematic study devoted to the design of a SPECT detector with submillimeter resolution and adequate sensitivity (1 cps/kBq). Such system will be used for functional imaging of biological processes at molecular level in small animal. The system requirements have been defined by two relevant applications: study of atherosclerotic plaques characterization and stem cells diffusion and homing. In order to minimize costs and implementation time, the gamma detector will be based—as much as possible—on conventional components: scintillator crystal and position sensitive PhotoMultipliers read by individual channel electronics. A coded aperture collimator should be adapted to maximize the efficiency. The optimal selection of the detector components is investigated by systematic use of Monte-Carlo simulations (and laboratory validation tests); and finally preliminary results are presented and discussed here.

  11. The detection of coronary artery disease: a comparison of exercise thallium imaging and exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography.

    PubMed

    McGhie, I; Martin, W; Tweddel, A; Hutton, I

    1987-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of rest and exercise gated equilibrium technetium ventriculography with exercise thallium imaging in 50 consecutive male patients undergoing routine coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. No patients were excluded on the basis of prior myocardial infarction, nature of angiographically defined coronary disease or symptoms. Antianginal therapy was continued in all patients. Eight patients had normal coronary arteries, 9 had single vessel, disease, 20 had double vessel disease and 13 had triple vessel disease. Sixteen patients had previously documented myocardial infarction. Using exercise radionuclide ventriculography, 34 patients with coronary disease were detected resulting in a sensitivity of 81%; 6 patients with normal coronary arteries had normal scans, a specificity of 75%, with a predictive accuracy of 80%. In comparison, thallium imaging detected 42 patients with coronary disease resulting in a sensitivity of 100%. Six patients with normal coronary arteries had normal thallium images resulting in a specificity of 75% and a predictive accuracy of 96%. These results suggest that exercise thallium imaging is a more accurate investigation than exercise equilibrium radio-nuclide ventriculography and is the investigation of choice in the noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease. PMID:3036530

  12. Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations and Models Effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hall-Wallace, M.; Mogk, D.; Tversky, B.; Slotta, J.; Crabaugh, J.

    2004-05-01

    Visualizing the Earth, its processes, and its evolution through time is a fundamental aspect of geoscience. Geoscientists use a wide variety of tools to assist them in creating their own mental images. For example, we now use multilayered visualizations of geographically referenced data to analyze the relationships between different variables and we create animations to look at changes in data or model output through time. An NAGT On the Cutting Edge emerging theme workshop focused on the use of visualization tools in teaching geoscience by addressing the question "How do we teach geoscience with visualizations effectively?" The workshop held February 26-29 at Carleton College brought together geoscientists who are leaders in using visualizations in their teaching, learning scientists who study how we perceive and learn from visualizations, and creators of visualizations and visualization tools. Participants considered what we know about using visualizations effectively to teach geoscience, what important questions need to be answered to improve our ability to teach effectively, and what resources are needed to increase the capability of teaching with visualizations in the geosciences. Discussion focused on how we use visualizations in our teaching to describe and explain geoscience concepts and to explore and understand data. In addition, a section of the workshop focused on powerful emerging tools and technologies for visualization and their use in geoscience education. Workshop leaders and participants have created a web-site that includes visualizations useful in teaching, an annotated bibliography of research about teaching and learning with visualizations, essays by workshop participants about their work with visualizations, and information for visualization creators. Further information can be found at serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/visualize04.

  13. Comparison of the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and {beta}- emitting radionuclides on the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1991-12-31

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and Beagle dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occuring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10{sup 4} Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs.

  14. The Imaging of Insulinomas Using a Radionuclide-Labelled Molecule of the GLP-1 Analogue Liraglutide: A New Application of Liraglutide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Liu, Shuai; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores a new, non-invasive imaging method for the specific diagnosis of insulinoma by providing an initial investigation of the use of 125I-labelled molecules of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide for in vivo and in vitro small-animal SPECT/CT (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) imaging of insulinomas. Methods Liraglutide was labelled with 125I by the Iodogen method. The labelled 125I-liraglutide compound and insulinoma cells from the INS-1 cell line were then used for in vitro saturation and competitive binding experiments. In addition, in a nude mouse model, the use of 125I-liraglutide for the in vivo small-animal SPECT/CT imaging of insulinomas and the resulting distribution of radioactivity across various organs were examined. Results The labelling of liraglutide with 125I was successful, yielding a labelling rate of approximately 95% and a radiochemical purity of greater than 95%. For the binding between 125I-liraglutide and the GLP-1 receptor on the surface of INS-1 cells, the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 128.8±30.4 nmol/L(N = 3), and the half-inhibition concentration (IC50) was 542.4±187.5 nmol/L(N = 3). Small-animal SPECT/CT imaging with 125I-liraglutide indicated that the tumour imaging was clearest at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment. An examination of the in vivo distribution of radioactivity revealed that at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment, the target/non-target (T/NT) ratio for tumour and muscle tissue was 4.83±1.30(N = 3). Our study suggested that 125I-liraglutide was predominantly metabolised and cleared by the liver and kidneys. Conclusion The radionuclide 125I-liraglutide can be utilised for the specific imaging of insulinomas, representing a new non-invasive approach for the in vivo diagnosis of insulinomas. PMID:24805918

  15. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  16. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  17. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  18. ADAPT, a Novel Scaffold Protein-Based Probe for Radionuclide Imaging of Molecular Targets That Are Expressed in Disseminated Cancers.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Lindbo, Sarah; Nilvebrant, Johan; Åstrand, Mikael; Buijs, Jos; Sandström, Mattias; Honarvar, Hadis; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Hober, Sophia

    2015-10-15

    Small engineered scaffold proteins have attracted attention as probes for radionuclide-based molecular imaging. One class of these imaging probes, termed ABD-Derived Affinity Proteins (ADAPT), has been created using the albumin-binding domain (ABD) of streptococcal protein G as a stable protein scaffold. In this study, we report the development of a clinical lead probe termed ADAPT6 that binds HER2, an oncoprotein overexpressed in many breast cancers that serves as a theranostic biomarker for several approved targeting therapies. Surface-exposed amino acids of ABD were randomized to create a combinatorial library enabling selection of high-affinity binders to various proteins. Furthermore, ABD was engineered to enable rapid purification, to eradicate its binding to albumin, and to enable rapid blood clearance. Incorporation of a unique cysteine allowed site-specific conjugation to a maleimido derivative of a DOTA chelator, enabling radionuclide labeling, ¹¹¹In for SPECT imaging and ⁶⁸Ga for PET imaging. Pharmacologic studies in mice demonstrated that the fully engineered molecule (111)In/⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-(HE)3-ADAPT6 was specifically bound and taken up by HER2-expressing tumors, with a high tumor-to-normal tissue ratio in xenograft models of human cancer. Unbound tracer underwent rapid renal clearance followed by high renal reabsorption. HER2-expressing xenografts were visualized by gamma-camera or PET at 1 hour after infusion. PET experiments demonstrated feasibility for discrimination of xenografts with high or low HER2 expression. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of ADAPT probes for noninvasive in vivo imaging. PMID:26297736

  19. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  20. Image quality assessment for CT used on small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Isabela Paredes; Agulles-Pedrós, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Image acquisition on a CT scanner is nowadays necessary in almost any kind of medical study. Its purpose, to produce anatomical images with the best achievable quality, implies the highest diagnostic radiation exposure to patients. Image quality can be measured quantitatively based on parameters such as noise, uniformity and resolution. This measure allows the determination of optimal parameters of operation for the scanner in order to get the best diagnostic image. A human Phillips CT scanner is the first one minded for veterinary-use exclusively in Colombia. The aim of this study was to measure the CT image quality parameters using an acrylic phantom and then, using the computational tool MatLab, determine these parameters as a function of current value and window of visualization, in order to reduce dose delivery by keeping the appropriate image quality.

  1. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  2. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 Dual Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion/Innervation Imaging Using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM Collimator

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric. C.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulation and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling

  3. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C.

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  4. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in 177Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2015-08-01

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for 177Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in 177Lu PRRT.

  5. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in (177)Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Gleisner, Katarina Sjögreen

    2015-08-01

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for (177)Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in (177)Lu PRRT. PMID:26215085

  6. Functional imaging of tumor vascular network in small animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Madar-Balakirski, Noa; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

    2011-07-01

    In current report we present synchronized in vivo imaging of tumor vascular network and tumor microenvironment obtained by combined use of Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging, Spectrally Enhanced Microscopy, and Fluorescence Intravital Microscopy. Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging is used for functional imaging of the vascular network and blood microcirculation. Spectrally Enhanced Microscopy provides information regarding blood vessel topography. Fluorescence Intravital Microscopy is used for imaging of tumor microvasculature and tumor microenvironment. These well known modalities have been comprehensively validated in the past and are widely used in various bio-medical applications. As shown here, their combined application has great potential for studies of vascular biology. This multi-modal non-invasive diagnostic technique expands our current capacity to investigate blood microcirculation and tumor angiogenesis in vivo, thereby contributing to the development of cancer research and treatment.

  7. Oral and dental imaging equipment and techniques for small animals.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Curt R; Brigden, Glenn M

    2013-05-01

    In the diagnosis and treatment of oral and dental diseases in dogs and cats, digital intraoral radiography offers many advantages over the use of standard dental radiographic film, including rapid image generation, easier exposure correction, enhancement, and paperless storage. Digital image receptors can be divided into 2 main types, direct digital systems using charged coupled devices and complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensors, and indirect digital systems using phosphor plates with a computerized scanner. Each system is paired with a computer software system to allow handling, visualization, enhancement, sharing, and archiving of the images. PMID:23643018

  8. Innovations in Small-Animal PET/MR Imaging Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Visvikis, Dimitris; Loudos, George

    2016-04-01

    Multimodal imaging has led to a more detailed exploration of different physiologic processes with integrated PET/MR imaging being the most recent entry. Although the clinical need is still questioned, it is well recognized that it represents one of the most active and promising fields of medical imaging research in terms of software and hardware. The hardware developments have moved from small detector components to high-performance PET inserts and new concepts in full systems. Conversely, the software focuses on the efficient performance of necessary corrections without the use of CT data. The most recent developments in both directions are reviewed. PMID:26952725

  9. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of osteosarcoma on animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Menglei; Ye, Fei; Hu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the commonest primary malignant tumor of bone, and the second highest cause of cancer-related death in the paediatric age group. Although there are several methods for osteosarcoma detection, e.g. X-ray, CT, MRI and bone scan, they are not satisfied methods because they can hardly detect osteosarcoma in early stage. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality that is noninvasive, nonionizing, with high sensitivity, satisfactory imaging depth and good temporal and spatial resolution. In order to explore this new method to detect osteosarcoma, we established SD rat models with osteosarcoma and utilized PAI to reconstruct the osteosarcoma image in vivo. This is the first time detecting osteosarcoma in vivo using PAI, and the results suggested that PAI has potential clinical application for detecting osteosarcoma in the early stage.

  10. Unsupervised analysis of small animal dynamic Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Boschi, Federico

    2011-12-01

    Clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to dynamic Cerenkov luminescence images (dCLI). In order to investigate the performances of the proposed approaches, two distinct dynamic data sets obtained by injecting mice with 32P-ATP and 18F-FDG were acquired using the IVIS 200 optical imager. The k-means clustering algorithm has been applied to dCLI and was implemented using interactive data language 8.1. We show that cluster analysis allows us to obtain good agreement between the clustered and the corresponding emission regions like the bladder, the liver, and the tumor. We also show a good correspondence between the time activity curves of the different regions obtained by using CA and manual region of interest analysis on dCLIT and PCA images. We conclude that CA provides an automatic unsupervised method for the analysis of preclinical dynamic Cerenkov luminescence image data.

  11. SPECT-CT system for small animal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Weisenberger; Randolph Wojcik; E.L. Bradley; Paul Brewer; Stanislaw Majewski; Jianguo Qian; Amoreena Ranck; Arunava Saha; Mark Smith; Robert Welsh

    2003-02-01

    The Detector Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) and the Biology, Physics, and Applied Sciences Departments at the College of William and Mary are collaborating on the development of a miniature dual modality SPECT-CT system for mouse imaging. The detector heads of the SPECT sub-system are designed to be capable of imaging the gamma- and X-ray emissions (28-35 keV) of the radioactive isotope iodine-125 (I-125). Two different sets of I-125 imaging detectors are configured on a gantry that has an open-barrel type design. One set of detector heads is based on the 1-in square Hamamatsu R5900-M64 position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to crystal scintillator arrays. The other detector heads configured on the gantry are two 5-in diameter Hamamatsu R3292-based compact gamma cameras. The X-ray radiographic projections are obtained using a LIXI Inc. model LF-85-503-OS X-ray imaging system that has an active area of 5.5 cm in diameter. The open-barrel shaped gantry facilitates the positioning of various mini gamma-ray imaging detectors and the X-ray system. The data acquisition and gantry control is interfaced through a Macintosh G3 workstation. Preliminary SPECT reconstruction results using the R5900 based detector are presented.

  12. SPECT-CT System for Small Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Weisenberger; R. Wojcik; E.L. Bradley; P. Brewer; S. Majewski; J. Qian; A. Ranck; M.S. Saha; K. Smith; M.F. Smith; R.E. Welsh

    2001-11-01

    The Detector Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) and the Biology, Physics and Applied Sciences Departments at the College of William and Mary are collaborating on the development of a miniature dual modality SPECT-CT system for mouse imaging. The detector heads of the SPECT sub-system are capable of imaging the gamma- and x-ray emissions (28-35 keV) of the radioactive isotope iodine-125 (I-125). Two different sets of I-125 imaging detectors are configured on a gantry which has an open-barrel type design. One set of detector heads is based on the 1 inch square Hamamatsu R5900-M64 position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to crystal scintillator arrays. The other detector heads configured on the gantry are two 5-inch diameter Hamamatsu R3292-based compact gamma cameras. The x-ray radiographic projections will be obtained using a LIXI Inc. model LF-85-503-OS x-ray imaging system that has an active area of 5.5 cm in diameter. The open-barrel shaped gantry facilitates the positioning of various mini gamma-ray imaging detectors and the x-ray system. The data acquisition and gantry control is interfaced through a Macintosh G3 workstation. SPECT reconstruction results using the R5900 based detector are presented.

  13. Optoacoustic imaging of an animal model of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Michelle P.; Arsenault, Michel; Riley, Chris; Kolios, Michael; Whelan, William M.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is currently the most common cancer among Canadian men. Due to an increase in public awareness and screening, prostate cancer is being detected at earlier stages and in much younger men. This is raising the need for better treatment monitoring approaches. Optoacoustic imaging is a new technique that involves exposing tissues to pulsed light and detecting the acoustic waves generated by the tissue. Optoacoustic images of a tumour bearing mouse and an agematched control were acquired for a 775 nm illumination using a reverse-mode imaging system. A murine model of prostate cancer, TRAMP (transgenetic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate), was investigated. The results show an increase in optoacoustic signal generated by the tumour compared to that generated by the surrounding tissues with a contrast ratio of 3.5. The dimensions of the tumour in the optoacoustic image agreed with the true tumour dimensions to within 0.5 mm. In this study we show that there are detectable changes in optoacoustic signal strength that arise from the presence of a tumour in the prostate, which demonstrates the potential of optoacoustic imaging for the monitoring of prostate cancer therapy.

  14. Small animal imaging platform for quantitative assessment of short-wave infrared-emitting contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Philip; Mingozzi, Marco; Higgins, Laura M.; Ganapathy, Vidya; Zevon, Margot; Riman, Richard E.; Roth, Charles M.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2015-03-01

    We report the design, calibration, and testing of a pre-clinical small animal imaging platform for use with short-wave infrared (SWIR) emitting contrast agents. Unlike materials emitting at visible or near-infrared wavelengths, SWIR-emitting agents require detection systems with sensitivity in the 1-2 μm wavelength region, beyond the range of commercially available small animal imagers. We used a collimated 980 nm laser beam to excite rare-earth-doped NaYF4:Er,Yb nanocomposites, as an example of a SWIR emitting material under development for biomedical imaging applications. This beam was raster scanned across the animal, with fluorescence in the 1550 nm wavelength region detected by an InGaAs area camera. Background adjustment and intensity non-uniformity corrections were applied in software. The final SWIR fluorescence image was overlaid onto a standard white-light image for registration of contrast agent uptake with respect to anatomical features.

  15. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  16. Fabrication and application of heterogeneous printed mouse phantoms for whole animal optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Brian Z; Chavan, Anmol V; Lin, Dergan; Tsai, Esther H R; Webb, Kevin J

    2016-01-10

    This work demonstrates the usefulness of 3D printing for optical imaging applications. Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects for testing and evaluation. There is therefore high demand for what have become known as tissue-simulating "phantoms." We present a new optical phantom fabricated using inexpensive 3D printing methods with multiple materials, allowing for the placement of complex inhomogeneities in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, as opposed to previous phantoms, which were limited to simple shapes formed by molds or machining. We use diffuse optical imaging to reconstruct optical parameters in 3D space within a printed mouse to show the applicability of the phantoms for developing whole animal optical imaging methods. This phantom fabrication approach is versatile, can be applied to optical imaging methods besides diffusive imaging, and can be used in the calibration of live animal imaging data. PMID:26835763

  17. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:22894495

  18. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:22894495

  19. Optical methods and integrated systems for brain imaging in awake, untethered animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, Kartikeya

    Imaging is a powerful tool for biomedical research offering non-contact and minimally or non-invasive means of investigating at multiple scales---from single molecules to large populations of cells. Imaging in awake, behaving animals is an emerging field that offers the additional advantage of being able to study physiological processes and structures in a more natural state than what is possible in tissue slices or even in anesthetized animals. To date, most imaging in awake animals has used optical fiber bundles or electrical cables to transfer signals to traditional imaging-system components. However, the fibers or cables tether the animal and greatly limit the kind and duration of animal behavior that can be studied using imaging methods. This work involves three distinct yet related approaches to fulfill the goal of imaging in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals---optical techniques for functional and structural imaging, development of novel photodetectors and the design of miniaturized imaging systems. I hypothesized that the flow within vessels might act as a contrast-enhancing agent and improve the visualization of vascular architecture using laser speckle imaging. When imaging rodent cerebral vasculature I saw a two to four fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios and was able to visualize 10--30% more vascular features over reflectance techniques. I designed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetector array that was comparable in sensitivity and noise performance to cooled CCD sensors, able to image fluorescence from a single cell, while running at faster frame rates. Next, I designed an imaging system weighing under 6 grams and occupying less than 4 cm3. The system incorporated multispectral illumination, adjustable focusing optics and the high-sensitivity CMOS imager. I was able to implement a variety of optical modalities with the system and performed reflectance, fluorescence, spectroscopic and laser speckle imaging with my

  20. A Semi-Automated Single Day Image Differencing Technique to Identify Animals in Aerial Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Terletzky, Pat; Ramsey, Robert Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Our research presents a proof-of-concept that explores a new and innovative method to identify large animals in aerial imagery with single day image differencing. We acquired two aerial images of eight fenced pastures and conducted a principal component analysis of each image. We then subtracted the first principal component of the two pasture images followed by heuristic thresholding to generate polygons. The number of polygons represented the number of potential cattle (Bos taurus) and horses (Equus caballus) in the pasture. The process was considered semi-automated because we were not able to automate the identification of spatial or spectral thresholding values. Imagery was acquired concurrently with ground counts of animal numbers. Across the eight pastures, 82% of the animals were correctly identified, mean percent commission was 53%, and mean percent omission was 18%. The high commission error was due to small mis-alignments generated from image-to-image registration, misidentified shadows, and grouping behavior of animals. The high probability of correctly identifying animals suggests short time interval image differencing could provide a new technique to enumerate wild ungulates occupying grassland ecosystems, especially in isolated or difficult to access areas. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to use standard change detection techniques to identify and enumerate large ungulates. PMID:24454827

  1. Material decomposition and virtual non-contrast imaging in photon counting computed tomography: an animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, R.; Polster, C.; Kappler, S.; Pietsch, H.; Jost, G.; Hahn, K.; Schöck, F.; Sedlmair, M.; Allmendinger, T.; Schmidt, B.; Krauss, B.; Flohr, T. G.

    2016-03-01

    The energy resolving capabilities of Photon Counting Detectors (PCD) in Computed Tomography (CT) facilitate energy-sensitive measurements. The provided image-information can be processed with Dual Energy and Multi Energy algorithms. A research PCD-CT firstly allows acquiring images with a close to clinical configuration of both the X-ray tube and the CT-detector. In this study, two algorithms (Material Decomposition and Virtual Non-Contrast-imaging (VNC)) are applied on a data set acquired from an anesthetized rabbit scanned using the PCD-CT system. Two contrast agents (CA) are applied: A gadolinium (Gd) based CA used to enhance contrasts for vascular imaging, and xenon (Xe) and air as a CA used to evaluate local ventilation of the animal's lung. Four different images are generated: a) A VNC image, suppressing any traces of the injected Gd imitating a native scan, b) a VNC image with a Gd-image as an overlay, where contrast enhancements in the vascular system are highlighted using colored labels, c) another VNC image with a Xe-image as an overlay, and d) a 3D rendered image of the animal's lung, filled with Xe, indicating local ventilation characteristics. All images are generated from two images based on energy bin information. It is shown that a modified version of a commercially available dual energy software framework is capable of providing images with diagnostic value obtained from the research PCD-CT system.

  2. Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique.

  3. Animal models and molecular imaging tools to investigate lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Servais, Elliot L.; Colovos, Christos; Bograd, Adam J.; White, Julie; Sadelain, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a strong predictor of poor outcome in cancer patients. Animal studies of lymph node metastasis are constrained by difficulties in the establishment of appropriate animal models, limitations in the noninvasive monitoring of lymph node metastasis progression, and challenges in the pathologic confirmation of lymph node metastases. In this comprehensive review, we summarize available preclinical animal cancer models for noninvasive imaging and identification of lymph node metastases of non-hematogenous cancers. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of common noninvasive imaging modalities used to identify tumor-bearing lymph nodes and provide guidelines for their pathological confirmation. PMID:21556810

  4. Improved Pose Measurement and Tracking System for Motion Correction of Awake, Unrestrained Small Animal SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Weisenberger, A G; Smith, M F

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system has been developed to provide 3D animal pose data for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system for awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained laboratory animals. The six degree of freedom animal position and orientation measurement data are time synchronized with the SPECT list mode data to provide for motion correction after the scan and before reconstruction. The tracking system employs infrared (IR) markers placed on the animal's head along with synchronized, strobed IR LEDs to illuminate the reflectors and freeze motion while minimizing reflections. A new design trinocular stereo image acquisition system using IEEE 1394 CMOS cameras acquires images of the animal with markers contained within a transparent enclosure. The trinocular configuration provides improved accuracy, range of motion, and robustness over the binocular stereo used previously. Enhanced software detects obstructions, automatically segments the markers, rejects reflections, performs marker correspondence, and calculates the 3D pose of the animal's head using image data from three cameras. The new hardware design provides more compact camera positioning with enhanced animal viewing through the 360 degree SPECT scan. This system has been implemented on a commercial scanner and tested using live mice and has been shown to be more reliable with higher accuracy than the previous system. Experimental results showing the improved motion tracking results are given.

  5. Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals

    PubMed Central

    Sawinski, Juergen; Wallace, Damian J.; Greenberg, David S.; Grossmann, Silvie; Denk, Winfried; Kerr, Jason N. D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a miniaturized head-mounted multiphoton microscope and its use for recording Ca2+ transients from the somata of layer 2/3 neurons in the visual cortex of awake, freely moving rats. Images contained up to 20 neurons and were stable enough to record continuously for >5 min per trial and 20 trials per imaging session, even as the animal was running at velocities of up to 0.6 m/s. Neuronal Ca2+ transients were readily detected, and responses to various static visual stimuli were observed during free movement on a running track. Neuronal activity was sparse and increased when the animal swept its gaze across a visual stimulus. Neurons showing preferential activation by specific stimuli were observed in freely moving animals. These results demonstrate that the multiphoton fiberscope is suitable for functional imaging in awake and freely moving animals. PMID:19889973

  6. Animated Depth Images for Interactive Remote Visualization of Time-Varying Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Ma, Zhiqiang; Popescu, Voicu

    2014-11-01

    Remote visualization has become both a necessity, as data set sizes have grown faster than computer network performance, and an opportunity, as laptop, tablet, and smartphone mobile computing platforms have become ubiquitous. However, the conventional remote visualization (CRV) approach of sending a new image from the server to the client for every view parameter change suffers from reduced interactivity. One problem is high latency, as the network has to be traversed twice, once to communicate the view parameters to the server and once to transmit the new image to the client. A second problem is reduced image quality due to aggressive compression or low resolution. We address these problems by constructing and transmitting enhanced images that are sufficient for quality output frame reconstruction at the client for a range of view parameter values. The client reconstructs thousands of frames locally, without any additional data from the server, which avoids latency and aggressive compression. We introduce animated depth images, which not only store a color and depth sample at every pixel, but also store the trajectory of the samples for a given time interval. Sample trajectories are stored compactly by partitioning the image into semi-rigid sample clusters and by storing one sequence of rigid body transformations per cluster. Animated depth images leverage sample trajectory coherence to achieve a good compression of animation data, with a small and user-controllable approximation error. We demonstrate animated depth images in the context of finite element analysis and SPH data sets. PMID:26355328

  7. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  8. Imaging cell biology in live animals: Ready for prime time

    PubMed Central

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is one of the main tools used to image subcellular structures in living cells. Yet for decades it has been applied primarily to in vitro model systems. Thanks to the most recent advancements in intravital microscopy, this approach has finally been extended to live rodents. This represents a major breakthrough that will provide unprecedented new opportunities to study mammalian cell biology in vivo and has already provided new insight in the fields of neurobiology, immunology, and cancer biology. PMID:23798727

  9. Real-time Avatar Animation from a Single Image

    PubMed Central

    Saragih, Jason M.; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    A real time facial puppetry system is presented. Compared with existing systems, the proposed method requires no special hardware, runs in real time (23 frames-per-second), and requires only a single image of the avatar and user. The user’s facial expression is captured through a real-time 3D non-rigid tracking system. Expression transfer is achieved by combining a generic expression model with synthetically generated examples that better capture person specific characteristics. Performance of the system is evaluated on avatars of real people as well as masks and cartoon characters. PMID:24598812

  10. MREIT conductivity imaging based on the local harmonic Bz algorithm: Animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kiwan; Lee, Chang-Ock; Woo, Eung Je; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jin Keun

    2010-04-01

    From numerous numerical and phantom experiments, MREIT conductivity imaging based on harmonic Bz algorithm shows that it could be yet another useful medical imaging modality. However, in animal experiments, the conventional harmonic Bz algorithm gives poor results near boundaries of problematic regions such as bones, lungs, and gas-filled stomach, and the subject boundary where electrodes are not attached. Since the amount of injected current is low enough for the safety for in vivo animal, the measured Bz data is defected by severe noise. In order to handle such problems, we use the recently developed local harmonic Bz algorithm to obtain conductivity images in our ROI(region of interest) without concerning the defected regions. Furthermore we adopt a denoising algorithm that preserves the ramp structure of Bz data, which informs of the location and size of anomaly. Incorporating these efficient techniques, we provide the conductivity imaging of post-mortem and in vivo animal experiments with high spatial resolution.

  11. In vivo macroscopic HPD fluorescence reflectance imaging on small animals bearing surface ARO/NPA tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria C.; Riccio, Patrizia; Russo, Paolo; Roberti, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    Recently multimodal imaging systems have been devised because the combination of different imaging modalities results in the complementarity and integration of the techniques and in a consequent improvement of the diagnostic capabilities of the multimodal system with respect to each separate imaging modality. We developed a simple and reliable HematoPorphyrin (HP) mediated Fluorescence Reflectance Imaging (FRI) system that allows for in vivo real time imaging of surface tumors with a large field of view. The tumor cells are anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma-derived ARO cells, or human papillary thyroid carcinoma-derived NPA cells. Our measurements show that the optical contrast of the tumor region image is increased by a simple digital subtraction of the background fluorescence and that HP fluorescence emissivity of ARO tumors is about 2 times greater than that of NPA tumors, and about 4 times greater than that of healthy tissues. This is also confirmed by spectroscopic measurements on histological sections of tumor and healthy tissues. It was shown also the capability of this system to distinguish the tumor type on the basis of the different intensity of the fluorescence emission, probably related to the malignancy degree. The features of this system are complementary with those ones of a pixel radionuclide detection system, which allows for relatively time expensive, narrow field of view measurements, and applicability to tumors also deeply imbedded in tissues. The fluorescence detection could be used as a large scale and quick analysis tool and could be followed by narrow field, higher resolution radionuclide measurements on previously determined highly fluorescent regions.

  12. Small animal lung imaging with an in-line X-ray phase contrast benchtop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garson, A. B.; Gunsten, S.; Guan, H.; Vasireddi, S.; Brody, S.; Anastasio, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results from a benchtop X-ray phase-contrast (XPC) method for lung imaging that represents a paradigm shift in the way small animal lung imaging is performed. In our method, information regarding airway microstructure that is encoded within speckle texture of a single XPC radiograph is decoded to spatially resolve changes in lung properties such as microstructure sizes, air volumes, and compliance, to name a few. Such functional information cannot be derived from conventional lung radiography or any other 2D imaging modality. By computing these images at different time points within a breathing cycle, dynamic functional imaging can be potentially achieved without the need for tomography.

  13. Potential clinical impact of radionuclide imaging technologies: highlights of the ITBS 2003 meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itti, Roland

    2004-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are major determinants of progress in Nuclear Medicine. Besides 18FDG, the most common PET tracer, several other molecules are under evaluation, such as 18F-fluoride for bone studies, numerous ligands for neurotransmission, 18F-DOPA for neuro-endocrine tumors or generator produced 68Ga-peptides for various cancers. Nuclear medicine gradually changes for "molecular imaging" and medical imaging, which was at the beginning mainly anatomic, has progressed in the direction of functional and metabolic imaging. The present challenge is to achieve some degree of "in vivo" biochemistry or even histology or genetics. The importance of anatomic/functional image fusion justifies the development of combined PET-CT instrumentation, whose objectives have to be discussed in terms of anatomical landmarks and/or additional clinical information. The question of "hard" or "soft" image co-registration remains open, involving not only CT, but also SPECT or MRI. Development of dedicated imaging devices, whether single photon or positron, is of major interest for breast imaging, allowing optimal imaging conditions, with results definitely superior to classical gamma-cameras or PET. The patient population concerned with scintimammography is still controversial, as well as the imaging modalities: FDG or sestaMIBI, planar or tomographic, scintillators or semi-conductors, and the research field remains open. This is also valid for external or per-operative probe systems for tumor or lymph nodes localization.

  14. A comparison of animated versus static images in an instructional multimedia presentation.

    PubMed

    Daly, C J; Bulloch, J M; Ma, M; Aidulis, D

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated three-dimensional animation and video compositing software enables the creation of complex multimedia instructional movies. However, if the design of such presentations does not take account of cognitive load and multimedia theories, then their effectiveness as learning aids will be compromised. We investigated the use of animated images versus still images by creating two versions of a 4-min multimedia presentation on vascular neuroeffector transmission. One version comprised narration and animations, whereas the other animation comprised narration and still images. Fifty-four undergraduate students from level 3 pharmacology and physiology undergraduate degrees participated. Half of the students watched the full animation, and the other half watched the stills only. Students watched the presentation once and then answered a short essay question. Answers were coded and marked blind. The "animation" group scored 3.7 (SE: 0.4; out of 11), whereas the "stills" group scored 3.2 (SE: 0.5). The difference was not statistically significant. Further analysis of bonus marks, awarded for appropriate terminology use, detected a significant difference in one class (pharmacology) who scored 0.6 (SE: 0.2) versus 0.1 (SE: 0.1) for the animation versus stills group, respectively (P = 0.04). However, when combined with the physiology group, the significance disappeared. Feedback from students was extremely positive and identified four main themes of interest. In conclusion, while increasing student satisfaction, we do not find strong evidence in favor of animated images over still images in this particular format. We also discuss the study design and offer suggestions for further investigations of this type. PMID:27105738

  15. Imaging Techniques for Small Animal Models of Pulmonary Disease: MR Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) of the small animal lung has become a valuable research tool, especially for preclinical studies. MRM offers a noninvasive and nondestructive tool for imaging small animals longitudinally and at high spatial resolution. We summarize some of the technical and biologic problems and solutions associated with imaging the small animal lung and describe several important pulmonary disease applications. A major advantage of MR is direct imaging of the gas spaces of the lung using breathable gases such as helium and xenon. When polarized, these gases become rich MR signal sources. In animals breathing hyperpolarized helium, the dynamics of gas distribution can be followed and airway constrictions and obstructions can be detected. Diffusion coefficients of helium can be calculated from diffusion-sensitive images, which can reveal micro-structural changes in the lungs associated with pathologies such as emphysema and fibrosis. Unlike helium, xenon in the lung is absorbed by blood and exhibits different frequencies in gas, tissue, or erythrocytes. Thus, with MR imaging, the movement of xenon gas can be tracked through pulmonary compartments to detect defects of gas transfer. MRM has become a valuable tool for studying morphologic and functional changes in small animal models of lung diseases. PMID:17325972

  16. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.

    2015-04-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the Internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time-series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable for a wide public. For this study animated image sequences were created from freely available image quick-looks of orthorectified Landsat scenes for four regions in the central Karakoram mountain range. The animations play automatically in a web-browser and might help to demonstrate glacier flow dynamics for educational purposes. The animations revealed highly complex patterns of glacier flow and surge dynamics over a 15-year time period (1998-2013). In contrast to other regions, surging glaciers in the Karakoram are often small (around 10 km2), steep, debris free, and advance for several years at comparably low annual rates (a few hundred m a-1). The advance periods of individual glaciers are generally out of phase, indicating a limited climatic control on their dynamics. On the other hand, nearly all other glaciers in the region are either stable or slightly advancing, indicating balanced or even positive mass budgets over the past few years to decades.

  17. Phantom feet on digital radionuclide images and other scary computer tales

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.; Dees, S.M.; Ponto, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Malfunction of a computer-assisted digital gamma camera is reported. Despite what appeared to be adequate acceptance testing, an error in the system gave rise to switching of images and identification text. A suggestion is made for using a hot marker, which would avoid the potential error of misinterpretation of patient images.

  18. NanoLuc reporter for dual luciferase imaging in living animals.

    PubMed

    Stacer, Amanda C; Nyati, Shyam; Moudgil, Pranav; Iyengar, Rahul; Luker, Kathryn E; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Luker, Gary D

    2013-10-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for cell-based assays and animal imaging studies in biomedical research and drug development, capitalizing on the high signal to background of this technique. A relatively small number of luciferases are available for imaging studies, substantially limiting the ability to image multiple molecular and cellular events, as done commonly with fluorescence imaging. To advance dual reporter bioluminescence molecular imaging, we tested a recently developed, adenosine triphosphate–independent luciferase enzyme from Oplophorus gracilirostris (NanoLuc [NL]) as a reporter for animal imaging. We demonstrated that NL could be imaged in superficial and deep tissues in living mice, although the detection of NL in deep tissues was limited by emission of predominantly blue light by this enzyme. Changes in bioluminescence from NL over time could be used to quantify tumor growth, and secreted NL was detectable in small volumes of serum. We combined NL and firefly luciferase reporters to quantify two key steps in transforming growth factor β signaling in intact cells and living mice, establishing a novel dual luciferase imaging strategy for quantifying signal transduction and drug targeting. Our results establish NL as a new reporter for bioluminescence imaging studies in intact cells and living mice that will expand imaging of signal transduction in normal physiology, disease, and drug development. PMID:24371848

  19. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  20. Attenuation correction for small animal SPECT imaging using x-ray CT data

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2005-09-15

    Photon attenuation in small animal nuclear medicine scans can be significant when using isotopes that emit lower energy photons such as iodine-125. We have developed a method to use microCT data to perform attenuation corrected small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A microCT calibration phantom was first imaged, and the resulting calibration curve was used to convert microCT image values to linear attenuation coefficient values that were then used in an iterative SPECT reconstruction algorithm. This method was applied to reconstruct a SPECT image of a uniform phantom filled with {sup 125}I-NaI. Without attenuation correction, the image suffered a 30% decrease in intensity in the center of the image, which was removed with the addition of attenuation correction. This reduced the relative standard deviation in the region of interest from 10% to 6%.

  1. Direct Imaging of Gene-Carrier Complexes in Animal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alison J.; Slack, Nelle L.; Ahmad, Ayesha; Matsumoto, Brian; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    1998-03-01

    Cationic lipids are promising gene carriers for DNA transfection. Establishing the correlations between structures of cationic lipid/DNA complexes (CL-DNA) and pathways of transfection will greatly aid us in achieving the optimal CL-DNA transfections. Our first step is to determine the uptake mechanism of DNA by studying the interactions and structures of DNA and cationic lipids. X-ray diffraction shows that the CL-DNA undergoes structural phase transitions from lamellar( J. Raedler, I. Koltover, T. Salditt, C. R. Safinya, Science 275, 810 (1997).) to inverted hexagonal self-assemblies as we change the lipid composition. X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy techniques are used to directly image the progress of the CL-DNA in mouse L-cells and unravel the complex structure in-situ. Fluorescence and confocal optical microscopy techniques allow us to monitor the interactions between the complexes and different organelles in the cell cytoplasm. Current results indicate that once inside cells, complexes containing DOPE follow a different pathway from those containing DOPC. This research is funded by NSF-DMR-9624091, PRF-31352-AC7, and Los Alamos-STB/UC:96-108.

  2. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Yang, C. C.; Guo, W. Y.; Wang, Z. J.; Chen, C. L.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future.

  3. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform.

    PubMed

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-21

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks. PMID:27008208

  4. A Protective Eye Shield for Prevention of Media Opacities during Small Animal Ocular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and other non-invasive imaging techniques are increasingly used in eye research to document disease-related changes in rodent eyes. Corneal dehydration is a major contributor to the formation of ocular opacities that can limit the repeated application of these techniques to individual animals. General anesthesia is usually required for imaging, which is accompanied by the loss of the blink reflex. As a consequence, the tear film cannot be maintained, drying occurs and the cornea becomes dehydrated. Without supplemental hydration, structural damage to the cornea quickly follows. Soon thereafter, anterior lens opacities can also develop. Collectively these changes ultimately compromise image quality, especially for studies involving repeated use of the same animal over several weeks or months. To minimize these changes, a protective shield was designed for mice and rats that prevent ocular dehydration during anesthesia. The eye shield, along with a semi-viscous ophthalmic solution, is placed over the corneas as soon as the anesthesia immobilizes the animal. Eye shields are removed for only the brief periods required for imaging and then reapplied before the fellow eye is examined. As a result, the corneal surface of each eye is exposed only for the time required for imaging. The device and detailed methods described here minimize the corneal and lens changes associated with ocular surface desiccation. When these methods are used consistently, high quality images can be obtained repeatedly from individual animals. PMID:25245081

  5. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks.

  6. Hyperspectral Imaging for Burn Depth Assessment in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael S.; Babchenko, Oksana; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Nobel, Lisa; Ignotz, Ronald; Lalikos, Janice F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Differentiating between superficial and deep-dermal (DD) burns remains challenging. Superficial-dermal burns heal with conservative treatment; DD burns often require excision and skin grafting. Decision of surgical treatment is often delayed until burn depth is definitively identified. This study’s aim is to assess the ability of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to differentiate burn depth. Methods: Thermal injury of graded severity was generated on the dorsum of hairless mice with a heated brass rod. Perfusion and oxygenation parameters of injured skin were measured with HSI, a noninvasive method of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, at 2 minutes, 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after wounding. Burn depth was measured histologically in 12 mice from each burn group (n = 72) at 72 hours. Results: Three levels of burn depth were verified histologically: intermediate-dermal (ID), DD, and full-thickness. At 24 hours post injury, total hemoglobin (tHb) increased by 67% and 16% in ID and DD burns, respectively. In contrast, tHb decreased to 36% of its original levels in full-thickness burns. Differences in deoxygenated and tHb among all groups were significant (P < 0.001) at 24 hours post injury. Conclusions: HSI was able to differentiate among 3 discrete levels of burn injury. This is likely because of its correlation with skin perfusion: superficial burn injury causes an inflammatory response and increased perfusion to the burn site, whereas deeper burns destroy the dermal microvasculature and a decrease in perfusion follows. This study supports further investigation of HSI in early burn depth assessment. PMID:26894016

  7. Dual-modal (OIS/LSCI) imager of cerebral cortex in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongyang; Miao, Peng; Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-11-01

    Optical intrinsic signals (OIS) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) have been used for years in the study of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and hemodynamic responses to the neural activity under functional stimulation. So far, most in vivo rodent experiments are based on the anesthesia model when the animals are in unconscious and restrained conditions. The influences of anesthesia on the neural activity have been documented in literature. In this study, we designed a miniature head-mounted dual-modal imager in freely moving animals that could monitor in real time the coupling of local oxygen consumption and blood perfusion of CBF by integrating different imaging modalities of OIS and LSCI. The system facilitates the study the cortical hemodynamics and neural-hemodynamic coupling in real time in freely moving animals.

  8. Dual-modal (OIS/LSCI) imager of cerebral cortex in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongyang; Miao, Peng; Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Tong, Shanbao

    2012-03-01

    Optical intrinsic signals (OIS) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) have been used for years in the study of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and hemodynamic responses to the neural activity under functional stimulation. So far, most in vivo rodent experiments are based on the anesthesia model when the animals are in unconscious and restrained conditions. The influences of anesthesia on the neural activity have been documented in literature. In this study, we designed a miniature head-mounted dual-modal imager in freely moving animals that could monitor in real time the coupling of local oxygen consumption and blood perfusion of CBF by integrating different imaging modalities of OIS and LSCI. The system facilitates the study the cortical hemodynamics and neural-hemodynamic coupling in real time in freely moving animals.

  9. Magnetic Resonance-based imaging in animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Parnell, Scott E.; Lipinski, Robert J.; Sulik, Kathleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have recently been applied to the study of both normal and abnormal structure and neurochemistry in small animals. Herein, findings from studies in which these methods have been used for the examination of animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are discussed. Emphasis is placed on results of imaging studies in fetal and postnatal mice that have highlighted the developmental stage dependency of prenatal ethanol exposure-induced CNS defects. Consideration is also given to the promise of methodological advances to allow in vivo studies of aberrant brain and behavior relationships in model animals and to the translational nature of this work. PMID:21445552

  10. Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions. PMID:17994863