Sample records for animal studies mice

  1. Peromyscus leucopus mice: a potential animal model for haematological studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Desierto, Marie J; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S

    2014-10-01

    Peromyscus leucopus mice share physical similarities with laboratory mice Mus musculus (MM) but have higher agility and longer lifespan. We compared domesticated P. leucopus linville (PLL) and M. musculus C57BL/6 (MMB6) mice for cellular composition of peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and spleen. PLL mice had significantly fewer platelets and significantly more monocytes in the blood, and notably fewer megakaryocytes in the BM. Spleens of PLL mice were significantly smaller, with 50% fewer cells and reduced 'red pulp'. There was no obvious haematological change in PLL mice between 2-8 and 16-26 months of age, except for a significant increase in blood monocytes. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content showed no change with age but differed significantly between different cell types. Treating two to eight month-old PLL mice with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in drinking water for three months did not affect cellular ROS content, but increased blood leucocytes especially the concentration of monocytes. The low platelets, low megakaryocytes, high monocytes and low splenic erythropoiesis in PLL mice resemble human measurements better than the values seen in MMB6. PMID:25116892

  2. The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test that hair condition is not an important factor in the forced swim test for this mouse strain, and suggest that this test may have wider utility for behavioural analyses of mice with abnormal hair. Keywords Swimming

  3. Humanized Thymidine Kinase-NOG Mice Can Be Used to Identify Drugs That Cause Animal-Specific Hepatotoxicity: A Case Study with Furosemide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Michie, Sara A; Zheng, Ming; Takeda, Saori; Wu, Manhong; Peltz, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Interspecies differences have limited the predictive utility of toxicology studies performed using animal species. A drug that could be a safe and effective treatment in humans could cause toxicity in animals, preventing it from being used in humans. We investigated whether the use of thymidine kinase (TK)-NOG mice with humanized livers could prevent this unfortunate outcome (i.e., "rescue" a drug for use in humans). A high dose of furosemide is known to cause severe liver toxicity in mice, but it is a safe and effective treatment in humans. We demonstrate that administration of a high dose of furosemide (200 mg/kg i.p.) causes extensive hepatotoxicity in control mice but not in humanized TK-NOG mice. This interspecies difference results from a higher rate of production of the toxicity-causing metabolite by mouse liver. Comparison of their survival curves indicated that the humanized mice were more resistant than control mice to the hepatotoxicity caused by high doses of furosemide. In this test case, humanized TK-NOG mouse studies indicate that humans could be safely treated with a high dose of furosemide. PMID:25962391

  4. Studies of mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Z; Pedersen, M; Doczi, T; Sulyok, E; Nielsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral water accumulation-clinically denoted as brain edema-is a potentially life threatening complication of almost every intracranial neuropathological state. The molecular membrane water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been shown to be present at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) where it plays pivotal role in the transport of water between the tissue water compartments of the brain. Accumulating evidence indicates that the blockade of AQP4 function at the BBB would be a new therapeutic approach to the treatment and prevention of brain swelling. The cytoskeletal protein dystrophin has been shown to be involved in the maintenance of the polarized expression of AQP4 at the BBB. In order to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the highly polarized AQP4 expression, we studied brain tissue water accumulation during induction of brain edema in dystrophin-null transgenic mice (mdx-bgeo) and control mice. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic analyses of dystrophin-null brains revealed a dramatic reduction of AQP4 in astroglial end-feet surrounding capillaries (BBB) and at the glia limitans (cerebrospinal fluid-brain interface). The AQP4 protein is mislocalized, because immunoblotting showed that the total AQP4 protein abundance was unaltered. Brain edema was induced by i.p. injection of distilled water and 8-deamino-arginine vasopressin. Changes in cerebral water compartments were assessed by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) with determination of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). In dystrophin-null mice and control mice, ADC gradually decreased by 5-6% from baseline levels during the first 35 min, indicating the initial phase of intracellular water accumulation is similar in the two groups. At this point, the control mice sustained an abrupt, rapid decline in ADC to 58%+/-2.2% of the baseline at 52.5 min, and all of the animals were dead by 56 min. After a consistent delay, the dystrophin-null mice sustained a similar decline in ADC to 55%+/-3.4% at 66.5 min, when all of the mice were dead. These results demonstrate that dystrophin is necessary for polarized distribution of AQP4 protein in brain where facilitated movements of water occur across the BBB and cerebrospinal fluid-brain interface. Moreover, these results predict that interference with the subcellular localization of AQP4 may have therapeutic potential for delaying the onset of impending brain edema. PMID:15561414

  5. Helicobacter spp. in wild mice (Peromyscus leucopus) found in laboratory animal facilities.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Melissa C; Eaton, Kathryn A; Chang, Cherie

    2009-11-01

    Wild rodents are a potential source for pathogen introduction into laboratory animal research facilities. A study was designed to assess wild mice found at our institution by infectious disease surveillance. Wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were captured with live capture traps placed in areas in which wild mice had been reported in several animal facilities. Captured animals were euthanized by inhalation of CO(2), blood was collected by cardiocentesis (n = 10), and necropsy was performed (n = 8). Serum samples were negative for antibodies to mouse parvovirus (types 1 and 2), mouse minute virus, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice, mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, reovirus, rotavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, mouse adenovirus, ectromelia virus, K virus, cilia-associated respiratory bacillus, and Mycoplasma pulmonis. Of the 8 animals that were necropsied, pelt and cecal examinations were negative for ectoparasites and pinworms, respectively. Histopathologic examination of brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, and small intestine revealed bacteria morphologically compatible with Helicobacter spp. in the cecal and colonic glands and occasionally in the gastric lumen and pits. Mesenteric lymph nodes and feces from 8 of the animals were submitted for PCR analysis for the detection of mouse parvovirus, mouse minute virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and Helicobacter spp.; 7 of the samples were PCR-positive for Helicobacter spp. At this time, wild mice found in our animal facilities do not appear to be a significant source of common laboratory mouse viral pathogens. However, they are a potential source of Helicobacter infections. PMID:19930823

  6. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Cheung, Jackie K; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2015-08-31

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats. PMID:25770894

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

  8. Strain Differences in the Chronic Mild Stress Animal Model of Depression and Anxiety in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yang-Hee; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Jun-Sup; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been reported to induce an anhedonic-like state in mice that resembles some of the symptoms of human depression. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress animal model of depression and anxiety to examine the responses of two strains of mice that have different behavioral responsiveness. An outbred ICR and an inbred C57BL/6 strain of mice were selected because they are widely used strains in behavioral tests. The results showed that the inbred C57BL/6 and outbred ICR mice were similarly responsive to CMS treatment in sucrose intake test (SIT) and open field test (OFT). However, the two strains showed quite different responses in forced swimming test (FST) and novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) test after 3 weeks of CMS treatment. Only C57BL/6 mice displayed the depression- and anxiety-like behavioral effects in response to CMS treatment in FST and NSF test. Our results suggest that there are differences in responsiveness to CMS according to the different types of strain of mice and behavioral tests. Therefore, these results provide useful information for the selection of appropriate behavioral methods to test depression- and anxiety-like behaviors using CMS in ICR and C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25414777

  9. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  10. Effects of pre- or post-training paradoxical sleep deprivation on two animal models of learning and memory in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Silva; A. B. Chehin; S. R. Kameda; A. L. Takatsu-Coleman; V. C. Ab??lio; S. Tufik; R. Frussa-Filho

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of pre- or post-training paradoxical sleep (PS) deprivation in mice tested in the passive and the plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. Three-month-old Swiss male mice were placed in narrow platforms in a water tank for 72h to prevent the occurrence of PS. Control animals were kept in the same room,

  11. Bid deficiency ameliorates ischemic renal failure and delays animal death in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingqing; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Mong-Heng; Dong, Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Tubular cell apoptosis is involved in ischemic renal failure, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Bid, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, may regulate the intrinsic as well as the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In vivo, Bid is most abundantly expressed in the kidneys. However, the role played by Bid in renal pathophysiology is unknown. Our recent work demonstrated Bid activation during renal ischemia-reperfusion. The current study has determined the role of Bid in ischemic renal injury and renal failure using Bid-deficient mice. In wild-type C57BL/6 mice, Bid was proteolytically processed into active forms during renal ischemia-reperfusion, which subsequently targeted mitochondria. This was accompanied by the development of tissue damage and severe renal failure, showing serum creatinine of 3.0 mg/dl after 48 h of reperfusion. The same ischemic insult induced acute renal failure in Bid-deficient mice, which was nonetheless less severe than the wild-type, showing 1.3 mg/dl serum creatinine. In addition, Bid deficiency attenuated tubular disruption, tubular cell apoptosis, and caspase-3 activation during 48 h of reperfusion. Compared with wild-type, animal death following renal ischemia was delayed in Bid-deficient mice. Collectively, the results suggest a role for Bid in ischemic renal injury and renal failure. PMID:16106037

  12. have knocked out the AID gene in mice, and found that these animals are normal

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    al.2 have knocked out the AID gene in mice, and found that these animals are normal except in this transcript creates a `stop' codon, and so pro- duces a truncated protein with new func- tions7 . Perhaps AID

  13. Shank mutant mice as an animal model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Juyoun; Bakes, Joseph; Bradley, Clarrisa; Collingridge, Graham L.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the role of the Shank family of proteins in autism. In recent years, autism research has been flourishing. With genetic, molecular, imaging and electrophysiological studies being supported by behavioural studies using animal models, there is real hope that we may soon understand the fundamental pathology of autism. There is also genuine potential to develop a molecular-level pharmacological treatment that may be able to deal with the most severe symptoms of autism, and clinical trials are already underway. The Shank family of proteins has been strongly implicated as a contributing factor in autism in certain individuals and sits at the core of the alleged autistic pathway. Here, we analyse studies that relate Shank to autism and discuss what light this sheds on the possible causes of autism. PMID:24298145

  14. Thermal latency studies in opiate-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Schildhaus, Noam; Trink, Eliana; Polson, Chirs; DeTolla, Louis; Tyler, Betty M.; Jallo, George I.; Tok, Sino; Guarnieri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The change in the reaction time of a tail or paw exposed to a thermal stimulus is a measure of nociceptive activity in laboratory animals. Tail-flick and plantar thermal sensitivity (Hargreaves) tests are non-invasive, minimize stress, and can be used to screen animals for phenotype and drug activity. Objective: Hargreaves testing has been widely used in rats. We investigated its use to measure the activity of opiate analgesia in mice. Methods: Mice were used in thermal stimulus studies at 1-5 hours and 1-5 days to test acute and extended release preparations of buprenorphine. Results: Hargreaves testing had limited value at 1-5 hours because mice can have an obtunded response to opiate therapy. Tail-flick studies with restrained mice are not affected by the initial locomotor stimulation. Discussion: The present report describes a simple restraint system for mice. The utility of the system is demonstrated by examining the efficacy of acute and extended release buprenorphine injections in Balb/c and Swiss mice. Conclusion: Standardized tail-flick testing provides a sensitive robust method to monitor opiate activity in mice. PMID:24459403

  15. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.; Berry, W.

    1986-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rates on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hand-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity-dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space-adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferon production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatotrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythopoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  16. Prevalence and Spread of Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species in Mice Reared in a Specific-Pathogen-Free Animal Facility

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, U. R. M.; Selgrad, M.; Ochmann, C.; Backert, S.; König, W.; Fenske, A.; Wex, T.; Malfertheiner, P.

    2006-01-01

    Infections with enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) can change the results of animal experiments. However, there is little information about the prevalence of EHS in noncommercial animal facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the spread of EHS in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Fecal samples of 40 mouse lines were analyzed for members of the family Helicobacteraceae using a group-specific PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Additional experiments were carried out to evaluate the spread of EHS among mice harbored in different caging systems. Helicobacter species were detected in 87.5% of the mouse lines tested. Five different Helicobacter species were identified: H. ganmani, H. hepaticus, H. typhlonicus, and the putative Helicobacter species represented by the isolates hamster B and MIT 98-5357. Helicobacter infection did not spread between animals in neighboring cages when individually ventilated cages were used; in contrast, when the mice were reared in open-air cages, EHS were found to spread from cage to cage. However, the spread was prevented by adding polycarbonate filter tops to the cages. When Helicobacter-negative and infected mice shared the same cage, transmission of the infection occurred in 100% within 2 weeks. Furthermore, we found that mice from commercial breeding facilities may carry undetected Helicobacter infections. Taken together, we show that infection with EHS may frequently occur and spread easily in mice reared under SPF conditions despite extensive safety precautions. Moreover, there is a high prevalence of rather uncommon Helicobacter species that may be a consequence of the current routine procedures used for health screening of SPF mice. PMID:16517848

  17. Gene disruption of Mfsd8 in mice provides the first animal model for CLN7 disease.

    PubMed

    Damme, Markus; Brandenstein, Laura; Fehr, Susanne; Jankowiak, Wanda; Bartsch, Udo; Schweizer, Michaela; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Storch, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in the major facilitator superfamily domain containing 8 (MFSD8) gene coding for the lysosomal CLN7 membrane protein result in CLN7 disease, a lysosomal storage disease of childhood. CLN7 disease belongs to a group of inherited disorders, called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL), which are characterized by the accumulation of autofluorescent ceroid lipopigments, neuroinflammation, photoreceptor- and neurodegeneration. We have disrupted the Mfsd8 gene by insertion of a lacZ gene-trap cassette between exons 1 and 2 in mice and have analyzed the impact of Cln7 depletion on neuronal and visceral tissues. Analysis of lacZ reporter gene activity in heterozygous Mfsd8((wt/tm1a)) mice showed strong Mfsd8 mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex, in the hippocampus and in the kidney. Homozygous Mfsd8((tm1a/tm1a)) mice were viable and fertile and resembled biochemically the NCL-phenotype of human CLN7 patients including the accumulation of autofluorescent material in the brain and peripheral tissues and of subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase in the cerebellum and nuclei of distinct brain regions, and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Lysosomal storage was found in large neurons of the medulla, the hippocampus and in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in mutant mice. The ultrastructure of the storage material revealed dense lamellar bodies with irregular forms within cerebellar and hippocampal neurons. In the brain loss of Cln7 was accompanied by mild reactive microgliosis and subtle astrogliosis by 10months of age, respectively. In summary we have generated a mouse model which is partly valuable as some but not all neuropathological features of human CLN7 disease are recapitulated thus representing an animal model to study CLN7-specific disease mechanisms. PMID:24423645

  18. Pathogenicity of Pasteurella multiocida isolated from various animal sources for the domestic turkey and mice 

    E-print Network

    Villegas Narvaez, Pedro

    1971-01-01

    PATHOGENICITY OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS ANIMAL SOURCES FOR THE DOMESTIC TURKEY AND MICE A Thesis by PEDRO VILLEGAS NARVAZZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkN University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of' MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology PATHOGENICITY OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS ANIL SOURCES FOR THE DOMESTIC TURKEY AND MICE A Thesis by PEDRO VILLEGAS NARVAEZ Approved...

  19. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R?szer, Tamás; Pintye, Éva; Benk?, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

  20. Dermatopathological studies on skin lesions of MRL mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Furukawa; H. Tanaka; K. Sekita; T. Nakamura; Y. Horiguchi; Y. Hamashima

    1984-01-01

    The MRL-lpr\\/lpr(MRL\\/l) mouse is a new animal model for human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and skin lesions with hair loss and scab formation are one of the characteristic manifestations in this mouse. We investigated the histopathology of the skin lesions in MRL\\/l mice and studied the related autoimmune phenomenon. Light microscopical observations revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hypergranulosis, liquefaction, vasodilation in the

  1. Of mice and men: how animal models advance our understanding of T-cell function in RA

    PubMed Central

    Kobezda, Tamás; Ghassemi-Nejad, Sheida; Mikecz, Katalin; Glant, Tibor T.; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as in autoimmune animal models of arthritis has been well established; however, unanswered questions, such as the role of joint-homing T cells, remain. Animal models of arthritis are superb experimental tools in demonstrating how T cells trigger joint inflammation, and thus can help to further our knowledge of disease mechanisms and potential therapies. In this Review, we discuss the similarities and differences in T-cell subsets and functions between RA and mouse arthritis models. For example, various T-cell subsets are involved in both human and mouse arthritis, but differences might exist in the cytokine regulation and plasticity of these cells. With regard to joint-homing T cells, an abundance of synovial T cells is present in humans compared with mice. On the other hand, local expansion of type 17 T helper (TH17) cells is observed in some animal models, but not in RA. Finally, whereas T-cell depletion essentially failed in RA, antibody targeting of T cells can work, at least preventatively, in most arthritis models. Clearly, additional human and animal studies are needed to fill the gap in our understanding of the specific contribution of T-cell subsets to arthritis in mice and men. PMID:24394350

  2. Mice do not habituate to metabolism cage housing--a three week study of male BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Darusman, Huda S; Henriksen, Trine; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik E; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia) and the fur state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall metabolism warrant caution when interpreting data obtained from metabolism cage housed mice, as their condition cannot be considered representative of a normal physiology. PMID:23505511

  3. Development of a data acquisition system for the MiCES small animal PET scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Lewellen; C. M. Laymon; R. S. Miyaoka; M. Janes; Kisung Lee; P. E. Kinahan

    2002-01-01

    We have previously reported on the design of a firewire (1394a) based data acquisition system for small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Here we report on the evolution of that design for our micro-crystal element mouse PET scanner - MiCES. The scanner utilizes 72 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PMT), each coupled to a 22×22 array of 0.8×0.8×10 mm MLS

  4. Effect of dietary vegetable and animal proteins on atherothrombosis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Sawashita; Aki Naemura; Muneshige Shimizu; Fumitake Morimatsu; Yoshinobu Ijiri; Junichiro Yamamoto

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveIt is believed that vegetable and fish, but not animal, proteins prevent thrombosis. The present study compared the effect of long-term intake of purified vegetable and animal proteins (casein, pork, egg white, chicken, white and red fish, soybean, and potato) and powders from whole vegetable and animal meats (soybean, pork, chicken, and horse mackerel) on thrombotic tendency.

  5. Animal Models For Disease--Knockout, Knockin And Conditional Mutant Mice David F. LePage and Ronald A. Conlon

    E-print Network

    almost twenty years since the first gene targeted mice were constructed (4, 5), not all parameters which mutant, animal model of disease, genetically engineered mice. 1. Introduction The generation of mutant mutations are used to define the organ, tissue or cellular autonomy of mutant effects, to circumvent

  6. Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

  7. Neutral aminoaciduria in cystathionine ?-synthase-deficient mice; an animal model of homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Kamata, Shotaro; Kubota, Masashi; Hishiki, Takako; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Matsuura, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Chiho; Yoshida, Yuka; Yamada, Hidenori; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Suematsu, Makoto; Kasahara, Tadashi; Ishii, Isao

    2014-06-15

    The kidney is one of the major loci for the expression of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH). While CBS-deficient (Cbs(-/-)) mice display homocysteinemia/methioninemia and severe growth retardation, and rarely survive beyond the first 4 wk, CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice show homocysteinemia/cystathioninemia but develop with no apparent abnormality. This study examined renal amino acid reabsorption in those mice. Although both 2-wk-old Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice had normal renal architecture, their serum/urinary amino acid profiles largely differed from wild-type mice. The most striking feature was marked accumulation of Met and cystathionine in serum/urine/kidney samples of Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice, respectively. Levels of some neutral amino acids (Val, Leu, Ile, and Tyr) that were not elevated in Cbs(-/-) serum were highly elevated in Cbs(-/-) urine, and urinary excretion of other neutral amino acids (except Met) was much higher than expected from their serum levels, demonstrating neutral aminoaciduria in Cbs(-/-) (not Cth(-/-)) mice. Because the bulk of neutral amino acids is absorbed via a B(0)AT1 transporter and Met has the highest substrate affinity for B(0)AT1 than other neutral amino acids, hypermethioninemia may cause hyperexcretion of neutral amino acids. PMID:24761004

  8. Satellite animal tracking feasibility studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    A study was initiated in Tsavo National Park to determine movements and home ranges of individual elephants and their relations to overall distribution patterns and environmental factors such as rainfall. Methods used were radio tracking and observations of visually identifiable individuals. Aerial counts provided data on overall distribution. Two bulls and two cows were radio-tagged in Tsavo West and two bulls and four cows in Tsavo East, providing home range and movement data. The movements of individuals were useful in interpreting relatively major shifts in elephant distribution. Results point to the following preliminary conclusions: (1) elephants in the Tsavo area undertook long distance movements in fairly direct response to localized rainfall; (2) a subdivision of the overall population into locally distinct units may exist during the dry season but did not occur after significant rainfall; and (3) food appears to be the primary factor governing movements and distribution of elephants in the area.

  9. A multichannel, wireless telemetric microsystem for small animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Chiun Liu; Edward O'Connor; Kingman P. Strohl

    2006-01-01

    Conventional means of collecting biophysiological parameters in small animals often involve cumbersome direct wiring and\\/or restraint of the animal. At present, there is no system for very small animals that can provide multichannel monitoring of biopotentials without restraining the animal or small enough in size or light enough in weight for studies with smaller animals. For larger animals, such as

  10. Long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium treatment has distinct effects in CD1 and DBA/2 mice on animal behavior accompanied by opposite effects on neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Rossana; Crupi, Rosalia; Leo, Antonio; Chimirri, Serafina; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Marra, Rosario; Citraro, Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    One of the most peculiar characteristics of the stress response is the pronounced inter-individual and inter-strain variability both in behavioral and neurochemical outcomes. Several studies confirm that rodents belonging to the same or different strain and/or gender, when exposed to a stressor, may show behavioral and cognitive differences. We compared the effects of long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (BTM), a widely clinically used corticosteroid, on animal behavior and neurogenesis in CD1 and DBA/2 mice. BTM treatment, in CD1 mice, increased body weight gain and anxiety parameters while having pro-depressant effects. Furthermore, BTM significantly reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Finally, BTM treatment induced a significant impairment in memory and learning performance in the Morris water maze. At odds, BTM administration, in DBA/2 mice, caused a significant reduction in the body weight while not modifying anxiety parameters. In addition, both an increased synaptogenesis and neurogenesis were found. Similarly to CD1 mice, also in DBA/2 mice, memory and learning were impaired. Our data confirm that long-term exposure to corticosteroids can generate or aggravate psychiatric/neurologic disorders such as depression, anxiety, memory and learning. Our study did not reveal significant differences between corticosterone and BTM treatment in CD1 mice. In contrast, BTM treatment in mice with an anxious phenotype (DBA/2 mice) revealed some contrasting results indicating that genetic factors can influence corticosteroids dependent effects. Finally, our data further underline the need for a re-evaluation of neurogenesis role; the increased neurogenesis observed in DBA/2 mice and behavioral effects might be distinguished phenomena. PMID:25289489

  11. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Working Party on Certification of Clinical Animal Behaviourists

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    of interest (e.g. the General Medical Council and the British Medical Association for human medicine, RCVSAssociation for the Study of Animal Behaviour Working Party on Certification of Clinical Animal for clinical animal behaviourists in the UK, similar to the Animal Behavior Society (ABS) Board of Professional

  12. ? ?-Tocopherol on Liver Biochemistry of Endosulfan Intoxicated Mice: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najma Arshad; Gulnaz Shabbir; Shahla Aleem; Muhammad Arshad

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of ?-tocopherol (vit.E) against the toxic effects of chlorinated insecticide endosulfan. Forty male albino mice were used as mammalian model in this study. Animals were divided into 4 groups (ten animals each) on the basis of Vitamin-E treatment and endosulfan exposure, Vitamin treatment was started 15 days prior to 1st

  13. Transgenic mice with increased Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, C.J.; Avraham, K.B.; Lovett, M.; Smith, S.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Rotman, G.; Bry, C.; Groner, Y.

    1987-11-01

    Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene in a manner similar to that of humans, with 0.9- and 0.7-kilobase transcripts in a 1:4 ratio, and synthesize the human enzyme in an active form capable of forming human-mouse enzyme heterodimers. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity is increased from 1.6- to 6.0-fold in the brains of four transgenic strains and to an equal or lesser extent in several other tissues. These animals provide a unique system for studying the consequences of increased dosage of the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene in Down syndrome and the role of this enzyme in a variety of other pathological processes.

  14. Study of antiseizure effects of Matricaria recutita extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Heidari, M R; Dadollahi, Z; Mehrabani, M; Mehrabi, H; Pourzadeh-Hosseini, M; Behravan, E; Etemad, L

    2009-08-01

    Matricaria recutita L. is a well-known medicinal plant that is suggested as being carminative, analgesic, and anticonvulsant in traditional medicine. In the present investigation the effect of hydro-methanolic percolated extract of this plant on seizure induced by picrotoxin was studied in male mice. This study was performed on animals pretreated with doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of extract or 40 mg/kg phenobarbital as the reference drug via intraperitoneal injection. After 20 min each animal received 12 mg/kg picrotoxin for induction of seizure. Latency of onset time of seizure, duration of seizure, death latency, and death rate were determined in experimental and control groups. The results showed that latency of the beginning time of seizure was increased in groups that were pretreated with different doses of extract. The most effective dose was 200 mg/kg (P < 0.05). In addition, this dose delayed the time of death in mice (P < 0.01). The extract had no effect on the death rate. The results indicate that the extract of M. recutita possesses suitable effects on seizure induced by picrotoxin, and more experiments are needed in this field. PMID:19723069

  15. Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    A search of the literature and the experiments carried out by the authors of this review show that there are a number of animal models where the effect of homeopathic dilutions or the principles of homeopathic medicine have been tested. The results relate to the immunostimulation by ultralow doses of antigens, the immunological models of the ‘simile’, the regulation of acute or chronic inflammatory processes and the use of homeopathic medicines in farming. The models utilized by different research groups are extremely etherogeneous and differ as the test medicines, the dilutions and the outcomes are concerned. Some experimental lines, particularly those utilizing mice models of immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of homeopathic complex formulations, give support to a real effect of homeopathic high dilutions in animals, but often these data are of preliminary nature and have not been independently replicated. The evidence emerging from animal models is supporting the traditional ‘simile’ rule, according to which ultralow doses of compounds, that in high doses are pathogenic, may have paradoxically a protective or curative effect. Despite a few encouraging observational studies, the effectiveness of the homeopathic prevention or therapy of infections in veterinary medicine is not sufficiently supported by randomized and controlled trials. PMID:16786046

  16. Evidence of lung cancer risk from animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-03-01

    Human epidemiological data provide the most important basis for assessing risks of radon exposures. However, additional insight into the nature of exposure-response relationships is provided by animal experimentation and dosimetric determinations. Animal studies have now been conducted for more than 50 years to examine the levels of pollutants in underground mines that were responsible for the respiratory effects observed among miners. This work has emphasized respiratory cancer and the interaction of radon with other agents, such as ore dust, diesel-engine-exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. The more recent data on radon-daughter inhalation exposures were provided by two American research centers, The University of Rochester (UR) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and by the Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA) laboratory in France. Approximately 2000 mice, 100 rats and 80 dogs were employed in the completed UR studies, begun in the mid 1950s; 800 hamsters, 5000 rats and 100 dogs in the ongoing PNL studies, begun in the late 1960s; and 10,000 rats in the ongoing COGEMA studies, also begun in the late 1960s. More complete updated biological effects, data resulting from chronic radon-daughter inhalation exposures of mice, hamsters, rats and beagle dogs were examined. Emphasis on the carcinogenic effects of radon-decay product exposure, including the influences of radon-daughter exposure rate, unattached fraction and disequilibrium, and co-exposures to other pollutants. Plausible values for the radon (radon-daughter) lifetime lung-cancer risk coefficients are also provided. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Transgenic mice with increased Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Epstein; K. B. Avraham; M. Lovett; S. Smith; O. Elroy-Stein; G. Rotman; C. Bry; Y. Groner

    1987-01-01

    Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene

  18. Animal models in translational studies of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Yehuda, Rachel; Diamond, David M

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is of vital importance for developing biomarkers and more effective pharmacotherapy for this disorder. The design of bidirectional translational studies addressing all facets of PTSD is needed. Animal models of PTSD are needed not only to capture the complexity of PTSD behavioral characteristics, but also to address experimentally the influence of variety of factors which might determine an individual's vulnerability or resilience to trauma, e.g., genetic predisposition, early-life experience and social support. The current review covers recent translational approaches to bridge the gap between human and animal PTSD research and to create a framework for discovery of biomarkers and novel therapeutics. PMID:23845512

  19. Exenatide promotes cognitive enhancement and positive brain metabolic changes in PS1-KI mice but has no effects in 3xTg-AD animals

    PubMed Central

    Bomba, M; Ciavardelli, D; Silvestri, E; Canzoniero, L MT; Lattanzio, R; Chiappini, P; Piantelli, M; Di Ilio, C; Consoli, A; Sensi, S L

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia. Insulin resistance is often associated with T2DM and can induce defective insulin signaling in the central nervous system as well as increase the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Glucagone like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone and, like GLP-1 analogs, stimulates insulin secretion and has been employed in the treatment of T2DM. GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs also enhance synaptic plasticity and counteract cognitive deficits in mouse models of neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of long-term treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analog, in two animal models of neuronal dysfunction: the PS1-KI and 3xTg-AD mice. We found that exenatide promoted beneficial effects on short- and long-term memory performances in PS1-KI but not in 3xTg-AD animals. In PS1-KI mice, the drug increased brain lactate dehydrogenase activity leading to a net increase in lactate levels, while no effects were observed on mitochondrial respiration. On the contrary, exenatide had no effects on brain metabolism of 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data indicate that exenatide improves cognition in PS1-KI mice, an effect likely driven by increasing the brain anaerobic glycolysis rate. PMID:23640454

  20. Effects of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae on the degranulation of dermal mast cells in mice; an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Yusuf; Kalender, Suna; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Ogutcu, Ay?e; Açikgoz, Fatma

    2004-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) is found in pine woods. Hairs of the T. pityocampa caterpillar cause a cutaneous reaction in humans and animals. Mast cells are responsible for allergic reactions in mammals. In this study male swiss albino mice were divided into two groups: 5 mice in the control group and 25 mice in the experimental group. The dorsal skin of mice was shaved. The mice in the experimental group and T. pityocampa larvae (fifth instar, approximately n=100) were put in the same cage. Dermal mast cells of mice exposed to T. pityocampa were examined with a transmission electron microscope and compared to the control group 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after exposure. Dermal mast cell degranulation in mice was observed 12 and 24 hours after exposure. PMID:15521642

  1. Toxicity of chromated copper arsenate: a study in mice.

    PubMed

    Matos, R C; Vieira, C; Morais, S; Pereira, M L; Pedrosa, J

    2010-07-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was widespread used as a chemical wood preservative with application in the construction of playground equipment, fences, jetties, and naval. Environmental protection agency (EPA) had limited the use of CCA-treated wood on 2002, due to probable implications on both human and environmental health. Although this fact, several industries pursue the use of this product within their manufactories. In addition, the durability of this wood for 60 years, makes these treated products an hazard to the public health. In the present work, studies were explored exposing mice to CCA, during 14, 24, 48, and 96 h for the assessment of acute toxicity of CCA. Kidney and liver were removed, prepared for histology and for metalloid, and copper content evaluation by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The histological results evidenced apparently normal structures for control animals and group exposed to As2O5. On the contrary, the renal sections of the animals treated with CCA revealed epithelium cells desquamation, hyaline, and granular casts in renal tubules lumen. Furthermore, high levels of arsenic were detected in the kidney of animals treated with CCA over 14 and 48 h, being significantly greater than controls. Although this approach underlines the potential hazard of CCA on some vital organs, further testing may be required to establish the impacts on other functions. PMID:20307876

  2. Krill Products: An Overview of Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Johnsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO) and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP) and krill protein concentrate (KPC) as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared to the effects of KO. In addition, differences in tissue uptake of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when delivered in either phospholipid or triglyceride form, are addressed and the differential impact the delivery form has on gene expression profiles is explained. In our outlook, we try to highlight the potential of KO and KP supplementation in clinical settings and discuss health segments that have a high potential of showing krill product specific health benefits and warrant further clinical investigations. PMID:25961320

  3. Krill products: an overview of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Burri, Lena; Johnsen, Line

    2015-05-01

    Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO) and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP) and krill protein concentrate (KPC) as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared to the effects of KO. In addition, differences in tissue uptake of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when delivered in either phospholipid or triglyceride form, are addressed and the differential impact the delivery form has on gene expression profiles is explained. In our outlook, we try to highlight the potential of KO and KP supplementation in clinical settings and discuss health segments that have a high potential of showing krill product specific health benefits and warrant further clinical investigations. PMID:25961320

  4. GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training (US Government Principles), the ASP1 GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) Regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

  5. Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study.

    PubMed

    Brielmeier, M; Mahabir, E; Needham, J R; Lengger, C; Wilhelm, P; Schmidt, J

    2006-07-01

    Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally, these sentinels have been exposed to soiled bedding but more recently, the concept of exposure to exhaust air has been considered. The work reported here was aimed firstly at testing the efficiency of a sentinel-based microbiological monitoring programme under field conditions in a quarantine unit and in a multi-user unit with frequent imports of mouse colonies from various sources. Secondly, it was aimed at determining biocontainment of naturally infected mice kept in an IVC rack, which included breeding of the mice. Sentinels were exposed both to soiled bedding and to exhaust air. The mice which were used in the study carried prevalent infectious agents encountered in research animal facilities including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), intestinal flagellates and pinworms. Our data indicate that the sentinel-based health monitoring programme allowed rapid detection of MHV, intestinal flagellates and pinworms investigated by a combination of soiled bedding and exhaust air exposure. MHV was also detected by exposure to exhaust air only. The IVC rack used in this study provided biocontainment when infected mice were kept together with non-infected mice in separate cages in the same IVC rack. PMID:16803642

  6. Behavioral characterization of CD26 deficient mice in animal tests of anxiety and antidepressant-like activity.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Marguet, Didier; Sauze, Nicole; Guieu, Régis; Costentin, Jean; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2006-08-10

    CD26 exhibits a dipeptidylpeptidase-IV function (DPPIV) which regulates neuropeptide activity by N-terminal processing. Because abnormal plasma DPPIV was associated in mammals with behavioral changes, we examined the behavior of CD26-/- mice resulting from targeted inactivation of the gene. These animals had a decreased immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, indicating a reduced depression-like behavior. We addressed some factors that could affect these results. No major differences between mutants and controls were observed in the black/white box test that investigates anxiety. In the hole-board apparatus that explores both curiosity and anxiety, CD26-/- mice of both genders made significantly more head dips than controls. In a motor activity test, mutants displayed higher horizontal and vertical activities i.e. increased novelty-induced behavioral activation. We conclude that DPPIV inactivation in mice broadly leads to an antidepressant-like and hyperactive phenotype. PMID:16712972

  7. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Gorbunova; Michael J. Bozzella; Andrei Seluanov

    2008-01-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research\\u000a has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and\\u000a rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal\\u000a is to further extend the

  8. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: pprice@dow.com; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

  9. Susceptibility of Mice to Vaginal Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis Mouse Pneumonitis Is Dependent on the Age of the Animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUKUMAR PAL; ELLENA M. PETERSON; LUIS M. DE LA MAZA

    2001-01-01

    Mice from three strains, BALB\\/c (H-2 d ), C3H (H-2 k ), and C57BL\\/6 (H-2 b ), ranging from 5 to 14 weeks of age, were inoculated intravaginally with different doses of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis serovar. Vaginal swabs taken at weekly intervals showed that the percentage of animals with positive cultures and the number of inclusion-forming units recovered

  10. Creating Automated Interactive Video Playback for Studies of Animal Communications

    E-print Network

    Butkowski, Trisha

    2010-01-16

    Video playback is a technique used to study the visual communication and behaviors of animals. While video playback is a useful tool, most experiments lack the ability for the visual stimulus to interact with the live animal. The limited number...

  11. The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior

    E-print Network

    Angeloni, Lisa

    The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior Emma Lynch1 , Lisa-267-2109; E-mail: emma.lynch@colostate.edu Funding Information This study was funded by a grant from Safari mastication, and nearly 38.3% of their time digesting through rumination, with marked differences in diel pat

  12. Exploratory study of oral mucosal colonization of human gastric Helicobacter pylori in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xueqin; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohuan; Li, Hongming; Cui, Zhixin; Hu, Sijuan; Huang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this study, human gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was closely attached to the pre-treated mouse buccal mucosa by using artificial oral film to induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. Sixty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, in which Hp biofilm colonization was detected in three mice in Hp film group (Hp mesh biofilm accumulation under an optical microscope; Hp accumulated colonization under an electron microscope). There were no Hp biofilms detected in Hp smear group or the control group with black film. In this study, human gastric Hp was first used to artificially induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. The mouse model of oral infection with Hp was initially established, providing animal experimental evidences for oral conditions of growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice, and providing a workable animal modeling method for further research of joint infection of Hp on the mouth and stomach, as well as the relationship between oral Hp and gastric Hp. PMID:24753744

  13. Roles of Salivary Components in Streptococcus mutans Colonization in a New Animal Model Using NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tatsuro; Maeda, Takahide; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans plays an important role in biofilm formation on the tooth surface and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. The binding of S. mutans to the salivary pellicle is of considerable etiologic significance and is important in biofilm development. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice that show hyposalivation, lower salivary antibody, and an extended life span compared to the parent strain: NOD.e2f1?/?. In this study we used NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? 4 or 6 mice to determine the roles of several salivary components in S. mutans colonization in vivo. S. mutans colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice was significantly increased when mice were pre-treated with human saliva or commercial salivary components. Interestingly, pre-treatment with secretory IgA (sIgA) at physiological concentrations promoted significant colonization of S. mutans compared with sIgA at higher concentrations, or with human saliva or other components. Our data suggest the principal effects of specific sIgA on S. mutans occur during S. mutans colonization, where the appropriate concentration of specific sIgA may serve as an anti-microbial agent, agglutinin, or an adherence receptor to surface antigens. Further, specific sIgA supported biofilm formation when the mice were supplied 1% sucrose water and a non-sucrose diet. The data suggests that there are multiple effects exerted by sIgA in S. mutans colonization, with synergistic effects evident under the condition of sIgA and limited nutrients on colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice. This is a new animal model that can be used to assess prevention methods for dental biofilm-dependent diseases such as dental caries. PMID:22363797

  14. Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies; Missing Link in Translational Research?

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Judith; Bakker, Brenda; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; de Vries, Rob B. M.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    Background The methodological quality of animal studies is an important factor hampering the translation of results from animal studies to a clinical setting. Systematic reviews of animal studies may provide a suitable method to assess and thereby improve their methodological quality. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the risk of bias assessment in animal-based systematic reviews, and 2) to study the internal validity of the primary animal studies included in these systematic reviews. Data Sources We systematically searched Pubmed and Embase for SRs of preclinical animal studies published between 2005 and 2012. Results A total of 91 systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed in 48 (52.7%) of these 91 systematic reviews. Thirty-three (36.3%) SRs provided sufficient information to evaluate the internal validity of the included studies. Of the evaluated primary studies, 24.6% was randomized, 14.6% reported blinding of the investigator/caretaker, 23.9% blinded the outcome assessment, and 23.1% reported drop-outs. Conclusions To improve the translation of animal data to clinical practice, systematic reviews of animal studies are worthwhile, but the internal validity of primary animal studies needs to be improved. Furthermore, risk of bias should be assessed by systematic reviews of animal studies to provide insight into the reliability of the available evidence. PMID:24670965

  15. Guidelines for Diet Control in Behavioral Animal Studies Introduction

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    growth in young, developing animals, and in many genetically modified animal models. In many situations studies in which the investigator must control food or fluid consumption and food or fluid consumption a food or fluid reinforcement.1,2,5 This situation resembles conditions in the wild, in which animals

  16. Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington's disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Valdeolivas, Sara; Navarrete, Carmen; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Sagredo, Onintza

    2015-01-01

    Different plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids have shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) through cannabinoid receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Herein, we studied the effects of cannabigerol (CBG), a nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid, in 2 different in vivo models of HD. CBG was extremely active as neuroprotectant in mice intoxicated with 3-nitropropionate (3NP), improving motor deficits and preserving striatal neurons against 3NP toxicity. In addition, CBG attenuated the reactive microgliosis and the upregulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3NP, and improved the levels of antioxidant defenses that were also significantly reduced by 3NP. We also investigated the neuroprotective properties of CBG in R6/2 mice. Treatment with this phytocannabinoid produced a much lower, but significant, recovery in the deteriorated rotarod performance typical of R6/2 mice. Using HD array analysis, we were able to identify a series of genes linked to this disease (e.g., symplekin, Sin3a, Rcor1, histone deacetylase 2, huntingtin-associated protein 1, ? subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (GABA-A), and hippocalcin), whose expression was altered in R6/2 mice but partially normalized by CBG treatment. We also observed a modest improvement in the gene expression for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), which is altered in these mice, as well as a small, but significant, reduction in the aggregation of mutant huntingtin in the striatal parenchyma in CBG-treated animals. In conclusion, our results open new research avenues for the use of CBG, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids or therapies, for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as HD. PMID:25252936

  17. Studies of stress in farm animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Blokhuis; H. Hopster; N. A. Geverink; S. M. Korte; C. G. van Reenen

    1998-01-01

    Major changes have taken place in animal production over the last three decades. Housing conditions have changed dramatically\\u000a over this period, and there has been a striking increase in production. Agricultural animals try to cope with these highly\\u000a demanding conditions (stressors) using behavioural and physiological stress responses aiming to restore homeostasis. When\\u000a these responses are not successful or when they

  18. Experimental Animal Models for Studying Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Liu; Michael R. Johnston

    \\u000a Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality for both men and women worldwide. The use of animal models of\\u000a lung cancer is necessary to improve our understanding of lung tumor biology and facilitate novel therapies and diagnostics.\\u000a To this end, animal models should mimic both the genetic alterations found in human lung tumors and their histological characteristics.\\u000a Currently,

  19. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher’s Role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagit YardenAnat Yarden; Anat Yarden

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines\\u000a have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level.\\u000a However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features when they watch only animations,\\u000a mainly due to the cognitive load involved.

  20. Effects on Animal Wellbeing and Sample Quality of 2 Techniques for Collecting Blood from the Facial Vein of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Cassie C; Howarth, Gordon S; Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2015-01-01

    When sampling blood from mice, several different techniques can be used, with retroorbital sinus sampling traditionally being the most common. Given the severe tissue trauma caused by retroorbital sampling, alternative methods such as the facial vein route have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 techniques for facial vein bleeding in conscious mice to ascertain whether differences in clinical outcomes, practicability of sample collection, and hematologic parameters were apparent. Blood samples were obtained from the facial vein of 40 BALB/c mice by using either a 21-gauge needle or a lancet. Subsequently, the protocol was repeated with isoflurane-anesthetized mice sampled by using the lancet method (n = 20). Behavior immediately after sampling was observed, and sample quantity, sampling time, and time until bleeding ceased were measured. Clinical pathology data and hematoma diameter at necropsy were analyzed also. The mean sample quantity collected (approximately 0.2 mL) was comparable among methods, but sampling was much more rapid when mice were anesthetized by using isoflurane. The only other noteworthy finding was a significantly reduced number of platelets in samples from anesthetized mice. Adverse, ongoing clinical signs were rare regardless of the method used. The results revealed no significant differences in welfare implications or blood sample quality among the methods or between conscious and anesthetized mice. Therefore, any of the methods we evaluated for obtaining blood samples from the facial vein are appropriate for use in research studies.

  1. Neuropeptide S is a stimulatory anxiolytic agent: a behavioural study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, A; Vergura, R; Marzola, G; Ruzza, C; Guerrini, R; Salvadori, S; Regoli, D; Calo, G

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Neuropeptide S (NPS) was recently identified as the endogenous ligand of an orphan receptor, now referred to as the NPS receptor. In vivo, NPS produces a unique behavioural profile by increasing wakefulness and exerting anxiolytic-like effects. In the present study, we further evaluated the effects of in vivo supraspinal NPS in mice. Experimental approach: Effects of NPS, injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), on locomotor activity (LA), righting reflex (RR) recovery and on anxiety states (measured with the elevated plus maze (EPM) and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) tests) were assessed in Swiss mice. Key results: NPS (0.01–1?nmol per mouse) caused a significant increase in LA in naive mice, in mice habituated to the test cages and in animals sedated with diazepam (5?mg?kg?1). In the RR assay, NPS dose dependently reduced the proportion of animals losing the RR in response to diazepam (15?mg?kg?1) and their sleeping time. In the EPM and SIH test, NPS dose dependently evoked anxiolytic-like effects by increasing the time spent by animals in the open arms and reducing the SIH response, respectively. Conclusions and implications: We provide further evidence that NPS acts as a novel modulator of arousal and anxiety-related behaviours by promoting a unique pattern of effects: stimulation associated with anxiolysis. Therefore, NPS receptor ligands may represent innovative drugs for the treatment of sleep and anxiety disorders. PMID:18376418

  2. Endogenous IL-1 in Cognitive Function and Anxiety: A Study in IL-1RI?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Carol L.; Obiang, Pauline; Bannerman, David; Cunningham, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1? or IL-1? to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI). IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI?/? mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI?/? animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT) mice to IL-1RI?/? mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI?/? mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI?/? mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI?/? mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI?/? mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI?/? mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal and limbic system function. PMID:24205219

  3. A study in animal ethics in New Brunswick.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, B J

    2001-01-01

    Society uses animals in ever-increasing numbers and ways, providing ethical challenges. Decisions about animal use are guided by the social consensus ethic towards animals. Because there is no clear social consensus ethic, these decisions are difficult. Society's ethic is changing and a "new ethic" towards animals is emerging. This study addressed the need to better understand society's ethics towards animals. Qualitative research methodology (focus groups) was used to study 7 different animal-interest groups. Qualitative data analysis was computer-aided. The group ethical position towards animals of its own group interest was determined for each group. The animal welfare, companion animal, and veterinary groups took Rollin's Position, a position based on both the Utilitarian and the Rights Principles; the farmer and trapper groups the Utilitarian/Land Ethic position, a dual position based on actions producing the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain for the greatest number, and preserving the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community; the hunter group the Utilitarian/Judeo-Christian position, a dual position based on actions producing the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain for the greatest number, and having dominion over animals; and the naturalist group took Rollin's Position/Land Ethic. All these groups perceived medium to extreme ethical responsibility towards animals of their own group's interest that are used by others. The study showed that the predicted "new ethic" towards animals is in New Brunswick society and it is Rollin's Position. PMID:11467182

  4. Protective effect of kombucha tea against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: a biochemical and histopathological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalil Abshenas; Amin Derakhshanfar; Mohammad Hosein Ferdosi; Saeid Hasanzadeh

    Acetaminophen overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity leading to liver failure in experimental animals and humans. This study\\u000a was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of kombucha tea (KT) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty\\u000a male Balb\\/c mice were divided into four equal groups: (1) the control group, (2) KT-treated group, (3) acetaminophen-treated\\u000a group, and (4) KT\\/acetaminophen-treated group. All mice in group 4 were

  5. CENSHARE - Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1981 at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health, the Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) is an umbrella organization that supports groups that aim to educate about the human animal relationship and the environment they share. This mission of this education is to improve the quality of life for both, encourage scientific study of such relationships, and also serve as a resource for the community on these relationships. Visitors should check out the thorough explanation of "Animal Assisted Therapy" (AAT), and learn how it differs from, say, Animal Assisted Activities (AAA). As animal therapy can be stressful on the animal if it is not properly trained for such demanding work, the AAT link gives helpful tips to visitors on how to get an animal ready to be a therapy animal. Visitors will also learn from the AAT link that such animals have been evaluated and registered by national groups that specialize in therapy animals, but are not given the federal protections that specially-trained service dogs are, such as access to public transportation and public buildings. Finally, visitors should check out the "Companion Animals in Care Environments" link. Here they can read a bittersweet story titled "Lessons to be Learned from the Saga of Mae" which addresses the considerations that should be made when deciding whether to allow a resident animal in a care facility.

  6. Studies of human breast cancer metastasis using nude mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet E. Price; Ruo Dan Zhang

    1990-01-01

    Athymic nude mice have been used in recent years to study the biology of human tumors and to assess therapeutic responses in vivo rather than just in vitro. Some human tumors metastasize in nude mice, providing model systems for analyzing various aspects of the metastatic phenotype of human neoplasms. For breast carcinomas, however, the tumor-take rate of surgical specimens is

  7. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  8. Disruption of hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice leads to early-onset obesity, but physiological adaptations in mature animals stabilize adiposity levels

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Laurence E.; Zeltser, Lori M.

    2010-01-01

    Distinct populations of leptin-sensing neurons in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis. To assess the requirement for leptin signaling in the hypothalamus, we crossed mice with a floxed leptin receptor allele (Leprfl) to mice transgenic for Nkx2.1-Cre, which drives Cre expression in the hypothalamus and not in more caudal brain regions, generating LeprNkx2.1KO mice. From weaning, LeprNkx2.1KO mice exhibited phenotypes similar to those observed in mice with global loss of leptin signaling (Leprdb/db mice), including increased weight gain and adiposity, hyperphagia, cold intolerance, and insulin resistance. However, after 8 weeks of age, LeprNkx2.1KO mice maintained stable adiposity levels, whereas the body fat percentage of Leprdb/db animals continued to escalate. The divergence in the adiposity phenotypes of Leprdb/db and LeprNkx2.1KO mice with age was concomitant with increased rates of linear growth and energy expenditure in LeprNkx2.1KO mice. These data suggest that remaining leptin signals in LeprNkx2.1KO mice mediate physiological adaptations that prevent the escalation of the adiposity phenotype in adult mice. The persistence of severe adiposity in LeprNkx2.1KO mice, however, suggests that compensatory actions of circuits regulating growth and energy expenditure are not sufficient to reverse obesity established at an early age. PMID:20592471

  9. SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessing the methodological quality of RCTs. A similar initiative is warranted in the field of animal experimentation. Methods We provide an RoB tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE’s RoB tool). This tool is based on the Cochrane RoB tool and has been adjusted for aspects of bias that play a specific role in animal intervention studies. To enhance transparency and applicability, we formulated signalling questions to facilitate judgment. Results The resulting RoB tool for animal studies contains 10 entries. These entries are related to selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other biases. Half these items are in agreement with the items in the Cochrane RoB tool. Most of the variations between the two tools are due to differences in design between RCTs and animal studies. Shortcomings in, or unfamiliarity with, specific aspects of experimental design of animal studies compared to clinical studies also play a role. Conclusions SYRCLE’s RoB tool is an adapted version of the Cochrane RoB tool. Widespread adoption and implementation of this tool will facilitate and improve critical appraisal of evidence from animal studies. This may subsequently enhance the efficiency of translating animal research into clinical practice and increase awareness of the necessity of improving the methodological quality of animal studies. PMID:24667063

  10. A Comparative Approach To Animal Dissections (A Phylogenic Study)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this biology inquiry lab, students study evolutionary relationships by making observations of preserved animal specimens, developing a question, then investigating by dissecting the specimens provided.

  11. Reprotoxic and genotoxic studies of vanadium pentoxide in male mice.

    PubMed

    Altamirano-Lozano, M; Alvarez-Barrera, L; Basurto-Alcántara, F; Valverde, M; Rojas, E

    1996-01-01

    Effects of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) treatment on reproductive function and testicular DNA in male mice were investigated. These functions were evaluated with fertility rate, implants, resorptions, sperm counts, motility, and morphology. The DNA damage in individual testis cells was analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis technique (COMET assay). V2O5 treatment resulted in a decrease in fertility rate, implantations, live fetuses, and fetal weight, and an increase in the number of resorptions/dam. Sperm count, motility, and morphology were impaired with the advancement of treatment. Vanadium treatment induced DNA damage depending on the dose in the testis cells that was expressed and detected as DNA migration in the COMET assay. The distribution of DNA migration among cells, a function of dose, revealed that the majority of cells of treated animals expressed more DNA damage than cells from control animals. It is concluded that vanadium pentoxide was a reprotoxic and genotoxic agent in mice. PMID:8792529

  12. Point: From animal models to prevention of colon cancer. Systematic review of chemoprevention in min mice and choice of the model system

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice

    2003-01-01

    The Min (Apc(+/?)) mouse model and the azoxymethane (AOM)-rat model are the main animal models used to study the effect of dietary agents on colorectal cancer. We recently reviewed the potency of chemopreventive agents in the AOM-rat model (Corpet and Taché, 2002). Here we add the results of a systematic review of the effect of diet and agents on the tumor yield in Min mice, based on the results of 179 studies, from 71 articles, and displayed also at the website http://www.inra.fr/reseau-nacre/sci-memb/corpet/indexan.html. The efficacy of agents in the Min mouse model and the AOM-rat model correlated (r=0.66, p<0.001), although some agents that afford strong inhibition in the AOM-rat and the Min mouse increase the tumor yield in the large bowel of mutant mice for reasons not yet understood. Thus, piroxicam, sulindac, celecoxib, difluoromethylornithine, and polyethylene glycol could promote carcinogenesis in the colon of mice. We also compare the results of rodent studies with those from clinical intervention studies of polyp recurrence. We found that the effect of most of the agents tested is consistent across the animal models, except the above-mentioned puzzling mouse colon. Thus our point is that the rodent models can provide guidance in the selection of prevention approaches to colon cancer, in particular suggesting the likely importance of polyethylene glycol, hesperidin, protease inhibitor, sphingomyelin, physical exercise, epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor, (+)-catechin, resveratrol, fish oil, curcumin, caffeate and thiosulfonate as preventive agents. PMID:12750232

  13. Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7–10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion. PMID:24669846

  14. Hypogammaglobulinemia in BLT Humanized Mice – An Animal Model of Primary Antibody Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Torres, Francisco; Nochi, Tomonori; Wahl, Angela; Garcia, J. Victor; Denton, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Primary antibody deficiencies present clinically as reduced or absent plasma antibodies without another identified disorder that could explain the low immunoglobulin levels. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice also exhibit primary antibody deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia. Comprehensive characterization of B cell development and differentiation in BLT mice revealed other key parallels with primary immunodeficiency patients. We found that B cell ontogeny was normal in the bone marrow of BLT mice but observed an absence of switched memory B cells in the periphery. PC-KLH immunizations led to the presence of switched memory B cells in immunized BLT mice although plasma cells producing PC- or KLH- specific IgG were not detected in tissues. Overall, we have identified the following parallels between the humoral immune systems of primary antibody deficiency patients and those in BLT mice that make this in vivo model a robust and translational experimental platform for gaining a greater understanding of this heterogeneous array of humoral immunodeficiency disorders in humans: (i) hypogammaglobulinemia; (ii) normal B cell ontogeny in bone marrow; and (iii) poor antigen-specific IgG response to immunization. Furthermore, the development of strategies to overcome these humoral immune aberrations in BLT mice may in turn provide insights into the pathogenesis of some primary antibody deficiency patients which could lead to novel clinical interventions for improved humoral immune function. PMID:25271886

  15. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  16. Development of a Small Animal Peripheral Challenge Model of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Using Interferon Deficient AG129 Mice and the SA14-14-2 Vaccine Virus Strain

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Amanda E.; Dixon, Kandice L.; Delorey, Mark J.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most common cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, and it is increasingly a global public health concern due to its recent geographic expansion. While commercial vaccines are available and used in some endemic countries, JEV continues to be a public health problem, with 50,000 cases reported annually. Research with virulent JEV in mouse models to develop new methods of prevention and treatment is restricted to BSL-3 containment facilities, confining these studies to investigators with access to these facilities. We have developed an adult small animal peripheral challenge model using interferon-deficient AG129 mice and the JEV live-attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2, thus requiring only BSL-2 containment. A low dose of virus (10 PFU/0.1 ml) induced 100% morbidity in infected mice. Increased body temperatures measured by implantable temperature transponders correlated with an increase in infectious virus and viral RNA in serum, spleen and brain as well as an increase in pro-inflammatory markers measured by a 58-biomarker multi-analyte profile (MAP) constructed during the course of infection. In the future, the MAP measurements can be used as a baseline for comparison in order to better assess the inhibition of disease progression by other prophylactic and therapeutic agents. The use of the AG129/JEV SA14-14-2 animal model makes vaccine and therapeutic studies feasible for laboratories with limited biocontainment facilities. PMID:24252694

  17. Correlating preclinical animal studies and human clinical trials of a multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G; Case, Roy I; Cole, Roderic O; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Davis, Mark E

    2013-09-10

    Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, and human data from several of the clinical investigations are compared with results from multispecies animal studies. The pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated CPT (indicative of the CRLX101 nanoparticles) in mice, rats, dogs, and humans reveal that the area under the curve scales linearly with milligrams of CPT per square meter for all species. Plasma concentrations of unconjugated CPT released from CRLX101 in animals and humans are consistent with each other after accounting for differences in serum albumin binding of CPT. Urinary excretion of polymer-conjugated CPT occurs primarily within the initial 24 h after dosing in animals and humans. The urinary excretion dynamics of polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT appear similar between animals and humans. CRLX101 accumulates into solid tumors and releases CPT over a period of several days to give inhibition of its target in animal xenograft models of cancer and in the tumors of humans. Taken in total, the evidence provided from animal models on the CRLX101 mechanism of action suggests that the behavior of CRLX101 in animals is translatable to humans. PMID:23980155

  18. Correlating preclinical animal studies and human clinical trials of a multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G.; Case, Roy I.; Cole, Roderic O.; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Davis, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, and human data from several of the clinical investigations are compared with results from multispecies animal studies. The pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated CPT (indicative of the CRLX101 nanoparticles) in mice, rats, dogs, and humans reveal that the area under the curve scales linearly with milligrams of CPT per square meter for all species. Plasma concentrations of unconjugated CPT released from CRLX101 in animals and humans are consistent with each other after accounting for differences in serum albumin binding of CPT. Urinary excretion of polymer-conjugated CPT occurs primarily within the initial 24 h after dosing in animals and humans. The urinary excretion dynamics of polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT appear similar between animals and humans. CRLX101 accumulates into solid tumors and releases CPT over a period of several days to give inhibition of its target in animal xenograft models of cancer and in the tumors of humans. Taken in total, the evidence provided from animal models on the CRLX101 mechanism of action suggests that the behavior of CRLX101 in animals is translatable to humans. PMID:23980155

  19. Mycobiota and Ochratoxin A in laboratory mice feed: preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inês Almeida; H. Marina Martins; Marta F. Marques; Salomé Magalhães; Fernando Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of mycotoxin-producing moulds in animal feed is a hazard for animals. When these undesirable substances contaminate\\u000a laboratory animal feed, convey an additional problem in experimental animal assays confidence levels. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate fungal contamination and to determine natural occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in 31 samples. OTA is a mycotoxin\\u000a produced by fungi

  20. An Animal-Specific FSI Model of the Abdominal Aorta in Anesthetized Mice.

    PubMed

    Trachet, Bram; Bols, Joris; Degroote, Joris; Verhegghe, Benedict; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has revealed that angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice can be related to medial ruptures occurring in the vicinity of abdominal side branches. Nevertheless a thorough understanding of the biomechanics near abdominal side branches in mice is lacking. In the current work we present a mouse-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the abdominal aorta in ApoE(-/-) mice that incorporates in vivo stresses. The aortic geometry was based on contrast-enhanced in vivo micro-CT images, while aortic flow boundary conditions and material model parameters were based on in vivo high-frequency ultrasound. Flow waveforms predicted by FSI simulations corresponded better to in vivo measurements than those from CFD simulations. Peak-systolic principal stresses at the inner and outer aortic wall were locally increased caudal to the celiac and left lateral to the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Interestingly, these were also the locations at which a tear in the tunica media had been observed in previous work on angiotensin II-infused mice. Our preliminary results therefore suggest that local biomechanics play an important role in the pathophysiology of branch-related ruptures in angiotensin-II infused mice. More elaborate follow-up research is needed to demonstrate the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in a longitudinal setting. PMID:25824368

  1. Studies on the diversity of soil animals in Taishan Mountain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Xing-zhong; Liu Hong

    2000-01-01

    Taishan Mountain has diverse habitats and abundant groups of soil animals. Five habitats,Platycladus orientalis forest,Pinus densiflora forest,Robinia pseudoacacia forest,Pinus tablaerormis forest and Grassland, were selected and the diversity of soil animals in different habitats in Mt. Taishan were investigated\\u000a and studied in 1997–1999. Totally 52 groups of soil animals were found, belonging separately to 7 Phyla, 11 Classes, 25 Orders

  2. Studies of macrophage function during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, E J; Krahenbuhl, J L; Remington, J S

    1979-01-01

    Studies were made to investigate the quantitative and functional changes which occur in peritoneal macrophage populations obtained from mice infected orally with Trichinella spiralis larvae. C57BL/6 mice infected with T. spiralis larvae became parasitized with adult worms which were rejected from the intestine from 14 to 20 days after infection. Infected mice developed a striking increase in peritoneal exudate cells, composed largely of macrophages, which was maximal at from 16 to 18 days after infection. T. spiralis larvae and eosinophils were not seen in the peritoneal exudates. Macrophages from mice infected more than 11 days earlier inhibited DNA synthesis of syngeneic and allogeneic tumour cells, a property atributed to activated macrophages. In addition, macrophages from T. spiralis-infected mice had the functional ability to kill EL-4 tumour cells as measured by 51Cr release. Unlike activated macrophages, however, macrophages from infected mice did not develop the ability to inhibit multiplication of the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. These studies demonstrate that T. spiralis infection in mice induces changes in macrophage function that differ from changes associated with infections by intracellular pathogens. PMID:437839

  3. H2S Induces a Suspended AnimationLike State in Mice

    E-print Network

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    temperature (CBT) (1). Regulated induction of a hypo- metabolic state is hypothesized to have great medical and CBT in mammals. When mice were exposed to 80 ppm of H2S, their oxygen (O2) consumption dropped by È502 consumption and CO2 output increases (8). This drop in MR was followed by a drop in CBT to È2-C

  4. An anesthetic method compatible with 18F-FDG-PET studies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Siikanen, Jonathan; Sjövall, Johanna; Forslid, Anders; Brun, Eva; Bjurberg, Maria; Wennerberg, Johan; Ekblad, Lars; Sandell, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an experimental setting and an anesthetic method compatible with future sequential studies using 18F-FDG-PET single scans, i.e. autoradiographic measurements, for the estimation of metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in mice. In this study we had no access to a small animal PET scanner and therefore focus was on the anesthetic setting and optimization of the input function as a preparation for the future tumor metabolic studies. Initially, four combinations of intraperitoneal (ip) anesthesia were tested on tumor bearing mice. Fentanyl-fluanisone plus diazepam yielded low and stable blood glucose levels and kept the animals sedated for approximately 2 h. The anesthesia was also tested in a longitudinal 18F-FDG study, where tumor bearing mice were anesthetized, injected with 18F-FDG, and sampled for blood, before, one day after, and 8 days after treatment with cisplatin. The animals were in good condition during the entire study period. To validate the method, average MRglc of whole brain and cerebellum in mice were calculated and compared with the literature. The average MRglc in the whole brain and cerebellum were 46.2±4.4 and 39.0±3.1 µmol 100g-1 min-1. In the present study, we have shown that an ip anesthesia with a combination of fentanyl-fluanisone and diazepam is feasible and provides stable and low blood glucose levels after a fasting period of 4 h in experiments in nude mice with xenografted human tumors. We have also verified that 18F-FDG, intraperitoneally administrated, results in an expected plasma activity uptake and clearance. The method doesn’t alter the uptake in brain which is an indirect indication that the anesthesia doesn’t alter the uptake in other organs. In combination with meticulous animal handling this set-up is reliable and future sequential tumor studies of early metabolic effects with calculation of MRglc following cytotoxic therapy are made possible.

  5. An anesthetic method compatible with (18)F-FDG-PET studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Siikanen, Jonathan; Sjövall, Johanna; Forslid, Anders; Brun, Eva; Bjurberg, Maria; Wennerberg, Johan; Ekblad, Lars; Sandell, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an experimental setting and an anesthetic method compatible with future sequential studies using (18)F-FDG-PET single scans, i.e. autoradiographic measurements, for the estimation of metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in mice. In this study we had no access to a small animal PET scanner and therefore focus was on the anesthetic setting and optimization of the input function as a preparation for the future tumor metabolic studies. Initially, four combinations of intraperitoneal (ip) anesthesia were tested on tumor bearing mice. Fentanyl-fluanisone plus diazepam yielded low and stable blood glucose levels and kept the animals sedated for approximately 2 h. The anesthesia was also tested in a longitudinal (18)F-FDG study, where tumor bearing mice were anesthetized, injected with (18)F-FDG, and sampled for blood, before, one day after, and 8 days after treatment with cisplatin. The animals were in good condition during the entire study period. To validate the method, average MRglc of whole brain and cerebellum in mice were calculated and compared with the literature. The average MRglc in the whole brain and cerebellum were 46.2±4.4 and 39.0±3.1 µmol 100g(-1) min(-1). In the present study, we have shown that an ip anesthesia with a combination of fentanyl-fluanisone and diazepam is feasible and provides stable and low blood glucose levels after a fasting period of 4 h in experiments in nude mice with xenografted human tumors. We have also verified that (18)F-FDG, intraperitoneally administrated, results in an expected plasma activity uptake and clearance. The method doesn't alter the uptake in brain which is an indirect indication that the anesthesia doesn't alter the uptake in other organs. In combination with meticulous animal handling this set-up is reliable and future sequential tumor studies of early metabolic effects with calculation of MRglc following cytotoxic therapy are made possible. PMID:26069860

  6. Study of anti-angiogenic drugs by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of a contrast agent in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, G.; D'Andrea, C.; Ferrari, R.; Pifferi, A.; Cubeddu, R.; Caronia, D.; Martinelli, M.; Giavazzi, R.

    2007-07-01

    We used two fluorescence techniques based on the Indocyanine Green contrast agent to study the effectiveness of antiangionenic drugs in mice. To this purpose, the volume of the active vasculature in different tumor models implanted in mice was assessed by means of a low noise fluorescence imaging setup and by a photon counting system working in transmittance geometry. Using a first tumor model (carcinoma MDA-MB-435) we observed that mice treated with a Vascular Disrupting Agent (ZD6126) showed a reduction in fluorescence emission of the contrast agent with respect to control mice. This was a clear indication of the vascular shutdown that took place in tumors. The effectiveness of the treatment was also confirmed by histological sections. Then, in a second experiment we considered a second tumor model (carcinoma 1A9-VS1) overexpressing the Vascular Endotelial Growth Factor (VEGF121), which is used by tumor cells to promote angiogenesis. We measured the Indocyanine Green fluorescence in mice treated with an antioangiogenic drug (Avastin TM) and in control mice. In tumors of treated mice we observed an ICG emission lower than the one detected in control mice. This demonstrated that VEGF activity was effectively blocked by the treatment with Avastin. In conclusion, ICG fluorescence provides a simple and reliable way to assess the effectiveness of vascular targeting therapies. Measurements of the fluorescence signal can be repeated every 24 hours, thus allowing oncologists to perform longitudinal studies on the same animals.

  7. GPS ERROR IN STUDIES ADDRESSING ANIMAL MOVEMENTS AND ACTIVITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One concern in animal behavior studies employing global positioning system (GPS) collars centers on effects of GPS error on measures of animal movement. Errors may be additive over time and potentially intensify with high frequency sampling or fine scale movements. We addressed issues related to t...

  8. Safety studies of post-surgical buprenorphine therapy for mice.

    PubMed

    Traul, Karl A; Romero, Jennell B; Brayton, Cory; DeTolla, Louis; Forbes-McBean, Nadine; Halquist, Matthew S; Karnes, H Thomas; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Tomlinson, Michael J; Tyler, Betty M; Ye, Xiaobu; Zadnik, Patricia; Guarnieri, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The use of appropriate analgesia in laboratory mice may be suboptimal because of concerns about adverse events (AE). Target Animal Safety trials were conducted to determine the safety of an extended-release suspension of buprenorphine. Drug or control suspensions were injected subcutaneously in surgically-treated BALB/c mice anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine to mimic post-operative conditions in which the compound might commonly be administered. Single and repeat five-fold (5×) excesses of the 3.25 mg/kg intended dose were used to provoke potential AE. Trials included prospective measurements of weight changes, blood chemistry, hematology, and histopathology. Clinical and histopathology findings were similar in drug-treated and control mice in a four-day trial using a single 16.25 mg/kg, 5× overdose of the drug. In a 12-day trial, which used a total buprenorphine dose of 48.75 mg/kg, clinical and histopathology values were also similar in control and drug-treated female mice. In the male arm of the repeat-overdose trial, two of eight mice died on the morning of day 12, three days following the third 16.25 mg/kg overdose administration. Histopathology did not reveal a cause of death. In a 14-month trial using a single 3.25 mg/kg dose of the drug, no significant findings identified potential AE. These findings indicate a high tolerance to an extended-release buprenorphine suspension administered post-operatively in mice with appropriate husbandry. PMID:25305141

  9. Determination of protein allergenicity: studies in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Dearman; Ian Kimber

    2001-01-01

    There is a need to identify and characterize the allergenic potential of novel proteins introduced into genetically-modified crop plants. Although several approaches have already been described, none of these measures directly the ability of proteins to cause allergic sensitization. For this reason there has been a growing interest in the development of suitable animal models. This article describes experience to

  10. Establishment of NOD-Pdcd1-\\/- mice as an efficient animal model of type I diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Wang; Taku Yoshida; Fumio Nakaki; Hiroshi Hiai; Taku Okazaki; Tasuku Honjo

    2005-01-01

    Mice deficient in programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, Pdcd1), an immunoinhibitory receptor belonging to the CD28\\/cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 family, spontaneously develop lupus-like autoimmune disease and autoimmune dilated cardiomyopathy on C57BL\\/6 and BALB\\/c backgrounds, respectively. However, how PD-1 deficiency induces different forms of autoimmune diseases on these two strains was unknown. Here, we report that PD-1 deficiency specifically accelerates the

  11. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  12. Why study the use of animal products in traditional medicines?

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN; Rosa, Ierecê L

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that as many as 80% of the world's more than six billion people rely primarily on animal and plant-based medicines. The healing of human ailments by using therapeutics based on medicines obtained from animals or ultimately derived from them is known as zootherapy. The phenomenon of zootherapy is marked both by a broad geographical distribution and very deep historical origins. Despite their importance, studies on the therapeutic use of animals and animal parts have been neglected, when compared to plants. This paper discusses some related aspects of the use of animals or parts thereof as medicines, and their implications for ecology, culture (the traditional knowledge), economy, and public health. PMID:16270931

  13. Autobacteriographic studies of clarithromycin and erythromycin in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kohno, Y.; Ohta, K.; Suwa, T.; Suga, T. (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ohmiya (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin was compared with that of erythromycin in experimentally infected mice by whole-body autobacteriography. In mice with systemic staphylococcal infections, the number of vital microbes in the body was relatively low in the early period after oral administration of erythromycin, but increased thereafter to the levels found in nonmedicated control mice. On the other hand, with clarithromycin treatment, a significantly smaller number of microbes was evident throughout the body. The microbes were scarcely seen in the parenchyma of any organs during the examination period. This potent antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin compared with that of erythromycin was further demonstrated in mice with respiratory infections. On the other hand, to examine the distribution properties of both antibiotics in the whole body, an autoradiographic study was carried out with (N-methyl-14C)clarithromycin and (N-methyl-14C)erythromycin. Both labeled antibiotics were distributed widely throughout the body after oral administration in both uninfected control mice and mice with systemic infections. However, the radioactivity was more marked and persistent for (14C)clarithromycin than it was for (14C)erythromycin, particularly in the lungs. The observations described above indicate the superior in vivo antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin compared with that of erythromycin and suggest that the superiority of clarithromycin is largely attributed to its favorable distribution properties. The advantages of whole-body autobacteriography, coupled with whole-body autoradiography, are discussed.

  14. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  15. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers

    PubMed Central

    Bozzella, Michael J.; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  16. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-09-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  17. Impaired behavior of female tg-ArcSwe APP mice in the IntelliCage: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Codita, Alina; Gumucio, Astrid; Lannfelt, Lars; Gellerfors, Pär; Winblad, Bengt; Mohammed, Abdul H; Nilsson, Lars N G

    2010-12-20

    Transgenic animals expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) are used as models for Alzheimer disease (AD). Ideally, behavioral tests improve the predictive validity of studies on animals by mirroring the functional impact of AD-like neuropathology. Learning and memory studies in APP transgenic models have been difficult to replicate. Standardization of procedures, automatization or improved protocol design can improve reproducibility. Here the IntelliCage, an automated system, was used for behavioral testing of APP female transgenic mice with both the Arctic and Swedish mutations, the tg-ArcSwe model. Protocols covering exploration, operant learning, place learning and extinction of place preference as well as passive avoidance tests were used for longitudinal characterization of behavior. Differences in exploratory activity were significant at four months of age, when plaque-free tg-ArcSwe mice visited less frequently the IntelliCage corners and initially performed fewer visits with licks compared to non-tg animals, inside the new environment. Fourteen months old tg-ArcSwe mice required a longer time to re-habituate to the IntelliCages than non-tg mice. At both ages tg-ArcSwe mice perseverated in place preference extinction test. Fourteen months old tg-ArcSwe mice were impaired in hippocampus-dependent spatial passive avoidance learning. This deficit was found to inversely correlate to calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. Reduced water intake and body weight were observed in 4 months old tg-ArcSwe animals. The body weight difference increased with age. Thus behavioral and metabolic changes in the tg-ArcSwe APP model were detected using the IntelliCage, a system which provides the opportunity for standardized automated longitudinal behavioral phenotyping. PMID:20615433

  18. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be controlled by one computer. PMID:24637442

  19. [11C]sorafenib: radiosynthesis and preliminary PET study of brain uptake in P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Chiharu; Ogawa, Masanao; Kumata, Katsushi; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Kato, Koichi; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Yui, Joji; Kawamura, Kazunori; Hatori, Akiko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2011-04-15

    Sorafenib (Nexavar, BAY43-9006, 1) is a second-generation, orally active multikinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of some cancers in patients. In this Letter, we developed [(11)C]1 as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe, and evaluated the influence of ABC transporters-mediated efflux on brain uptake using PET with [(11)C]1 in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) knockout mice versus wild-type mice. [(11)C]1 was synthesized by the reaction of hydrochloride of aniline 2 with [(11)C]phosgene ([(11)C]COCl(2)) to give isocyanate [(11)C]6, followed by reaction with another aniline 3. Small-animal PET study with [(11)C]1 indicated that the radioactivity level (AUC(0-60 min), SUV×min) in the brains of P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice was about three times higher than in wild-type mice. PMID:21419625

  20. Animal Protein, Animal Fat, and Cholesterol Intakes and Risk of Cerebral Infarction Mortality in the Adult Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Sauvaget; Jun Nagano; Mikiko Hayashi; Michiko Yamada

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—A traditional diet that is poor in animal products is thought to explain the high rate of stroke in Asian populations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a diet rich in animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol on the risk of cerebral infarction mortality in a Japanese population. Methods—A prospective study of

  1. Zoophilia in men: a study of sexual interest in animals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Colin J; Weinberg, Martin S

    2003-12-01

    This article presents a study of 114 self-defined zoophile men who were researched primarily through the use of an on-line questionnaire. We describe how the participants acquired the identity label of zoophile, what it meant to them, and their relationships among themselves. Also examined are how they eroticized animals and how human and feral characteristics combined to form this object choice. Finally, participants' sexual profiles with animals and humans, and how the balance of animal and human desires creates different forms of zoophilia, are described. PMID:14574096

  2. Controlling airborne cues to study small animal navigation.

    PubMed

    Gershow, Marc; Berck, Matthew; Mathew, Dennis; Luo, Linjiao; Kane, Elizabeth A; Carlson, John R; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2012-03-01

    Small animals such as nematodes and insects analyze airborne chemical cues to infer the direction of favorable and noxious locations. In these animals, the study of navigational behavior evoked by airborne cues has been limited by the difficulty of precisely controlling stimuli. We present a system that can be used to deliver gaseous stimuli in defined spatial and temporal patterns to freely moving small animals. We used this apparatus, in combination with machine-vision algorithms, to assess and quantify navigational decision making of Drosophila melanogaster larvae in response to ethyl acetate (a volatile attractant) and carbon dioxide (a gaseous repellant). PMID:22245808

  3. BALB\\/c and C57Bl\\/6 mice infected with virulent Burkholderia pseudomallei provide contrasting animal models for the acute and chronic forms of human melioidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison K Leakey; Glen C Ulett; Robert G Hirst

    1998-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomalleiis the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening bacterial disease occurring in many species of animals, including man. Infection in humans commonly manifests as one of three clinical presentations: acute, subacute or chronic disease. Investigations were undertaken to assess the suitability of BALB\\/c and C57Bl\\/6 mice as animal models for the different forms of human melioidosis. The course of

  4. Candidate Genes for Alcohol Dependence: Animal Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunter Schumann; Rainer Spanagel; Karl Mann

    2003-01-01

    LCOHOL DEPENDENCE IS a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. Its strong heritability component has been demonstrated in family, twin, and adoption studies (Reich et al., 1999). Alcohol dependence is a polygenic disorder, and segregation anal- yses suggest that a major gene is not likely to be operative in this disorder (Enoch and Goldman, 1999; Goldman, 1993). Thus, any

  5. Assessing skin sensitization hazard in mice and men using non-animal test methods.

    PubMed

    Urbisch, Daniel; Mehling, Annette; Guth, Katharina; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Honarvar, Naveed; Kolle, Susanne; Landsiedel, Robert; Jaworska, Joanna; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, Frank; Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Sensitization, the prerequisite event in the development of allergic contact dermatitis, is a key parameter in both hazard and risk assessments. The pathways involved have recently been formally described in the OECD adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization. One single non-animal test method will not be sufficient to fully address this AOP and in many cases the use of a battery of tests will be necessary. A number of methods are now fully developed and validated. In order to facilitate acceptance of these methods by both the regulatory and scientific communities, results of the single test methods (DPRA, KeratinoSens, LuSens, h-CLAT, (m)MUSST) as well for a the simple '2 out of 3' ITS for 213 substances have been compiled and qualitatively compared to both animal and human data. The dataset was also used to define different mechanistic domains by probable protein-binding mechanisms. In general, the non-animal test methods exhibited good predictivities when compared to local lymph node assay (LLNA) data and even better predictivities when compared to human data. The '2 out of 3' prediction model achieved accuracies of 90% or 79% when compared to human or LLNA data, respectively and thereby even slightly exceeded that of the LLNA. PMID:25541156

  6. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  7. Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock?in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

  8. Study on parasites from farm animals in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Qais A H; Alazemi, Maha S; Henedi, Adawia A M; Tahrani, Laila M A

    2015-04-01

    No doubt, farm animals are essential as a source of milk, protein, and leather and wool ... etc. But, they are always exposed to ecto- and endo-parasites, which cause diseases conditions that may end in death. This study evaluated farm animal parasitosis. Thus, different animal farms were visited to collect fecal samples and data to determine the infection rates with parasites and the relationship between animal management and parasitism in Kuwait. Out of 86, 17, 20, 96 & 52 cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels examined, 5.5, 17.5, 10, 9.3 and 2.5% respectively were infected with different parasites. These parasites were Ascarids in cattle and horses, Strongylids in cattle, horses and camels, and Eimeriids in cattle and small ruminants. Eimeria spp. were the most prevalent parasite particularly in small ruminants. The relationship between Eimeria infection and management in small ruminant farms was discussed. PMID:26012220

  9. Development of Humanized Mice for the Study of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Turrini; R. Sasso; S. Germoni; I. Marcucci; A. Celluci; A. Di Marco; E. Marra; G. Paonessa; A. Eutropi; R. Laufer; G. Migliaccio; J. Padron

    2006-01-01

    The development of a small animal model for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a critical issue for the development of novel anti-HCV drugs. To this aim, we have tried many different approaches for generating mice carrying humanized liver. Main efforts were focused on the transplantation of human hepatocytes into immunocompromised mice (SCID?\\/?, Bg?\\/?) carrying a genetic lethal liver disease

  10. Plasmid DNA malaria vaccine: tissue distribution and safety studies in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Parker, S E; Borellini, F; Wenk, M L; Hobart, P; Hoffman, S L; Hedstrom, R; Le, T; Norman, J A

    1999-03-20

    To evaluate the safety of a plasmid DNA vaccine, tissue distribution studies in mice and safety studies in mice and rabbits were conducted with VCL-2510, a plasmid DNA encoding the gene for the malaria circumsporozoite protein from Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP). After intramuscular administration, VCL-2510 plasmid DNA was detected initially in all of the highly vascularized tissues, but at later time points was found primarily in the muscle at the site of injection, where it persisted for up to 8 weeks. After intravenous administration, plasmid DNA initially distributed at a relatively low frequency to all the tissues examined except the gonads and brain. However, plasmid DNA rapidly cleared, and by 4 weeks postadministration could be detected only in the lung of one of six animals evaluated. In a safety study in mice, eight repeated intramuscular injections of VCL-2510 at plasmid DNA doses of 1, 10, and 100 microg had no adverse effects on clinical chemistry or hematology, and did not result in any organ pathology or systemic toxicity. In a safety study in rabbits, six repeated intramuscular injections of VCL-2510 at plasmid DNA doses of 0.15 and 0.45 mg had no discernible effects on clinical chemistry, hematology, or histopathology. No evidence of autoimmune-mediated pathology, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), or antibodies to dsDNA were observed in the mouse or rabbit studies. PMID:10210142

  11. Commercially Available Outbred Mice for Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binnaz Yalcin; Jérôme Nicod; Amarjit Bhomra; Stuart Davidson; James Cleak; Laurent Farinelli; Magne Østerås; Adam Whitley; Wei Yuan; Xiangchao Gan; Martin Goodson; Paul Klenerman; Ansu Satpathy; Diane Mathis; Christophe Benoist; David J. Adams; Richard Mott; Jonathan Flint

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies using commercially available outbred mice can detect genes involved in phenotypes of biomedical interest. Useful populations need high-frequency alleles to ensure high power to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs), low linkage disequilibrium between markers to obtain accurate mapping resolution, and an absence of population structure to prevent false positive associations. We surveyed 66 colonies for inbreeding, genetic

  12. a Study of Sasin-Animal Sky Map on Chonmunryucho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu

    2003-03-01

    Chon-Mun-Ryu-Cho, written (edited) by Lee Sun-Ji during the period of King Se-Jong, is a representative astronomy book of Cho-Sun (A.D. 1392 -1910) Dynasty. We find and study in the first page of the book; the description of 28 oriental constellations as a Sasin (four mythical oriental animals)-animal sky map which is not widely known yet. The map consists of four groups of constellations, each of which represents the Sasin: Chang-Ryong (dragon), Baek-Ho (tigers with Ki-Rin [Oriental giraffe]), Ju-Jak (Chinese phoenix), Hyun-Mu (a tortoise interwined with a snake). Each group (animals) spans 2˜7 of 28 oriental constellations As we know from the illustration of the Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do a representative sky map of Cho-Sun Dynasty, astronomy in Cho-Sun Dynasty is closely related to that in Go-Gu-Ryer (B.C. 37 -A.D. 668) Dynasty. Since these Sasin-animals appear in most mural paintings of Go-Gu-Ryer tombs, visualization of sky with these animal constellations could have been established as early as in Go-Gu-Ryer Dynasty. We also reconstruct this ''A Sasin-animal Korean sky map'' based on the shapes of the Sasin and Ki-Rin from Go-Gu-Ryer paintings and 28 oriental constellations in Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do.

  13. Older people's relationships with companion animals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Lauren; Townsend, Mardie; Staiger, Petra

    2008-04-01

    When older people enter residential care facilities, disruption to social networks may occur, with detrimental effects on health and wellbeing. This article reports on a study undertaken in an aged care facility in Melbourne, Australia, that explored the potential for a visiting companion animal programme to improve the health and wellbeing of residents and to promote their capacity for building relationships. Results back assertions in the literature that companion animals foster relationships by giving people opportunities to interact with others, but further study is needed to verify the link. PMID:18500131

  14. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1?261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  15. Improving the translation of animal ischemic stroke studies to humans.

    PubMed

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2015-04-01

    Despite testing more than 1,026 therapeutic strategies in models of ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendations and statements of RIGOR from the NIH/NINDS. In this commentary we discuss additional aspects that may be important to improve the translational success of ischemic stroke therapies. These include use of tissue plasminogen activator in animal studies; modeling ischemic stroke heterogeneity in terms of infarct size and cause of human stroke; addressing the confounding effect of anesthesia; use of comparable therapeutic dosage between humans and animals based on biological effect; modeling the human immune system; and developing outcome measures in animals comparable to those used in human stroke trials. With additional study and improved animal modeling of factors involved in human ischemic stroke, we are optimistic that new stroke therapies will be developed. PMID:24526567

  16. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-05-26

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is ?-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and comprehensive methods allows studying either of venoms available in tiny amounts or of low abundant components in already known venoms. PMID:26009701

  17. Zoophilia in Men: A Study of Sexual Interest in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin J. Williams; Martin S. Weinberg

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a study of 114 self-defined zoophile men who were researched primarily through the use of an on-line questionnaire. We describe how the participants acquired the identity label of zoophile, what it meant to them, and their relationships among themselves. Also examined are how they eroticized animals and how human and feral characteristics combined to form this object

  18. Why zoology? Zoology is the study of animals how they

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Why zoology? Zoology is the study of animals ­ how they function, behave and evolve. As well as being intrinsically fascinating, zoology is also of real- world importance. Understanding zoology for zoologists than today. Courses Essentials Courses MSci (Hons) in Zoology MSci (Hons) in Zoology (research

  19. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    PubMed Central

    Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Viganò, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal–dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. PMID:24855386

  20. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

  1. Animal carcinogenicity studies on radiofrequency fields related to mobile phones and base stations

    SciTech Connect

    Dasenbrock, Clemens [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: clemens-dasebrock@bc.boehringer-ingelheim.com

    2005-09-01

    Since a report in 1997 on an increased lymphoma incidence in mice chronically exposed to a mobile phone radiofrequency signal, none of the subsequent long-term studies in rodents have confirmed these results. On the other hand, several of the follow-up co- and carcinogenicity studies are still underway or are presently being initiated. Most of the published long-term studies used 1 exposure level only and suffer from a poor dosimetry which does not consider the animal's growth. Additional points of criticism are a limited, in some cases, questionable histopathology and inadequate group sizes. Overall, if dealing with new chemicals or drugs, these studies would not be acceptable for registration with the responsible authorities. The major critical points are taken into consideration within the European co- and carcinogenicity projects (CEMFEC and PERFORM-A), which are in their final stages and in the US long-term studies in mice and rats which are about to be initiated. Nevertheless, the WHO evaluation for health risk assessment of long-term telephone use and base station exposure will start in late 2005.

  2. Acute toxicity study of zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier on BALB/c mice model.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rasedee, Abdullah; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Namvar, Farideh; Yeap, Swee Keong; Abdul Samad, Nozlena; Andas, Reena Joys; Muhammad Nadzri, Nabilah; Anasamy, Theebaa; Ng, Kuan Beng; How, Chee Wun

    2014-01-01

    Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration. PMID:25276798

  3. Use of Humanized Mice to Study the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Koboziev, Iurii; Jones-Hall, Yava; Valentine, John F; Reinoso Webb, Cynthia; Furr, Kathryn L; Grisham, Matthew B

    2015-07-01

    Animal models of disease have been used extensively by the research community for the past several decades to better understand the pathogenesis of different diseases and assess the efficacy and toxicity of different therapeutic agents. Retrospective analyses of numerous preclinical intervention studies using mouse models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases reveal a generalized failure to translate promising interventions or therapeutics into clinically effective treatments in patients. Although several possible reasons have been suggested to account for this generalized failure to translate therapeutic efficacy from the laboratory bench to the patient's bedside, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the mouse immune system is substantially different from the human. Indeed, it is well known that >80 major differences exist between mouse and human immunology; all of which contribute to significant differences in immune system development, activation, and responses to challenges in innate and adaptive immunity. This inconvenient reality has prompted investigators to attempt to humanize the mouse immune system to address important human-specific questions that are impossible to study in patients. The successful long-term engraftment of human hematolymphoid cells in mice would provide investigators with a relatively inexpensive small animal model to study clinically relevant mechanisms and facilitate the evaluation of human-specific therapies in vivo. The discovery that targeted mutation of the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain in lymphopenic mice allows for the long-term engraftment of functional human immune cells has advanced greatly our ability to humanize the mouse immune system. The objective of this review is to present a brief overview of the recent advances that have been made in the development and use of humanized mice with special emphasis on autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. In addition, we discuss the use of these unique mouse models to define the human-specific immunopathological mechanisms responsible for the induction and perpetuation of chronic gut inflammation. PMID:26035036

  4. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  5. Lung Resection Using Transumbilical Incision: An Animal Survival Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shun-Ying; Yen-Chu; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Ying; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yuan, Hsu-Chia; Ko, Po-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Transumbilical single-port surgery is a potentially less invasive approach to many types of abdominal surgeries and offers better cosmetic outcomes than conventional 3-port laparoscopic surgery. It avoids the complication of intercostal neuralgia and may reduce the risk of pulmonary complications after video-assisted thoracic surgery. This study evaluated the feasibility of transumbilical lung wedge resection. Methods: Lung resection was performed in 11 beagle dogs weighing 5.9 to 8.5 kg. A 3-cm umbilical incision and one diaphragmatic incision were made, and an endoscopic stapler was used. The diaphragmatic incisions were repaired under video guidance using a V-Loc knotless suturing device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts). Animals were monitored daily for signs of postoperative infection. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and IL-6 level were measured in all animals. Animals were euthanized 14 days after surgery and underwent necropsy evaluation. Results: Accurate lung resection was achieved in 10 of 11 animals during a median operative time of 98 minutes (range 60–165). In 1 animal, transumbilical lung resection was not possible and was converted to thoracotomy. All animals survived without major postoperative complications. At necropsy, evidence of uneventful healing of the stapled resection margin and diaphragmatic wound were found. There was no evidence of vital organ injury or intrathoracic infection. Conclusion: A transumbilical approach to thoracic cavity exploration and stapled lung resection is technically feasible. Primary suturing of the diaphragmatic incision is a simple and effective means of diaphragmatic wound closure. This may be an alternative to video-assisted thoracic surgery for the management of simple thoracic disease. PMID:25848173

  6. Elastography imaging of small animal oncology models: a feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Bilgen; Seshadri Srinivasan; Lawrence B Lachman; Jonathan Ophir

    2003-01-01

    To test the feasibility of applying ultrasonic elastography on small animal oncology models, experiments were performed in vitro and in situ on murine mammary lesions induced exogenously by tumor cell line 66.3. In vitro studies involved three 1-week-old excised tumors embedded in a phantom block with ultrasonic properties similar to those of soft biologic tissues. In situ studies involved five

  7. Humanimalia: A journal of human/animal interface studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.

  8. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  9. Comparative study on susceptibility to 1-bromopropane in three mice strains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ichihara, Sahoko; Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik; Sai, Uka; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ichihara, Gaku

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that 1-bromopropane (1BP) has neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity both in humans and animals. The present study investigated strain differences in susceptibility to 1BP and identified possible biological factors that determine such susceptibility. Twenty-four male mice of each of the three strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and BALB/cA) were divided into four groups of six each and exposed to 1BP at 0, 50, 110, and 250 ppm for 8 h/day for 28 days by inhalation. At the end of exposure period, the relative susceptibilities of each strain to 1BP-mediated hepatotoxicity and male reproductive toxicity were evaluated. The contributing factors to strain-dependent susceptibility were assessed by determination of hepatic CYP2E1 levels, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) status, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA levels. Liver histopathology showed significantly larger area of liver necrosis and more degenerative lobules in BALB/cA in the order of BALB/cA > C57BL/6J > DBA/2J. BALB/cA showed higher CYP2E1 protein level and lower total GSH content and GST activity in the liver than DBA/2J. These results indicate that BALB/cA mice are the most susceptible to hepatotoxicity of 1BP among the three strains tested, and that CYP2E1, GSH level/GST activity may contribute to the susceptibility to 1BP hepatotoxicity. Exposure to > or = 50 ppm of 1BP also decreased sperm count and sperm motility and increased sperms with abnormal heads in all three strains mice in a dose-dependent manner. Comparison with previous studies in rats indicates that mice are far more susceptible than rats to 1BP regarding hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. PMID:19638432

  10. Inflammatory diarrhea due to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: evidence from clinical and mice model studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the role of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in inflammatory diarrhea among hospitalized patients in Kolkata. The inflammatory pathogenesis of EAEC was established in mice model and histopathological studies. Presence of fecal leucocytes (FLCs) can be suspected for EAEC infection solely or as a mixed with other enteric pathogens. Methods Active surveillance was conducted for 2 years on 2 random days per week with every 5th patient admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH). Diarrheal samples were processed by conventional culture, microscopy, ELISA and molecular methods. Two EAEC isolated as sole pathogens were examined in mice after induced intestinal infection. The intestinal tissue samples were processed to analyze the histological changes. Results Of the 2519 samples screened, fecal leucocytes, erythrocytes and occult blood were detected in 1629 samples. Most of the patients had acute watery diarrhea (75%) and vomiting (78%). Vibrio cholerae O1 was the main pathogen in patients of 5–10 years age group (33%). Shigellosis was more in children from 2–5 years of age (19%), whereas children <2 years appeared to be susceptible for infection caused by EAEC (16%). When tested for the pathogenicity, the EAEC strains colonized well and caused inflammatory infection in the gut mucosa of BALB/C mice. Conclusion This hospital-based surveillance revealed prevalence of large number of inflammatory diarrhea. EAEC was the suspected pathogen and <2 years children appeared to be the most susceptible age group. BALB/C mice may be a suitable animal model to study the EAEC-mediated pathogenesis. PMID:24294997

  11. A study of quantification of aortic compliance in mice using radial acquisition phase contrast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuandong

    Spatiotemporal changes in blood flow velocity measured using Phase contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to quantify Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and Wall Shear Stress (WSS), well known indices of vessel compliance. A study was conducted to measure the PWV in the aortic arch in young healthy children using conventional phase contrast MRI and a post processing algorithm that automatically track the peak velocity in phase contrast images. It is shown that the PWV calculated using peak velocity-time data has less variability compared to that using mean velocity and flow. Conventional MR data acquisition techniques lack both the spatial and temporal resolution needed to accurately calculate PWV and WSS in in vivo studies using transgenic animal models of arterial diseases. Radial k-space acquisition can improve both spatial and temporal resolution. A major part of this thesis was devoted to developing technology for Radial Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance (RPCMR) cine imaging on a 7 Tesla Animal scanner. A pulse sequence with asymmetric radial k-space acquisition was designed and implemented. Software developed to reconstruct the RPCMR images include gridding, density compensation and centering of k-Space that corrects the image ghosting introduced by hardware response time. Image processing software was developed to automatically segment the vessel lumen and correct for phase offset due to eddy currents. Finally, in vivo and ex vivo aortic compliance measurements were conducted in a well-established mouse model for atherosclerosis: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO). Using RPCMR technique, a significantly higher PWV value as well as a higher average WSS was detected among 9 months old ApoE-KO mice compare to in wild type mice. A follow up ex-vivo test of tissue elasticity confirmed the impaired distensibility of aortic arteries among ApoE-KO mice.

  12. [A study on developmental toxicity of vanadium pentoxide in NIH mice].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Gou, X; Yang, Z

    1991-06-01

    There is no general agreement yet about the teratogenic effects or developmental toxicity of vanadium in animal studies. This is a report on developmental toxicity in NIH mice following injection of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5, 5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) at different times of gestation (on days 1-5, 6-15, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14-17 of gestation). No adverse effects of V2O5 on pre-implantation and implantation were noted, and neither were teratogenicity and premature birth. However, there was toxic effect on embryofetus. Increased frequency of resorption or fetal death on days 6-15, 7, 14-17 of gestation were observed. Delayed ossification of bones was noted on days 6-15, 8, 10, 14-17 of gestation. These results suggest that V2O5 may be a weak developmental toxicant but not a teratogen in NIH mice. In addition, this paper reports the developmental toxicity, especially teratogenicity of N, N'-methylene-bis (2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole) which was used as the positive control in NIH mice. PMID:1786959

  13. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections. PMID:24042096

  14. The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

  15. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  16. Toxicity studies with Sesbania spp. in domestic and laboratory animals 

    E-print Network

    Whall, Jeffrey DePass

    1982-01-01

    Miscellaneous Phase. Cattle Phase Analysis of Data 15 17 20 21 28 RESULTS 31 Rat Phase. Rabbit Phase Miscellaneous Phase. Cattle Phase 31 33 35 37 DISCUSSION. Toxicity Clinical Syndrome. Lesions. Blood Parameters Laboratory Experiments... Sesbania, were studied for their effects on cattle, rabbits, and rats. LD50 determina- tion was made for these animals, for both species of plant gastric intubation of finely ground seed. In rats the LD&0 for S. vesicaria was calculated to be 1. 09...

  17. Benthic studies in Buzzards Bay. I. Animal-sediment relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOWARD L. SANDERS

    1958-01-01

    During October and November 1955 a bottom faunal study was undertaken at 19 lo- calities in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. The number of animals ranged from 1,064 to 12,576\\/m2 with a mean number of 4,430. In comparison with certain other areas these numbers appeared small and seemed to be due to the relatively low concentrations of chemical nutrients and modest primary

  18. Assessing drug exposure in rodent toxicity studies without satellite animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry R. Nedelman; Ekaterina Gibiansky; Francis L. S. Tse; Christine Babiuk I

    1993-01-01

    Five major objectives for pharmacokinetic investigations in support of toxicity studies are identified as follows: Assess whether animals exhibited measurable blood concentrations in a dose-dependent manner; estimate average area under the concentration- time curve (AUC)and maximal concentration (Cmax)for each treatment group; elucidate general patterns in the concentration-time (CxT)profile, and summarize relationships between CxTand treatment group; determine CxTdependence on day into

  19. ELF magnetic fields: animal studies, mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Lagroye, Isabelle; Percherancier, Yann; Juutilainen, Jukka; De Gannes, Florence Poulletier; Veyret, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    Animal studies can contribute to addressing the issue of possible greater health risk for children exposed to 50-60 Hz extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs), mostly in terms of teratological effects and cancer. Teratology has been extensively studied in animals exposed to ELF MFs but experiments have not established adverse developmental effects. Childhood leukaemia has been the only cancer consistently reported in epidemiological studies as associated with exposure to ELF MFs. This association has been the basis for the classification as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2002. Animal experiments have provided only limited support for these epidemiological findings. However, none but one study used an animal model for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the main form of childhood leukaemia, and exposures to ELF MFs were not carried out over the whole pregnancy period, when the first hit of ALL is assumed to occur. Moreover, there are no generally accepted biophysical mechanisms that could explain carcinogenic effects of low-level MFs. The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure. PMID:21914452

  20. Multimodal evaluation of xenograft tumors in mice with an in-vivo stereo imaging system and small-animal PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Onseok; Lee, Gunwoo; Kim, Mingi; Kim, Seok-Ki; Baek, Yoosang; Oh, Chilhwan

    2013-10-01

    In small-animal studies, calipers are the standard method used for measurement of external tumor size. However, as tumors are not usually prolate spheroids, this may lead to inaccuracies in the data. Also, correlations vary according to the kind and size of tumors. Tumors were generated by transplanting B16 mouse melanoma cells into the back of Balb/c nude mice. True volumes were measured by calipers, an in-vivo stereo imaging system, and as a standard uptake value (SUV) by F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([F]FDG)-PET. Correlations between measurements were analyzed. Correlation with the true volume was higher for measurements using the in-vivo stereo imaging system (r=0.876) than with calipers (r=0.744). Measurement of melanoma volume has a larger measuring error when performed using a caliper compared with measurements performed by stereo imaging when the volume of the melanoma is small. Correlation of the volume and PET-SUV by a caliper is low as the size of the melanoma increases. This same relationship exists with the comparison of stereo imaging and PET-SUV. The correlation between the SUV of [F]FDG-PET and tumor volume with the melanoma is expected to be important in related future studies. PMID:23839076

  1. Natural Behavior, Animal Rights, or Making Money – A Study of Swedish Organic Farmers' View of Animal Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund; Sven Hemlin; James White

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire study was performed among Swedish organic livestock farmers to determine their view of animal welfare and other ethical issues in animal production. The questionnaire was sent to 56.5% of the target group and the response rate was 75.6%. A principal components analysis (exploratory factor analysis) was performed to get a more manageable data set. A matrix of intercorrelations

  2. A single-dose toxicity study on non-radioactive iodinated hypericin for a targeted anticancer therapy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-jie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuan-bo; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Guo-zhi; Fu, Xue-bin; Himmelreich, Uwe; Oyen, Raymond; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yi-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Hypericin (Hyp) and its radio-derivatives have been investigated in animal models with ischemic heart diseases and malignancies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before radioiodinated Hyp (123I-Hyp or 131I-Hyp) can be considered as a clinically useful drug, vigorous evaluations on its chemotoxicity are necessary. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of a single dose of non-radioactive 127I-Hyp in normal mice for 24 h and 14 d. Methods: Studies were performed on 132 normal mice. 127I -Hyp at a clinically relevant dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight and a 100-times higher dose of 10 mg/kg was intravenously injected into 40 mice. The safety aspects of clinical manifestations, serological biochemistry, and histopathology were assessed. In another 72 mice, 127I-Hyp was administered intravenously at assumed values to bracket the value of LD50. The rest 20 mice were used in the control groups. Results: At 24 h and 14 d following the injection of 127I -Hyp at either 0.1 or 10 mg/kg, all mice tolerated well without mortality or any observable treatment-related symptoms. No significant differences were found in blood biochemical parameters between the test and control groups. All organs presented normal appearances upon histopathological inspection. The value of LD50 of 127I-Hyp in mice through intravenous injection was 20.26 mg/kg, with the 95% confidence interval between 18.90 and 21.55 mg/kg. Conclusion: The current study reveals a broad safety range of 127I-Hyp, which not only supports the use of 123I-Hyp or 131I-Hyp in the necrosis targeting theragnostic strategy, but also serves as a valuable reference for exploring other possible applications for iodinated Hyp. PMID:23103619

  3. A 13-week subchronic intravaginal toxicity study of pokeweed antiviral protein in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, O J; Waurzyniakt, B; Uckun, F M

    2004-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a 29-kDa plant-derived protein isolated from Phytolacca americana, is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. PAP shows unique clinical potential to become the active ingredient of a non-spermicidal microbicide because of its potent in vivo anti-HIV activity, non-interference with in vivo sperm functions, and lack of cytotoxicity to genital tract epithelial cells. Over 13 weeks the subchronic and reproductive toxicity potential of an intravaginally administered gel formulation of PAP was studied in mice to support its further development as a vaginal microbicide. Female B6C3F1 and CD-1 mice in subgroups of 20, were exposed intravaginally to a gel formulation containing 0, 0.025, 0.05, or 0.1% PAP, 5 days/week for 13 consecutive weeks. On a molar basis, these concentrations are 500- to 2000-times higher than the in vitro anti-HIV IC50 value. After 13 weeks of intravaginal treatment, B6C3F1 mice were evaluated for survival, body weight gain, and absolute and relative organ weights. Blood was analyzed for hematology and clinical chemistry profiles. Microscopic examination was performed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections from each study animal. Placebo-control and PAP-dosed female CD-1 mice were mated with untreated males in order to evaluate if PAP has any deleterious effects on reproductive performance. There were no treatment-related mortalities. Mean body weight gain was not reduced by PAP treatment during the dosing period. The hemogram and blood chemistry profiles revealed lack of systemic toxicity following daily intravaginal instillation of PAP for 13 weeks. No clinically significant changes in absolute and relative organ weights were noted in the PAP dose groups. Extensive histopathological examination of tissues showed no increase in treatment-related microscopic lesions in any of the three PAP dose groups. Repeated intravaginal exposure of CD-1 mice to increasing concentrations of PAP for 13 weeks showed no adverse effect on their subsequent reproductive capability (100% fertile), neonatal survival (>90%) or pup development. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that repetitive intravaginal administration of PAP at concentrations as high as 2000 times its in vitro anti-HIV IC50 value was not associated with local or systemic toxicity and did not adversely affect the reproductive performance of mice. PAP may be useful as an active ingredient of a safe vaginal microbicide for prevention of the sexual transmission of viruses, particularly of HIV-1. PMID:15185849

  4. Animal models of acute photodamage: comparisons of anatomic, cellular and molecular responses in C57BL/6J, SKH1 and Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena R; Werth, Benjamin; Werth, Victoria P

    2011-01-01

    Human cutaneous photodamage is a major medical problem that includes premature aging and fragility of the skin. Nonxenografted animal models have not been comparatively evaluated for how well they resemble the changes seen in human skin. Here, we sought to identify a suitable mouse model that recapitulates key anatomic, cellular and molecular responses observed in human skin during acute UV exposure. Adult females from three strains of mice, C57BL/6J, SKH1 and Balb/c were exposed to UVB and then evaluated 3 or 20 h after the last irradiation. Skin from UVB-exposed C57BL/6J mice showed features resembling human photodamage, including epidermal thickening, infiltration of the dermis with inflammatory cells, induction of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, particularly hyaluronan in the epidermis and loss of collagen. Hairless SKH1 mouse skin responded similarly, but without any induction of TNF-? mRNA or chondroitin sulfate. Irradiated Balb/c mice were the least similar to humans. Our results in C57BL/6J mice and to a lesser extent in SKH1 mice, show cutaneous responses to a course of UVB-irradiation that mirror those seen in human skin. Proper choice of model is critical for investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms of photodamage and photoaging. PMID:21332482

  5. Nodes and biological processes identified on the basis of network analysis in the brain of the senescence accelerated mice as an Alzheimer's disease animal model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-rui; Cui, Xiu-liang; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Gui-rong; Li, Peng; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Yue-ying; Bo, Xiao-chen; Wang, Sheng-qi; Zhou, Wen-xia; Zhang, Yong-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Harboring the behavioral and histopathological signatures of Alzheimer's disease (AD), senescence accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice are currently considered a robust model for studying AD. However, the underlying mechanisms, prioritized pathways and genes in SAMP8 mice linked to AD remain unclear. In this study, we provide a biological interpretation of the molecular underpinnings of SAMP8 mice. Our results were derived from differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of SAMP8 mice compared to age-matched SAMR1 mice at 2, 6, and 12 months of age using cDNA microarray analysis. On the basis of PPI, MetaCore and the co-expression network, we constructed a distinct genetic sub-network in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Next, we determined that the regulation of synaptic transmission and apoptosis were disrupted in the brains of SAMP8 mice. We found abnormal gene expression of RAF1, MAPT, PTGS2, CDKN2A, CAMK2A, NTRK2, AGER, ADRBK1, MCM3AP, and STUB1, which may have initiated the dysfunction of biological processes in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Specifically, we found microRNAs, including miR-20a, miR-17, miR-34a, miR-155, miR-18a, miR-22, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-106b, and miR-125b, that might regulate the expression of nodes in the sub-network. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the biological and genetic mechanisms of SAMP8 mice and add an important dimension to our understanding of the neuro-pathogenesis in SAMP8 mice from a systems perspective. PMID:24194717

  6. [An immunologic study of hyaluronidase of different animal origin].

    PubMed

    Kozhukharova, L

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the antigenic relatedness of hyaluronidase contained in the semen of breeder animals of homologic and heterologic species. The experiments were carried out by means of the immunodiffusion and the immunoelectrophoretic methods. The results obtained showed that the seminal hyaluronidase of bulls, rams and bucks is antigenically related, and that of stallions, boars and rabbits does not exhibit antigenic relatedness. Stallion semen is closely related antigenically with the above-mentioned three animal species' semen as manifested by two precipitation bands, but these are not identical with the hyaluronidase precipitation arc. The antigenic relatedness of seminal hyaluronidase is demonstrated by one precipitation line. This fact makes it reasonable to believe that the enzyme activity of hyaluronidase is to be manifested in one protein fraction only, and not in a protein complex. However, further investigations are needed on the biologic activity and the immunologic specificity of hyaluronidase. PMID:48305

  7. Doxycycline disrupts transthyretin amyloid: evidence from studies in a FAP transgenic mice model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Cardoso; M. J. Saraiva

    2006-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is an autosomal dominant disorder mainly characterized by the extracellular deposition of transthyretin, with special involvement of the peripheral nerve. Several animal models have been generated, including trans- genic mice carrying the most prevalent TTR mutation (TTR Val30Met). TTR-Val30Met mice without endoge- nous TTR (TTR-Val30Met X TTR-KO) were previously analyzed in our laboratory and 60% of the

  8. Effects of developmental bisphenol A exposure on reproductive-related behaviors in California mice (Peromyscus californicus): a monogamous animal model.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Jasarevic, Eldin; Vandas, Gregory M; Warzak, Denise A; Geary, David C; Ellersieck, Mark R; Roberts, R Michael; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or ethinyl estradiol (EE) (0.1 part per billion) to provide a "pure" estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a consideration in risk assessment studies. PMID:23405200

  9. Idiopathic paraproteinaemia. I. Studies in an animal model--the ageing C57BL/KaLwRij mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Hollander, C F; van den Berg, P; de Glopper, E

    1978-01-01

    A search for a suitable animal model for studies on idiopathic paraproteinaemia showed that an age-dependent increase in the appearance of homogeneous immunoglobulins in serum was common to all of the seven mouse strains investigated to date. The highest frequency was found in C57Bl/KaLwRij mice. Further investigations in this strain demonstrated that, except for some quantitative differences, most of the features of human and C57BL Mouse idiopathic paraproteinaemia were essentially the same. No clear-cut correlation was found between the idiopathic paraproteinaemia and, in the old C57B1 mice, a rather frequently occurring reticulum cell sarcoma B and amyloidosis. The mouse idiopathic paraproteinaemia can be regarded as an analogue of the human idiopathic paraproteinaemia and therefore as a suitable model for further experimental studies. PMID:367647

  10. Experimental study on in vivo optical and radionuclide imaging in small animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Autiero; L. Celentano; R. Cozzolino; P. Laccetti; M. Marotta; G. Mettivier; M. C. Montesi; P. Riccio; G. Roberti; P. Russo

    2005-01-01

    We report on tests of a combined fluorescence and radionuclide planar imaging system for in vivo investigation on small animals. Combined images of anaesthetized mice bearing a surface solid tumor are presented. The fluorescent marker is a hematoporphyrin compound laser-excited with green light and imaged in the red fluorescence emission with a standard monochrome charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The

  11. Molecular study of worldwide distribution and diversity of soil animals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tiehang; Ayres, Edward; Bardgett, Richard D.; Wall, Diana H.; Garey, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The global distribution of soil animals and the relationship of below-ground biodiversity to above-ground biodiversity are not well understood. We examined 17,516 environmental 18S rRNA gene sequences representing 20 phyla of soil animals sampled from 11 locations covering a range of biomes and latitudes around the world. No globally cosmopolitan taxa were found and only 14 of 2,259 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found were common to four or more locations. Half of those were circumpolar and may reflect higher connectivity among circumpolar locations compared with other locations in the study. Even when OTU assembly criteria were relaxed to approximate the family taxonomic level, only 34 OTUs were common to four or more locations. A comparison of our diversity and community structure data to environmental factors suggests that below-ground animal diversity may be inversely related to above-ground biodiversity. Our data suggest that greater soil inorganic N and lower pH could explain the low below-ground biodiversity found at locations of high above-ground biodiversity. Our locations could also be characterized as being dominated by microarthropods or dominated by nematodes. Locations dominated by arthropods were primarily forests with lower soil pH, root biomass, mean annual temperature, low soil inorganic N and higher C:N, litter and moisture compared with nematode-dominated locations, which were mostly grasslands. Overall, our data indicate that small soil animals have distinct biogeographical distributions and provide unique evidence of the link between above-ground and below-ground biodiversity at a global scale. PMID:22006309

  12. STUDIES ON THE LYMPHOCYTOSIS INDUCED IN MICE BY BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen I.

    1965-01-01

    1. Intravenous injection into mice of phase I Bordetella pertussis vaccine resulted in a striking hyperleucocytosis with a predominating lymphocytosis. Intraperitoneal inoculation was less effective, and subcutaneous administration was inactive. 2. Active immunization prevented the hyperleucocytosis; passive immunization was less effective. 3. Reticuloendothelial blockage reduced the effect of the vaccine. 4. Extirpation of the spleen or thymus did not alter the leucocyte response. 5. Histologic studies suggested that the increase in circulating lymphocytes resulted from release of cells from lymphoid organs, including the thymus. PMID:14253487

  13. Novel Insights into Osteoarthritis Joint Pathology from Studies in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Paxton M; Beier, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes tremendous individual suffering and staggering societal costs, but due to our limited understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, our avenues for treating this disease are very restricted. Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the use of genetically modified mice to characterize the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Many new players and mechanisms driving osteoarthritis pathogenesis have been elucidated, some of which might be strong candidates as therapeutic targets for the human disease. The current review summarizes key findings (selected subjectively by the authors) from mouse osteoarthritis studies over recent years. PMID:26113010

  14. Subchronic (13-week) toxicity studies of intravaginal administration of spermicidal vanadocene acetylacetonato monotriflate in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Waurzyniak, Barbara; Uckun, Fatih M

    2002-01-15

    Bis-cyclopentadienyl complexes of vanadium(IV) or vanadocenes are rapid and potent inhibitors of human sperm motility with potential as a new class of contraceptive agents. In this study, groups of 10 B(6)C(3)F(1) and 20 CD-1 female mice were exposed intravaginally to a gel-microemulsion containing 0, 0.06, 0.12, or 0.25% of a representative vanadocene, vanadocene acetylacetonato monotriflate (VDACAC), five days per week for 13 consecutive weeks. The doses of VDACAC used were nearly 300- to 1250-fold higher than its in vitro spermicidal EC(50) value. After 13 weeks of intravaginal treatment, B(6)C(3)F(1) mice were evaluated for survival, body weight gain, absolute and relative organ weights, and systemic toxicity. Blood was analyzed for hematological and clinical chemistry profiles. Microscopic examination was performed on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissue sections from each study animal. Vanadium content in tissues was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Gel-microemulsion (placebo) control and VDACAC dosed female CD-1 mice were mated with untreated males in order to evaluate if VDACAC has any adverse effects on the reproductive outcome. There were no treatment-related mortalities in either study. Mean body weight gain during the dosing period was not reduced by VDACAC treatment. Hemograms or clinical chemistry profiles did not reveal any toxicologically significant changes attributed to VDACAC treatment. No clinically significant dose-dependent changes in absolute and relative organ weights were noted in VDACAC dose groups. Extensive histopathological examination of tissues revealed no treatment-related abnormalities in any of the three VDACAC dose groups. Vanadium was not incorporated in mouse tissues at levels above 1 microg/g. Repeated intravaginal exposure of CD-1 mice to increasing concentrations of VDACAC for 13 weeks had no adverse effect on their subsequent reproductive capability (100% fertile), neonatal survival (>96%) or pup development. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that repetitive intravaginal administration of VDACAC to yield effective spermicidal concentrations (<0.1%) in the vagina was not associated with systemic toxicity and did not adversely affect the reproductive performance in mice. The spermicidal vanadocene-chelated complex, VDACAC, may be useful as a safe vaginal contraceptive. PMID:11750081

  15. Studies of carcinogenicity of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yokose, Y; Uchida, K; Nakae, D; Shiraiwa, K; Yamamoto, K; Konishi, Y

    1987-01-01

    The carcinogenic activities of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice were examined. Sodium chlorite was given at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.025% (low dose), or 0.05% (high dose) in the drinking water of 150 female and 150 male mice for 80 weeks, after which time the animals were returned to distilled water without sodium chlorite. All mice were sacrificed 85 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. The incidence of tumor-bearing animals was 32% (control), 34% (low dose), and 26% (high dose) in female mice, and 46% (control), 57% (low dose), and 53% (high dose) in male mice. The types and incidence of neoplasms that occurred frequently in each group of both sexes were similar to those observed spontaneously in B6C3F1 mice. The incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in the high dose group of females (2%), however, was lower than that in the control group (15%). Furthermore, the incidence of pulmonary adenomas in the high dose group of males (12%) was higher than that in the control group (0%), but neither dose-related increases in the adenoma incidences nor increased incidences of the adenocarcinomas were observed. These results indicated no clear evidence of a carcinogenic potential of sodium chlorite in B6C3F1 mice. PMID:3447900

  16. [A comparative study of the effect of afobazole on brain monoamine systems in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice].

    PubMed

    Kudrin, V S

    2006-01-01

    The comparative study of the effects of afobazole, a novel anxiolytic drug, on the content of brain monoamines and their metabolites in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HC), hypothalamus (HT), and striatum of BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice (with weak and strong response to emotional stress, respectively) was carried out using HPLC/ED techniques. The norepinephrine (NE) content in the HT of intact C57BL/6 mice is lower, whereas that in the FC and HC of these mice is twice higher than in BALB/C mice. The levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites (dioxyphenylacetic and homovanillic acids) in all the brain structures studied was lower in C57BL/6 than in BALB/C mice. Afobazole (1 and 5 mg/kg) increased the NE content in the FC of C57BL/6 mice, while a similar increase in the HC of these mice was observed only upon afobazole injections in a dose of 5 mg/kg. The most prominent changes in the level of DA and its metabolites were observed in the FC, where the DA content significantly decreased after afobazole administration in both doses in BALB/C as well as in C57BL/6 mice. The dose of 1 mg/kg, reduced the DA level in the FC of BALB/C mice more effectively than in animals with active reaction to stress. These results suggest that Afobazole differently modulates the parameters of cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, while not affecting substantially the serotoninergic system in the brain of animals with the different genetically determined stress reaction. PMID:17153957

  17. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. 314.610...APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible...evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals....

  18. New Animal Model for Studying Mastication in Oral Motor Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Okayasu; Y. Yamada; S. Kohno; N. Yoshida

    2003-01-01

    To identify the basic parameters of oral behavior in mice, we recorded the three-dimensional jaw movement trajectories and masseter and digastric muscle activities in freely behaving mice eating foods of various textures. Results showed that: (1) there are characteristic jaw movement patterns for food intake and mastication; (2) the pattern in a chewing cycle may be divided into opening, closing,

  19. Chronic dermal studies of petroleum streams in mice.

    PubMed

    Broddle, W D; Dennis, M W; Kitchen, D N; Vernot, E H

    1996-03-01

    During petroleum refining, a large number of products are generated which have varying chemical and physical properties. These are known in the industry as petroleum streams. In order to characterize their carcinogenic activity, a number of these commercially produced streams were administered to C3H/HeJ mice in chronic dermal bioassays. The bioassays were conducted using one of two study designs: the first set of test materials was applied for a lifetime and the second set for 24 months. In the lifetime study, the last mice in the test groups survived for periods of 31 to 32 months. Middle distillates, boiling in the range 115-390 degrees C, were found to decrease the lifespan of exposed mice compared to controls or streams of higher and lower boiling ranges. These middle distillate streams included straight run kerosine, hydrodesulfurized middle distillate, straight run middle distillate, light catalytic cracked distillate, and 90/10% and 70/30% mixtures of the last two. The middle distillate streams also proved to be active as carcinogens, with tumor incidence ranging from 16 to 67%. Light alkylate naphtha, heavy catalytic reformed naphtha, vacuum residuum, and unleaded gasoline did not demonstrate significant carcinogenic potency. Heavy thermal cracked naphtha, heavy catalytic cracked naphtha, and hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate were dermal carcinogens of low potency in this study. Administration of light catalytic cracked naphtha led to a low incidence of very late developing tumors with a mean latency of 118 weeks. Application of the 0.1% solution of catalytic cracked clarified oil in toluene did not result in a significant incidence of tumors, but the 10% solution caused almost 100% mortality and 100% tumor incidence in 12 months. There was no correlation between carcinogenic potency and the indices of irritation, alopecia, erythema, and scabbing. Only two of the streams tested, hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate and 10% catalytic cracked clarified oil, contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) and may be presumed to be complete carcinogens. The middle distillates and heavy naphthas are nonmutagenic and essentially free of PNAs. Their activity may result from promotion of already-initiated skin sites. Where comparisons could be made, reducing the exposure period from a lifetime (29-32 months) to 24 months did not change the evaluations of stream carcinogenicity except in the case of light catalytic cracked naphtha where six of the seven mice that developed tumors did so after 24 months. PMID:8812220

  20. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Sperm morphology study of n-hexane in B6C3F1 mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Hackett, P.L.; Decker, J.R.; Westerberg, R.B.; Sasser, L.B.; McClanahan, B.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epididymal sperm morphology of male B6D3F1 mice 5 weeks after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Two concurrent positive control groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally with either 200 or 250 mg/kg ethyl methanesulfonate, a known mutagen, once each day for 5 consecutive days. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. During the fifth post-exposure week the animals were killed and examined for gross lesions of the reproductive tract and suspensions of the epididymal sperm were prepared for morphological evaluations. The appearance and behavior of the mice were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no deaths. No evidence of lesions in any organ was noted at sacrifice. Mean body weights of male mice exposed to n-hexane were not significantly different from those for the 0-ppM animals at any time during the study. Analyses of the sperm morphology data obtained 5 weeks post-exposure (the only time point examined) indicated that exposure of male mice to relatively high concentrations of n-hexane vapor for 5 days produced no significant effects on the morphology of sperm relative to that of the 0-ppM control group. 24 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Studies on the animal model of post-stroke depression and application of antipsychotic aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Pak, Malk Eun; Ahn, Sung Min; Hong, Ki Hwan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the question of whether an animal model of post-stroke depression in ischemic stroke can be developed by additional chronic mild stress (CMS) procedures. Behavioral and histopathological analysis was performed for examination of the depressive disorders in CMS, left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and CMS after MCAO (MCAO+CMS) in mice. In all depressant screening tests involving open field, sucrose preference, forced swim and Morris water maze test, MCAO+CMS mice showed more significant depressive behaviors than MCAO mice. MCAO+CMS mice also showed distinct deficits in forced swim and Morris water maze test compared with CMS. In the histopathological analysis, prominent atrophic changes were seen in the striatum and midbrain of MCAO treated mice compared with CMS. MCAO+CMS mice showed a decrease of proliferative and differentiated neuronal cells in the striatum and hippocampus with dopaminergic neuronal injuries in the midbrain as compared with CMS and MCAO alone treated mice. Treatment of MCAO+CMS mice with aripiprazole resulted in reduction of all depressive behaviors examined, particularly in the Morris water maze test. Recovered dopaminergic neuronal injuries in the midbrain and enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus were also demonstrated. Our results suggest that CMS after ischemic stroke can lead to severe depressive-like behavior compared with CMS or MCAO alone treated mice via neurodegeneration in the primary lesion and secondary extrafocal sites and degradation of neurogenesis, and these behavioral and histopathological changes are reversed by treatment with aripiprazole. Thus adjunct therapy with an antipsychotic may exert its antidepressant effects via neuroprotection and neurogenesis in CMS-treated ischemic mice. PMID:25845738

  2. Subchronic (13-week) toxicity studies of intravaginal administration of spermicidal vanadocene dithiocarbamate in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, O J; Waurzyniak, B; Uckun, F M

    2001-09-01

    Spermicidal organometallic complexes of vanadium(IV) with bis(cyclopentadienyl) rings or vanadocenes are a new class of experimental contraceptive agents. In a systematic search for vanadocenes with selective spermicidal activity, we identified vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC) as the most potent and stable spermicidal compound. In this study, groups of 10 B(6)C(3)F(1) and 20 female CD-1 mice were exposed intravaginally to a gel-microemulsion containing 0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.25% VDDTC 5 days per week for 13 consecutive weeks. The doses of VDDTC used were nearly 1250- to 5000-fold higher than its in vitro spermicidal EC(50) value. After 13 weeks of intravaginal treatment, B(6)C(3)F(1) mice were evaluated for survival, body weight gain, absolute and relative organ weights, and systemic toxicity. Blood was analyzed for hematologic and clinical chemistry parameters. Microscopic examination was performed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections from each study animal. Vanadium content in tissues was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Placebo control and VDDTC-dosed female CD-1 mice were mated with untreated males to evaluate whether VDDTC has any deleterious effects on the reproductive performance. There were no treatment-related effects on survival and mean body weight and mean body weight gain during the dosing period. The blood chemistry or hemogram profiles did not reveal any toxicologically significant changes that could be attributed to VDDTC treatment. No clinically significant changes in absolute and relative organ weights were noted in VDDTC dose groups. Extensive histopathological examination of tissues revealed no treatment-related abnormalities in any of the three VDDTC dose groups. The vanadium content of all mouse tissue analyzed was <1 microg/g. Repeated intravaginal exposure of CD-1 mice to increasing concentrations of VDDTC for 13 weeks had no adverse effect on their subsequent reproductive capability (100% fertile), neonatal survival (>90%), or pup development. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that repetitive intravaginal administration of VDDTC to yield effective spermicidal concentrations (<0.1%) in the vagina was not associated with systemic toxicity and did not adversely affect the reproductive performance in mice. VDDTC may have clinical utility as an active ingredient of non-detergent type, safe, vaginal spermicidal contraceptives. PMID:11704098

  3. [Experimental study of 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivates antidepressant activity in mice].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Miroshnichenko, I Iu; Rassokhina, L M; Fa?zullin, R M

    2013-01-01

    Effect of Russian 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipin, reamberin and mexidol) on duration of behavioral despair in mice in forced swimming test (by Porsolot) and tail suspension test (by Steru) was investigated. In addition impact assessment of studied medicinal products (MP) on animals' behavior in open field test was performed. Amitriptyline and alpha-lipoic acid were used as reference drugs. It was determined that single delivery of all studied drugs in optimal doses eqvivalent to therapeutic range for human reduces lasting of behavioral despair in Porsolot and Steru tests. This effect of reamberin, mexidol and alpha-lipoic acid indicates their antidepressant action unrelated to stimulatory activity, as far as these MPs like amitriptyline show sedative action in open field test. Reduction of behavioral despair due to effect of emoxipin in relative low doses was associated with increase of mice activity in open field test and so it can't be considered to be antidepressant action per se. Increase of emoxipin dose leads to progressive decrease of its stimulatory effect impact in behavioral despair reduction and induce antidepressant effect in the setting of sedation. PMID:24006608

  4. Superoxide dismutase in low-dose-streptozocin-treated mice. A dynamic time-course study.

    PubMed

    Papaccio, G; Latronico, M; Frascatore, S; Pisanti, F A

    1991-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a free-radical scavenger present in B cells. It is thought to be responsible for protection against the autoimmune processes that characterize type I diabetes mellitus. Streptozocin (STZ) has been used as a low-dose treatment (LDS) to induce diabetes in animal models. The aim of this study was to follow the islet SOD levels in a day-to-day study after an LDS treatment with STZ, 40 mg/kg body wt/d in C57BL6/J mice. Results reveal a progressive SOD decrease in pancreatic islets with increasing periods from the LDS treatment. This SOD decrease starts from the end of the STZ administration (d 5). In addition, it was noticed that glycemia starts to rise when SOD values have already reached their lowest levels. This indicates that a reduction of free-radical defense is a prerequisite for further cellular injuries. Furthermore, a difference was noticed between males and females: only 40% of female mice underwent a SOD decrement and an increase in glycemia, indicating an androgen-dependent mechanism. PMID:1838564

  5. Creating animations using virtual reality ThatcherWorld: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mel Slater; Martin Usoh; Razia Geeas; Anthony Steed

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of a Western shootout animation for a BBC2 television production. This provides a case study describing the interaction between the TV production team and the animators. The animation was produced by explicitly programming transformations applied to nodes in hierarchical models of simple human characters. A subsequent project has attempted to provide character animation making use

  6. BLT Humanized Mice as Model to Study HIV Vaginal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occur by sexual exposure, and vaginal transmission accounts for more than half of all newly acquired infections. Studies of vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus to nonhuman primates (NHPs) have suggested an important role for immune cell trafficking in the establishment of infection as well is in the process of viral dissemination. However, NHP models do not permit the study of HIV transmission and dissemination. The improvement of humanized mouse models with robust human immune cell reconstitution of the female genital tract renders these mice susceptible to intravaginal HIV infection. Thus humanized mouse models of HIV vaginal infection will allow the study of the mechanisms involved in HIV transmission and dissemination in vivo. PMID:24151319

  7. Peromyscus mice as a model for studying natural variation.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Nicole L; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2015-01-01

    The deer mouse (genus Peromyscus) is the most abundant mammal in North America, and it occupies almost every type of terrestrial habitat. It is not surprising therefore that the natural history of Peromyscus is among the best studied of any small mammal. For decades, the deer mouse has contributed to our understanding of population genetics, disease ecology, longevity, endocrinology and behavior. Over a century's worth of detailed descriptive studies of Peromyscus in the wild, coupled with emerging genetic and genomic techniques, have now positioned these mice as model organisms for the study of natural variation and adaptation. Recent work, combining field observations and laboratory experiments, has lead to exciting advances in a number of fields-from evolution and genetics, to physiology and neurobiology. PMID:26083802

  8. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. 314.610...610 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. ...provide substantial evidence of the effectiveness of these products only when:...

  9. 21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. 601.91...91 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. ...provide substantial evidence of the effectiveness of these products only when:...

  10. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu; Abdel Moneim, Soha S. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Eshed, Michal [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shah, Vijay H. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu{sup III}(OH){sub 3}] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  11. People's Study Time Allocation and its Relation to Animal Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Janet; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2010-01-01

    In this article we suggest a relation between people's metacognitively guided study time allocation strategies and animal foraging. These two domains are similar insofar as people use specific metacognitive cues to assist their study time allocation just as other species use cues, such as scent marking. People decline to study items that they know they already know, just as other species use a win-shift strategy – avoiding already visited and depleted patches – in foraging. People selectively study the easiest as-yet-unlearned items first, before turning to more difficult items just as other species take the ‘just right’ size and challenge of prey--the so-called Goldilocks principle. People use a stop rule by which they give up on one item and turn to another when the returns diminish just as others species use a stop rule that guides shifting from one patch to another. The value that each item is assigned on the criterion test, if known during study, influenced which items people choose to study and how long they study them just as knowledge of the nutritional or energy value of the food influences choices and perseverance in foraging. Finally, study time allocation strategies can differ in their effectiveness depending upon the expertise of the student just as some species forage close to optimally while others do not. PMID:20026197

  12. Histopathological Study of the Lungs of Mice Receiving Human Secretory IgA and Challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    ALVAREZ, Nadine; INFANTE, Juan Francisco; BORRERO, Reinier; MATA, Dulce; PAYAN, JORGE BARRIOS-; HOSSAIN, Md. Murad; MOHD NOR, Norazmi; SARMIENTO, María Elena; HERNANDEZ-PANDO, Rogelio; ACOSTA, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Background: Humoral and cellular immune responses are associated with protection against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of receiving human secretory immunoglobulin A (hsIgA) on the histopathology of the lungs of mice challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: The hsIgA was purified from human colostrum and administered to Balb/c mice by the intranasal route prior to infection with M. tuberculosis or in a pre-incubated formulation with mycobacteria, with the principal aim to study its effect on qualitative pulmonary histopathology. Results: The intranasal administration of hsIgA and the pre-incubation of mycobacteria with this preparation was associated with the presence of organised granulomas with signs of immune activation and histological features related to efficient disease control. This effect was highly evident during the late stage of infection (60 days), as demonstrated by numerous organised granulomas with numerous activated macrophages in the lungs of treated mice. Conclusion: The administration of hsIgA to mice before intratracheal infection with M. tuberculosis or the pre-incubation of the bacteria with the antibody formulation induced the formation of well-organised granulomas and inflammatory lesions in lungs compared with non-treated animals which correlates with the protective effect already demonstrated by these antibody formulations. PMID:25246833

  13. Epidemiological study of animal leptospirosis in new caledonia.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Cabre, Olivier; Davoust, Bernard; Kodjo, Angeli

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa), 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7%) were found to be positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. According to the species, the positive sera were obtained from 43% of 30 cattle, 72% of 29 Rusa deer, 80% of 25 horses, and 43% of 51 dogs, and fromall of the 8 cats tested. This study shows the broad dispersion and the high prevalence of the different serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira species tested, particularly among deer and horses. The disease is endemic in domestic animals and concerns all the species. PMID:23533965

  14. Choosing the Correct AED: From Animal Studies to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Zhao, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic condition caused by an imbalance of normal excitatory and inhibitory forces in the brain. Antiepileptic drug therapy has been directed primarily toward reducing excitability through blockage of voltage-gated Na+ or Ca2+ channels, or increasing inhibition through enhancement of ?-aminobutyric acid currents. Prior to clinical studies, putative antiepileptic drugs are screened in animals, usually rodents. Maximal electrical shock, pentylenetetrazol, and kindling are typically used as non-mechanistic screens for antiseizure properties and the rotorod test for assessing acute toxicity. While antiseizure drug screening has been successful in bringing drugs to the market and improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of seizures, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of drug screening occurs in mature male rodents and involves models of seizures, not epilepsy. Effective drugs in acute seizures may not be effective in chronic models of epilepsy. Seizure type, clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype, syndrome, and etiology are often quite different in children with epilepsy than adults. Despite these age-related unique features, drugs used in children are generally the same as used in adults. As awareness of the unique features of seizures during development increases, it is anticipated that more drug screening in the immature animal will occur. PMID:18279749

  15. Animal models as tools to study the pathophysiology of depression.

    PubMed

    Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Quevedo, João

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of depressive illness is high worldwide, and the inadequacy of currently available drug treatments contributes to the significant health burden associated with depression. A basic understanding of the underlying disease processes in depression is lacking; therefore, recreating the disease in animal models is not possible. Popular current models of depression creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral assays with the latest technological advances in molecular biology. Within this context, this study aims to evaluate animal models of depression and determine which has the best face, construct, and predictive validity. These models differ in the degree to which they produce features that resemble a depressive-like state, and models that include stress exposure are widely used. Paradigms that employ acute or sub-chronic stress exposure include learned helplessness, the forced swimming test, the tail suspension test, maternal deprivation, chronic mild stress, and sleep deprivation, to name but a few, all of which employ relatively short-term exposure to inescapable or uncontrollable stress and can reliably detect antidepressant drug response. PMID:24271223

  16. Perfusion of ischemic brain in young and aged animals: a Laser Speckle Flowmetry study

    PubMed Central

    Manwani, Bharti; Friedler, Brett; Verma, Rajkumar; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D.; Liu, Fudong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Aging is an important determinant of ischemic stroke outcomes. Both clinical and experimental stroke studies have shown that aging negatively correlates with infarct volumes but is associated with worsened functional recovery after stroke. This may correspond to a differing cellular and molecular response to stroke in the aged vs. young brain. It was hypothesized in this study that the smaller injury seen in the aged ischemic brain is due to structural differences in microvasculature with aging or differences in intra-ischemic tissue perfusion. Methods Both young and aged C57BL6 mice were subject to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) modeling. Laser Speckle Flowmetry (LSF) was utilized to study the functional dynamics of cerebral perfusion, and FITC-dextran staining was performed to examine the structural change in microvasculature. In separate cohorts, Cresyl violet (CV) staining and immunohistochemistry with CD31 and IgG antibodies were applied to further assess the microvascular density and blood brain barrier breakdown after stroke. Results No difference in cerebral blood flow was seen at the baseline, intra-ischemically and post-reperfusion in young vs. aged mice. FITC-dextran and CD31 staining did not show significant differences in the microvascular density between young and aged ischemic brains. More extravasation of IgG through the BBB was found in the young vs. aged cohort at both 24 and 72 hours after stroke. Conclusions Cerebrovascular dynamics and perfusion are not responsible for the different stroke phenotypes seen in the young vs. aged animals, which may be more related to different levels of BBB breakdown. PMID:24357659

  17. Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Brielmeier; E Mahabir; J R Needham; C Lengger; P Wilhelm; J Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    Summary Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally,

  18. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. II - Effects on lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.; Corbett, R. L.; Klein, G.

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscope examination was carried out on the lungs of 11 pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that breathed oxygen at 10 psi or 12 psi partial pressure over a period of 7 d, at the end of which time they were decompressed to sea-level O2 pressure, either suddenly or in 30, 60, or 90 min. Vesiculation was noted in the endothelium of the alveolar-capillary wall in most of the animals and, occasionally, blebbing. Some mitochrondria were swollen in a few of the animals. Alveolar exudate was, in general, sparse. Compared with the lungs of other rodents, the lungs of pocket mice appeared relatively resistant to the toxic effects of oxygen. This conclusion needs, however, to be tempered by the fact that 5% N2 was used in the tests reported here. Nonetheless, the results suggest that the oxygen pressures anticipated on the flight of Apollo XVII should be well tolerated by the pocket mice.

  19. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in mice: A preliminary experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Latha, K.; Rammohan, B.; Sunanda, B. P. V.; Maheswari, M. S. Uma; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract in mice. To compare the antianxiety activity of CS against standard drug diazepam (3 mg/kg). Materials and Methods: After obtaining Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18–25 g) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Dried powder of CS leaves was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on a hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, test group, and standard drugs group received saline, CS extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), diazepam (3 mg/kg), respectively, by oral feeding. The antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. Results: In EPM, it implied that CS 50 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) significantly (P < 0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety activity of CS leaves. PMID:26109787

  20. The influence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles on infection persistence: an in vivo study in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosman, Anton H; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Sjollema, Jelmer; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Neut, Daniëlle

    2012-03-01

    Wear of metal-on-metal (cobalt-chromium, Co-Cr particles) and metal-on-polyethylene (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, UHMWPE particles) bearing surfaces in hip prostheses is a major problem in orthopedics. This study aimed to compare the influence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles on the persistence of infection. Bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus Xen36 were injected in air pouches prepared in subcutaneous tissue of immuno-competent BALB/c mice (control), as a model for the joint space, in the absence or presence of Co-Cr or UHMWPE particles. Bioluminescence was monitored longitudinally up to 21 days, corrected for absorption and reflection by the particles and expressed relative to the bioluminescence found in the presence of staphylococci only. After termination, air pouch fluid and air pouch membrane were cultured and histologically analyzed. Bioluminescence was initially lower in mice exposed to UHMWPE particles with staphylococci than in mice injected with staphylococci only, possibly because UHMWPE particles initially stimulated a higher macrophage presence in murine air pouch membranes. For mice exposed to Co-Cr particles with staphylococci, bioluminescence was observed to be higher in two out of six animals compared to the presence of staphylococci alone. In the majority of mice, infection risk in the absence or presence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles appeared similar, assuming that the longevity of an elevated bioluminescence is indicative of a higher infection risk. However, the presence of Co-Cr particles yielded a higher bioluminescence in two out of six mice, possibly because the macrophage degradative function was hampered by the presence of Co-Cr particles. PMID:21866572

  1. Establishment and characterization of immortalized neuronal cell lines derived from the spinal cord of normal and trisomy 16 fetal mice, an animal model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Allen, David D; Arriagada, Christian; Olivares, Alexis; Bennett, Lori B; Caviedes, Raúl; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Mendoza, Isabel E; Segura-Aguilar, Juan; Rapoport, Stanley I; Caviedes, Pablo

    2002-04-01

    We report the establishment of continuously growing cell lines from spinal cords of normal and trisomy 16 fetal mice. We show that both cell lines, named M4b (derived from a normal animal) and MTh (trisomic) possess neurological markers by immunohistochemistry (neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin, microtubule associated protein-2 [MAP-2], and choline acetyltransferase) and lack glial traits (glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100). MTh cells were shown to overexpress mRNA of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, whose gene is present in autosome 16. We also studied intracellular Ca2+ signals ([Ca2+]i) induced by different agonists in Indo-1 loaded cells. Basal [Ca2+]i was significantly higher in MTh cells compared to M4b cells. Glutamate (200 microM) and (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACDP) (100 microM) induced rapid, transient increases in [Ca2+]i in M4b and MTh cells, indicating the presence of glutamatergic metabotropic receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate, but not alpha-amino-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA), produced [Ca2+)]i rises in both cell types. MTh cells exhibited faster time-dependent decay phase kinetics in glutamate-induced responses compared to M4b cells. Nicotine induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i in M4b and MTh cells, with significantly greater amplitudes in the latter compared to the former. Further, both cell types responded to noradrenaline. Finally, we examined cholinergic function in both cell lines and found no significant differences in the [3H]-choline uptake, but fractional acetylcholine release induced by either K+, glutamate or nicotine was significantly higher in MTh cells. These results show that M4b and MTh cells have neuronal characteristics and the MTh line shows differences which could be related to neuronal pathophysiology in Down's syndrome. PMID:11933048

  2. Low-dose bioactivity of xenoestrogens in animals: fetal exposure to low doses of methoxychlor and other xenoestrogens increases adult prostate size in mice.

    PubMed

    Welshons, W V; Nagel, S C; Thayer, K A; Judy, B M; Vom Saal, F S

    1999-01-01

    The hormonal activity of natural estrogens is influenced by the degree to which they bind to serum proteins. In the pregnant female and in the fetus, greater than 99% of estradiol may be bound by serum binding proteins. Therefore, even though total serum levels of estradiol appear very high in fetuses, we have found that in rodent fetuses, there is a very low free concentration of estradiol (0.2 pg/ml). Naturally occurring variation in fetal serum estradiol predicts differences in numerous postnatal traits, including prostate size. In addition, when this low level of free estradiol was experimentally increased from 0.2 to 0.3 pg/ml during the last third of fetal life, treated male mice showed an increase in adult prostate weight. Fetal exposure to low doses of xenobiotic estrogens by feeding to pregnant females, including the compounds methoxychlor (20 and 2000 micrograms/kg body weight), DES (0.02 to 2 micrograms/kg body weight) and bisphenol A (2 and 20 micrograms/kg body weight), also led to increased prostate weight in adulthood. In contrast, fetal doses of natural estradiol and DES above the physiological range of estrogenic activity, and within a toxicological dose range, led to the opposite outcome, a reduction in subsequent adult prostate weight. This indicates that it may be impossible to assess endocrine-disrupting activities in response to low doses within a physiological range of activity by using high, toxic doses of xenoestrogens in testing procedures. We have developed approaches in vitro to predict the potential estrogenic bioactivity of compounds in the physiologically relevant range in animals and humans. We address the following factors in predicting the final observed endocrine-disrupting effect in the animal: (1) the intrinsic estrogenic activity of a given molecule, (2) the effective free concentration determined by how the molecule is carried in serum, (3) partitioning between aqueous and lipid compartments in body and cell lipids, and (4) absorption and metabolism relative to the route of exposure. The studies and strategies we describe are important in developing criteria for a tiered testing system for the detection of estrogenic chemicals as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals with different modes of action. PMID:10188188

  3. Cage-change interval preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Godbey, Tamara; Gray, Gordon; Jeffery, Dean

    2011-07-01

    Before animal research facilities began using individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems for mice, cages were often changed one or more times per week. When using IVC systems, however, it is standard practice to change cages only once every 2-3 weeks. When deciding how often to change cages, personnel may consider the cost of labor needed to change the cage, as well as the cage type and bedding type, rather than animal preference or concern for animal well-being. The authors carried out a simple preference test in groups of mice. Mice were allowed to choose between an unsoiled cage and cages that had not been changed for 1 d, 7 d or 14 d. When evaluating where mice positioned their nests and the amount of time mice spent in the various cages, the authors found that the mice preferred the unsoiled cage. Younger mice (<150 d old) showed a stronger preference for the unsoiled cage than did older mice (>150 d old). Further studies are warranted to evaluate mice's preferences for cages changed at different intervals and to determine whether prolonging the interval between cage changes has any negative effects on mice. PMID:21691297

  4. The role of animal behaviour in the study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    E-print Network

    Clotfelter, Ethan

    2004 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedThe role of animal behaviour in the study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals ETHAN D. CLOTFELTER are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of animals. These chemicals, commonly referred

  5. Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Chapter 2 Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety-depth analysis of the behavior would immensely benefit fields utilizing rodent research. Here, we present: Grooming behavior, stress, anxiety, depression, behavioral organization (sequencing), animal experimental

  6. Pneumonia-induced sepsis in mice: temporal study of inflammatory and cardiovascular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sordi, Regina; Menezes-de-Lima, Octávio; Della-Justina, Ana M; Rezende, Edir; Assreuy, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to provide a better comprehension of the pneumonia-induced sepsis model through temporal evaluation of several parameters, and thus identify the main factors that determine mortality in this model. Klebsiella pneumoniae was inoculated intratracheally in anesthetized Swiss male mice. Inflammatory and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated 6, 24 and 48 h after the insult. The results show that severity of infection and the mortality correlated with the amount of bacteria. Six, 24 and 48 h after inoculation, animals presented pathological changes in lungs, increase in cell number in the bronchoalveolar lavage, leukopenia, increase in TNF-? and IL-1? levels, hypotension and hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors, the two latter characteristics of severe sepsis and septic shock. Significant numbers of bacteria in spleen and heart homogenates indicated infection spreading. Interestingly, NOS-2 expression appeared late after bacteria inoculation, whereas levels of NOS-1 and NOS-3 were unchanged. The high NOS-2 expression coincided with an exacerbated NO production in the infection focus and in plasma, as judging by nitrate + nitrite levels. This study shows that K. pneumoniae inoculation induces a systemic inflammatory response and cardiovascular alterations, which endures at least until 48 h. K. pneumoniae-induced lung infection is a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis and a better understanding of this model may help to increase the knowledge about sepsis pathophysiology. PMID:23441627

  7. Why study the use of animal products in traditional medicines?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rômulo RN Alves; Ierecê L Rosa

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that as many as 80% of the world's more than six billion people rely primarily on animal and plant-based medicines. The healing of human ailments by using therapeutics based on medicines obtained from animals or ultimately derived from them is known as zootherapy. The phenomenon of zootherapy is marked both by a broad geographical

  8. Radioprotective Role of Gymnemic Acid on Mice: Study on Hepatic Biochemical Alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Bhatia; Raka Kamal; Gulshan Verma; K. V. Sharma; Sharad Vats; Megha Jain

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Gymnemic acid (GA) on Swiss albino mice against radiation induced hepatic biochemical alterations. Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into three groups. Group I (Normal) was without any treatment. Group II (Control) was only irradiated group (8Gy). Group III (GA+Irradiated) Mice in this group received GA

  9. Dialog with black box: using Information Theory to study animal language behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhanna Reznikova

    2007-01-01

    In this review, three main experimental approaches for studying animal language behaviour are compared: (1) direct decoding\\u000a of animals’ communication, (2) the use of intermediary languages to communicate with animals and (3) application of ideas\\u000a and methods of the Information Theory for studying quantitative characteristics of animal communication. Each of the three\\u000a methodological approaches has its specific power and specific

  10. Toxicological study of plant extracts on termite and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Rahman, I; Gogoi, Inee; Dolui, A K; Handique, Ruma

    2005-04-01

    Toxic activity of leaf extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. and Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. were tested in the laboratory against tea termite, Odontotermes assamensis Holm. Both the tested extracts caused mortality of the termite. The highest toxic activity (100%) was found in the 2.0% chloroform extracts of P. hydropiper. The chloroform extract of P. hydropiper was explored for possible mammalian toxicological effects. The LD50 was 758.58 mg/kg in male albino mice. Subcutaneous injection of sub-lethal dose of extract into male mice once a week for 6 weeks failed to express any significant influence on WBC, RBC count and blood cholesterol. PMID:16161979

  11. A three-generation animal study of the biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Z. Fam; E. L. Mikhail

    1994-01-01

    Three successive generation of CFW mice have been chronically exposed to a 25-mT (250.000 mG), 60-Hz electromagnetic field for prolonged periods of time. At the end of the exposure period, a complete autopsy was performed and the tissue from the main organs was processed for histopathological examination. The results reveal that a significant number of the animals in the exposed

  12. An Animal Model for Studying the Pathogenesis of Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Ziegler; Liang Lu; Travassos da Rosa; Shu-Yuan Xiao; Robert B. Tesh

    Newborn and 14-day-old mice inoculated subcutaneously with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) developed lethargy, difficulty walking, dragging of hind limbs, and reduced weight gain within 7-10 days after infection (PI). During the initial 6-7 days PI, the animals had viremia; high levels (106-108 PFU) of CHIKV were also present in leg muscle. The virus persisted in muscle for several days after viremia

  13. Meta-Analyses of Animal Studies: An Introduction of a Valuable Instrument to Further Improve Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M.

    2014-01-01

    In research aimed at improving human health care, animal studies still play a crucial role, despite political and scientific efforts to reduce preclinical experimentation in laboratory animals. In animal studies, the results and their interpretation are not always straightforward, as no single study is executed perfectly in all steps. There are several possible sources of bias, and many animal studies are replicates of studies conducted previously. Use of meta-analysis to combine the results of studies may lead to more reliable conclusions and a reduction of unnecessary duplication of animal studies. In addition, due to the more exploratory nature of animal studies as compared to clinical trials, meta-analyses of animal studies have greater potential in exploring possible sources of heterogeneity. There is an abundance of literature on how to perform meta-analyses on clinical data. Animal studies, however, differ from clinical studies in some aspects, such as the diversity of animal species studied, experimental design, and study characteristics. In this paper, we will discuss the main principles and practices for meta-analyses of experimental animal studies. PMID:25541544

  14. [(11)C-carbonyl]CEP-32496: radiosynthesis, biodistribution and PET study of brain uptake in P-gp/BCRP knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Xie, Lin; Kumata, Katsushi; Ogawa, Masanao; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Hatori, Akiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-08-01

    CEP-32496 is a novel, orally active serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf (BRAF) (V600E) kinase inhibitor that is being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of some cancers in patients. In this study, we developed [(11)C-carbonyl]CEP-32496 as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe to study its biodistribution in the whole bodies of mice. [(11)C]CEP-32496 was synthesized by the reaction of 5-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methylpropan-2-yl)isoxazol-3-amine hydrochloride (1·HCl) with [(11)C]phosgene, followed by treatment with 3-(6,7-dimethoxyquinozolin-4-yloxy)aniline (2). Small-animal PET studies with [(11)C]CEP-32496 indicated that radioactivity levels (AUC0-90 min, SUV×min) accumulated in the brains of P-gp/BCRP knockout mice at a 8-fold higher rate than in the brains of wild-type mice. PMID:24930831

  15. 3D visualization and quantification of bone and teeth mineralization for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis in mice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.; Young, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2011-03-01

    Research on bone and teeth mineralization in animal models is critical for understanding human pathologies. Genetically modified mice represent highly valuable models for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis defects and osteoporosis. Current investigations on mice dental and skeletal phenotype use destructive and time consuming methods such as histology and scanning microscopy. Micro-CT imaging is quicker and provides high resolution qualitative phenotypic description. However reliable quantification of mineralization processes in mouse bone and teeth are still lacking. We have established novel CT imaging-based software for accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of mouse mandibular bone and molars. Data were obtained from mandibles of mice lacking the Fibromodulin gene which is involved in mineralization processes. Mandibles were imaged with a micro-CT originally devoted to industrial applications (Viscom, X8060 NDT). 3D advanced visualization was performed using the VoxBox software (UsefulProgress) with ray casting algorithms. Comparison between control and defective mice mandibles was made by applying the same transfer function for each 3D data, thus allowing to detect shape, colour and density discrepencies. The 2D images of transverse slices of mandible and teeth were similar and even more accurate than those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. Image processing of the molars allowed the 3D reconstruction of the pulp chamber, providing a unique tool for the quantitative evaluation of dentinogenesis. This new method is highly powerful for the study of oro-facial mineralizations defects in mice models, complementary and even competitive to current histological and scanning microscopy appoaches.

  16. Controlling Rats and Mice 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    House rats and mice eat and contaminate human and animal food, and they damage and destroy property. This leaflet explains how to identify rats and mice by their droppings, runways, food crumbs and noises. Various control methods are discussed....

  17. The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Emma; Angeloni, Lisa; Fristrup, Kurt; Joyce, Damon; Wittemyer, George

    2013-07-01

    Audio recordings made from free-ranging animals can be used to investigate aspects of physiology, behavior, and ecology through acoustic signal processing. On-animal acoustical monitoring applications allow continuous remote data collection, and can serve to address questions across temporal and spatial scales. We report on the design of an inexpensive collar-mounted recording device and present data on the activity budget of wild mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) derived from these devices applied for a 2-week period. Over 3300 h of acoustical recordings were collected from 10 deer on their winter range in a natural gas extraction field in northwestern Colorado. Analysis of a subset of the data indicated deer spent approximately 33.5% of their time browsing, 20.8% of their time processing food through mastication, and nearly 38.3% of their time digesting through rumination, with marked differences in diel patterning of these activities. Systematic auditory vigilance was a salient activity when masticating, and these data offer options for quantifying wildlife responses to varying listening conditions and predation risk. These results (validated using direct observation) demonstrate that acoustical monitoring is a viable and accurate method for characterizing individual time budgets and behaviors of ungulates, and may provide new insight into the ways external forces affect wildlife behavior. PMID:23919149

  18. Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal studies

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    Review Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal 2008 Edited by: David Burr Keywords: Bone Small animal models Strength Fracture toughness Crack reference to whole bone testing in small animal studies. In this tutorial, we consider the many techniques

  19. Creating Automated Interactive Video Playback for Studies of Animal Communications 

    E-print Network

    Butkowski, Trisha

    2010-01-16

    -time animations with video tracking software. This method may be used to conduct interactive playback experiments. To demonstrate this method, a prototype was created and used to conduct automated mating choice trials on female swordtail fish. The results...

  20. Cytogenetic studies on the effect of feeding mice with stored wheat grains treated with malathion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soheir M Amer; Maha A Fahmy; Fawzia A. E Aly; Ayman A Farghaly

    2002-01-01

    The cytogenetic effect of malathion residues in wheat grains stored for different periods of time (4, 12, 24 weeks) was evaluated in Swiss mice. The studies included: (1) chromosomal aberrations analysis in bone-marrow and spermatocyte cells; (2) chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in spleen cell culture from mice fed with stored wheat grains. The tested doses were

  1. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  2. Immunotoxicity of zearalenone in Balb/c mice in a high subchronic dosing study counteracted by Raphanus sativus extract.

    PubMed

    Salah-Abbès, Jalila Ben; Abbès, Samir; Abdel-Wahhab, Ma; Oueslati, Ridha

    2010-12-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus) is a cruciferous plant, rich on flavonoids, isothiocyanates, and phenolic acids. They show anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Isothiocyanates and flavonoids have been reported previously to prevent low-sub-chronic dose of zearalenone (ZEN) causing immunotoxicity. The present study focuses on the amelioration of fusarotoxicosis in Balb/c mice by feeding two concentrations of radish extract. The extract at 15 and 30 mg/kg bw, was evaluated to reduce the deleterious effects in immunological parameters of high subchronic doses of 40 and 80 mg of ZEN/kg bw on modulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ZEN consuming mice showed a "dose-related" decrease in weight gain and in the immune relative weights organs. Moreover, Atrophy and lymphoid depletion were seen in the histopathology of spleen. Ingestion of ZEN at either level had a significant effect on total red blood cell numbers and on their relative number of lymphocytes. Likewise, ZEN alters the production of regulatory cytokines and antibody of LPS stimulated mice. By contrast, the additions of radish extract with a low or high dose of ZEN moderately decreased the affected mice and/or the severity of lesions, and all tested parameters were normal or at least near normal levels. In addition, the radish extract alone did not produce any significant changes in all tested parameters compared with the controls. In conclusion, radish extract was effective for the protection of high dose ZEN-immunotoxication in mice and it could contribute to a solution of the ZEN immunotoxicity in humans and in farm animals. PMID:20205508

  3. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-products Authors & affiliations: Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  4. Study on the Mechanical Instability of MICE Coupling Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Gou, Xing Long; Wu, Hong; Zheng, Shi Xian; Green, Michael A

    2011-05-04

    The superconducting coupling solenoid magnet is one of the key equipment in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The coil has an inner radius of 750 mm, length of 281 mm and thickness of 104 mm at room temperature. The peak induction in the coil is about 7.3 T with a full current of 210 A. The mechanical disturbances which might cause the instability of the impregnated superconducting magnet involve the frictional motion between conductors and the cracking of impregnated materials. In this paper, the mechanical instability of the superconducting coupling magnet was studied. This paper presents the numerical calculation results of the minimum quench energy (MQE) of the coupling magnet, as well as the dissipated strain energy in the stress concentration region when the epoxy cracks and the frictional energy caused by 'stick-slip' of the conductor based on the bending theory of beam happens. Slip planes are used in the coupling coil and the frictional energy due to 'slow slip' at the interface of the slip planes was also investigated. The dissipated energy was compared with MQE, and the results show that the cracking of epoxy resin in the region of shear stress concentration is the main factor for premature quench of the coil.

  5. Vascular targets for cannabinoids: animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2014-01-01

    Application of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids to perfused vascular beds or individual isolated arteries results in changes in vascular resistance. In most cases, the result is vasorelaxation, although vasoconstrictor responses are also observed. Cannabinoids also modulate the actions of vasoactive compounds including acetylcholine, methoxamine, angiotensin II and U46619 (thromboxane mimetic). Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed including receptor activation, potassium channel activation, calcium channel inhibition and the production of vasoactive mediators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, prostanoids, NO, endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor and hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the range of receptors now known to be activated by cannabinoids. Direct activation by cannabinoids of CB1, CBe, TRPV1 (and potentially other TRP channels) and PPARs in the vasculature has been observed. A potential role for CB2, GPR55 and 5-HT1A has also been identified in some studies. Indirectly, activation of prostanoid receptors (TP, IP, EP1 and EP4) and the CGRP receptor is involved in the vascular responses to cannabinoids. The majority of this evidence has been obtained through animal research, but recent work has confirmed some of these targets in human arteries. Vascular responses to cannabinoids are enhanced in hypertension and cirrhosis, but are reduced in obesity and diabetes, both due to changes in the target sites of action. Much further work is required to establish the extent of vascular actions of cannabinoids and the application of this research in physiological and pathophysiological situations. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24329566

  6. From mice to men: What can animal models tell us about the relationship between mental health and physical activity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Remington

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity has been associated with numerous benefits that extend to mental health, although how these benefits are accrued is not clear. The notion that animal research can prove useful in this regard may initially seem irrelevant and even inapplicable. However, there is a growing body of evidence, focusing in particular on exercise, to suggest that the biochemical changes induced

  7. A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

    2012-06-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances. PMID:21987728

  8. Study of a mtDNA deletion in BALB\\/c mice exposed to ionizing radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Antipova; M. G. Lomaeva

    2011-01-01

    A novel large mtDNA deletion of 5914 bp was detected in mice exposed to X-radiation. The regions flanking the deleted fragment\\u000a were characterized by the method of sequencing. The possibility of using a minimum sample of the mouse auricle tissue for\\u000a detecting mtDNA deletions in the same animals at different postradiation times is demonstrated.

  9. Interleukin-6 reduces cartilage destruction during experimental arthritis. A study in interleukin-6-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    van de Loo, F. A.; Kuiper, S.; van Enckevort, F. H.; Arntz, O. J.; van den Berg, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Using interleukin (IL)-6-deficient (IL-6(0/0) mice or wild-type mice, we investigated the controversial role of IL-6 in joint inflammation and cartilage pathology during zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA). Monoarticular arthritis was elicited by injection of zymosan into the right knee joint cavity. Production of IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, and nitric oxide by the inflamed knee was assessed in washouts of joint capsule specimens. Plasma corticosterone was measured using a radioimmunoassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was assessed using [35S]sulfate incorporation into patellas ex vivo. Joint swelling was quantified by joint uptake of circulating 99mTechnetium pertechnetate. Histology was taken to evaluate cellular infiltration and cartilage damage. Zymosan caused a rapid increase in articular IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and NO levels. Except for IL-6, the released amounts and time course of these mediators were comparable in the IL-6-deficient mice and the wild-type mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels were measured during the first day of arthritis in both strains. At day 2 of ZIA, joint inflammation (joint swelling and cell exudate) in IL-6-deficient mice was comparable with that in the wild-type mice. The marked suppression of chondrocyte proteoglycan synthesis and proteoglycan degradation were on the average higher in the IL-6-deficient mice. Together this resulted in a more pronounced proteoglycan depletion in the IL-6-deficient mice as compared with the wild-type mice during the first week of arthritis. Injection of recombinant IL-6 into the joint cavity corrected the IL-6 deficiency and significantly reduced cartilage destruction. Inflammation was more chronic in the wild-type mice, and these mice also showed a higher prevalence for osteophyte formation. In ZIA, IL-6 plays a dual role in connective tissue pathology, reducing proteoglycan loss in the acute phase and enhancing osteophyte formation in the chronic phase. The latter could be related to the more severe joint inflammation as seen in the normal (IL-6-producing) animals during the chronic phase of arthritis. Images Figure 2 Figure 2 PMID:9212744

  10. Using Animal Models To Study Human Diseases Animal models are required for our understanding of human anatomy, physiology, health and life in

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Using Animal Models To Study Human Diseases Animal models are required for our understanding the use of animal models, many advances in medicine and the overall scientific knowledge we have would observations. How many differently sized worms do you see? Draw each in the provided space. Do you see

  11. Impact of gestational bisphenol A on oxidative stress and free fatty acids: Human association and interspecies animal testing studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zeng, Lixia; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health. PMID:25603046

  12. Neural networks for animal science applications: Two case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fernández; E. Soria; J. D. Martín; Antonio J. Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have shown to be a powerful tool for system modelling in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we focus on neural network applications to intelligent data analysis in the field of animal science. Two classical applications of neural networks are proposed: time series prediction and clustering. The first task is related to the prediction of

  13. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, William Irvin; Hirasaki, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective. PMID:24972869

  14. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies.

    PubMed

    Sellers, William Irvin; Hirasaki, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective. PMID:24972869

  15. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  16. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of diethylphthalate (Cas No. 84-66-2) in F344/n rats and B6C3F1 mice (dermal studies) with dermal initiation/promotion study of diethylphthalate and dimethylphthalate (Cas No. 131-11-3) in male Swiss (CD-1 (trade name)) mice. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by dermal administration of diethylphthalate to groups of 60 F344/N rats of each sex at doses of 0, 100, or 300 microL and to groups of 60 B6C3F1 mice of each sex at doses of 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 microL. Neat chemical was applied to rats for 5 days per week for 103 weeks and up to 10 animals per group were evaluated after 15 months. Mice received doses in 100 microL of acetone for 5 days per weeks for 103 weeks with a 1 week recovery period, and up to 10 animals per group were evaluated after 15 months. Under the conditions of these 2-year dermal studies, there was not evidence of carcinogenic activity of diethylphthalate in male or female F344/N rats receiving 100 or 300 microL. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of diethylphthalate in male and female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms, primarily adenomas. In the initiation/promotion model, there was no evidence of initiating or promoting activity of diethylphthalate or dimethylphthalate in male Swiss (CD-1) mice.

  17. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  18. Hairlessness does not influence growth retardation in nude mice. Computer image analysis study.

    PubMed

    Funda, D; Smetana, K; Holub, M; Sýkora, V

    1994-01-01

    Ossification in 4-week-old nu/nu and nu/+ BALB/c and BFU mice was studied by X-ray analysis and by measurement of the thickness of the proximal tibial growth cartilage using CUE 4 Olympus computer image analysis. Not only altered architecture but also a significantly thinner proximal tibial growth plate was observed in athymic nu/nu as opposed to nu/+ and BFU mice. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between nu/+ and BFU littermates. Higher X-ray density of tail vertebrae was observed in nu/+ and BFU than in nu/nu mice. This comparison between athymic nu/nu and hairless euthymic BFU mice indicates that altered postnatal ossification in nude mice is not caused by hairlessness, but is due to other (immunological or endocrinological) differences. PMID:7805935

  19. The use of microdialysis techniques in mice to study P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Sziráki, István; Erd?, Franciska; Trampus, Péter; Sike, Mirabella; Molnár, Petra Magdolna; Rajnai, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Judit; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Kis, Emese; Krizbai, István; Krajcsi, Péter

    2013-04-01

    An integrated assay system involving dual/triple-probe microdialysis techniques in rats was developed earlier for testing interactions with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier using quinidine/PSC-833 as a P-gp substrate/inhibitor combination. The aim of the present study was to expand our assay system to mice using microdialysis with simultaneous sampling of blood and brain and to compare the result with a primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayer (pMBMEC) assay. Brain penetration of quinidine was dose dependent in both anesthetized and awake mice after intraperitoneal drug administration. PSC-833 pretreatment caused a 2.5- to 3.4-fold increase in quinidine levels of brain dialysate samples in anesthetized or awake animals, after single or repeated administration of PSC-833. In pMBMEC, a 2.0- to 2.5-fold efflux ratio was observed in the transcellular transport of quinidine. The P-gp-mediated vectorial transport of quinidine was eliminated by PSC-833. These results indicate that quinidine with PSC-833 is a good probe substrate-reference inhibitor combination for testing drug-drug interactions with P-gp in the in vivo and in vitro mouse systems. With increasing number of humanized transgenic mice, a test system with mouse microdialysis experimentation becomes more important to predict drug-drug interactions in humans. PMID:23204072

  20. Malignancy-Associated Vessel Tortuosity: A Computer-Assisted, MRA Study of Choroid Plexus Carcinoma in Genetically Engineered Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bullitt, Elizabeth; Wolthusen, P. Anne; Brubaker, Lauren; Lin, Weili; Zeng, Donglin; Van Dyke, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ability to assess tumor malignancy and to monitor treatment response non-invasively would be of value to both clinicians and animal investigators. This report describes the MR imaging characteristics of a genetically engineered mouse model of choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) during tumor growth and progression to malignancy. We assess the ability of vessel tortuosity measurements, as calculated from high-resolution MRA images, to detect emerging CPC cancers. Methods MR images were analyzed of 9 healthy mice and of 20 CPC mice with precancerous choroid dysplasia or with cancer over a wide range of sizes. Two vessel tortuosity measures and a measure of vessel density (vessel count) were calculated from MRA images. Malignancy assessment was based upon a statistical analysis of vessel tortuosity, using an equation derived from an earlier study of human brain tumor patients. Results Choroid dysplasia was correctly judged non-malignant. On the basis of vessel count, neo-angiogenesis could not be detected until cancers were full-blown and had reached a volume of approximately 80mm3. Vessel tortuosity measurements, however, correctly identified emerging malignancy in lesions larger than 0.3mm3. Conclusion This report provides the first description of in vivo, MR imaging characteristics of genetically engineered CPC mice during the progression from dysplasia to cancer. Vessel tortuosity measurements offer promise of correctly defining even tiny tumors as malignant. PMID:16552004

  1. Plants or Animals-Which do Junior High School Students Prefer to Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandersee, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Determined if junior high school students prefer to study plants or animals and if their preferences are related to variables of grade level and/or sex. Findings show that, overall, students prefer animal study over plant study. Other findings (such as girls having a greater interest in biological topics than boys) are discussed. (JN)

  2. A Proposed Design for Conducting Target Animal Safety Studies for Developing New Veterinary Pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Carakostas; James J. Colaianne

    1996-01-01

    Target animal safety studies are required for the regulatory approval of any new veterinary pharmaceutical registered almost anywhere in the world. Both the United States and Europe have extensive guidelines for conducting these studies. Due to new veterinary drug labeling requirements in the United States, changes in the overall design of target animal safety studies will be required for the

  3. Animal models for the study of liver fibrosis: new insights from knockout mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Fibrosis arises as part of a would-healing response that maintains organ structure and integrity following tissue damage but also contributes to a variety of human pathologies such as liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is an abnormal response of the liver to persistent injury with the excessive accumulation of collagenous extracellular matrices. Currently there is no effective treatment, and many patients end up with a progressive form of the disease, eventually requiring a liver transplant. The clarification of mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and the development of effective therapy are of clinical importance. Experimental animal models, in particular targeted gene knockouts (loss of function) in mice, have become a powerful resource to address the molecular mechanisms or significance of the targeted gene in hepatic functions and diseases. This review will focus on the recent advances in knowledge obtained from genetically engineered mice that provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. PMID:21350186

  4. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2004-02-05

    This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

  5. Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Glaab; Christian Taube; Armin Braun; Wayne Mitzner

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive\\/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance

  6. [Studies On The Inducing Possibility Of Human Visceral Larva Migrans Associated With Eating Habit Of Raw Liver Of Domestic Animals

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Tae; Min, Hong Ki; Chung, Pyung Rim; Chang, Jae Kyung

    1976-06-01

    To observe the possibility of human visceral larva migrans due to eating of raw liver of domestic animals, especially of cattle, and also to serve as a good reference for adequate sanitary measures, the investigation survey was carried out from May 1975 to May 1976. From the subjects of a l,048 inhabitants (male 558, female 490) in five localities including two Provinces and three different cities, food habit was studied by questionnaire mannual. Larvae isolated from liver tissues of cattle, and pig were identified. Experimental observation on the chicken and mice infected with Toxocara canis was undertaken to draw a assumption of possibility inducing human visceral larva migrans. The results obtained from the present study are summarized. 1. A part of Korean people has the habit to eat the livers of cattle, fowl, pig and dog raw. Eating rate of raw beef liver was 37.8% out of l,048 inhabitants, and its rate was higher markedly in male(57.7%) than in female (15. 1%), and the highest rate among the group of 31-40 years old. Eating rate of raw liver of fowl was 5.9%, pig 5.3%, and dog 2.5%. 2. Larva recovery rate from beef liver was 11.8% out of 195 samples and 72.0% of total detected 1arvae were identified as Toxocara(=Neoascaris) vitulorum. From pig liver, larvae of nematoda were found in 6.4% out of 109 samples but no larva was detected from 120 fowl livers. 3. Larvae detected from one-half of tissues and organs of infected chicken with about 2,000 Toxocara canis eggs were 8-245 in number, and 85-100% of recovered larvae were from their 1iver tissues. 4. Toxocara canis larvae, 45, 31, 42 and 23 in number at 3rd, 14th, 25th and 55th day in one-half of the tissues and organs after infection respectively, were demonstrated from the mice infected with 500 larvae collected from infected chicken liver. Most of the larvae were recovered from the carcass of the mouse. It was approved the larvae isolated from chicken possess infectivity to the mice. 5. Typical eosinophilic granulomatous change was not observed in the liver tissue of the infected chicken at 20th day after infection. As it summarized above, the liver of various domestic animals is the favorite tissue for migration of nematodes larvae. Therefore, the possibility of human visceral larva migrans may be induced due to eating of raw liver of domestic animals. PMID:12913451

  7. Drug eluting stents: are human and animal studies comparable?

    PubMed Central

    Virmani, R; Kolodgie, F D; Farb, A; Lafont, A

    2003-01-01

    Animal models of stenting probably predict human responses as the stages of healing are remarkably similar. What is characteristically different is the temporal response to healing, which is substantially prolonged in humans. The prevention of restenosis in recent clinical trials of drug eluting stents may represent a near absent or incomplete phase of intimal healing. Continued long term follow up of patients with drug eluting stents for major adverse cardiac events and angiographic restenosis is therefore imperative. PMID:12527658

  8. Study of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity of hepatocytes and its relation to angiogenesis in hepatectomised tumour bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Andrini, Laura B; García, Marcela N; Inda, Ana María; Errecalde, Ana Lía

    2013-11-01

    Partial hepatectomy (PH) alters serum concentrations of substances involved in cellular proliferation, leading to the compensatory liver hyperplasia. Furthermore, angiogenesis is mainly stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is a fundamental requirement either in liver regeneration or in tumours growth. This study looks at the expression of VEGF, DNA synthesis (DNAs) and mitotic activity (MA) in hepatectomised (H) and hepatectomised-tumour bearing (HTB) mice throughout a 24?h period. Adult male mice were sacrificed every 4?h from 26 to 50?h post-hepatectomy. H mice show a circadian rhythm in VEGF expression with a maximum value of 2.6?±?0.1 at 08/46?h of day/hours posthepatectomy (HD/HPH); in DNAs, the maximum value was 3.4?±?0.3 at 16/30 (HD/HPH) and in MA it was 2.3?±?0.01 at 12/50 (HD/HPH). In HTB animals the peak of VEGF expression appears at 16/30 (HD/HPH) with a maximum value of 3.7?±?0.1, the peak of DNAs was at 00/38 (HD/HPH) with a value of 4.6?±?0.3 and the maximum value of MA of 08/46 (HD/HPH) with a value of 3.01?±?0.3. We can conclude that the presence of the tumour induces modifications in the intensity and the temporal distribution of the circadian curves of VEGF expression, DNAs and MA of hepatectomised animals. PMID:23881839

  9. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Microencapsulated Citral in Rats and Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Ress; J. R. Hailey; R. R. Maronpot; J. R. Bucher; G. S. Travlos; J. K. Haseman; D. P. Orzech; J. D. Johnson; M. R. Hejtmancik

    2003-01-01

    Citral, a widely used natural ingredient, is added to foods and cosmetics as a flavoring and fragrance agent. Male and female F344\\/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to microencapsulated citral in the feed for 14 weeks or two years. All studies included untreated and vehicle control groups. In the 14-week studies, rats and mice were given diets containing 3900,

  10. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  11. Modality comparison for small animal radiotherapy: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Bazalova, Magdalena; Nelson, Geoff; Noll, John M.; Graves, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Small animal radiation therapy has advanced significantly in recent years. Whereas in the past dose was delivered using a single beam and a lead shield for sparing of healthy tissue, conformal doses can be now delivered using more complex dedicated small animal radiotherapy systems with image guidance. The goal of this paper is to investigate dose distributions for three small animal radiation treatment modalities. Methods: This paper presents a comparison of dose distributions generated by the three approaches—a single-field irradiator with a 200?kV beam and no image guidance, a small animal image-guided conformal system based on a modified microCT scanner with a 120 kV beam developed at Stanford University, and a dedicated conformal system, SARRP, using a 220 kV beam developed at Johns Hopkins University. The authors present a comparison of treatment plans for the three modalities using two cases: a mouse with a subcutaneous tumor and a mouse with a spontaneous lung tumor. A 5 Gy target dose was calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. Results: All treatment modalities generated similar dose distributions for the subcutaneous tumor case, with the highest mean dose to the ipsilateral lung and bones in the single-field plan (0.4 and 0.4 Gy) compared to the microCT (0.1 and 0.2 Gy) and SARRP (0.1 and 0.3 Gy) plans. The lung case demonstrated that due to the nine-beam arrangements in the conformal plans, the mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, spinal cord, and bones were significantly lower in the microCT plan (2.0, 0.4, and 1.9 Gy) and the SARRP plan (1.5, 0.5, and 1.8 Gy) than in single-field irradiator plan (4.5, 3.8, and 3.3 Gy). Similarly, the mean doses to the contralateral lung and the heart were lowest in the microCT plan (1.5 and 2.0 Gy), followed by the SARRP plan (1.7 and 2.2 Gy), and they were highest in the single-field plan (2.5 and 2.4?Gy). For both cases, dose uniformity was greatest in the single-field irradiator plan followed by the SARRP plan due to the sensitivity of the lower energy microCT beam to target heterogeneities and image noise. Conclusions: The two treatment planning examples demonstrate that modern small animal radiotherapy techniques employing image guidance, variable collimation, and multiple beam angles deliver superior dose distributions to small animal tumors as compared to conventional treatments using a single-field irradiator. For deep-seated mouse tumors, however, higher-energy conformal radiotherapy could result in higher doses to critical organs compared to lower-energy conformal radiotherapy. Treatment planning optimization for small animal radiotherapy should therefore be developed to take full advantage of the novel conformal systems. PMID:24387502

  12. Animals in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to encourage people to keep animals of all kinds in the classroom and to use them in teaching language arts, mathematics, and social studies, as well as science and nature study. The booklet is divided into four sections. The first section contains an account of a year with desert animals in an ungraded classroom of six- to…

  13. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  14. Alkali burn versus suture-induced corneal neovascularization in C57BL/6 mice: an overview of two common animal models of corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Chiara; Ferrari, Giulio; Bignami, Fabio; Rama, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify and compare corneal hem- and lymphangiogenesis between alkali burn and suture-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV) in two commonly used mouse strains. A retrospective analysis was performed on C57BL/6 and FVB neovascularized corneas. CNV was induced by surface caustication with NaOH or intrastromal placement of three 10.0 nylon sutures. Hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis extent was calculated on whole mounted corneas by CD31 and LYVE1 immunofluorescence analysis. Blood vessel growth was similar between alkali burn and suture-induced CNV in C57BL/6 mice, and between C57BL/6 and FVB sutured strains. On the contrary, corneal lymphangiogenesis was more pronounced in the C57BL/6 sutured mice versus the alkali burn group, and in the FVB strain versus both C57BL/6 models. These results indicate that significant differences occur in lymphangiogenesis, but not hemangiogenesis, in the alkali burn and suture-induced models in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, lymphangiogenesis is more pronounced in the albino (FVB) strain after suture placement. We suggest that the suture model has a number of advantages and may be preferentially used to study corneal lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24560796

  15. Studies on the toxicity of biuret to animals 

    E-print Network

    Berry, William T

    1955-01-01

    the animals. Crea is a diuretic' snd these workers noted. a hier ester intel&a in the rats receiving uree st a there~ peutic level P 6, lg urea level in the diet however, did not produce any in+rlous effects & , ~Knee biuxet is chemically related to uxea...'ogen in prote1ns stimulated attempts to use various non- protein nitrogenous (RPN) compounds as pxotein ?upplemsnts or substitutes' As a result of research by German sc1entists during and follow1ng World "ax' I, urea became one of the main scnuces...

  16. Second hand smoke and COPD: lessons from animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Goldklang, Monica P.; Marks, Sarah M.; D'Armiento, Jeanine M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the non-smoker. In this review we explore the use of animal smoke exposure models and their insight into disease pathogenesis. The methods of smoke exposure, including exposure delivery systems, are described. Key findings from the acute and chronic smoke exposure models are outlined, including descriptions of the inflammation processes, proteases involved, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Finally, alternatives to rodent models of lung disease are presented. PMID:23450717

  17. Second hand smoke and COPD: lessons from animal studies.

    PubMed

    Goldklang, Monica P; Marks, Sarah M; D'Armiento, Jeanine M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the non-smoker. In this review we explore the use of animal smoke exposure models and their insight into disease pathogenesis. The methods of smoke exposure, including exposure delivery systems, are described. Key findings from the acute and chronic smoke exposure models are outlined, including descriptions of the inflammation processes, proteases involved, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Finally, alternatives to rodent models of lung disease are presented. PMID:23450717

  18. Studies on the immune response of congenitally athymic (nude) mice.

    PubMed

    Jutila, J W; Reed, N D; Isaak, D D

    1975-01-01

    The central role of the thymus in immunity was assessed in nude mice. Nudes failed to reject allografts and xenografts and to respond to foreign erythrocytes but responded normally to endotoxin and pneumococcal polysaccharide. Thymus reconstitution was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro whereas reconstitution with thymic humoral factors or polyanions was not detected. Coliform overgrowth and depressed IgA levels in nudes appeared to contribute to wasting. These data emphasize the need for thymus participation in many immune phenomena. PMID:238688

  19. The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Wever, Kimberley E.; Avey, Marc T.; Stephens, Martin L.; Sena, Emily S.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified. PMID:25541545

  20. Exploration and risk assessment: a comparative study of male house mice (Mus musculus musculus) and two laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Hanna; Meyerson, Bengt J

    2004-06-01

    The ability to gather information and assess risks in novel environments is crucial for survival and fitness in the wild. Our aim was to characterise behavioural strategies of exploration and risk assessment in novel environments and to investigate in what respects wild house mice differ from domesticated mice. A total of 39 adult male mice from three genetic backgrounds (Wild, BALB/c, and C57BL/6) were tested in three behavioural tests, the concentric square field (CSF), a modified open field (OF), and a conventional elevated plus maze (EPM). In addition to spatial measures, behavioural measures of exploration and risk assessment were registered. The parameters were categorised according to their relevance to activity, exploration, approach-avoidance, and use of open areas/shelter. Wild mice had lower activity and a higher avoidance of open areas than the laboratory strains. No differences were found in exploratory motivation. The BALB/c mice avoided risk areas and showed high risk assessment (SAP), whereas C57BL/6 mice were more explorative and risk taking and showed little risk assessment. Wild mice seemed to have a different behavioural strategy of risk assessment in being more cautious before entering a potentially dangerous zone but explored all zones after assessed as nonrisky. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the animals' behaviour in the CSF arena supported these findings by clearly separating the three strains on the basis of their behavioural performances. It is concluded that there are obvious differences in behavioural strategies related to risk assessment and risk taking among wild mice versus domesticated house mice and also among laboratory strains. The relationship between the animal's risk concern and adaptability is discussed and should be a matter of importance considering animal welfare as well as the experimental aim and protocol. PMID:15178164

  1. The central importance of information in studies of animal communication Robert M. Seyfarth a,*, Dorothy L. Cheney b

    E-print Network

    The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The conceptEssay The central importance of information in studies of animal communication Robert M. Seyfarth a Available online 21 May 2010 MS. number: AE-09-00802 Keywords: animal communication animal signal

  2. The value of animations in biology teaching: a study of long-term memory retention.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a primary and critical issue in studies of teaching and learning. In this study, involving 393 student responses, three different animations and two graphics-one with and one lacking a legend-were used to determine the long-term retention of information. The results show that students retain more information 21 d after viewing an animation without narration compared with an equivalent graphic whether or not that graphic had a legend. Students' comments provide additional insight into the value of animations in the pedagogical process, and suggestions for future work are proposed. PMID:17785404

  3. Further studies on trypanosomers in game animals in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Morton, J K; Kingston, N

    1976-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive and free-ranging elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer, (Odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), moose (Alces alces), and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for cultural evidence of Trypanosoma sp. infection. Eleven of 188 (12%) hunter-killed elk, 22 of 37 (59%) free-ranging elk, and 79 of 119 (66%) captive elk were culture positive in 1973-74. Parasitemia in adult captive elk showed seasonal variation. Other captive or live-trapped animals found positive included 16 mule deer, two white-tailed deer, and one black-tailed deer. No pronghorn, moose, or bighorn sheep were positive. A 0.25 ml inoculum of elk blood was sufficient to give positive culture results. Small sample size may have contributed to negative results from elk trapped in March 1973. PMID:933315

  4. Sensitivity analysis by experimental design and metamodelling: Case study on simulation in national animal disease control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonie Vonk Noordegraaf; Mirjam Nielen; Jack P. C. Kleijnen

    2003-01-01

    Simulation is a frequently applied tool in the discipline of animal health economics. Application of sensitivity analysis, however, is often limited to changing only one factor at a time (OAT designs). In this study, the statistical techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) and regression metamodelling were applied to a simulation model de- veloped to support decision making in national animal

  5. Dosimetry for Small Animal Studies Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital

    E-print Network

    Dosimetry for Small Animal Studies Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital of a commercialization agreement with Precision X-Ray, Inc. for XRad225Cx. #12;Acknowledgments PMH XRad Team · Steve Irradiators x-ray Irradiators Linac Conformal micro- IGRT Systems for Animal Irradiation FieldSize Precision

  6. The technical study of integration of Flash animation in PowerPoint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You-Rong Xiao; Quan-Jun Zheng; Xue Gong

    2010-01-01

    PowerPoint and Flash are very popular courseware at present. This thesis mainly studies the practical technology and theoretical knowledge of Integration of Flash animation in PowerPoint. It mainly introduces the contents of the course of practice, technical theory and technical features of integrating Flash animation into PowerPoint using hyperlinks objects controls and plug-ins.

  7. 2. Theories of Learning Learning in animals and humans has been intensively studied in the scientific

    E-print Network

    Witkowski, Mark

    23 Chapter 2 2. Theories of Learning Learning in animals and humans has been intensively studied undertaken during this period radically new theories describing the nature of the learning process in animals a selection. Bower and Hilgard's classic "Theories of Learning", now in its fifth edition since first

  8. Lagrangian studies of animal swimming and aquatic predator-prey interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dabiri

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies of animal swimming have been traditionally based on an Eulerian perspective in which the time-dependent flow field surrounding the animal is measured at fixed locations in space. The measured velocity field and its derivatives (e.g. vorticity) can, in principle, be used to deduce the forces, energetics, and fluid transport associated with locomotion in real fluids. However, achieving a

  9. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  10. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  11. Comparative study of the immunogenicity and immunoenhancing effects of two hepatitis B core antigen variants in mice by nasal administration.

    PubMed

    Lobaina, Y; Palenzuela, D; García, D; Rodríguez, D; Pichardo, D; Muzio, V; Aguilar, J C

    2006-04-12

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (HBcAg) is a potent immunogen in animal models and humans and has been used as a carrier for several antigens; however, the mucosal immunogenicity of HBcAg has been poorly studied. In this study, we explored the immunogenicity and the immunoenhancing effect elicited by two different variants of the recombinant complete nucleocapside of HBV in mice by intranasal route. For this purpose, we used as co-administered antigen, the HBV surface protein (HBsAg) and the antibody response in sera was evaluated after each dose. To analyze the specificity of the generated antibody response, the recognition of lineal epitopes was evaluated on a cellulose membrane bearing 12 mer peptides covering the HBcAg sequence. The obtained results evidenced that the intranasal immunogenicity of both variants of HBcAg was similar and high, developing early responses of IgG. The immunoenhancing effect on the HBsAg-specific antibody response was also similar for both variants. The results of the recognition of lineal epitopes study evidenced a similar recognition pattern to all sera and vaginal lavages samples generated by the immunization of mice with the two variants of HBcAg, and also similar to a pool of human anti-HBcAg positive sera samples. PMID:16823928

  12. Ambulatory ECG Recording in Mice

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Mark D.; Wehrens, Xander H.T

    2010-01-01

    Telemetric ECG recording in mice is essential to understanding the mechanisms behind arrhythmias, conduction disorders, and sudden cardiac death. Although the surface ECG is utilized for short-term measurements of waveform intervals, it is not practical for long-term studies of heart rate variability or the capture of rare episodes of arrhythmias. Implantable ECG telemeters offer the advantages of simple surgical implantation, long-term recording of electrograms in ambulatory mice, and scalability with simultaneous recordings of multiple animals. Here, we present a step-by-step guide to the implantation of telemeters for ambulatory ECG recording in mice. Careful adherence to aseptic technique is required for favorable survival results with the possibility of implantation and recording from weeks to months. Thus, implantable ECG telemetry is a valuable tool for detection of critical information on cardiac electrophysiology in ambulatory animal models such as the mouse. PMID:20517202

  13. Cardiac structure and function during ageing in energetically compromised Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT)-knockout mice – a one year longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jürgen E; Stork, Lee-Anne; Bell, Jordana T; Hove, Michiel ten; Isbrandt, Dirk; Clarke, Kieran; Watkins, Hugh; Lygate, Craig A; Neubauer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) is well suited for determining global cardiac function longitudinally in genetically or surgically manipulated mice, but in practice it is seldom used to its full potential. In this study, male and female guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) knockout, and wild type littermate mice were subjected to a longitudinal cine-MRI study at four time points over the course of one year. GAMT is an essential enzyme in creatine biosynthesis, such that GAMT deficient mice are entirely creatine-free. Since creatine plays an important role in the buffering and transfer of high-energy phosphate bonds in the heart, it was hypothesized that lack of creatine would be detrimental for resting cardiac performance during ageing. Methods Measurements of cardiac structure (left ventricular mass and volumes) and function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output) were obtained using high-resolution cine-MRI at 9.4 T under isoflurane anaesthesia. Results There were no physiologically significant differences in cardiac function between wild type and GAMT knockout mice at any time point for male or female groups, or for both combined (for example ejection fraction: 6 weeks (KO vs. WT): 70 ± 6% vs. 65 ± 7%; 4 months: 70 ± 6% vs. 62 ± 8%; 8 months: 62 ± 11% vs. 62 ± 6%; 12 months: 61 ± 7% vs. 59 ± 11%, respectively). Conclusion These findings suggest the presence of comprehensive adaptations in the knockout mice that can compensate for a lack of creatine. Furthermore, this study clearly demonstrates the power of cine-MRI for accurate non-invasive, serial cardiac measurements. Cardiac growth curves could easily be defined for each group, in the same set of animals for all time points, providing improved statistical power, and substantially reducing the number of mice required to conduct such a study. This technique should be eminently useful for following changes of cardiac structure and function during ageing. PMID:18275592

  14. ?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Sun Yum; Tae-Sung Ko; Dong Wook Kim

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1mg\\/kg) 30min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20mmol\\/kg), 15min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline.

  15. A study in animation and visualization: consolidation of the Mississippi Fan 

    E-print Network

    Parmley, Kelly Lynn

    1992-01-01

    A STUDY IN ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION: CONSOLIDATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI FAN A Thesis by KELLY LYNN PARMLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Computer Science A STUDY IN ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION: CONSOLIDATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI FAN A Thesis by KELLY LYNN PARMLEY Approved as to style and content by: Glen N. Williams (Chair of Committee...

  16. Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical trials include the inability of animal models to recapitulate the human disease, variations in breeding and colony maintenance, lack of standards in design, conduct and analysis of animal trials, and publication bias due to under-reporting of negative results in the scientific literature. The quality of animal model research on novel therapeutics can be improved by bringing the rigor of human clinical trials to animal studies. Research communities in several disease areas have developed recommendations for the conduct and reporting of preclinical studies in order to increase their validity, reproducibility, and predictive value. To address these issues in the AD community, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation partnered with Charles River Discovery Services (Morrisville, NC, USA) and Cerebricon Ltd. (Kuopio, Finland) to convene an expert advisory panel of academic, industry, and government scientists to make recommendations on best practices for animal studies testing investigational AD therapies. The panel produced recommendations regarding the measurement, analysis, and reporting of relevant AD targets, th choice of animal model, quality control measures for breeding and colony maintenance, and preclinical animal study design. Major considerations to incorporate into preclinical study design include a priori hypotheses, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics studies prior to proof-of-concept testing, biomarker measurements, sample size determination, and power analysis. The panel also recommended distinguishing between pilot 'exploratory' animal studies and more extensive 'therapeutic' studies to guide interpretation. Finally, the panel proposed infrastructure and resource development, such as the establishment of a public data repository in which both positive animal studies and negative ones could be reported. By promoting best practices, these recommendations can improve the methodological quality and predictive value of AD animal studies and make the translation to human clinical trials more efficient and reliable. PMID:21943025

  17. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  18. Model experiments with mice to study a closed rotary Method applied in swine breeding

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model experiments with mice to study a closed rotary Method applied in swine breeding G. MÜLLER in swine breeding was studied. In order to this a base population was divided into five groups : closed that this procedure may lead to similar results in swine breeding. Study of allele fund for polymorphous blood group

  19. Prevention and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with adhesin conservatory region vaccine: an animal model study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Bai; Yan-lin Liang; Xiu-Li Liu; Ji-De Wang; Dian-Yuan Zhou; Ya-Li Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) adhesin conservatory region vaccine in the pre- vention and treatment of H pylori infection in a mouse model. METHODS: The study was divided into two parts. In the first part, the specific germ free C57BL\\/6 mice were orally immunized with vaccine (100 µg) plus cholera toxin (CT) (2 µg), vaccine

  20. Use of a Safe, Reproducible, and Rapid Aerosol Delivery Method to Study Infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lafontaine, Eric R.; Zimmerman, Shawn M.; Shaffer, Teresa L.; Michel, Frank; Gao, Xiudan; Hogan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium readily isolated from wet soils of countries bordering the equator. Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted clone of B. pseudomallei that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir and causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by these organisms typically occurs via percutaneous inoculation or inhalation of aerosols, and the most common manifestation is severe pneumonia leading to fatal bacteremia. Glanders and melioidosis are difficult to diagnose and require prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There are no vaccines available to protect against either Burkholderia species, and there is concern regarding their use as biological warfare agents given that B. mallei has previously been utilized in this manner. Hence, experiments were performed to establish a mouse model of aerosol infection to study the organisms and develop countermeasures. Using a hand-held aerosolizer, BALB/c mice were inoculated intratracheally with strains B. pseudomallei 1026b and B. mallei ATCC23344 and growth of the agents in the lungs, as well as dissemination to the spleen, were examined. Mice infected with 102, 103 and 104 organisms were unable to control growth of B. mallei in the lungs and bacteria rapidly disseminated to the spleen. Though similar results were observed in mice inoculated with 103 and 104 B. pseudomallei cells, animals infected with 102 organisms controlled bacterial replication in the lungs, dissemination to the spleen, and the extent of bacteremia. Analysis of sera from mice surviving acute infection revealed that animals produced antibodies against antigens known to be targets of the immune response in humans. Taken together, these data show that small volume aerosol inoculation of mice results in acute disease, dose-dependent chronic infection, and immune responses that correlate with those seen in human infections. PMID:24098563

  1. Keeping two animal systems in one lab – a frog plus fish case study

    E-print Network

    Sive, Hazel L.

    2011-01-01

    For two decades, my lab has been studying development using two vertebrate animals, the frog Xenopus and the zebrafish, Danio. This has been both productive and challenging. The initial rationale for the choice was to ...

  2. Social work practitioners and the human-companion animal bond: a national study.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U.S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social work with humans, and their challenges, coping mechanisms, and resiliency factors, seems called for. Yet there is little in the social work literature that identifies what social workers are doing in this area. Thus, this descriptive study sought to explore nationally what social work practitioners know and are doing in the area of the human and companion animal relationships. Findings include that social work practitioners appear to have basic knowledge of the negative and positive relationships between humans and companion animals. About one-third are including questions about companion and other animals in their intake assessments, and a little less than 25 percent are including companion and other animals in their intervention practice. The vast majority have had no special training or coursework to do so. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered. PMID:20069939

  3. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Joerg; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Based on human research, sympathetic activation, inflammation, and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology of OSA-related CV diseases. Animal models of OSA have shown that endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, and systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as heart failure can develop in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The available animal data are clearly in favour of oxidative stress playing a key role in the development of all of these CV manifestations of OSA. Presumably, the oxidative stress is due to an activation of NADPH oxidase and other free oxygen radicals producing enzymes within the CV system as evidenced by data from knockout mice and pharmacological interventions. It is hoped that animal models of OSA-related CV disease will continue to contribute to a deeper understanding of their underlying pathophysiology and will foster the way for the development of cardioprotective treatment options other than conventional CPAP therapy. PMID:23533685

  5. Life Term Studies on the Effects of Arsenic, Germanium, Tin, and Vanadium on Spontaneous Tumors in Mice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASAYOSHI KANISAWA; HENRY A. SCHROEDER

    SUMMARY Mice fed a diet low in many trace elements and raised in an environment where contamination from extraneous trace ele ments was controlled were given small amounts (5 jig\\/ml) of arsenite, germanate, stannous, or vanadyl ions in drinking water for their life times. Animals receiving arsenite had a significantly decreased incidence of all tumors, and of tumors of the

  6. Behavioral and pharmaco-toxicological study of Papaver rhoeas L. in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachid Soulimani; Chafique Younos; Salah Jarmouni-Idrissi; Dalila Bousta; Farid Khalouki; Amazzale Laila

    2001-01-01

    A lyophilized ethanolic aqueous extract of Papaver rhoeas petals was evaluated for its behavioral and pharmaco-toxicological effects in mice and its chemical composition was studied using thin layer chromatography (TLC). In this study, chemical analysis by TLC showed that the petals contain some anthocyanins, whereas no alkaloids were detected. The toxicological effect of alcoholic and aqueous plant extract administered intraperitoneally

  7. DIESEL PARTICLE GENERATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DIRECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of diesel exhaust is associated with the development of asthma as well as other adverse health effects. Studies have also demonstrated that diesel exhaust induces pulmonary changes that worsen asthmatic responses to respiratory allergens. This paper describes the des...

  8. STUDIES OF A MURINE STRAIN OF POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS IN COTTON RATS AND WHITE MICE

    PubMed Central

    Jungeblut, Claus W.; Sanders, Murray

    1940-01-01

    1. A neurotropic murine virus was isolated by passing poliomyelitis virus (SK strain) from the monkey to cotton rats and white mice. 2. The murine virus has been grown in tissue culture consisting of embryonic mouse brain in ox serum ultrafiltrate. 3. The symptoms and lesions produced by the murine infection compare in all respects with those of poliomyelitis in monkey and man. 4. The murine virus, while highly pathogenic for mice and cotton rats, is non-pathogenic for albino rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits. It possesses limited pathogenicity for rhesus monkeys. 5. Although producing no paralysis in the above mentioned refractory animals, the murine virus may be recovered in active form from neural and extraneural sites of infected albino rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys, but not from rabbits. 6. The identity of the murine and monkey virus is further suggested by cross-neutralization between the murine virus and homologous (SK) and related (Aycock) antipoliomyelitis sera, as well as between homologous and related monkey poliomyelitis virus and antimurine virus sera. 7. Immunization of monkeys with live murine virus, in the form of mouse brain or tissue culture, seems to confer some degree of resistance against subsequent infection with the homologous poliomyelitis monkey virus. 8. The presence of the murine virus in the central nervous system of infected monkeys appears to interfere with the propagation of SK and Aycock poliomyelitis monkey virus in the same animal. PMID:19871033

  9. Cytogenetic studies on the effect of feeding mice with stored wheat grains treated with malathion.

    PubMed

    Amer, Soheir M; Fahmy, Maha A; Aly, Fawzia A E; Farghaly, Ayman A

    2002-01-15

    The cytogenetic effect of malathion residues in wheat grains stored for different periods of time (4, 12, 24 weeks) was evaluated in Swiss mice. The studies included: (1) chromosomal aberrations analysis in bone-marrow and spermatocyte cells; (2) chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in spleen cell culture from mice fed with stored wheat grains. The tested doses were 8.36 (applied dose), 25.08 and 41.80 mg malathion kg(-1) wheat grains. The results demonstrated that the cytogenetic effect induced in different mouse tissues by malathion residues was dose-dependent and increased with increasing of both feeding and storage periods. Feeding mice with wheat grains stored for 4 weeks had a non-significant effect with respect to the induction of chromosomal aberrations or SCEs. Significant chromosome damage and increase of SCEs were observed in mice fed with wheat grains stored for 12 weeks. The maximum effect was recorded in mice fed for 12 weeks with the grains treated with the highest tested dose and stored for 24 weeks. However, mitomycin C i.p.-injected in mice at 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.) (positive control) induced a higher effect. The percentage of chromosome aberrations reached 13.60+/-0.98, 13.60+/-0.77 and 11.73+/-0.98 (P<0.01) in bone-marrow, cultured spleen cells and spermatocytes, respectively. The significant increase of abnormalities in spermatocytes was seen for univalent formation only, predominantly of the sex chromosomes. The frequency of SCEs was 10.76+/-0.62 per cell (P<0.01) in cultured spleen cells compared with 5.46+/-0.45 per cell for control and 14.66+/-0.54 per cell for the positive control. The obtained results indicate that malathion residues in stored wheat grains have potential genotoxic effect in mice under the conditions tested. PMID:11719084

  10. Current studies of acupuncture in cancer-induced bone pain animal models.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hee Kyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Park, Yeon-Cheol; Seo, Byung-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe and harmless treatment option for alleviating pain. To explore the pain mechanism, numerous animal models have been developed to simulate specific human pain conditions, including cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we analyzed the current research methodology of acupuncture for the treatment of CIBP. We electronically searched the PubMed database for animal studies published from 2000 onward using these search terms: (bone cancer OR cancer) AND (pain OR analgesia) AND (acupuncture OR pharmacopuncture OR bee venom). We selected articles that described cancer pain in animal models. We analyzed the methods used to induce cancer pain and the outcome measures used to assess the effects of acupuncture on CIBP in animal models. We reviewed articles that met our inclusion criteria. Injection of mammary cancer cells into the cavity of the tibia was the most frequently used method for inducing CIBP in the animal models. Among the eight selected studies, five studies demonstrated the effects of electroacupuncture on CIBP. The effects of acupuncture were assessed by measuring pain-related behavior. Future researches will be needed to ascertain the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating CIBP and to explore the specific mechanism of CIBP in animal models. PMID:25383081

  11. FURTHER STUDIES ON TRYPANOSOMES IN GAME ANIMALS IN WYOMING 1100

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEWTON KINGSTON; E. TOM; GEORGE M. THOMAS; B LINDA McHOLLANDand; MALCOLM S. TRUEBLOOD

    Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American bison (Bison bison) being brought

  12. Small animal positron emission tomography during vagus nerve stimulation in rats: A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere; Bart Cornelissen; Koen Van Laere; Kristl Vonck; Eric Achten; Guido Slegers; Paul Boon

    2005-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective neurophysiological treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy, however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) permits the monitoring of biochemical processes during multiple scans in the same animal. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the potential of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG)-PET to investigate the effect of acute

  13. Are Covered Stents Really Effective at Closing Esophagotracheal Fistulas? Results of an Animal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Hans-Joachim [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Stinner, Benno [Department of General Surgery, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Barth, Peter [Department of Pathology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Klose, Klaus-Jochen [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany)

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether covered self-expanding metal stents successfully exclude experimentally created esophagotracheal fistulas.Methods: Esophagotracheal fistulas were surgically created in the upper third of the esophagus in 12 minipigs and immediately sealed by implantation of a covered self-expanding metal stent (20 mm expanded diameter) in the esophagus. Before the animals were killed, after 3, 7, 14, 28, 30, and 36 days, the position of the stent and the sealing of the fistula were monitored fluoroscopically. The esophagus, trachea, and both lungs were examined histologically.Results: Creation of an esophagotracheal fistula was successful in all cases. All fistulas were widely patent at autopsy. The technical success rate for stent deployment and initial sealing of the fistula was 100%. During follow-up, five stents migrated distally, but none into the stomach. Therefore, the fistula was no longer excluded in five animals. In seven animals the stent sealed the fistula until the death of the animal. Tracheal narrowing necessitated additional tracheal stenting in three animals. Two minipigs died due to aspiration of food. Histologic examination showed signs of aspiration in all animals with stents in place for longer than 2 weeks.Conclusion: This experimental animal study revealed worse results for sealing of esophagotracheal fistulas with covered self-expanding metal stents than have been reported for the clinical use of these devices.

  14. Retaining vets in farm animal practice: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Baillie, S; Rushton, J

    2015-06-20

    Concerns have been raised about a potential shortage of farm animal vets in the UK. There is no apparent lack of new graduates willing to work with farm animals, but practices report difficulties in recruiting and retaining experienced farm animal vets. Retention of vets in farm animal practice has been identified as a key issue for the sustainability of veterinary businesses and livestock health. A cross-sectional study design was used to identify factors associated with vets remaining in farm animal practice. Data were collected via an online questionnaire covering employment, education, personal background and future plans. The target population was vets with experience of farm animal work in the UK. 380 responses were included in the analysis. Working in a practice where accommodation was provided and an increasing number of years since graduation were associated with significantly lower odds of remaining in farm animal practice, while working in a practice where staff appraisals were carried out; coming from a family with a commercial farm; spending more time on farm work and being on call with an experienced vet in the first job after graduation increased the odds of remaining in farm work. Gender was not significantly associated with retention. PMID:26002092

  15. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P; Kim, Kang

    2014-02-21

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ? 3 s and ? 9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (-0.124 ± 0.037%). Using histology as a gold standard to classify mouse livers, US-TSI had a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 90%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.775. This ex vivo study demonstrates the feasibility of using US-TSI to detect fatty livers and warrants further investigation of US-TSI as a diagnostic tool for hepatic steatosis. PMID:24487698

  16. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P.; Kim, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n=10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n=10) with low fat content (4.8± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ~3 s and ~9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (?0.065±0.079%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (?0.124±0.037%). Using histology as a gold standard to classify mouse livers, US-TSI had a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 90%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.775. This ex vivo study demonstrates the feasibility of using US-TSI to detect fatty livers and warrants further investigation of US-TSI as a diagnostic tool for hepatic steatosis. PMID:24487698

  17. Development of a K-edge micro CT for the study of tumor angiogenesis in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldazzi, G.; Bollini, D.; Gambaccini, M.; Golfieri, R.; Lollini, P. L.; Margotti, A.; Masetti, S.; Nicoletti, G.; Pancaldi, G.; Roma, L.; Rossi, P. L.; Zuffa, M.

    2006-03-01

    A new micro scanner CT for small animals - based on a couple of parallel quasi-monochromatic X-ray beams with different energies selectable - is under development. The aim of the study is the in vivo imaging of the tumor neo-angiogenesis pattern in an earlier diagnostic phase and the analysis of cancer growth and metastasis development in different tumor types on mice. As previously demonstrated1, the imaging system based on dual energy quasi- monochromatic X-ray beams provides higher sensitivity in detecting low concentrations of iodine contrast medium if compared to traditional polychromatic X-ray equipment. The K-edge dual energy radiology is a realistic candidate to recognize tumor neo- angiogenesis process in a very earlier stage, in which conventional systems are very poor in sensitivity. Moreover, the capability to select the energy of quasi-monochromatic beams enables the use of the Multi-Energy Quasi-Monochromatic technique. Tuning properly the energies allows maximizing the difference between linear absorption coefficients of healthy and pathological tissues increasing the contrast of pathologies. In order to optimize the contrast with this technique, one should know the X-ray energy regions where the absorption of healthy and pathological tissues eventually differs and that for each type of tumor under study. For this reason, the systematic X-ray characterization of many types of healthy and neoplastic human and mice tissues is in progress. The goal of this work is to obtain a catalog of liner attenuation coefficients of a variety of pathological tissues for respect to the healthy ones, finding any energy windows of radiological differentiation. In this paper, the theoretical methods are presented with development works and preliminary results.

  18. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5) ?g/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (? = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]). TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements. PMID:22074419

  19. EXPERIMENTAL ANTHRAX INFECTION IN IRRADIATED ANIMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Krasilnikov; N. A. Izraitel

    1959-01-01

    ABS>The experiments were staged on white mice. The following was ; studied: the natural resistance of irradiated animals to experimental infection, ; with B. anthraois in dependence to the terms of infection following irradiation, ; the doses oi irradiation and the site of introduction of the infectious matter; ; the time of the onset and the duration of bacteremia and

  20. Complexity and characteristic frequency studies in ECG signals of mice based on multiple scale factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, XiaoDong; He, AiJun; Liu, Peng; Sun, TongFeng; Ning, XinBao

    2011-06-01

    Existing methods of physiological signal analysis based on nonlinear dynamic theories only examine the complexity difference of the signals under a single sampling frequency. We developed a technique to measure the multifractal characteristic parameter intimately associated with physiological activities through a frequency scale factor. This parameter is highly sensitive to physiological and pathological status. Mice received various drugs to imitate different physiological and pathological conditions, and the distributions of mass exponent spectrum curvature with scale factors from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of healthy and drug injected mice were determined. Next, we determined the characteristic frequency scope in which the signal was of the highest complexity and most sensitive to impaired cardiac function, and examined the relationships between heart rate, heartbeat dynamic complexity, and sensitive frequency scope of the ECG signal. We found that all animals exhibited a scale factor range in which the absolute magnitudes of ECG mass exponent spectrum curvature achieve the maximum, and this range (or frequency scope) is not changed with calculated data points or maximal coarse-grained scale factor. Further, the heart rate of mice was not necessarily associated with the nonlinear complexity of cardiac dynamics, but closely related to the most sensitive ECG frequency scope determined by characterization of this complex dynamic features for certain heartbeat conditions. Finally, we found that the health status of the hearts of mice was directly related to the heartbeat dynamic complexity, both of which were positively correlated within the scale factor around the extremum region of the multifractal parameter. With increasing heart rate, the sensitive frequency scope increased to a relatively high location. In conclusion, these data provide important theoretical and practical data for the early diagnosis of cardiac disorders. PMID:21706415

  1. Immune functional impacts of oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF) on mice: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Bingna; Pan, Jianyu; Wu, Yuantao; Wan, Peng; Sun, Huili

    2013-07-01

    Oyster peptides were produced from Crassostrea hongkongensis and used as a new protein source for the preparation of an oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF). Reserpineinduced malabsorption mice and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression mice were used in this study. OPENF powder is light yellow green and has a protein-fat-carbohydrate ratio of 16:9:75 with good solubility in water. A pilot study investigating immune functional impacts of the OPENF on mice show that the OPENF enhanced spleen lymphocyte proliferation and the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, OPENF can improve intestinal absorption, increase food utilization ratio, and maintain the normal physiological function of mice. These results suggest that oyster peptides could serve as a new protein source for use in enteral nutrition formula, but more importantly, also indicate that OPENF has an immunostimulating effect in mice.

  2. Contrast Agent-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Damage in Animal Models

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    and of the Medical College of Wis- consin authorized all animal studies. For i.v. catheterization we anesthetized). For MRI we studied six mice of each group, all matched by age and gender. The age range of the mice was 8

  3. Transesophageal defibrillation: animal studies and preliminary clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, T J; Chin, M C; Oliver, D G; Scheinman, M M; Griffin, J C

    1993-06-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) that fails to respond to transthoracic defibrillation leaves the clinician with few alternatives. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique of rescue defibrillation by use of transesophageal electrodes. Fourteen anesthetized dogs (20-30 kg) were investigated in this study. Two electrodes (300 mm2) were mounted 8 cm apart on an esophageal probe and inserted approximately 40 cm from the mouth. VF was induced using AC current delivered to the myocardium. Defibrillation was then performed between the distal electrode (anode) and anterior skin patch (cathode). After 15 seconds of induced VF, transesophageal and transthoracic defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) were determined in random order. The esophageal DFT (90 +/- 15 joules) tended to be lower than the transthoracic DFT (115 +/- 35 joules), though this difference was not statistically significant. One dog could not be defibrillated by transthoracic defibrillation but responded to transesophageal defibrillation. Esophageal electrodes were also useful for arrhythmia discrimination and ventricular pacing (pacing threshold of 38 +/- 5 mA at a pulse duration of 2.5 msec). Following transesophageal DFT determination, in ten dogs (total energy of 600 +/- 150 joules), acute esophageal histopathology demonstrated mild to severe focal injury to the mucosa and/or muscular layers. However, esophagi in four chronic dogs (total energy of 470 +/- 110 joules) showed no gross evidence of mucosal damage, perforation, or stricture 4 weeks following defibrillation. Histopathology showed only focal myocyte atrophy and repair. As a last resort, transesophageal defibrillation was performed in the emergency room on four patients with out-of-hospital refractory VF who failed > 6 high energy transthoracic shocks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7686658

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical sources of variability of circadian period and phase: studies of circadian rhythms of npy-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Mary; Molyneux, Penny; Soscia, Stephanie; Prabakar, Cheruba; McKinley-Brewer, Judy; Lall, Gurprit

    2007-03-01

    The cycle length or period of the free-running rhythm is a key characteristic of circadian rhythms. In this study we verify prior reports that locomotor activity patterns and running wheel access can alter the circadian period, and we report that these treatments also increase variability of the circadian period between animals. We demonstrate that the loss of a neurochemical, neuropeptide Y (NPY), abolishes these influences and reduces the interindividual variability in clock period. These behavioral and environmental influences, from daily distribution of peak locomotor activity and from access to a running wheel, both act to push the mean circadian period to a value < 24 h. Magnitude of light-induced resetting is altered as well. When photoperiod was abruptly changed from a 18:6-h light-dark cycle (LD18:6) to LD6:18, mice deficient in NPY were slower to respond to the change in photoperiod by redistribution of their activity within the prolonged dark and eventually adopted a delayed phase angle of entrainment compared with controls. These results support the hypothesis that nonphotic influences on circadian period serve a useful function when animals must respond to abruptly changing photoperiods and point to the NPYergic pathway from the intergeniculate leaflet innervating the suprachiasmatic nucleus as a circuit mediating these effects. PMID:17082354

  5. Further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in Wyoming II.

    PubMed

    Kingston, N; Thorne, E T; Thomas, G M; McHolland, L; Trueblood, M S

    1981-10-01

    Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American Bison (Bison bison) being brought into Wyoming from Nebraska. Nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. Identification of species was not possible due to the failure to obtain bloodstream trypomastigotes from this host. Trypanosomes were recovered from 8 of 57 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). This is the first report of Trypanosoma sp. from bison and from pronghorn; the trypanosome from moose was identified as Trypanosoma cervi from bloodstream trypomastigotes. In 1978, natural transplacental transmission of trypanosomes was found to occur in 1 of 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fetuses, examined near term by blood culture. No trypanosomes were found in 18 male deer fetuses examined in 1979. Of 100 free-ranging elk from western Wyoming examined by blood culture in 1979, 71 were infected. These data are compared with data from 1973-74. PMID:7338978

  6. Study of the clomipramine-morphine interaction in the forced swimming test in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Eschalier; J. Fialip; O. Varoquaux; M.-C. Makambila

    1987-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant-morphine interactions have been extensively studied on pain tests but less often on tests predictive of antidepressant activity. The effects of clomipramine (CMI) and morphine were tested on the forced swimming test in mice after pretreatment with CMI, morphine or saline. Like CMI, though less so, morphine was significantly active. Morphine pretreatment partially inhibited the effect of CMI irrespective

  7. Harmonization of Animal Clinical Pathology Testing in Toxicity and Safety Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Weingand; Geoff Brown; Robert Hall; Dai Davies; Kent Gossett; Doug Neptun; Trevor Waner; Toshiaki Matsuzawa; Paul Salemink; Wilhelm Froelke; Jean-Pierre Provost; Gianni Dal Negro; John Batchelor; Mamoru Nomura; Horst Groetsch; Alphons Boink; Jon Kimball; David Woodman; Malcolm York; Eva Fabianson-Johnson; Michel Lupart; Elsa Melloni

    1996-01-01

    Ten scientific organizations formed a joint international committee to provide expert recommendations for clinical pathology testing of laboratory animal species used in regulated toxicity and safety studies. For repeated-dose studies in rodent species, clinical pathology testing is necessary at study termination. Interim study testing may not be necessary in long-duration studies provided that it has been done in short-duration studies

  8. Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them. PMID:22142960

  9. Animating "Croc tale": a study of the process and problems of a three-dimensional computer animation 

    E-print Network

    Squire, Janice Lynne

    1992-01-01

    Several stages are involved in the production of a computer-generated character animation. First, a concept that satisfies any previously defined design constraint (e.g., resource limitations and/or client specifications) is developed. Second, a...

  10. Paradoxical effect of burns in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Spillert, C R; Suval, W D; Vernese, N A; Lazaro, E J

    1986-01-01

    Since the microcirculation is impaired in diabetes and since burn injury is associated with microvascular thrombosis, the purpose of this study was to determine whether diabetes increases the severity of burns. Swiss white mice were made diabetic with alloxan, and control animals received saline. One week later, animals with over 2000 mg/dl urine sugar and the control animals were anesthetized and burned uniformly on the back with a steel disc at 100 C for 10 sec. At 24 hr, burn severity was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 4 using gross and microscopic criteria. The mean burn severity of the diabetic mice was 0.80 +/- .15 and that of the control mice was 3.22 +/- .09 at 24 hr (P less than 0.001.). At 5 days, the differences of the burn severity between the two groups were still significant, but 5/10 (50%) of the diabetic mice and none of the control mice died. In diabetic mice, through burn severity appears mild in the wound, the mortality is high. Therefore, the criteria for initial evaluation of the diabetic with burns need to be reassessed. PMID:3942390

  11. Acetaminophen-induced Acute Liver Injury in HCV Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 hrs after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. PMID:23200774

  12. Behavioral and pharmaco-toxicological study of Papaver rhoeas L. in mice.

    PubMed

    Soulimani, R; Younos, C; Jarmouni-Idrissi, S; Bousta, D; Khallouki, F; Khalouki, F; Laila, A

    2001-03-01

    A lyophilized ethanolic aqueous extract of Papaver rhoeas petals was evaluated for its behavioral and pharmaco-toxicological effects in mice and its chemical composition was studied using thin layer chromatography (TLC). In this study, chemical analysis by TLC showed that the petals contain some anthocyanins, whereas no alkaloids were detected. The toxicological effect of alcoholic and aqueous plant extract administered intraperitoneally was determined in mice. The toxicological results obtained indicated that 2000 mg/kg is LD10 and 4000 mg/kg is LD50. Behavioral and pharmacological studies of ethanolic and aqueous extract showed that the plant extract reduced locomotory, exploratory and postural behavior of mice. This was evaluated through two specific behavioral tests; a non-familiar environment test (the Staircase test) and a familiar environment test (Free exploratory test). These behavioral and pharmacological effects are more pronounced when the solvent used for extraction is 10% ethanol and is not antagonized by benzodiazepines, opioids, dopaminergic and cholinergic compounds (flumazenil, naloxone, sulpuride and atropine). The plant extract did not induce sleep in mice after treatment with an infrahypnotic dose of pentobarbital. This finding shows that the plant extract has a sedative effect at a 400 mg/kg dosage. PMID:11274828

  13. Comprehensive behavioral study of mGluR3 knockout mice: implication in schizophrenia related endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously performed systematic association studies of glutamate receptor gene family members with schizophrenia, and found positive associations of polymorphisms in the GRM3 (a gene of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3: mGluR3) with the disorder. Physiological roles of GRM3 in brain functions and its functional roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remain to be resolved. Results We generated mGluR3 knockout (KO) mice and conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses. KO mice showed hyperactivity in the open field, light/dark transition, and 24-hour home cage monitoring tests, impaired reference memory for stressful events in the Porsolt forced swim test, impaired contextual memory in cued and contextual fear conditioning test, and impaired working memory in the T-Maze forced alternation task test. Hyperactivity and impaired working memory are known as endophenotypes of schizophrenia. We examined long-term synaptic plasticity by assessing long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region in the hippocampi of KO and wild-type (WT) mice. We observed no differences in the amplitude of LTP between the two genotypes, suggesting that mGluR3 is not essential for LTP in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. As hyperactivity is typically associated with increased dopaminergic transmission, we performed in vivo microdialysis measurements of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of KO and WT mice. We observed enhancements in the methamphetamine (MAP)-induced release of dopamine in KO mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a disturbance in the glutamate-dopamine interaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-like behavior, such as hyperactivity in mGluR3 KO mice. PMID:24758191

  14. Oxytocin in the treatment of dystocia in mice.

    PubMed

    Narver, Heather L

    2012-01-01

    Physicians and veterinarians often prescribe oxytocin to treat dystocia. However, oxytocin administration to pregnant women or animals is not without risk. In the venue of laboratory animal medicine, the use of oxytocin may present confounding variables to research. Although oxytocin has been studied extensively, many of its physiologic effects and interactions with other hormones remain unclear. Investigator concerns about adverse and confounding effects of oxytocin in their research mice prompted the current review of oxytocin and its use to treat murine dystocia. Well-controlled studies of oxytocin in dystocic mice have not been conducted. However, in humans and other animals, inconsistent and adverse effects are well-documented. Limited knowledge of the complex physiologic and molecular mechanisms of action of oxytocin and scant support for the efficacy of oxytocin in dystocic mice fail to meet the standards of evidence-based veterinary medical practice. The administration of oxytocin is contraindicated in many cases of dystocia in research mice, and its use in dystocic mice may be unfounded. A brief review of oxytocin and the physiologic mechanisms of parturition are provided to support this conclusion. Alternative treatments for murine dystocia are discussed, and a holistic approach is advocated to better serve animal welfare and to safeguard the integrity of valuable research. Laboratory animal veterinarians overseeing the development of guidelines or standard operating procedures for technician or investigator treatment of dystocic mice should understand the effects of oxytocin administration in light of relevant research. PMID:22330862

  15. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE LEAD EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN AND ANIMAL MODELS. PART 1: CLINICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review is organized into two major sections: Part I, a clinical review which will examine only those studies relevant to the issue of behavioral effects resulting from relatively low-level chronic exposure, and Part II, a review of animal studies which will focus on behaviora...

  16. Post-Operative Benefits of Animal-Assisted Therapy in Pediatric Surgery: A Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Palestrini, Clara; De Giorgis, Valentina; Raschetti, Roberto; Tumminelli, Massimiliano; Mencherini, Simonetta; Papotti, Francesca; Klersy, Catherine; Albertini, Riccardo; Ostuni, Selene; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period. Patients and Methods Forty children (3–17 years) were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery) or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care). The study variables were determined in each patient, independently of the assigned group, by a researcher unblinded to the patient’s group. The outcomes of the study were to define the neurological, cardiovascular and endocrinological impact of animal-assisted therapy in response to stress and pain. Electroencephalogram activity, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral prefrontal oxygenation, salivary cortisol levels and the faces pain scale were considered as outcome measures. Results After entrance of the dog faster electroencephalogram diffuse beta-activity (> 14 Hz) was reported in all children of the animal-assisted therapy group; in the standard-group no beta-activity was recorded (100% vs 0%, p<0.001). During observation, some differences in the time profile between groups were observed for heart rate (test for interaction p = 0.018), oxygen saturation (test for interaction p = 0.06) and cerebral oxygenation (test for interaction p = 0.09). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were influenced by animal-assisted therapy, though a higher variability in diastolic pressure was observed. Salivary cortisol levels did not show different behaviours over time between groups (p=0.70). Lower pain perception was noted in the animal-assisted group in comparison with the standard-group (p = 0.01). Conclusion Animal-assisted therapy facilitated rapid recovery in vigilance and activity after anaesthesia, modified pain perception and induced emotional prefrontal responses. An adaptative cardiovascular response was also present. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02284100 PMID:26039494

  17. The effect of continuous infusion of human parathyroid hormone on bone architecture in female mice

    E-print Network

    Eisenberg, Rahel E. (Rahel Esther)

    2009-01-01

    This research sought to create an animal model of secondary hyperparathyroidism through continuous infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in adult female mice, and to subsequently study the catabolic effects of PTH. Osmotic ...

  18. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. PMID:25698629

  19. Animal models for studying hepatitis C and alcohol effects on liver

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, David F

    2011-01-01

    Chronic consumption of ethanol has a dramatic effect on the clinical outcome of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the mechanism linking these two pathologies is unknown. Presently, in vitro systems are limited in their ability to study the interaction between a productive wild-type HCV infection and chronic ethanol exposure. Mouse models are potentially very useful in dissecting elements of the HCV-ethanol relationship. Experiments in mice that transgenically express HCV proteins are outlined, as are experiments for the generation of mice with chimeric human livers. The latter models appear to have the most promise for accurately modeling the effects of chronic ethanol intake in HCV-infected human livers. PMID:21633656

  20. The effect of low and high plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the morphology of major organs: studies of Laron dwarf and bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia J; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Laszczy?ska, Maria; S?uczanowska-G?abowska, Sylwia; Havens, Aaron M; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Taichman, Russel S; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that somatotrophic/insulin signaling affects lifespan in experimental animals. To study the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma level on the morphology of major organs, we analyzed lung, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and spleen isolated from 2-year-old growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) Laron dwarf mice (with low circulating plasma levels of IGF-1) and 6-month-old bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice (with high circulating plasma levels of IGF-1). The ages of the two mutant strains employed in our studies were selected based on their overall ~50% survival (Laron dwarf mice live up to ~4 years and bGHTg mice up to ~1 year). Morphological analysis of the organs of long-living 2-year-old Laron dwarf mice revealed a lower biological age for their organs compared with normal littermates, with more brown adipose tissue (BAT) surrounding the main body organs, lower levels of steatosis in liver, and a lower incidence of leukocyte infiltration in different organs. By contrast, the organs of 6-month-old, short-living bGHTg mice displayed several abnormalities in liver and kidney and a reduced content of BAT around vital organs. PMID:23613169

  1. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  2. Age and aerobic performance in deer mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Chappell; Enrico L. Rezende; Kimberly A. Hammond

    2003-01-01

    Age impacts the phenotype of all multicellular animals, but lifetime changes in physiological traits are poorly understood for all but a few species. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study of age effects on body composition, aerobic performance and ventilation in deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus. This species lives considerably longer in captivity (in excess of 5 years) than most laboratory rodents,

  3. Mitochondrial dna evolution in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN D. FERRIS; RICHARD D. SAGE; ELLEN M. PRAGER; U Ritte; A C Wilson

    1983-01-01

    This study extends knowledge of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in mice to include 208 animals belonging to eight species in the subgenus Mus. Highly purified mtDNA from each has been subjected to high-resolution re- striction mapping with respect to the known sequence of one mouse mtDNA. Variation attributed to base substitutions was encountered at about 200 of the 300 cleavage

  4. Animal Cell Mitosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

  5. Cerebral venous dynamics in newborn mice with intracranial hemorrhage studied using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Sindeeva, O. A.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shuvalova, E. P.; Huang, Q.; Zhu, D.; Li, P.; Tuchin, V. V.; Luo, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the stress-induced development of the intracranial hemorrhage in newborn mice with the main attention to its latent stage. Our study is based on the laser speckle contrast imaging of the cerebral venous blood flow and the wavelet-based analysis of experimental data. We study responses of the sagittal sinus in different frequency ranges associated with distinct regulatory mechanisms and discuss significant changes of the spectral power in the frequency area associated with the NO-related endothelial function.

  6. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Andrographis paniculata: A combined and comparative study with anti-scorpion serum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Ranjana S.; Bahekar, Satish E.; Nagpure, Shailesh R.; Salwe, Kartik J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-scorpion venom (ASV) property of Andrographis paniculata in comparison with anti-redscorpion venom serum and this study aimed to determine its combined effect with anti-redscorpion venom serum. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant AP was obtained using soxhlet apparatus. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus and Lyophilized monovalent enzyme refined immunoglobulin anti-scorpion venom serum (ASV) was used. Using lethal dose of scorpion venom (25.12?g/g), the venom neutralizing ability of plant extract (1 g/kg) and ASV individually as well as in combination was studied using in vivo and in vitro methods. Mean survival time, protection fold and percentage survival of animals over the period of 24 h were the parameters used. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: Ethanolic extract of AP (1 g/kg) showed some protective effect against scorpion venom. ASV was found more effective than plant extract. But, when plant extract and ASV were used in combination, potency of ASV was found to be increased both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions: Present study demonstrates that, both plant extract and ASV have their own scorpion venom neutralising ability in vivo and in vitro, but their combination is most effective in venom neutralizing ability. PMID:24501444

  7. Carotid Calcification in Mice: A New Model to Study the Effects of Arterial Stiffness on the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sadekova, Nataliya; Vallerand, Diane; Guevara, Edgar; Lesage, Frédéric; Girouard, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness has been identified as an important risk factor for cognitive decline. However, its effects on the brain's health are unknown, and there is no animal model available to study the precise impact of arterial stiffness on the brain. Therefore, the objective of the study was to develop and characterize a new model specific to arterial stiffness in order to study its effects on the brain. Methods and Results Calcium chloride (CaCl2) was applied to carotid arteries of mice, inducing an increase in collagen distribution and intima–media thickness, a fragmentation of elastin, a decrease in arterial compliance and distensibility, and an increase in cerebral blood flow pulsatility (n=3 to 11). Calcium deposits were only present at the site of CaCl2 application, and there was no increase in systemic blood pressure or change in vessel radius making this model specific for arterial stiffness. The effects of carotid stiffness were then assessed in the brain. Carotid calcification induced an increase in the production of cerebral superoxide anion and neurodegeneration, detected with Fluoro?Jade B staining, in the hippocampus (n=3 to 5), a key region for memory and cognition. Conclusions A new model of arterial stiffness based on carotid calcification was developed and characterized. This new model meets all the characteristics of arterial stiffness, and its specificity allows the study of the effects of arterial stiffness on the brain. PMID:23782921

  8. Understanding Animal Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

    2009-01-01

    The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

  9. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys. PMID:23444337

  10. Further studies on the potentiating effect of lithium chloride on methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, T; Kikuchi, K; Satoh, S

    1981-02-01

    To study the mechanism of the potentiating effect of lithium chloride (LiCl) on methamphetamine (MA)-induced stereotypy in mice, effects of various drugs on the action of LiCl on the stereotypy and pharmacokinetics of MA in different brain regions and liver were examined. The potentiating effect of LiCl disappeared in mice pretreated with atropine or scopolamine whereas LiCl potentiated the stereotypy in mice pretreated with p-chlorophenylalanine, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, nialamide, physostigmine or butylscopolamine. The concentrations of MA in the striatum, brainstem and liver were increased and the half-life of MA in these tissues was prolonged by LiCl. The effect of LiCl on the kinetics of MA in the brain, but not that in the liver, was blocked by scopolamine. LiCl prolonged the half-life of MA in the brain and liver in mice treated with physostigmine or butylscopolamine. The inhibition of MA elimination from the brain and its blockade by scopolamine seem to explain the potentiating action of LiCl on the stereotypy and the antagonism by scopolamine of the behavioural action of LiCl, respectively. PMID:7195953

  11. Use of fenbendazole-containing therapeutic diets for mice in experimental cancer therapy studies.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-03-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

  12. Use of Fenbendazole-Containing Therapeutic Diets for Mice in Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

  13. Investigation of the influence of vanadium compounds treatment in NZO mice model--preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kro?niak, Miros?aw; Francik, Renata; Ko?odziejczyk, Katarzyna; Wojtanowska-Kro?niak, Agnieszka; Tedeschi, Cinzia; Petrone, Veronica; Grybo?, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: New Zealand obese mice (NZO) are characterized by symptoms similar to human metabolic syndrome. Vanadium in different investigations showed anti-diabetic activity but until now an NZO mice model has not been tested with this element. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-diabetic activity of three vanadium compounds (VOSO4, VO(mal)2 and Na(VO(O2)2bpy) x 8H2O) in the NZO model. Metabolic syndrome was induced by special diet (1.5% of cholesterol and 15% of saturated fatty acids) during 8 weeks. In the next 5 weeks, the tested vanadium compounds were administered once daily, in a dose of 0.063 mmol/kg of body mass. At the end of the experiment, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine transaminase were measured in the serum. The obtained results showed that the glucose level was decreased nearly to the healthy NZO mice in comparison to the NZO mice with metabolic syndrome. In all groups on the diet with cholesterol, the level of this parameter was statistically higher in comparison to the group without cholesterol addition. Vanadium treatment in a dose 0.063 mmol/kg of body mass does not influence cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine transaminase activity. PMID:25275165

  14. Anticonvulsant Effects of ?-Hydroxybutyrate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The ketogenic diet was formulated to mimic the biochemical changes seen upon fasting, specifically the formation of ketone bodies. Recent research data suggest that the anticonvulsant efficacy of the KD may be due in part to the direct actions of ketone bodies. This study was designed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mature mice. Methods: Eighty-two male ICR mice at postnatal day 49 were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide prior to pilocarpine injection. Experimental mice (n=42) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20 mmol/kg) 15 min prior to pilocarpine administration, while control animals (n=40) with normal saline. Pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally and mice were monitored for 2 h after pilocarpine injection. Results: All mice developed typical seizure behaviors. The mean (±SD) latency to the onset of seizures was significantly prolonged in the BHB-treated mice compared with controls (4.83±1.95 min vs. 3.67±1.90 min, p<0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that treatment with BHB prolongs the latency to the onset of seizures induced by pilocarpine in mature mice and suggests that BHB, one of the ketone bodies, may have direct anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24649459

  15. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-08-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant.

  16. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium muris (strain RN 66) in various laboratory animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Iseki; T. Maekawa; K. Moriya; S. Uni; S. Takada

    1989-01-01

    The infectivity ofCryptosporidium muris (strain RN 66), originally isolated from the house rat (Iseki 1986), to various laboratory animals was studied by transmission experiments. After oral inoculation with 1×106 oocysts, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, and cats all discharged endogenously produced oocysts in their feces. Among these host species, mice and cats were highly susceptible to the parasite. The prepatent

  17. Preliminary study of metabolic radiotherapy with 188Re via small animal imaging

    E-print Network

    Baldazzi, G; Muciaccio, A; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Pancaldi, G; Perrotta, A; Zuffa, M; Boccaccio, P; Uzunov, N; Bello, M; Bernardini, D; Mazzi, U; Moschini, G; Riondato, M; Rosato, A; Garibaldi, F; Pani, R; Antoccia, A; De Notaristefani, F; Hull, G; Cencelli, V O; Sgura, A; Tanzarella, C

    2006-01-01

    188Re is a beta- (Emax = 2.12 MeV) and gamma (155 keV) emitter. Since its chemistry is similar to that of the largely employed tracer, 99mTc, molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been labelled with 188Re to produce a target specific radiopharmaceutical. The radiolabeled compound, i.v. injected in healthy mice, is able to accumulate into the liver after a few minutes. To study the effect of metabolic radiotherapy in mice, we have built a small gamma camera based on a matrix of YAP:Ce crystals, with 0.6x0.6x10 mm**3 pixels, read out by a R2486 Hamamatsu PSPMT. A high-sensitivity 20 mm thick lead parallel-hole collimator, with hole diameter 1.5 mm and septa of 0.18 mm, is placed in front of the YAP matrix. Preliminary results obtained with various phantoms containing a solution of 188Re and with C57 black mice injected with the 188Re-HA solution are presented. To increase the space resolution and to obtain two orthogonal projections simultaneously we are building in parallel two new cameras to be positioned at...

  18. The promise and dilemma of cannabinoid therapy: lessons from animal studies of bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Aymen I

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in numerous physiological processes and represents a potential drug target for diseases ranging from brain disorders to cancer. Recent preclinical studies implicated endocannabinoids and their receptors in the regulation of bone cell activity and in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Cells and intervening nerves in the skeleton express cannabinoid receptors and the machinery for the synthesis and breakdown of endocannabinoids. In healthy adult mice, pharmacological and genetic inactivation of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 (G protein-coupled receptor 55) inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption and increase bone mass, suggesting that both receptors have a negative role in early bone development. Although no distinct abnormalities in bone development were observed in healthy adult mice deficient in cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2), pharmacological blockage of this receptor was effective in suppressing bone loss associated with increased bone turnover, particularly in mouse models of osteoporosis, arthritis and osteolytic bone disease. In the aging skeleton, CB1 deficiency causes accelerated osteoporosis characterized mainly by a significant reduction in bone formation coupled to enhanced adipocyte accumulation in the bone marrow. A similar acceleration of bone loss was also reported in aging CB2-deficient mice but found to be associated with enhanced bone turnover. This perspective describes the role of cannabinoid ligands and their receptors in bone metabolism and highlights the promise and dilemma of therapeutic exploitation of the endocannabinoid system for treatment of bone disorders. PMID:24363927

  19. The promise and dilemma of cannabinoid therapy: lessons from animal studies of bone disease.

    PubMed

    Idris, Aymen I

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in numerous physiological processes and represents a potential drug target for diseases ranging from brain disorders to cancer. Recent preclinical studies implicated endocannabinoids and their receptors in the regulation of bone cell activity and in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Cells and intervening nerves in the skeleton express cannabinoid receptors and the machinery for the synthesis and breakdown of endocannabinoids. In healthy adult mice, pharmacological and genetic inactivation of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 (G protein-coupled receptor 55) inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption and increase bone mass, suggesting that both receptors have a negative role in early bone development. Although no distinct abnormalities in bone development were observed in healthy adult mice deficient in cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2), pharmacological blockage of this receptor was effective in suppressing bone loss associated with increased bone turnover, particularly in mouse models of osteoporosis, arthritis and osteolytic bone disease. In the aging skeleton, CB1 deficiency causes accelerated osteoporosis characterized mainly by a significant reduction in bone formation coupled to enhanced adipocyte accumulation in the bone marrow. A similar acceleration of bone loss was also reported in aging CB2-deficient mice but found to be associated with enhanced bone turnover. This perspective describes the role of cannabinoid ligands and their receptors in bone metabolism and highlights the promise and dilemma of therapeutic exploitation of the endocannabinoid system for treatment of bone disorders. PMID:24363927

  20. Animal Models for Cartilage Regeneration and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Szczodry, Michal; Bruno, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage injury and degeneration are leading causes of disability. Animal studies are critically important to developing effective treatments for cartilage injuries. This review focuses on the use of animal models for the study of the repair and regeneration of focal cartilage defects. Animals commonly used in cartilage repair studies include murine, lapine, canine, caprine, porcine, and equine models. There are advantages and disadvantages to each model. Small animal rodent and lapine models are cost effective, easy to house, and useful for pilot and proof-of-concept studies. The availability of transgenic and knockout mice provide opportunities for mechanistic in vivo study. Athymic mice and rats are additionally useful for evaluating the cartilage repair potential of human cells and tissues. Their small joint size, thin cartilage, and greater potential for intrinsic healing than humans, however, limit the translational value of small animal models. Large animal models with thicker articular cartilage permit study of both partial thickness and full thickness chondral repair, as well as osteochondral repair. Joint size and cartilage thickness for canine, caprine, and mini-pig models remain significantly smaller than that of humans. The repair and regeneration of chondral and osteochondral defects of size and volume comparable to that of clinically significant human lesions can be reliably studied primarily in equine models. While larger animals may more closely approximate the human clinical situation, they carry greater logistical, financial, and ethical considerations. A multifactorial analysis of each animal model should be carried out when planning in vivo studies. Ultimately, the scientific goals of the study will be critical in determining the appropriate animal model. PMID:19831641

  1. Productively Infected Murine Kaposi's Sarcoma-Like Tumors Define New Animal Models for Studying and Targeting KSHV Oncogenesis and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ashlock, Brittany M.; Ma, Qi; Issac, Biju; Mesri, Enrique A.

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining cancer caused by the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KS tumors are composed of KSHV-infected spindle cells of vascular origin with aberrant neovascularization and erythrocyte extravasation. KSHV genes expressed during both latent and lytic replicative cycles play important roles in viral oncogenesis. Animal models able to recapitulate both viral and host biological characteristics of KS are needed to elucidate oncogenic mechanisms, for developing targeted therapies, and to trace cellular components of KS ontogeny. Herein, we describe two new murine models of Kaposi's sarcoma. We found that murine bone marrow-derived cells, whether established in culture or isolated from fresh murine bone marrow, were infectable with rKSHV.219, formed KS-like tumors in immunocompromised mice and produced mature herpesvirus-like virions in vivo. Further, we show in vivo that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA/Vorinostat) enhanced viral lytic reactivation. We propose that these novel models are ideal for studying both viral and host contributions to KSHV-induced oncogenesis as well as for testing virally-targeted antitumor strategies for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. Furthermore, our isolation of bone marrow-derived cell populations containing a cell type that, when infected with KSHV, renders a tumorigenic KS-like spindle cell, should facilitate systematic identification of KS progenitor cells. PMID:24489895

  2. Exploiting Amoeboid and Non-Vertebrate Animal Model Systems to Study the

    E-print Network

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    Review Exploiting Amoeboid and Non-Vertebrate Animal Model Systems to Study the Virulence of Human survival during interactions with non-vertebrate hosts, suggesting that fungal virulence may have evolved small non-vertebrates that feed on microorganisms. Host innate immune responses are also broadly

  3. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  4. Studies on the Use of Animals of Economic Importance in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of keeping animals in schools and problems encountered in their maintenance are summarized. Two curriculum units, one on fruit flies and one on honey bees are described. Reasons for a widespread negative image of rural studies are discussed and positive outcomes of an environmental science course are presented. (Author/EB)

  5. New ?-adrenergic agonists used illicitly as growth promoters in animal breeding: chemical and pharmacodynamic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Mazzanti; Claudia Daniele; Gianpiero Boatto; Giuliana Manca; Gianfranco Brambilla; Alberto Loizzo

    2003-01-01

    Clenbuterol and ?-adrenergic receptor agonist drugs are illegally used as growth promoters in animal production. Pharmacologically active residues in edible tissues led to intoxication outbreaks in several countries. Pressure of official controls pulsed synthesis of new compounds to escape analytical procedures. We report two new compounds named ‘A’ and ‘G4’, found in feeding stuffs. Chemical structure was studied through nuclear

  6. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  7. INHALATION STUDIES OF MT. ST. HELENS VOLCANIC ASH IN ANIMALS. 1. INTRODUCTION AND EXPOSURE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the lack of information on the effects of inhaled Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash and its potential interaction with sulfur dioxide (SO2), animal studies were performed to determine the acute and chronic health effects of a short-term exposure. This paper describes the inhalat...

  8. Tools for studying animal behaviour: validation of dive profiles relayed via the Argos satellite system

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    Tools for studying animal behaviour: validation of dive profiles relayed via the Argos satellite satellite system (http://www.argosinc.com). Behavioural data relayed remotely via the Argos satellite system of their time submerged, further limiting the time available for communication with satel- lites. The problem

  9. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  10. Evaluation of Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative animal for studying the neurotoxicity of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Akins; Joyce A. Schroeder; Danny L. Browert; H. Vasken Aposhian

    1992-01-01

    Heavy metals cause irreversible neurobehavioral damage in many developing mammals, but the mechanisms of this damage are unknown. The influence of three heavy metal compounds, triethyllead chloride, lead acetate and cadmium chloride, on lethality, development, behavior and learning was studied using the fruit fly,Drosophila melanogaster. This animal was used because it allows hundreds of subjects to be assayed very easily

  11. Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

  12. Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland R. Griffiths; Phillip P. Woodson

    1988-01-01

    Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety

  13. Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 534536 Experimental studies of coral snake mimicry: do snakes mimic millipedes?

    E-print Network

    Brodie III, Edmund D.

    Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 534­536 Experimental studies of coral snake mimicry: do snakes mimic-1096) The prevalence of similarly ringed colour patterns in Neotropical snake species has stimulated coral snakes (Micrurus) and a number of mildly or non-venomous colu- brid and anniliid snakes. The most

  14. How Children Learn the Ins and Outs: A Training Study of Toddlers' Categorization of Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Chris A.; Fisher, Anna V.; Rakison, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Young children are able to categorize animals on the basis of unobservable features such as shared biological properties (e.g., bones). For the most part, children learn about these properties through explicit verbalizations from others. The present study examined how such input impacts children's learning about the properties of categories. In a…

  15. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether (Technical Grade) (CAS No. 101-90-6) In F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (DGRE), a pale, yellow, translucent, amorphous solid at room temperature, is used as a liquid spray epoxy resin, as a diluent in the production of other epoxy resins used in electrical, tooling, adhesive, and laminating applications, and as a curing agent for polysulfide rubber. Approximately 3,000 workers are exposed to DGRE. The quantity of DGRE produced in the United States is not known. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of technical grade diglycidyl resorcinol ether (81% pure) were conducted by administering the chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 25 or 50 mg/kg and to groups of 50 male and female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg. A supplemental study of similar design in male and female rats (0 or 12 mg/kg) was started approximately 12 months later because of high mortality in the 50 mg/kg dose groups. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. Throughout most of the primary study, mean body weights of high dose male and female rats and female mice were lower than those of the corresponding vehicle controls. In the supplemental study, body weights of both sexes of the dosed rats were unaffected by administration of DGRE. Survival of dosed rats of each sex in the primary study was dose related and was shorter (P<0.001) than that of the vehicle controls. No high dose male rats and only 1/50 high dose female rats lived to the end of the study. Bronchopneumonia was the most frequent cause of early death among the rats and may have resulted from the animals' aspiration of corn oil containing diglycidyl resorcinol ether. Survival of the dosed male rats in the supplemental study was reduced (P<0.005) when compared to controls. There was no significant difference in survival between dosed and control female rats in the supplemental study. Survival of dosed and control mice was comparable but poorer in females, with 20/50 (40%) of the controls, 13/50 (26%) of the low dose, and 10/50 (20%) of the high dose groups alive at the end of 2 years. These early deaths were due to suppurative and necrotizing inflammation of the reproductive tract, possibly caused by a Klebsiella sp. infection. The incidences of rats and mice with hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the forestomach were compound related. For rats and mice of each sex, incidences of animals with squamous cell papillomas, squamous cell carcinomas, or both occurred with statistically significant positive trends and the incidences observed in other organs in dosed groups relative to the controls. An audit of the experimental data was conducted for the 2-year studies of diglycidyl resorcinol ether. No data discrepancies were found that influenced the final interpretations. Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, technical grade diglycidyl resorcinol ether caused hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the forestomach in rats and mice. DGRE was carcinogenic for male and female F344/N rats and for male and female B6C3F1 mice, causing both benign and malignant neoplasms of the forestomach. Levels of Evidence of Carcinogenicity: Male Rats: Positive Female Rats: Positive Male Mice: Positive Female Mice: Positive Synonym: DGRE PMID:12748690

  16. [Experimental study on animal with automatic drug injection based on predictive control for vascular interventional therapy].

    PubMed

    Tu, Haiyan; Yuan, Zhirun; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua; Zhang, Changwei; Cheng, Meixiong; Fan, Feng; Zhang, Ziyin; Zhang, Hongliang

    2012-06-01

    This paper focuses on the animal experiment of automatic drug delivery based on predictive control for vascular interventional therapy. Improvement of drug delivery system based on predictive control used in simulated experiments was put forward after the presence of time varying parameters and the characteristics of individual differences of animal had been studied. The adaptability of time varying parameters and fault tolerance of the system were also enhanced. Different injection methods were tested on animals. It is proved that higher target blood concentration can be reached while injecting during diastolic than that while injecting during systolic or injecting at a constant speed within the whole cardiac cycle. The results also showed that the improved drug injection system based on predictive control which synchronizes with the cardiac cycle could be applied to clinical trials. PMID:22826940

  17. In vivo study of bleeding time and arterial hemorrhage in hypothermic versus normothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Oung, C M; Li, M S; Shum-Tim, D; Chiu, R C; Hinchey, E J

    1993-08-01

    This in vivo study confirmed impaired hemostasis during hypothermia in a swine model. Group I (normothermic, n = 8) and group II (hypothermic, n = 8) animals were anesthetized and instrumented for continuous peritoneal irrigation and monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure. The effects of hypothermia, hypotension, and inotrope on bleeding time and bleeding from two types of arterial injuries were evaluated. Our findings were that (1) bleeding time was significantly prolonged in hypothermic animals; (2) the differences in blood loss from partially torn artery (PTA) and completely cut artery (CCA) at both normothermic and hypothermic temperatures did not reach statistical significance; and (3) blood loss from PTA was greater than CCA when norepinephrine (Levophed) was infused to elevate blood pressure in hypotensive animals at normal core temperature. PMID:8355304

  18. Allyl isothiocyanate as a potential inducer of paraoxonase-1--studies in cultured hepatocytes and in mice.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Charlotte; Graeser, Anne-Christin; Huebbe, Patricia; Wagner, Anika E; Rimbach, Gerald

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of structure-related isothiocyanates to induce the antiatherogenic enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in cultured hepatocytes. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and sulforaphane (SFN), but not butyl isothiocyanate (BITC) resulted in dose-dependent induction of PON1 transactivation in Huh7 cells in vitro. Induction of PON1 due to AITC was inhibited by the selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-antagonist T0070907. AITC was used in a subsequent in vivo study in mice (n = 10 per group, Western-type diet) to test its PON1 inducing activity. Unlike in cultured hepatocytes, AITC supplementation (15 mg/kg body weight) did not increase hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein levels in mice. Thus, it is suggested that AITC may be a potent inducer of PON1 in vitro, but not in mouse liver in vivo. PMID:22131196

  19. An experimental model for the study of cognitive disorders: Hippocampus and associative learning in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSÉ M. DELGADO-GARCÍA; Agnès Gruart

    2008-01-01

    The availability of transgenic mice mimicking selective human neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders calls for new electrophysiological\\u000a and microstimulation techniques capable of being appliedin vivo in this species. In this article, we will concentrate on experiments and techniques developed in our laboratory during the\\u000a past few years. Thus we have developed different techniques for the study of learning and memory capabilities

  20. A STUDY ON THE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF ERYTHROSINE IN MALE MICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H ABDEL AZIZ; SAMIA A SHOUMAN; AMINA S ATTIA; S. F SAAD

    1997-01-01

    Worldwide usage of different colouring agents in the food industry prompted us to study their toxicity. The potential adverse effects of erythrosine (ER, FD & C Red No.3) on the spermatogenesis process were investigated in adult mice. Testicular lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme activity (LDH-X), a pachytene spermatocyte marker of testicular toxicity, was significantly decreased to 71·8% and 68·6% of the control

  1. Subchronic (13-week) toxicity studies of intravaginal administration of spermicidal vanadocene dithiocarbamate in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osmond J. D’Cruz; Barbara Waurzyniak; Fatih M. Uckun

    2001-01-01

    Spermicidal organometallic complexes of vanadium(IV) with bis(cyclopentadienyl) rings or vanadocenes are a new class of experimental contraceptive agents. In a systematic search for vanadocenes with selective spermicidal activity, we identified vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC) as the most potent and stable spermicidal compound. In this study, groups of 10 B6C3F1 and 20 female CD-1 mice were exposed intravaginally to a gel-microemulsion containing

  2. Subchronic (13-week) toxicity studies of intravaginal administration of spermicidal vanadocene acetylacetonato monotriflate in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osmond J D'Cruz; Barbara Waurzyniak; Fatih M Uckun

    2002-01-01

    Bis-cyclopentadienyl complexes of vanadium(IV) or vanadocenes are rapid and potent inhibitors of human sperm motility with potential as a new class of contraceptive agents. In this study, groups of 10 B6C3F1 and 20 CD-1 female mice were exposed intravaginally to a gel-microemulsion containing 0, 0.06, 0.12, or 0.25% of a representative vanadocene, vanadocene acetylacetonato monotriflate (VDACAC), five days per week

  3. Hormone-Treated Snell Dwarf Mice Regain Fertility But Remain Long Lived and Disease Resistant

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Maggie; Smith-Wheelock, Michael; Harper, James M.; Sigler, Robert; Miller, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Snell dwarf mice have multiple hormonal deficits, but the way in which these deficits postpone aging are still uncertain. In this study, Snell dwarf mice received 11 weeks of growth hormone and thyroxine injections that increased their weight by approximately 45%, although they remained much smaller than controls. The hormone treatment also restored fertility to male dwarf mice. Despite these effects on growth and maturation, the hormone treatments did not diminish life span or lower the resistance of dwarf mice to cataracts and kidney disease. Administration of thyroxine in food throughout adult life did diminish longevity of Snell dwarf mice, although these mice remain longer lived than control animals. These results show that a 45% increase in body size does not impair longevity or disease resistance for dwarf mice of either sex, and that the exceptional longevity of Snell dwarf mice does not, at least for males, depend on prepubertal immaturity. PMID:15699523

  4. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Animal Models of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subjects are used widely in the study of sleep and sleep disorders, the study of animals has been invaluable in developing our understanding about the physiology of sleep and the underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Historically, the use of animals for the study of sleep disorders has arguably been most fruitful for the condition of narcolepsy, in which studies of dogs and mice revealed previously unsuspected mechanisms for this condition. The current overview considers animal models that have been used to study 4 of the most common human sleep disorders—insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea—and summarizes considerations relevant to the use of animals for the study of sleep and sleep disorders. Animal-based research has been vital to the elucidation of mechanisms that underlie sleep, its regulation, and its disorders and undoubtedly will remain crucial for discovering and validating sleep mechanisms and testing interventions for sleep disorders. PMID:23582416

  6. ApoE-Deficient Mice Develop Lesions of All Phases of Atherosclerosis Throughout the Arterial Tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Nakashima; Andrew S. Plump; Elaine W. Raines; Jan L. Breslow; Russell Ross

    2010-01-01

    Initial description of apolipoprotein (apo) E-de- ficient transgenic mice demonstrated the development of severe hypercholesterolemia due to probable delayed clear- ance of large atherogenic particles from the circulation. Ex- amination of these mice demonstrated foam cell accumulation in the aortic root and pulmonary arteries by 10 weeks of age. In the present study, the animals were fed either chow or

  7. Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal studies?

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, R.O.; Koester, K.J.; Ionova, S.; Yao, W.; Lane, N.E.; Ager, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the strength and toughness of bone has become an integral part of many biological and bioengineering studies on the structural properties of bone and their degradation due to aging, disease and therapeutic treatment. Whereas the biomechanical techniques for characterizing bone strength are well documented, few studies have focused on the theory, methodology, and various experimental procedures for evaluating the fracture toughness of bone, i.e., its resistance to fracture, with particular reference to whole bone testing in small animal studies. In this tutorial, we consider the many techniques for evaluating toughness and assess their specific relevance and application to the mechanical testing of small animal bones. Parallel experimental studies on wild-type rat and mouse femurs are used to evaluate the utility of these techniques and specifically to determine the coefficient of variation of the measured toughness values. PMID:18647665

  8. Meta-analysis identifies gene-by-environment interactions as demonstrated in a study of 4,965 mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Yong; Han, Buhm; Furlotte, Nicholas; Joo, Jong Wha J; Shih, Diana; Davis, Richard C; Lusis, Aldons J; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Identifying environmentally-specific genetic effects is a key challenge in understanding the structure of complex traits. Model organisms play a crucial role in the identification of such gene-by-environment interactions, as a result of the unique ability to observe genetically similar individuals across multiple distinct environments. Many model organism studies examine the same traits but under varying environmental conditions. For example, knock-out or diet-controlled studies are often used to examine cholesterol in mice. These studies, when examined in aggregate, provide an opportunity to identify genomic loci exhibiting environmentally-dependent effects. However, the straightforward application of traditional methodologies to aggregate separate studies suffers from several problems. First, environmental conditions are often variable and do not fit the standard univariate model for interactions. Additionally, applying a multivariate model results in increased degrees of freedom and low statistical power. In this paper, we jointly analyze multiple studies with varying environmental conditions using a meta-analytic approach based on a random effects model to identify loci involved in gene-by-environment interactions. Our approach is motivated by the observation that methods for discovering gene-by-environment interactions are closely related to random effects models for meta-analysis. We show that interactions can be interpreted as heterogeneity and can be detected without utilizing the traditional uni- or multi-variate approaches for discovery of gene-by-environment interactions. We apply our new method to combine 17 mouse studies containing in aggregate 4,965 distinct animals. We identify 26 significant loci involved in High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, many of which are consistent with previous findings. Several of these loci show significant evidence of involvement in gene-by-environment interactions. An additional advantage of our meta-analysis approach is that our combined study has significantly higher power and improved resolution compared to any single study thus explaining the large number of loci discovered in the combined study. PMID:24415945

  9. Meta-Analysis Identifies Gene-by-Environment Interactions as Demonstrated in a Study of 4,965 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jong Wha J.; Shih, Diana; Davis, Richard C.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Identifying environmentally-specific genetic effects is a key challenge in understanding the structure of complex traits. Model organisms play a crucial role in the identification of such gene-by-environment interactions, as a result of the unique ability to observe genetically similar individuals across multiple distinct environments. Many model organism studies examine the same traits but under varying environmental conditions. For example, knock-out or diet-controlled studies are often used to examine cholesterol in mice. These studies, when examined in aggregate, provide an opportunity to identify genomic loci exhibiting environmentally-dependent effects. However, the straightforward application of traditional methodologies to aggregate separate studies suffers from several problems. First, environmental conditions are often variable and do not fit the standard univariate model for interactions. Additionally, applying a multivariate model results in increased degrees of freedom and low statistical power. In this paper, we jointly analyze multiple studies with varying environmental conditions using a meta-analytic approach based on a random effects model to identify loci involved in gene-by-environment interactions. Our approach is motivated by the observation that methods for discovering gene-by-environment interactions are closely related to random effects models for meta-analysis. We show that interactions can be interpreted as heterogeneity and can be detected without utilizing the traditional uni- or multi-variate approaches for discovery of gene-by-environment interactions. We apply our new method to combine 17 mouse studies containing in aggregate 4,965 distinct animals. We identify 26 significant loci involved in High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, many of which are consistent with previous findings. Several of these loci show significant evidence of involvement in gene-by-environment interactions. An additional advantage of our meta-analysis approach is that our combined study has significantly higher power and improved resolution compared to any single study thus explaining the large number of loci discovered in the combined study. PMID:24415945

  10. Animal Models of Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Denise E.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B). Unless prophylactic treatment is provided, patients with severe disease (less than 1% clotting activity) typically experience frequent spontaneous bleeds. Current treatment is largely based on intravenous infusion of recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrate. More effective factor products are being developed. Moreover, gene therapies for sustained correction of hemophilia are showing much promise in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. These advances in molecular medicine heavily depend on availability of well-characterized small and large animal models of hemophilia, primarily hemophilia mice and dogs. Experiments in these animals represent important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia, such a protein and gene therapies or immune tolerance protocols. While murine models are excellent for studies of large groups of animals using genetically defined strains, canine models are important for testing scale-up and for longer-term follow-up as well as for studies that require larger blood volumes. PMID:22137432

  11. Oxytocin involvement in SSRI-induced delayed ejaculation: a review of animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trynke R. de Jong; Jan G. Veening; Berend Olivier; Marcel D. Waldinger

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) differ in the severity of induced ejaculation delay. Various studies indicate that oxytocin is involved in sexual behavior. AIM: To review and evaluate the involvement of oxytocin in SSRI-induced ejaculation delay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oxytocine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotransmission, and desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptors. METHODS: A review and critical analysis of animal studies investigating

  12. Intravital microscopy: a novel tool to study cell biology in living animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Weigert; Monika Sramkova; Laura Parente; Panomwat Amornphimoltham; Andrius Masedunskas

    2010-01-01

    Intravital microscopy encompasses various optical microscopy techniques aimed at visualizing biological processes in live\\u000a animals. In the last decade, the development of non-linear optical microscopy resulted in an enormous increase of in vivo\\u000a studies, which have addressed key biological questions in fields such as neurobiology, immunology and tumor biology. Recently,\\u000a few studies have shown that subcellular processes can be imaged

  13. Data base on animal mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A data base on animal mortality has been compiled. The literature on LD/sub 50/ and the dose-response function for radiation-induced lethality, reflect several inconsistencies - primarily due to dose assignments and to analytical methods and/or mathematical models used. Thus, in order to make the individual experiments which were included in the data base as consistent as possible, an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment group was made so that the interspecies differences are minimized. The LD/sub 50/ was recalculated using a single estimation procedure for all studies for which sufficient experimental data are available. For small animals such as mice, the dose to the hematopoietic system is approximately equal to the treatment dose, but for large animals the marrow dose may be about half of the treatment dose.

  14. Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AM; Rudd, JA; Tattersall, FD; Aziz, Q; Andrews, PLR

    2009-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms encountered in medicine as either symptoms of disease or side effects of treatments. Developing novel anti-emetics and identifying emetic liability in novel chemical entities rely on models that can recreate the complexity of these multi-system reflexes. Animal models (especially the ferret and dog) are the current gold standard; however, the selection of appropriate models is still a matter of debate, especially when studying the subjective human sensation of nausea. Furthermore, these studies are associated with animal suffering. Here, following a recent workshop held to review the utility of animal models in nausea and vomiting research, we discuss the limitations of some of the current models in the context of basic research, anti-emetic development and emetic liability detection. We provide suggestions for how these limitations may be overcome using non-animal alternatives, including greater use of human volunteers, in silico and in vitro techniques and lower organisms. PMID:19371333

  15. Development of an animal model to study the potential neurotoxic effects associated with welding fume inhalation.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; O'Callaghan, James P; Miller, Diane B

    2006-09-01

    Serious questions have been raised regarding a possible causal association between neurological effects in welders and the presence of manganese in welding fume. An experimental model is needed that could examine the potential neurotoxic effect of manganese after pulmonary exposure to welding fume. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recently finished construction of a completely automated, computer controlled welding fume generation and inhalation exposure system for laboratory animals. The system is comprised of a programmable six-axis robotic welding arm and a water-cooled arc welding torch. A flexible trunk has been attached to the robotic arm of the welder and is used to collect and transport fume from the vicinity of the arc to the animal exposure chamber. Preliminary fume characterization studies have indicated that particle morphology, size, and chemical composition were comparable to welding fume generated in the workplace. Animal inhalation studies are currently underway. With the development of this novel system, an animal model has been established using controlled welding exposures to investigate the possible mechanisms by which welding fume may affect the central nervous system. PMID:16546258

  16. Repeated oral co-exposure to yessotoxin and okadaic acid: a short term toxicity study in mice.

    PubMed

    Sosa, S; Ardizzone, M; Beltramo, D; Vita, F; Dell'Ovo, V; Barreras, A; Yasumoto, T; Tubaro, A

    2013-12-15

    The polyethers yessotoxin (YTX) and okadaic acid (OA) are two marine algal toxins frequently associated as edible shellfish contaminants. Seafood contamination by these compounds, also at low concentrations and for a long period of time, can increase the possibility of their simultaneous and repeated ingestion, with possible synergistic toxic effects. Thus, in vivo toxicity by repeated oral exposure to a combination of fixed doses of YTX and OA (1 mg YTX/kg and 0.185 mg OA/kg, daily for 7 days) was investigated in mice, in comparison to that of each toxin alone. No mortality, signs of toxicity, diarrhea or hematological changes was induced by the toxins co-administration or by the single toxins. Light microscopy revealed changes at gastric level (multifocal subacute inflammation, erosions and epithelial hyperplasia) in 2/5 mice co-administered with the toxins. In animals dosed only with OA, epithelial hyperplasia of forestomach and slight focal subacute inflammation of its submucosa were noted. No changes were induced by the treatment with YTX. Ultrastructural analysis of the heart revealed some cardiomyocytes with "loose packing" of myofibrils and aggregated rounded mitochondria in mice co-administered with the toxins or with YTX; OA-treated mice showed only occasional mitochondrial assemblage and dilated sarcomeres. Thus, the combined oral doses of YTX (1 mg/kg/day) and OA (0.185 mg/kg/day) did not exert cumulative or additive toxic effects in mice, in comparison to the single toxins. PMID:24060376

  17. Assessment of GE food safety using '-omics' techniques and long-term animal feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E

    2013-05-25

    Despite the fact that a thorough, lengthy and costly evaluation of genetically engineered (GE) crop plants (including compositional analysis and toxicological tests) is imposed before marketing some European citizens remain sceptical of the safety of GE food and feed. In this context, are additional tests necessary? If so, what can we learn from them? To address these questions, we examined data from 60 recent high-throughput '-omics' comparisons between GE and non-GE crop lines and 17 recent long-term animal feeding studies (longer than the classical 90-day subchronic toxicological tests), as well as 16 multigenerational studies on animals. The '-omics' comparisons revealed that the genetic modification has less impact on plant gene expression and composition than that of conventional plant breeding. Moreover, environmental factors (such as field location, sampling time, or agricultural practices) have a greater impact than transgenesis. None of these '-omics' profiling studies has raised new safety concerns about GE varieties; neither did the long-term and multigenerational studies on animals. Therefore, there is no need to perform such long-term studies in a case-by-case approach, unless reasonable doubt still exists after conducting a 90-day feeding test. In addition, plant compositional analysis and '-omics' profiling do not indicate that toxicological tests should be mandatory. We discuss what complementary fundamental studies should be performed and how to choose the most efficient experimental design to assess risks associated with new GE traits. The possible need to update the current regulatory framework is discussed. PMID:23253614

  18. Suppression of nociceptive reactions in mice under low-intensity microwave irradiation of acupuncture points

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. P. Limanskii; Z. A. Tamarova; E. G. Bidkov; N. D. Kolbun

    1999-01-01

    We studied nociceptive responses to subcutaneous injections of formalin and electrical stimulation of the limbs in control\\u000a mice and in mice whose acupuncture points (AP) were subjected to low-intensity microwave irradiation. In the latter animals,\\u000a nociceptive reactions were significantly weaker than those in the control mice. The analgesic effect depended on what AP was\\u000a selected and irradiated and on the

  19. Altered cerebral protein synthesis in fragile X syndrome: studies in human subjects and knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mei; Schmidt, Kathleen C; Zametkin, Alan J; Bishu, Shrinivas; Horowitz, Lisa M; Burlin, Thomas V; Xia, Zengyan; Huang, Tianjiang; Quezado, Zenaide M; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated protein synthesis is thought to be a core phenotype of fragile X syndrome (FXS). In a mouse model (Fmr1 knockout (KO)) of FXS, rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) are increased in selective brain regions. We hypothesized that rCPS are also increased in FXS subjects. We measured rCPS with the ?-[1-11C]leucine positron emission tomography (PET) method in whole brain and 10 regions in 15 FXS subjects who, because of their impairments, were studied under deep sedation with propofol. We compared results with those of 12 age-matched controls studied both awake and sedated. In controls, we found no differences in rCPS between awake and propofol sedation. Contrary to our hypothesis, FXS subjects under propofol sedation had reduced rCPS in whole brain, cerebellum, and cortex compared with sedated controls. To investigate whether propofol could have a disparate effect in FXS subjects masking usually elevated rCPS, we measured rCPS in C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) and KO mice awake or under propofol sedation. Propofol decreased rCPS substantially in most regions examined in KO mice, but in WT mice caused few discrete changes. Propofol acts by decreasing neuronal activity either directly or by increasing inhibitory synaptic activity. Our results suggest that changes in synaptic signaling can correct increased rCPS in FXS. PMID:23299245

  20. A feasibility study of PETiPIX: an ultra high resolution small animal PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Safavi-Naeini, M.; Franklin, D. R.; Petasecca, M.; Guatelli, S.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Hutton, B. F.; Lerch, M. L. F.

    2013-12-01

    PETiPIX is an ultra high spatial resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner designed for imaging mice brains. Four Timepix pixellated silicon detector modules are placed in an edge-on configuration to form a scanner with a field of view (FoV) 15 mm in diameter. Each detector module consists of 256 × 256 pixels with dimensions of 55 × 55 × 300 ?m3. Monte Carlo simulations using GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) were performed to evaluate the feasibility of the PETiPIX design, including estimation of system sensitivity, angular dependence, spatial resolution (point source, hot and cold phantom studies) and evaluation of potential detector shield designs. Initial experimental work also established that scattered photons and recoil electrons could be detected using a single edge-on Timepix detector with a positron source. Simulation results estimate a spatial resolution of 0.26 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at the centre of FoV and 0.29 mm FWHM overall spatial resolution with sensitivity of 0.01%, and indicate that a 1.5 mm thick tungsten shield parallel to the detectors will absorb the majority of non-coplanar annihilation photons, significantly reducing the rates of randoms. Results from the simulated phantom studies demonstrate that PETiPIX is a promising design for studies demanding high resolution images of mice brains.

  1. A COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE HUMAN KNEE AND SIX ANIMAL SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; McElfresh, Megan; Fleming, Braden C.; Murray, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Animal models are an indispensable tool for developing and testing new clinical applications regarding the treatment of acute injuries and chronic diseases of the knee joint. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the anatomy of the intra-articular structures of the human knee to species commonly used in large animal research studies. Methods Fresh frozen cow (n=4), sheep (n=3), goat (n=4), dog (n=4), pig (n=5), rabbit (n=5), and human (n=4) cadaveric knees were used. Passive range of motion and intra-articular structure sizes of the knees were measured, the structure sizes normalized to the tibial plateau, and compared among the species. Results Statistically significant differences in the range of motion and intra-articular structure sizes were found among all the species. Only the human knee was able to attain full extension. After normalization, only the pig ACL was significantly longer than the human counterpart. The tibial insertion site of the ACL was split by the anterior lateral meniscus attachment in the cow, sheep, and pig knees. The sheep PCL had two distinct tibial insertion sites, while all the other knees had only one. Furthermore, only in human knees, both lateral meniscal attachments were located more centrally than the medial meniscal attachments. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance Despite the relatively preserved dimensions of the cruciate ligaments, menisci, and intercondylar notch amongst human and animals, structural differences in the cruciate ligament attachment sites and morphology of the menisci between humans and animals are important to consider when selecting an animal model. PMID:21852139

  2. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  3. A comparative study of free oligosaccharides in the milk of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Simone; Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Al Busadah, Khalid A; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M; Rudd, Pauline M

    2014-04-14

    The present study was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of oligosaccharides present in the milk of a variety of important domestic animals including cows, goats, sheep, pigs, horses and dromedary camels. Using an analytical workflow that included ultra-performance liquid chromatography-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight MS, detailed oligosaccharide libraries were established. The partial or full characterisation of the neutral/fucosylated, phosphorylated and sialylated structures was facilitated by sequencing with linkage- and sugar-specific exoglycosidases. Relative peak quantification of the 2-aminobenzamide-labelled oligosaccharides provided additional information. Milk from domestic animals contained a much larger variety of complex oligosaccharides than was previously assumed, and thirteen of these structures have been identified previously in human milk. The direct comparison of the oligosaccharide mixtures reflects their role in the postnatal maturation of different types of gastrointestinal systems, which, in this way, are prepared for certain post-weaning diets. The potential value of animal milk for the commercial extraction of oligosaccharides to be used in human and animal health is highlighted. PMID:24635885

  4. [Possibilities and limitations of fibroblast cultures in the study of animal aging].

    PubMed

    Van Gansen, P; Van Lerberghe, N

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Aging--the effect of time--occurs in every living organism. Senescence is the last period of the lifespan, leading to death. It happens in all animals, with the exception of a few didermic species (Hydras) having a stock of embryonic cells and being immortal. The causes of animal senescence are badly known. They depend both on genetic characters (maximal lifespan of a species) and on medium factors (mean expectation of life of the animals of a species). Animal senescence could depend on cell aging: 1) by senescence and death of the differentiated cells, 2) by modified proliferation and differentiation of the stem cells of differentiated tissues, 3) by alterations in the extracellular matrices, 4) by interactions between factors 1) 2) and 3) in each tissue, 5) by interactions between the several tissues of an organism. This complexity badly impedes the experimental study of animal senescence. Normal mammal cells are aging when they are cultivated (in vitro ageing): their phenotype varies and depends on the cell generation (in vitro differentiation); the last cell-generation doesn't divide anymore and declines until death of the culture (in vitro senescence). Analysis of these artificial but well controlled systems allows an experimental approach of the proliferation, differentiation, senescence and death of the cells and of the extracellular matrix functions. Present literature upon in vitro aging of cultivated human cells is essentially made of papers where proliferation and differentiation characteristics are compared between early ("young") and late ("old") cell-generations of the cultures. FIBROBLASTIC CELLS OF THE MOUSE SKIN. This cell type has been studied in our laboratory, using different systems: 1) Primary cultures isolated from peeled skins of 19 day old mouse embryos, 2) Mouse dermis analyzed in the animals, 3) Cultivated explants of skins, 4) Serial sub-cultures of fibroblasts isolated from these explants, 5) Cells cultivated comparably on plane substrates (glass, plastic, collagen films) and on tridimensional matrices (collagen fibres). Systems 2), 3), 4) and 5) have been obtained either from 19 day old embryos or from 6 groups of animals of different ages (from 1/2 till 25 month). In primary cultures (system 1) all the cell generations have been analyzed, including the last one until death of the culture. We have shown that many characters are varying with cell-generation: cell form and cell mass, rate of DNA replication and cell division, rate of RNA transcription, nature of the accumulated and of the synthetized proteins, organization of the cytoskeletal elements, organization of the extracellular matrix, type of cell death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3079271

  5. Checklist for reporting and reviewing studies of experimental animal models of multiple sclerosis and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sandra; Baker, David

    2012-07-01

    Animal models of neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, have greatly contributed to our understanding of human disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). These models play a key role in drug development and have led to novel therapeutic approaches to treat human diseases. Nevertheless, some studies showing efficacy of therapies in animal models have not translated well to the clinic. In part, this disparity can be explained by differences in the biology of animals and humans. Another contributing factor is the quality of execution and reporting of studies, which is the responsibility of the authors. However, the acceptance of these papers depends on the quality of refereeing and editorial proficiency. When reporting animal studies, it is recommended that manuscripts conform to the principals of the Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (Kilkenny et al., 2010). This provides a list of 20 guidelines that should be employed in order to make papers consistent as well as transparent. However, conformation to the ARRIVE guidelines requires significantly more information than current publications often report. We have thus refined the ARRIVE guidelines, incorporated the 3Rs (Reduction, Refinement and Replacement) principals, and specifically adapted them to the reporting of animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders. As an example we have used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used model of MS, since many EAE studies lack evidence of adoption of indicators of quality (Kilkenny et al., 2009; Baker and Amor, 2010; Vesterinen et al., 2010). The guide, reported here, is intended to act as a checklist to aid both authors and referees of manuscripts, just as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines are a compulsory part of reporting clinical trials. Our aim is to improve the conclusions drawn from EAE studies and thus aid better translation to the clinical and treatment of MS. It is thus recommended that this checklist be adhered to for both authors and referees of papers submitted to all relevant journals including the journal Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. PMID:25877075

  6. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of ‘high-quality’ SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments. PMID:20551243

  7. Decreased benzodiazepine receptor binding in epileptic El mice: A quantitative autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasaka, Y.; Ito, M.; Tsuda, H.; Shiraishi, H.; Oguro, K.; Mutoh, K.; Mikawa, H. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors and subtypes were examined in El mice and normal ddY mice with a quantitative autoradiographic technique. Specific (3H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice, which had experienced repeated convulsions, was significantly lower in the cortex and hippocampus than in ddY mice and unstimulated El mice. In the amygdala, specific ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice was lower than in ddY mice. There was a tendency for the ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in these regions in unstimulated El mice to be intermediate between that in stimulated El mice and that in ddY mice, but there was no significant difference between unstimulated El mice and ddY mice. ({sup 3}H)Flunitrazepam binding displaced by CL218,872 was significantly lower in the cortex of stimulated El mice than in that of the other two groups, and in the hippocampus of stimulated than of unstimulated El mice. These data suggest that the decrease in ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice may be due mainly to that of type 1 receptor and may be the result of repeated convulsions.

  8. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  9. Reduction of burn scar formation by halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets: a controlled study on nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zeplin, Philip H

    2012-03-01

    Burn scar formations can cause disfiguration and loss of dermal function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of modified silicone gel sheets with an antifibrotic drug halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface produce an effect on scar development. There were a total of 2 animal groups. The athymic nude mice (nu/nu) of both groups underwent transplantation of full-thickness human skin grafts onto their backs and setting of partial thickness burn injury. The status of local scar development was observed over a period of 3 months after the application of silicone gel sheets and also after application of surface-modified halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets. Subsequently, via real-time polymerase chain reaction, the cDNA levels from key mediators of scar formation (transforming growth factor beta, COL1A1, connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9) were established and statistically evaluated. In comparison with uncoated silicone gel sheets, the application of halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets lead to a significant difference in gene expression activity in scar tissue. Halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface silicone gel sheets significantly increase the antiscarring effect of adhesive silicone gel sheets by deceleration and downregulation of scar development by normalization of the expression activity. PMID:22356780

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury Reduces Soluble Extracellular Amyloid-? in Mice: A Methodologically Novel Combined Microdialysis- Controlled Cortical Impact Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwetye, Katherine E.; Cirrito, John R.; Esparza, Thomas J.; Mac Donald, Christine L.; Holtzman, David M.; Brody, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute amyloid-? peptide (A?) deposition has been observed in young traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, leading to the hypothesis that elevated extracellular A? levels could underlie the increased risk of dementia following TBI. However, a recent microdialysis-based study in human brain injury patients found that extracellular A? dynamics correlate with changes in neurological status. Because neurological status is generally diminished following injury, this correlation suggested the alternative hypothesis that soluble extracellular A? levels may instead be reduced after TBI relative to baseline. We have developed a methodologically novel mouse model that combines experimental controlled cortical impact TBI with intracerebral microdialysis. In this model, we found that A? levels in microdialysates were immediately decreased by 25–50% in the ipsilateral hippocampus following TBI. This result was found in PDAPP, Tg2576, and Tg2576-ApoE2 transgenic mice producing human A? plus wild-type animals. Changes were not due to altered probe function, edema, changes in APP levels, or A? deposition. Similar decreases in A? were observed in phosphate buffered saline-soluble tissue extracts. Hippocampal electroencephalographic activity was also decreased up to 40% following TBI, and correlated with reduced microdialysate A? levels. These results support the alternative hypothesis that post-injury extracellular soluble A? levels are acutely decreased relative to baseline. Reduced neuronal activity may contribute, though the underlying mechanisms have not been definitively determined. Further work will be needed to assess the dynamics of insoluble and oligomeric A? after TBI. PMID:20682338

  11. Faecal corticosterone concentrations indicate that separately housed male mice are not more stressed than group housed males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hunt; C. Hambly

    2006-01-01

    Mice account for over 80% of all animals used in experimentation. This study investigated how different housing conditions affected stress levels by measuring both corticosterone levels, using non-invasive faecal collection, and behaviour. Sixty outbred MF1 male mice were used which were separated into five different housing conditions at the beginning of the study, (A) individually housed, floor area 490 cm2

  12. Sertraline and cocaine-induced locomotion in mice. I. Acute studies.

    PubMed

    Reith, M E; Wiener, H L; Fischette, C T

    1991-01-01

    The present study assessed the behavioral and pharmacokinetic interaction between the serotonin uptake blocker sertraline and cocaine in C57BL/6ByJ mice. Pretreatment with sertraline (1-32 mg/kg IP) did not affect the total amount of spontaneous locomotor activity during 50 min following administration of cocaine (15-40 mg/kg IP). At doses of sertraline (16 and 32 mg/kg) much higher than those found to inhibit ex vivo neuronal uptake of serotonin by 50% (1-2 mg/kg), the peak of cocaine-induced locomotor activity was shifted towards a later time. A similar effect was seen after pretreatment with serotonin uptake blockers other than sertraline, and also after desipramine. Sertraline (16 and 32 mg/kg), given 60 min prior to cocaine, did not affect levels of cocaine in brain and plasma, and cocaine administration did not alter the brain level of sertraline. Although female mice were more responsive to cocaine than male mice, they were not different in their response to sertraline. PMID:2057535

  13. Animal health studies using participatory epidemiology in the Mandrare Valley, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Elise L; Thrusfield, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Pastoral herders in Madagascar have limited access to animal health workers and veterinary medicines, and more information on their livestock diseases is needed, so that effective animal health programmes can be implemented. In this study, participatory epidemiology methods were used to gather such information in the Mandrare Valley. These included pair-wise ranking and matrix scoring. Eleven diseases were deemed to be priorities by pair-wise ranking. Matrix scoring and characterisation showed that the informant groups associated many disease syndromes with the same diseases, indicating agreement and understanding of the key diseases. The Malagasy-named syndromes, Soko, Besorko and Mamany lio, which are gastrointestinal parasitism, clostridial disease and babesiosis, respectively, were identified by every informant group. A greater sample size may be needed to characterise the diseases precisely with matrix scoring because, in this study, the matrices' scores had wide confidence intervals. PMID:23999777

  14. FMR1 Knockout mice: A model to study fragile X mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Oostra, B.A.; Bakker, C.E.; Reyniers, E. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation in humans with an incidence of 1 in 1250 males and 1 in 2500 females. The clinical syndrome includes moderate to severe mental retardation, autistic behavior, macroorchidism, and facial features, such as long face with mandibular prognathism and large, everted ears. The molecular basis for this disease is a large expansion of a triplet repeat (CGG){sub n} in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Due to this large expansion of the CGG repeat, the promoter region becomes methylated and the FMR1 gene is subsequently silenced. Hardly anything is known about the physiologic function of FMR1 and the pathologic mechanisms leading to these symptoms. Since the FMR1 gene is highly conserved in the mouse, we used the mouse to design a knockout model for the fragile X syndrome. These knockout mice lacking Fmrp have normal litter size suggesting that FMR1 is not essential in human gametogenesis and embryonic development. The knockout mice show the abnormalities also seen in the affected organs of human patients. Mutant mice show a gradual development through time of macroorchidism. In the knockout mice we observed cognitive defects in the form of deficits in learning (as shown by the hidden platform Morris water maze task) and behavioral abnormalities such as increased exploratory behavior and hyperactivity. Therefore this knockout mouse may serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of FMR1 in the fragile X syndrome and may serve as a model to elucidate the mechanisms involved in macroorchidism, abnormal behavior, and mental retardation.

  15. NITROBENZENE CARCINOGENICITY IN ANIMALS AND HUMAN HAZARD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with ...

  16. Animal models of steatohepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman Koteish; Anna Mae Diehl

    2002-01-01

    Animal models of hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Three models, genetically obese ob\\/ob mice, lipoatrophic mice and normal rats fed choline-deficient, methionine-restricted diets, have been particularly informative. All support the multiple ‘hit’ hypothesis for NAFLD pathogenesis that suggests that fatty livers are unusually vulnerable to oxidants and develop

  17. Animal Models of Gene–Nutrient Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R.

    2009-01-01

    Food intake of humans is governed by the food's nutritional value and pleasing taste, but also by other factors such as food cost and availability, cultural imperatives, and social status. The biological determinants of human food intake are not easily parsed from these other factors, making them hard to study against the whirligig aspects of human life in a modern age. The study of animals provides a useful alternative. Humans have a history of studying animal food intake, for agricultural reasons (e.g., pigs and cows), and for personal reasons (e.g., dogs and cats), and these practical concerns have been joined with the appreciation that other models can teach us the principles of behavior, genetics, and nutrition. Thus there is a steady use of the traditional animal models in this type of research, as well as growth in the use of other systems such as worms and flies. Rats and mice occupy a special niche as animal models for two reasons; first, they share with humans a love of the same types of food, and second, they are the target of a number of well-developed genetic tools. The available genetic tools that make mice a popular model include a well-annotated genome (Mouse Build 37), profiles of RNA expression from many tissues, a diverse panel of inbred strains, and the ability to manipulate genes in the whole animal, including removing a gene only in specific tissues (e.g., Cre-lox system). Mice have been harnessed to find genotypes that contribute to sweet-liking, and other studies are underway to understand how genetic variation might at least partially explain other puzzles of human appetites. Animal models provide a way to study the genetic determinants of food selection with experimental rigor and therefore complement human genetics studies. PMID:19037208

  18. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A G Schuurman; P A van den Brandt; E Dorant; R A Goldbohm

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available

  19. Diabetes genes identified by genome-wide association studies are regulated in mice by nutritional factors in metabolically relevant tissues and by glucose concentrations in islets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified many new genetic variants associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Many of these variants are in introns of known genes or between known genes, suggesting they affect the expression of these genes. The regulation of gene expression is often tissue and context dependent, for example occurring in response to dietary changes, hormone levels, or many other factors. Thus, to understand how these new genetic variants associated with diabetes risk may act, it is necessary to understand the regulation of their cognate genes. Results We identified fourteen type 2 diabetes-associated genes discovered by the first waves of GWAS for which there was little prior evidence of their potential role in diabetes (Adam30, Adamts9, Camk1d, Cdc123, Cdkal1, Cdkn2a, Cdkn2b, Ext2, Hhex, Ide, Jazf1, Lgr5, Thada and Tspan8). We examined their expression in metabolically relevant tissues including liver, adipose tissue, brain, and hypothalamus obtained from mice under fasted, non-fasted and high fat diet-fed conditions. In addition, we examined their expression in pancreatic islets from these mice cultured in low and high glucose. We found that the expression of Jazf1 was reduced by high fat feeding in liver, with similar tendencies in adipose tissue and the hypothalamus. Adamts9 expression was decreased in the hypothalamus of high fat fed mice. In contrast, the expression of Camk1d, Ext2, Jazf1 and Lgr5 were increased in the brain of non-fasted animals compared to fasted mice. Most notably, the expression levels of most of the genes were decreased in islets cultured in high glucose. Conclusions These data provide insight into the metabolic regulation of these new type 2 diabetes genes that will be important for determining how the GWAS variants affect gene expression and ultimately the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23442068

  20. New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Radugina, Elena A.; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Almeida, Eduardo

    The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the first to demonstrate differences in the shape of regenerating tails of space-flown and ground control newts. The space-flown and aquarium (simulated microgravity) animals developed lancet-shaped tails whereas 1 g con-trols (kept in space-type habitats) showed hook-like regenerates. These visual observations were supported by computer-aided processing of the images and statistical analysis of the results. Morphological examinations and cell proliferation measurements using BrdU demon-strated dorsal-ventral asymmetry as well as enhanced epithelial growth on the dorsal area of regenerating tails in 1 g newts. These findings were reproduced in laboratory tests on newts kept at 1 g and in large water tanks at cut g. The 1 g animals showed statistically significant deviations of the lancet-like tail shape typically seen in aquarium animals. Such modifications were found as early as regeneration stages III-IV and proved irreversible. The authors believe that the above phenomenon detected in newts used in many space experiments can serve as an adequate model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying gravitational effects upon animal morphogenesis.

  1. Irritable bladder syndrome in an animal model: a continuous monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Ghoniem, G M; Shaaban, A M; Clarke, M R

    1995-01-01

    Irritable bladder syndrome (IBS) was induced in four female African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) by the use of intravesical instillation of acetone. The animals were housed in a modified metabolic cage for continuous micturition monitoring, and two uroflowmeters connected to a remote PC monitored the frequency, voided volumes, and peak flows. Before and after, urea absorption studies and urodynamics were obtained for each animal. Urea absorption increased significantly after acetone instillation and returned to baseline after 4 weeks (26 to 66 to 32%). Intravesical acetone instillation produced marked effects on bladder physiology in the first week. Bladder compliance dropped from a baseline of 10.47 to 0.58 ml/cm H2O. The voiding pattern changed from a normal pattern with a mean voided volume of 17.58 ml into marked increase in frequency and dribbling pattern with few voids (mean = 5.03 ml). Systematic behavioral observations were carried out for 4 hours per day utilizing an observation program on a laptop computer. Activity patterns, attention, sterotypic behaviors, and self-directed activities were recorded for each monkey. The animals demonstrated decreased frequency of activity and increased frequency in self-directed activities (groom, scratch), behaviors consistent with an animal experiencing pain or discomfort. The findings suggested that IBS induction in monkeys is feasible and produces a clinical picture similar to interstitial cystitis in humans. It offers a suitable animal model to enhance the understanding of voiding dysfunction with its neural pathways and to test the different therapeutic modalities to control IBS. PMID:8750384

  2. Rapporteur report: Cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Leszczynski

    2005-01-01

    Three talks were presented in the session on “Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health”. The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from

  3. Contacts with animals and humans as risk factors for adult brain tumours. An international case–control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Ménégoz; J Little; M Colonna; A Arslan; S Preston-Martin; B Schlehofer; M Blettner; G. R Howe; P Ryan; G. G Giles; Y Rodvall; W. N Choi

    2002-01-01

    While numerous studies have addressed the possible role of farming and related exposures as risk factors for brain tumours in adults, few of them have examined the potential effect of exposure to farm animals or pets. In an international multicentre case–control study, we investigated whether residence on a farm, contact with animals, or working in occupations with a high degree

  4. Humanized mice are susceptible to Salmonella typhi infection

    PubMed Central

    Firoz Mian, M; Pek, Elisabeth A; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Ashkar, Ali A

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a pathogen that only infects humans. Currently, there is no animal model for studying this pathogen. Recently, alymphoid RAG-2?/?/?c?/? mice engrafted with human leukocytes, known as humanized mice, have been successfully utilized to develop experimental models for several human-specific viral infections, including HIV, human-like dengue fever and hepatitis C virus. Little is known about the usefulness and feasibility of the humanized mouse model for the study of human-specific bacterial pathogens, such as S. typhi. The aim of this study was to determine if Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi could establish productive infection in humanized mice. Here we report that intravenous inoculation of S. typhi into humanized mice, but not controls, established S. typhi infections. High bacterial loads were found in the liver, spleen, blood and bone marrow of mice reconstituted with human leukocytes, but not in the unreconstituted control mice. Importantly, S. typhi-infected humanized mice lost significant body weight, and some of the infected mice displayed neurological symptoms. Our data suggest, for the first time, that humanized mice are susceptible to S. typhi challenge and that this model can be utilized to study the pathogenesis of S. typhi to develop novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21200387

  5. Cytoplasmic transfer methods for studying the segregation of mitochondrial DNA in mice.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Thomas; Steinborn, Ralf; Burgstaller, Joerg P

    2015-01-01

    Heteroplasmic mice represent a valuable tool to study the segregation of different mtDNA haplotypes (mtDNAs with differing alleles) in vivo against a defined nuclear background. We describe two methods for the creation of such models, differing in the resulting initial heteroplasmy levels: (1) transfer of ooplasm and (2) fusion of two blastomeres. These methods result in typical heteroplasmy of 5 % and 50 % donor mtDNA, respectively. The choice of method depends on the aim of the study. By means of breeding, even 100 % donor mtDNA can be reached within few generations. PMID:25634287

  6. Toxicity studies of WY-14,643 (CAS No. 50892-23-4) administered in feed to male Sprague-Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Michael L

    2007-10-01

    Wy-14,643 was selected for inclusion in a series of studies on peroxisome proliferators because it is known to produce considerable peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Wy-14,643 (greater than 98% pure) in feed for up to 3 months; male B6C3F1 mice and male Syrian hamsters were exposed to Wy-14,643 in feed for 2 weeks or up to 3 months. Animals were evaluated for clinical pathology, plasma concentrations of Wy-14,643, reproductive system effects, cell proliferation and peroxisomal enzyme analyses, and histopathology. Single and multiple-dose toxicokinetic studies of Wy-14,643 were conducted in additional groups of male Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Furth rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in vivo in Tg.AC mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. In the 2-week studies, groups of five mice were fed diets containing 0, 10, 50, 100, 500, or 1,000 ppm Wy-14,643 (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 2 to 184 mg Wy-14,643/kg body weight). Groups of five hamsters were fed diets containing 0, 10, 100, 500, 1,000, or 5,000 ppm Wy-14,643 (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 1 to 550 mg/kg). All animals survived to the end of the studies. The mean body weight gain of 500 ppm mice was significantly less than that of the controls; hamsters exposed to 100 ppm or greater lost weight during the study. Feed consumption by 500 ppm mice was greater than that by the controls. Liver weights of all exposed groups of mice and hamsters were generally significantly increased. In the 2-week studies, an increase in peroxisomal enzyme activity occurred in 10 ppm mice; increases in peroxisomal $-oxidation, carnitine acetyltransferase, catalase, and acyl CoA oxidase occurred in all exposed mice compared to controls. Significantly increased BrdU-labeled hepatocyte percentages occurred in 100 and 1,000 ppm mice and 500 and 5,000 ppm hamsters; peroxisomal $-oxidation of lipids was increased in all exposed groups of mice and hamsters. Gross lesions in the 2-week studies included liver foci in one 500 ppm mouse and one 1,000 ppm hamster and enlarged livers in one hamster in each of the 100 and 500 ppm groups and two 5,000 ppm hamsters. All 500 and 1,000 ppm mice had hepatocyte hypertrophy of the liver, and 1,000 ppm mice also had widespread individual cell necrosis. Minimal to mild multifocal vacuolation of the liver occurred in hamsters exposed to 500 ppm or greater. In the 3-month core studies, groups of 10 male rats, mice, or hamsters were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, or 500 ppm Wy-14,643 (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0.3 to 34 mg/kg for rats, 0.9 to 135 mg/kg for mice, and 0.4 to 42 mg/kg for hamsters). Groups of 15 male rats, mice, or hamsters designated for special studies received the same concentrations of Wy-14,643 for up to 13 weeks. Groups of six male rats, 36 male mice, or 12 male hamsters designated for plasma concentration studies were fed diets containing 50, 100, or 500 ppm Wy-14,643 for up to 9 weeks. All core study animals survived to the end of the studies. Mean body weights were significantly decreased in all exposed groups except the 5 ppm groups and 10 ppm mice; hamsters in the 100 and 500 ppm groups lost weight during the study. Feed consumption by exposed rats and mice was generally similar to that by the controls; during week 14, hamsters exposed to 50 ppm or greater consumed slightly less feed than did the controls. The only clinical finding of toxicity was thinness of two 50 ppm and five 500 ppm hamsters. At all time points, the liver weights of exposed groups of core and special study rats, mice, and hamsters were generally significantly greater than those of the controls. Testis weights were significantly decreased in 500 ppm hamsters on day 34, in hamsters exposed to 5 ppm or greater at week 13 (special study), and in 100 and 500 ppm core study hamsters at the end of the study. In the sperm motility evaluation, the cauda epididymis weight of 500 ppm rats, epididymis

  7. Genetic diversity and recombination of murine noroviruses in immunocompromised mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Müller; U. Klemm; A. Mas Marques; E. Schreier

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Murine noroviruses (MNV) are newly identified pathogens which infect laboratory mice. In this study, we found a high prevalence\\u000a (64.3%) of MNV in various breeding colonies of immunocompromised, transgenic and wild-type mouse lines. All mice survived\\u000a infection with no signs of clinical disease. Faeces samples were collected from animals housed in two separate laboratory\\u000a mouse colonies in Berlin, Germany, and

  8. Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi Durairaj; Janice Launspach; Janet L Watt; Thomas R Businga; Joel N Kline; Peter S Thorne; Joseph Zabner

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl\\/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital.

  9. [The study of tool use as the way for general estimation of cognitive abilities in animals].

    PubMed

    Reznikova, Zh I

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of tool use is an effective way to determine cognitive abilities of animals. This approach raises hypotheses, which delineate limits of animal's competence in understanding of objects properties and interrelations and the influence of individual and social experience on their behaviour. On the basis of brief review of different models of manipulation with objects and tools manufacturing (detaching, subtracting and reshaping) by various animals (from elephants to ants) in natural conditions the experimental data concerning tool usage was considered. Tool behaviour of anumals could be observed rarely and its distribution among different taxons is rather odd. Recent studies have revealed that some species (for instance, bonobos and tamarins) which didn't manipulate tools in wild life appears to be an advanced tool users and even manufacturers in laboratory. Experimental studies of animals tool use include investigation of their ability to use objects physical properties, to categorize objects involved in tool activity by its functional properties, to take forces affecting objects into account, as well as their capacity of planning their actions. The crucial question is whether animals can abstract general principles of relations between objects regardless of the exact circumstances, or they develop specific associations between concerete things and situations. Effectiveness of laboratory methods is estimated in the review basing on comparative studies of tool behaviour, such as "support problem", "stick problem", "tube- and tube-trap problem", and "reserve tube problem". Levels of social learning, the role of imprinting, and species-specific predisposition to formation of specific domains are discussed. Experimental investigation of tool use allows estimation of the individuals' intelligence in populations. A hypothesis suggesting that strong predisposition to formation of specific associations can serve as a driving force and at the same time as obstacle to animals' activity is discussed. In several "technically gifted" species (such as woodpecker finches, New Caledonian crows, and chimpanzees) tool use seems to be guided by a rapid process of trial and error learning. Individuals that are predisposed to learn specific connections do this too quickly and thus become enslaved by stereotypic solutions of raising problems. PMID:16521567

  10. Beyond the mouse monopoly: studying the male germ line in domestic animal models.

    PubMed

    González, Raquel; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-05-19

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation of spermatogenesis and essential to maintain the continuous production of spermatozoa after the onset of puberty in the male. The study of the male germ line is important for understanding the process of spermatogenesis, unravelling mechanisms of stemness maintenance, cell differentiation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The transplantation of SSCs can contribute to the preservation of the genome of valuable individuals in assisted reproduction programs. In addition to the importance of SSCs for male fertility, their study has recently stimulated interest in the generation of genetically modified animals because manipulations of the male germ line at the SSC stage will be maintained in the long term and transmitted to the offspring. Studies performed mainly in the mouse model have laid the groundwork for facilitating advancements in the field of male germ line biology, but more progress is needed in nonrodent species in order to translate the technology to the agricultural and biomedical fields. The lack of reliable markers for isolating germ cells from testicular somatic cells and the lack of knowledge of the requirements for germ cell maintenance have precluded their long-term maintenance in domestic animals. Nevertheless, some progress has been made. In this review, we will focus on the state of the art in the isolation, characterization, culture, and manipulation of SSCs and the use of germ cell transplantation in domestic animals. PMID:25991701

  11. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  12. Animal-Assisted Activity at A. Meyer Children's Hospital: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Caprilli, Simona; Messeri, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The authors systematically studied the introduction of animal-assisted activity into a children's hospital in Italy. This pilot study examined the reactions of children, their parents and the hospital staff and the hospital-wide infection rate before and after the introduction of animals. The SAM (self-assessment manikin), three behavioral scales, analysis of children's graphic productions, a parent questionnaire and a staff questionnaire were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The children's participation was calculated. The analysis of the hospital infection rate was completed independently by the Hospital Infections Committee. The authors found that the presence of infections in the wards did not increase and the number of children at the meetings with pets in the wards was high (138 children). The study also found that the presence of animals produced some beneficial effects on children: a better perception of the environment and a good interaction with dogs. All parents were in favor of pets in the hospital, and 94% thought that this activity could benefit the child, as did the medical staff, although the staff needed more information about safety. The introduction of pets into the pediatric wards in an Italian children's hospital was a positive event because of the participation of hospitalized patients, the satisfaction expressed by both parents and medical staff, and the fact that the hospital infection rate did not change and no new infections developed after the introduction of dogs. PMID:16951723

  13. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  14. Validation study of ¹³¹I-RRL: assessment of biodistribution, SPECT imaging and radiation dosimetry in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Yan, Ping; Yin, Lei; Li, Ling; Chen, Xue Qi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Rong Fu

    2013-04-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastasis of malignant tumors. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) peptide is a tumor endothelial cell-specific binding sequence that may be used as a molecular probe for the imaging of malignant tumors in vivo. The aim of the present study was to further explore the characteristics of 131I?RRL by biodistribution tests, and to estimate the radiation dosimetry of 131I?RRL for humans using mice data. The RRL peptide was radiolabeled with 131I by a chloramine-T (CH-T) method. The radiolabeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were then characterized in vitro. 131I?RRL was injected intravenously into B16 xenograft-bearing Kunming mice. Biodistribution analysis and in vivo imaging were performed periodically. The radiation dosimetry in humans was calculated according to the organ distribution and the standard medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method in mice. All data were analyzed by statistical and MIRDOSE 3.1 software. The labeling efficiency of 131I?RRL reached 70.0±2.91% (n=5), and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95% following purification. In mice bearing B16 xenografts, 131I?RRL rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidneys, the stomach and the tumor tissue. The specific uptake of 131I?RRL in the tumor increased over time and was significantly higher than that of the other organs, 24-72 h following injection (P<0.05). The ratio of tumor-to-skeletal muscle (T/SM) tissue exceeded 4.75, and the ratio of the tumor-to-blood (T/B) tissue peaked at 3.36. In the single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of Kunming mice bearing B16 xenografts, the tumors were clearly identifiable at 6 h, and significant uptake was evident 24-72 h following administration of 131I?RRL. The effective dose for the adult male dosimetric model was estimated to be 0.0293 mSv/MBq. Higher absorbed doses were estimated for the stomach (0.102 mGy/MBq), the small intestines (0.0699 mGy/MBq), the kidneys (0.0611 mGy/MBq) and the liver (0.055 mGy/MBq). These results highlight the potential of 131I?RRL as a ligand for the SPECT imaging of tumors. Administration of 131I?RRL led to a reasonable radiation dose burden and was safe for human use. PMID:23440460

  15. Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Risk assessment requires dose-response data for the evaluation of the relationship between exposure to an environmental stressor and the probability of developing an adverse health effect. Information from human studies is usually limited and additional results from animal studies are often needed for the assessment of risks in humans. Combination of risk estimates requires an assessment and correction of the important biases in the two types of studies. In this paper we aim to illustrate a quantitative approach to combining data from human and animal studies after adjusting for bias in human studies. For our purpose we use the example of the association between exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Methods Firstly, we identify and adjust for the main sources of systematic error in selected human studies of the association between occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Evidence from selected animal studies is also accounted for by extrapolating to average ambient, occupational exposure concentrations of diesel exhaust. In a second stage, the bias adjusted effect estimates are combined in a common effect measure through meta-analysis. Results The random-effects pooled estimate (RR) for exposure to diesel exhaust vs. non-exposure was found 1.37 (95% C.I.: 1.08-1.65) in animal studies and 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.09-2.10) in human studies, whilst the overall was found equal to 1.49 (95% C.I.: 1.21-1.78) with a greater contribution from human studies. Without bias adjustment in human studies, the pooled effect estimate was 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.28-1.89). Conclusions Adjustment for the main sources of uncertainty produced lower risk estimates showing that ignoring bias leads to risk estimates potentially biased upwards. PMID:21481231

  16. Induction of adjuvant arthritis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, B; Katz, D R; Isenberg, D A; Ibrahim, M A; Le Page, S; Hutchings, P; Schwartz, R S; Cooke, A

    1992-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis, induced by injections of Freund's complete adjuvant into the footpads of some rat strains, has been recognized as a useful animal model for many years. There has, however, been notable lack of success in reproducing this model in other species. We now describe the development of adjuvant arthritis in healthy strain mice approximately 2 months after injection of Freund's complete adjuvant. Although the clinical appearance of the mice and the joint histopathology closely resemble the adjuvant arthritis reported in the rat, we were unable to detect rheumatoid factor in sera from the affected animals. In parallel studies of T cell proliferation, affected animals responded to some mycobacterial antigens but not to the 65-kD heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting that some other epitope is important in the development of the disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 2 PMID:1458683

  17. Estrogen receptor beta protects against acoustic trauma in mice.

    PubMed

    Meltser, Inna; Tahera, Yeasmin; Simpson, Evan; Hultcrantz, Malou; Charitidi, Konstantina; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Canlon, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    The hormone estradiol affects the auditory system both by itself and by its interaction with neuroprotective factors. In this study, we examined the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in response to auditory trauma. We found a ligand-dependent protective role for ERbeta in the auditory system by investigating mice deficient in ERalpha (ERKO mice), ERbeta (BERKO mice), and aromatase (ARKO mice). Basal auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were similar in all animals. An acoustic trauma causing a temporary hearing loss raised ABR thresholds in male and female BERKO and ARKO mice compared with WT and ERKO mice. The ERalpha-selective agonist, propyl(1H) pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl-trisphenol (PPT), partially protected ARKO mice from trauma, while the ERbeta-selective agonist, 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN), protected WT and ARKO mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting confirmed the expression of ERbeta in cochlea of WT males and females. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neuroprotective peptide that can be induced by estrogen, was lower in BERKO and ARKO mice compared with WT. DPN treatment increased BDNF expression in ARKO mice. These data indicate ERbeta-mediated neuroprotection involving BDNF in the auditory system of males and females. PMID:18317592

  18. The individuality of mice.

    PubMed

    Lathe, R

    2004-12-01

    Mutant mice simulating human CNS disorders are used as models for therapeutic drug development. Drug evaluation requires a coherent correlation between behavioral phenotype and drug status. Variations in behavioral responses could mask such correlations, a problem highlighted by the three-site studies of Crabbe et al. (1999) and Wahlsten et al. (2003a). Factors contributing to variation are considered, focusing on differences between individual animals. Genetic differences due to minisatellite variation suggest that each mouse is genetically distinct. Effects during gestation, including maternal stress, influence later life behavior; while endocrine exchanges between fetus and parent, and between male and female fetuses dependent on intrauterine position, also contribute. Pre and perinatal nutrition and maternal attention also play a role. In adults, endocrine cyclicity in females is a recognized source of behavioral diversity. Notably, there is increasing recognition that groups of wild and laboratory mice have complex social structures, illustrated through consideration of Crowcroft (1966). Dominance status can markedly modify behavior in test paradigms addressing anxiety, locomotion and aggressiveness, to an extent comparable to mutation or drug status. Understanding how such effects amplify the behavioral spectrum displayed by otherwise identical animals will improve testing. PMID:15544575

  19. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast-induced neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements, or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration, and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the comparative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link between experiments and studies of human cases. However, in order for mathematical simulations to be completely useful, the predictions will most likely have to be validated by detailed data from animal experiments. Some aspects of BINT can conceivably be studied in vitro. However, factors such as systemic response, brain edema, inflammation, vasospasm, or changes in synaptic transmission and behavior must be evaluated in experimental animals. Against this background, it is necessary that such animal experiments are carefully developed imitations of actual components in the blast injury. This paper describes and discusses examples of different designs of experimental models relevant to BINT. PMID:22485104

  20. Decrease in particle-induced osteolysis in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Nich, Christophe; Marchadier, Arnaud; Sedel, Laurent; Petite, Hervé; Vidal, Catherine; Hamadouche, Moussa

    2010-02-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a common disorder that results from increased osteoclastic activity caused by estrogen deficiency. Whether postmenopausal bone remodeling can alter the response to particulate debris is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone response to polyethylene particles in an ovariectomized murine model. Polyethylene particles were implanted onto the calvaria of seven control mice and seven ovariectomized (OVX) mice, as compared with calvaria from sham-operated and OVX mice. Calvaria were harvested after 14 days. Skulls were analyzed with a high-resolution micro-CT and by histomorphometry after staining with Stevenel blue and picrofuschine, and for tartrate-specific alkaline phosphatase. As assessed by micro-CT, particle implantation induced a significant decrease in bone thickness in control mice, while bone thickness remained stable in OVX mice. In particle-implanted animals, the osteoclast number was 2.84 +/- 0.3 in control mice and 1.74 +/- 0.22 in OVX mice. Mean bone loss was -12% +/- 1.9% in control mice and -4.7% +/- 1.7% in OVX animals. The reduction of osteolytic response suggests that ovariectomy may have a protective role against particle-induced bone resorption. PMID:19725120

  1. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    animals. We create self-animating, autonomous agents which emulate the realistic appearance, movementArtificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior ¡ Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics

  2. Bilateral cochlear implantation in the ferret: A novel animal model for behavioral studies

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Douglas E.H.; Vongpaisal, Tara; Xu, Jin; Shepherd, Robert K.; King, Andrew J.; Isaiah, Amal

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implantation has recently been introduced with the aim of improving both speech perception in background noise and sound localization. Although evidence suggests that binaural perception is possible with two cochlear implants, results in humans are variable. To explore potential contributing factors to these variable outcomes, we have developed a behavioral animal model of bilateral cochlear implantation in a novel species, the ferret. Although ferrets are ideally suited to psychophysical and physiological assessments of binaural hearing, cochlear implantation has not been previously described in this species. This paper describes the techniques of deafening with aminoglycoside administration, surgical implantation of an intracochlear array and chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation with monitoring for electrode integrity and efficacy of stimulation. Experiments have been presented elsewhere to show that the model can be used to study behavioral and electrophysiological measures of binaural hearing in chronically implanted animals. This paper demonstrates that cochlear implantation and chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation are both safe and effective in ferrets, opening up the possibility of using this model to study potential protective effects of bilateral cochlear implantation on the developing central auditory pathway. Since ferrets can be used to assess psychophysical and physiological aspects of hearing along with the structure of the auditory pathway in the same animals, we anticipate that this model will help develop novel neuroprosthetic therapies for use in humans. PMID:20576507

  3. Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gawe?, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-07-01

    The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified. PMID:24902039

  4. A study on the potential of metal corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria in animal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Riskowski, G.L.; Mackie, R.I.

    1999-06-01

    The potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to cause metal corrosion in animal buildings was examined in this study. An analysis was done on the bacterial colonization and the corrosion products on the surfaces of metals exposed to three animal buildings and one environmentally controlled building over a two-year period. Data from this study showed that the levels of SRB on metal surfaces were low after two-year's exposure (maximum count: 1.7 x 10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2}). SRB colonization levels after two years were not sufficient to corrode metal products exposed in animal environments. In addition, metal surface analysis data using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the corrosion compounds formed on the surfaces of different metals were not due to the SERB-induced corrosion mechanisms. These compounds were mainly oxides and carbonates (FeO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe(CO){sub 5} on iron samples; ZnO and ZnCO{sub 3} on galvanized steel samples: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, and ZnCO{sub 3} on Galvalume samples), and were normally generated due to the classic types of corrosion mechanisms. Some sulfur was present to form ZnS on the galvanized steel samples, but might not be attributed to SRB. The origin of this sulfur was not clear.

  5. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. PMID:24863044

  6. Animal model system for studying virulence of and host response to Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Onderdonk, A B; Cisneros, R L; Finberg, R; Crabb, J H; Kasper, D L

    1990-01-01

    Experimental animal model systems have been used by many investigators to explore the pathogenicity of obligate anaerobes. During the last 15 years, research in our laboratory has utilized an experimental model for intraabdominal sepsis to define the contribution of obligate anaerobes to the infectious process. These studies have shown that obligate anaerobes are important components of the polymicrobic flora present during such infection. Moreover, certain anaerobes, such as Bacteroides fragilis, possess specific virulence factors, such as the capsular polysaccharide, that appear to be important to the infectious process. More recent research has used modifications of the original model system to evaluate the host immune response to B. fragilis. These studies indicate that immunization with the capsular polysaccharide provides a T cell-dependent immunity to abscess development when animals are challenged with B. fragilis. It has also been shown that the killing of B. fragilis is T cell dependent. The observations made with regard to B. fragilis in this animal model system are discussed. PMID:2406869

  7. [An experimental study on the effects of lingzhi spore on the immune function and 60Co radioresistance in mice].

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Wu, S; Liu, J; Han, C; Wei, L

    1997-10-01

    Lingzhi spore (2 g.kg-1.d-1, 10 times) was orally administered to mice, and studies were carried out on the carbon clearance, delayed-type skin hypersensitivity (DTH), antibody hemagglutinin value and spleen weight. The results showed that Lingzhi spore could increase the immune function, inhibit the reduction of white blood cells and raise the survival rate of mice after they were radiated by 870 rad 60Co. PMID:11038934

  8. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the hyaloid vascular system in newborn mice exposed to O 2 and CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Bischoff; S. D. Wajer; R. W. Flower

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that the tunica vasculosa lentis of newborn mice undergoes vasoproliferation after oxygen exposure and might be used as an experimental model for intraocular neovascularization. A scanning electron microscopic technique which provides visualization of the entire hyaloid vascular system was used to study its response in mice exposed to various gas mixtures (70% O2\\/30% N2, 10% CO2\\/90%

  9. Pharmacokinetic studies of CP-74,667, a new quinolone, in laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Girard, D; Gootz, T D; McGuirk, P R

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of CP-74,667 (7-(8'-methyl-3',8'-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3'-yl)-1-cyclopropyl-6- fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) were studied following oral or parenteral administration in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys. The mean peak levels of CP-74,667 in serum following a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight were similar in all species, with a range of 3.7 micrograms/ml in mice to 5.6 micrograms/ml in dogs. In contrast, elimination half-lives were species dependent, with mean values of 2.1, 1.8, 4.5, 7.8, and 13.1 h in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, respectively. The oral bioavailability of CP-74,667 was 100% in dogs and monkeys, as determined by intravenous-oral crossover experiments. The maximum concentration of drug in serum and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of CP-74,667 in dogs were proportional to dose over the range of 5 to 40 mg/kg. Accumulation of drug in serum was observed following the administration of four once-a-day doses of 7.1 mg/kg in monkeys (mimicking a 500-mg human dose), with significant increases in half-life, maximum and minimum concentrations of drug in serum, and AUC. The good tissue penetration of CP-74,667 suggested by a volume of distribution in excess of 2 liters/kg in dogs and monkeys was confirmed by tissue distribution studies with the same species, which demonstrated tissue concentrations (except for those in brain tissue) greater than 1.45 times higher than corresponding levels in serum. The mean urinary recoveries of unchanged drug were 17.7% in rats, 7.8% in monkeys, and 4.9% in dogs. Metabolism studies in dogs, following intravenous dosing, indicated that renal excretion of CP-74,667-related materials accounted for 41.6% of the administered dose, while biliary recoveries accounted for 6.8%. The CP-74,667 N-oxide metabolite was the primary drug-related material eliminated via renal excretion (37.2% of dose). The pharmacokinetics of CP-74,667 describe a quinolone with complete oral absorption, linear pharmacokinetics, a long elimination half-life, and wide distribution into tissues. PMID:1329625

  10. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J.; Raja, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278 ± 3.121 to 189.872 ± 2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749 ± 2.052 to 21.170 ± 1.311 and 13.167 ± 1.441 to 8.953 ± 0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicdbnd CH stretching band and Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  11. Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic (db/db) Mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Challenge – A Model for the Study of Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ge; Hochwalt, Phillip C.; Usui, Marcia L.; Underwood, Robert A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; James, Garth A.; Stewart, Philip S.; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a major clinical problem that leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that an important factor in the failure of chronic wounds to heal was the presence of microbial biofilm resistant to antibiotics and protected from host defenses. A major difficulty in studying chronic wounds is the absence of suitable animal models. The goal of this study was to create a reproducible chronic wound model in diabetic mice by application of bacterial biofilm. Six millimeter punch biopsy wounds were created on the dorsal surface of diabetic (db/db) mice, subsequently challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilms two days post-wounding, and covered with semi-occlusive dressings for two weeks. Most of the control wounds were epithelialized by 28 days post-wounding. In contrast, none of biofilm challenged wounds were closed. Histological analysis showed extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue necrosis and epidermal hyperplasia adjacent to challenged wounds- all indicators of an inflammatory non-healing wound. Quantitative cultures and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the majority of bacteria were in the scab above the wound bed rather than in the wound tissue. The model was reproducible, allowed localized cutaneous wound infections without high mortality and demonstrated delayed wound healing following biofilm challenge. This model may provide an approach to study the role of microbial biofilms in chronic wounds as well as the effect of specific biofilm therapy on wound healing. PMID:20731798

  12. Fulvic acid supplementation and selenium deficiency disturb the structural integrity of mouse skeletal tissue. An animal model to study the molecular defects of Kashin-Beck disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Niu, C; Bodo, M; Gabriel, E; Notbohm, H; Wolf, E; Müller, P K

    1993-02-01

    High concentrations of fulvic acid and selenium deficiency are the main causative factors of Kashin-Beck disease, an endemic, chronic and degenerative osteoarticular disorder found in China. In the search for an animal model of this disease, mice were exposed to these pathogenetic conditions for two generations and the collagen types from skin, bone and cartilage were analysed. The growth of the treated mice was slightly retarded, and the rate of reproduction was lower in animals maintained on a fulvic acid-supplemented and/or selenium-deficient diet. Irregular bone formation was seen by radiography and morphometry. Biochemical analysis indicated that lysine residues in collagen I from bone and in collagen II from cartilage were overmodified. The values of Hyl/(Hyl+Lys) in bone collagen alpha 1(I) chains from treated mice were about 0.434-0.484, i.e. substantially higher than that of the control (0.277). The values of this parameter for collagen II were 0.482 for control and 0.546-0.566 for treated mice. The melting temperature of collagen I from bones of treated mice was 1 degrees C lower than that of control collagen, indicating decreased thermal stability. The breakage point of the tibiae of treated mice occurred at a lower preload force than for controls, suggesting that the overmodified and thermally less stable collagen molecules are causally related to a lower mechanical strength of bones. PMID:8435081

  13. How a child builds its brain: some lessons from animal studies of neural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Black, J E

    1998-01-01

    Although the potential vulnerability of children's brain development is generally recognized, relatively little is known about the timing, resiliency, or mechanisms involved. While animal research should be applied only cautiously to human policy, some findings do have important clinical implications. This paper briefly reviews animal studies demonstrating the effects of experience on brain structure. Contemporary theories emphasize the self-organizing potential of brain structure, particularly regions that seem to have evolved for the purpose of storing information. We emphasize three major findings: (1) many regions of the brain are responsive to experience, but they differ in the types of information stored and in their developmental timing. (2) One type of plasticity is typically embedded in a developmental program, and it requires appropriate timing and quality of the information stored for the animal's development to be normal. (3) Another category of plasticity stores information that is idiosyncratic and unpredictable, but is often useful for species such as humans that learn throughout their life span. We therefore expect that some aspects of human brain development use the first type of plasticity and that abnormal experience or deprivation may cause lasting harm to brain and behavior. However, because the other type of plasticity lasts a lifetime, efforts such as psychotherapy or social interventions may help heal a wounded brain. PMID:9578989

  14. Microsporidia Detection and Genotyping Study of Human Pathogenic E. bieneusi in Animals from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Díaz, Ana Luz; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Haro, María; Gordo, Francisco Ponce; Miró, Guadalupe; del Águila, Carmen; Izquierdo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for microsporidia infection by light microscopy and PCR. After Microsporidia species identification, E. bieneusi genotypes were additionally studied by sequence analysis of the ITS region. Eighty-five samples out of 159 exhibited structures that were compatible with microsporidia spores by Webe?s stain with 37 of them being confirmed by PCR. Microsporidia species identified included E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis and A. algerae. We report the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi in ostriches and A. algerae in pigs. We also provide new information on the molecular characterization of E. bieneusi isolates both in rabbits and ostriches. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes identified belonged to the zoonotic group of genotypes (Group I) including genotypes A (dogs), I (pigs), D (rabbits and foxes) and type IV (ostriches). Our results demonstrate that microsporidia are present in domestic, farm and wild animals in Spain, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination. PMID:24651457

  15. Body distribution of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in mice and effects of scorpion antivenom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Patricia Revelo; Eduardo Alves Bambirra; Ana Paula Ferreira; Carlos Ribeiro Diniz; Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we report the distribution of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in serum and various tissues of CF1 mice and the efficacy of antivenom in reducing venom concentration. The animals were injected s.c. with 10 ?g of scorpion venom, divided into groups of four animals and killed at different times from 15 min to 24 hr. Blood samples

  16. Human Lymphocyte Engraftment and Function in HU-PBL-SCID Mice: a Dissertation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric James Wagar

    2000-01-01

    The immune system is responsible for defending a host animal from a wide variety of threats. Manipulation of the immune system can result in beneficial outcomes such as immunity to pathogens, or deleterious outcomes such as autoimmunity. Advances in our understanding of how the immune system develops and functions have benefited greatly from studies in animals, particularly in mice where

  17. Individual variation in thermogenic capacity affects above-ground activity of high-altitude Deer Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. SEARS; J. P. HAYES; C. S. O'CONNOR; K. GELUSO; J. S. SEDINGER

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. Understanding an animal's ecology requires knowledge of how individual variation in behaviour and physiology interact with each other and with the environment that an animal experiences. 2. Environmental variation affects behaviour, but whether individual variation in physiological performance also affects behaviour is poorly known. 3. We studied a high-altitude population of Deer Mice ( Peromyscus maniculatu s) inhabiting

  18. Caveolin-1 null (-/-) mice show dramatic reductions in life span.

    PubMed

    Park, David S; Cohen, Alex W; Frank, Philippe G; Razani, Babak; Lee, Hyangkyu; Williams, Terence M; Chandra, Madhulika; Shirani, Jamshid; De Souza, Andrea P; Tang, Baiyu; Jelicks, Linda A; Factor, Stephen M; Weiss, Louis M; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Lisanti, Michael P

    2003-12-30

    Caveolae are 50-100 nm flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane found in most cell types. Caveolin-1 is the principal protein component of caveolae membranes in nonmuscle cells. The recent development of Cav-1-deficient mice has allowed investigators to study the in vivo functional role of caveolae in the context of a whole animal model, as these mice lack morphologically detectable caveolae membrane domains. Surprisingly, Cav-1 null mice are both viable and fertile. However, it remains unknown whether loss of caveolin-1 significantly affects the overall life span of these animals. To quantitatively determine whether loss of Cav-1 gene expression confers any survival disadvantages with increasing age, we generated a large cohort of mice (n = 180), consisting of Cav-1 wild-type (+/+) (n = 53), Cav-1 heterozygous (+/-) (n = 70), and Cav-1 knockout (-/-) (n = 57) animals, and monitored their long-term survival over a 2 year period. Here, we show that Cav-1 null (-/-) mice exhibit an approximately 50% reduction in life span, with major declines in viability occurring between 27 and 65 weeks of age. However, Cav-1 heterozygous (+/-) mice did not show any changes in long-term survival, indicating that loss of both Cav-1 alleles is required to mediate a reduction in life span. Mechanistically, these dramatic reductions in life span appear to be secondary to a combination of pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy in Cav-1 null mice. Taken together, our results provide the first demonstration that loss of Cav-1 gene expression and caveolae organelles dramatically affects the long-term survival of an organism. In addition, aged Cav-1 null mice may provide a new animal model to study the pathogenesis and treatment of progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death syndrome. PMID:14690422

  19. Epidemiological study of Q fever in humans, ruminant animals, and ticks in Cyprus using a geographical information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Psaroulaki; C. Hadjichristodoulou; F. Loukaides; E. Soteriades; A. Konstantinidis; P. Papastergiou; M. C. Ioannidou; Y. Tselentis

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of Q fever was conducted in a representative sample of the human and animal population in Cyprus in order to assess the seroprevalence of Q fever and the prevalence of related risk factors. A total of 583 human and 974 ruminant animal serum samples were collected and tested for the detection of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii phase

  20. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Black Newsprint Inks Administered Topically to F344/N Rats and C3H Mice.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Joel

    1992-07-01

    Toxicity studies were conducted by applying black newsprint inks or mineral oils to clipped skin of the dorsal interscapular area of C3H mice and F344/N rats of both sexes, to determine systemic and local effects. Four lots of both letterpress and offset types of newsprint ink were studied, either as composite mixtures or as individual lots. An industrial grade mineral oil, used as an extender for newsprint ink formulation, and USP medicinal grade mineral oil also were studied. Analyses for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were conducted on composite ink mixtures and mineral oils; letterpress and offset ink mixtures were found to have cumulative concentrations of 206 and 105 ppm, respectively; the concentration of PAHs in the printing ink mineral oil sample was 208 ppm, while none were detected in the USP grade mineral oil. In genetic toxicity studies, letterpress and offset newsprint ink composite mixtures were each mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 when tested in a preincubation protocol with added hamster liver S9. With rat liver S9, results for both inks were positive in strain TA98 and negative in strain TA100. Neither type of ink was mutagenic in the absence of S9 activation. In 30-day studies, 5 rats and mice per sex were given single, daily dermal applications of letterpress or offset newsprint inks, 5 days per week, for a total of 21 - 22 applications. Dose groups for each type of ink received either the neat (undiluted) composite ink mixture, or the 3:1, 1:1, or 1:3 dilutions (ink:USP mineral oil), with a total dose volume of 100 (mice) or 250 (rats) &mgr;l. All animals survived until the end of the studies. Toxicity attributed to ink administration was limited to decreased body weight gains in female rats treated with neat and the 3:1 dilution of letterpress ink, and to scaliness at the site of application in 1 or more mice in each letterpress ink treatment group. As a result of grooming activity and the large amount of test chemical applied, chemicals were spread over the body, and there was evidence that some oral ingestion had occurred. In 13-week studies, various ink and mineral oil formulations were administered dermally to 10 rats and mice per sex. To prevent accumulation of inks and distribution over the body as seen in the 30-day studies, the frequency of application was reduced to twice weekly and the total dose volume was decreased to 20 microliters for mice and 50 microliters for rats. Treatment groups for rats consisted of letterpress ink mixture, offset ink mixture, printing ink mineral oil, USP mineral oil, and clipped, untreated controls. Groups of mice were administered each of the 4 individual lots of both letterpress and offset inks, the composite mixtures of each, and printing ink and USP mineral oils; clipped, untreated groups served as controls. All rats, all male mice, and all female mice except one administered offset ink-lot E survived to the end of the studies. Effects attributable to compound administration in rats were limited to decreased body weight gains in females treated with printing ink mineral oil and letterpress ink mixture, and increased liver and kidney weights in both males and females exposed to USP mineral oil; there were no local toxic effects at the site of application. In mice, there were no body weight effects, but liver weights were increased in most ink and mineral oil treatment groups of both sexes. Dermal toxicity was evidenced in mice by scaliness and irritation at the site of application of both sexes treated with USP mineral oil and letterpress ink-lot C. Microscopically, local toxicity at the site of application was observed in mice of all treatment groups and was characterized by acanthosis and inflammation. In summary, results of these studies indicate that topical administration of black newsprint inks and mineral oils produces local toxicity at the site of application in mice; toxic effects on the skin in this species are consistent with those of a primary cutaneous irritant. In rats, possible evidence for

  1. Mice Drawer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancedda, Ranieri

    2008-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions (from 100 to 150-days) by living space, food, water, ventilation and lighting. Mice can be accommodated either individually (maximum 6) or in groups (4 pairs). MDS is integrated in the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation (uploading and downloading) to the ISS and in an EXPRESS Rack in Destiny, the US Laboratory during experiment execution. Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton. This bone loss experienced by astronauts is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population. MDS will help investigate the effects of unloading on transgenic (foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome to exhibit a particular trait) mice with the Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1, OSF-1, a growth and differentiation factor, and to study the genetic mechanisms underlying the bone mass pathophysiology. MDS will test the hypothesis that mice with an increased bone density are likely to be more protected from osteoporosis, when the increased bone mass is a direct effect of a gene involved in skeletogenesis (skeleton formation). Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton, a loss that is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population on Earth. Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1 (OSF-1), also known as pleiotrophin (PTN) or Heparin-Binding Growth- Associated Molecule (HB-GAM) belongs to a family of secreted heparin binding proteins..OSF-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated growth and differentiation factor that is normally expressed in cartilage; it can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells (cell that differentiate into an osteoblast) in vitro. The Mice Drawer System will study the effects of microgravity on transgenic mouse bones in order to identify genetic mechanisms playing a role in the reduction of the bone mass observed in humans and animals as a consequence of long-duration (greater than 100 days) microgravity exposure. Onboard the ISS, MDS is relatively self-sufficient; a crewmember will check the health status of the rodents on a daily basis, by assessing them through the viewing window. Water levels will be assessed by the crew daily and refilled as needed. Replacement of the food bars and replacement of the waste filters will be conducted inflight by crewmembers every 20-days.

  2. Metabolic studies with promagnon, methylclostebol and methasterone in the uPA+/+-SCID chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Lootens, L; Meuleman, P; Leroux-Roels, G; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-11-01

    The chimeric uPA(+/+)-SCID mouse model, transplanted with human hepatocytes, was previously validated as an alternative tool to study in vivo the human steroid metabolism. This humanized mouse model was now applied, in the framework of anti-doping research, to test different nutritional supplements containing steroids. These steroids, intentionally or accidentally added to a nutritional supplement, usually are derivatives of testosterone. Information about the metabolism of these derivatives, which is important to assure their detection, is quite limited. However, due to ethical constraints, human volunteers cannot be used to perform experimental excretion studies. Therefore the chimeric mice were selected to perform three separated excretion studies with superdrol (methasterone), promagnon and also methylclostebol. The urine of the humanized mice was collected 24h after a single dose administration and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated the presence of several metabolites including a 3-keto reduced metabolite and numerous hydroxylated metabolites. Also phase 2 metabolism was investigated to update the complete picture of their metabolism. PMID:21762781

  3. The ESA Mice in Space (MIS) habitat: effects of cage confinement on neuromusculoskeletal structure and function and stress\\/behavior using wild-type C57Bl\\/6JRj mice in a modular science reference model (MSRM) test on ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Blottner; Laurence Vico

    2010-01-01

    Background: Environmental conditions likely affect physiology and behaviour of mice used for Life Sciences Research on Earth and in Space. Thus, mice habitats with sufficient statistical numbers should be developed for adequate life support and care and that should meet all nesces-sary ethical and scientific requirements needed to successfully perform animal experimentation in Space. Aim of study: We here analysed

  4. State of lymphopoiesis in mice with alloxan diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, Yu.A.; Timofeeva, E.E.; Zinger, M.G.

    1986-09-01

    The state of lymphopoiesis was studied in mice with alloxan diabetes. After blood analysis, all the animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine before being killed. It is concluded that the state of alloxan diabetes is characterized by marked disturbances of lymphopoiesis. The total number of leukocytes and absolute number of lymphocytes in the blood of both healthy and diabetic mice is shown. The cytological parameters characterizing the state of lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow of healthy and diabetic mice are presented.

  5. Age-related hearing loss and the ahl locus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Elizabeth M.; Canto, Cecilia; Zheng, Qing Yin; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice experience hearing loss and cochlear degeneration beginning about mid-life, whereas CAST/Ei (CAST) mice retain normal hearing until old age. A locus contributing to the hearing loss of B6 mice, named age-related hearing loss (ahl), was mapped to Chromosome 10. A homozygous, congenic strain of mice (B6.CAST-+ahl), generated by crossing B6 (ahl/ahl) and CAST (+ahl/+ahl) mice has the same genomic material as the B6 mice except in the region of the ahl locus, which is derived from CAST. In this study, we have determined the extent of the CAST-derived region of Chromosome 10 in the congenic strain and have examined mice of all three strains for hearing loss and cochlear morphology between 9 and 25 months of age. Results for B6 mice were similar to those described previously. CAST mice showed no detectable hearing loss even at 24 months of age; however, they had a small amount of ganglion cell degeneration. B6.CAST-+ahl mice were protected from early onset hearing loss and basal turn degeneration, but older animals did show some hearing loss and ganglion cell degeneration. We conclude that loci in addition to ahl contribute to the differences in hearing loss between B6 and CAST mice. These results illustrate the complex inheritance of age-related hearing loss in mice and may have implications for the study of human presbycusis. PMID:14759567

  6. [Activity of natural killer cells and their sensitivity to interferon in aged mice].

    PubMed

    Van'ko, L V; Bakuradze, N N; Sukhikh, G T

    1984-04-01

    The authors studied the activity of natural killers in young and old mice and effects on this activity of interferon and its inducer (synthetic polynucleotide poly-I:C). The activity of natural killers as indicated by the 51Cr-release microtest and the content of the cells that recognize and lyse the target cells, determined in isolated conjugates in agarose were appreciably lower in old mice than in young ones. Administration of poly-I:C or interferon to the animals (or interferon treatment of splenocytes in vitro) led to an increase in the activity of natural killers in young mice, with no significant effect on old animals' cells. PMID:6722307

  7. Animal models to evaluate anti-atherosclerotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Priyadharsini, Raman P

    2015-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial condition characterized by endothelial injury, fatty streak deposition, and stiffening of the blood vessels. The pathogenesis is complex and mediated by adhesion molecules, inflammatory cells, and smooth muscle cells. Statins have been the major drugs in treating hypercholesterolemia for the past two decades despite little efficacy. There is an urgent need for new drugs that can replace statins or combined with statins. The preclinical studies evaluating atherosclerosis require an ideal animal model which resembles the disease condition, but there is no single animal model which mimics the disease. The animal models used are rabbits, rats, mice, hamsters, mini pigs, etc. Each animal model has its own advantages and disadvantages. The method of induction of atherosclerosis includes diet, chemical induction, mechanically induced injuries, and genetically manipulated animal models. This review mainly focuses on the various animal models, method of induction, the advantages, disadvantages, and the current perspectives with regard to preclinical studies on atherosclerosis. PMID:26095240

  8. Hoarding of animals: an under-recognized public health problem in a difficult-to-study population.

    PubMed Central

    Patronek, G J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to better characterize the problem of hoarding, or pathological collecting, of animals. METHODS: The author summarized data from a convenience sample of 54 case reports from 10 animal control agencies and humane societies across the country. RESULTS: The majority (76%) of hoarders were female, and 46% were 60 years of age or older. About half of the hoarders lived in single-person households. The animals most frequently involved were cats, dogs, farm animals, and birds. The median number of animals per case was 39, but there were four cases of more than 100 animals in a household. In 80% of cases animals were reportedly found dead or in poor condition. Prevalence estimates extrapolated from these data range from 700 to 2000 U.S. cases annually. CONCLUSIONS: Public health authorities should recognize that animal hoarding may be a sentinel for mental health problems or dementia, which merit serious assessment and prompt intervention. Improved cooperation between humane societies and public health authorities could facilitate the resolution of animal hoarding cases. PMID:9925176

  9. Time-related factors in the study of risks in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies of humans exposed to potentially harmful substances are usually analyzed using methods that account for the dependence of risks on time-related factors such as age and follow-up period. Recently developed statistical procedures allow modeling of the age-specific risks as a function of dose as well as factors such as age at exposure, time since exposure, exposure duration, and dose rate. These procedures potentially allow more rigorous inferences and clearer understanding of the patterns of risk observed in epidemiological studies than has been available in the past. Statistical procedures that consider time-related factors can also be applied to laboratory animal data, providing information that is useful for the problems involved in extrapolating from animal studies to humans. By applying such procedures to data on exposure to the same substance in different species (including humans) or to different substances in the same species, better understanding of the relationship of risks across species and across substances can be achieved. In addition, such statistical procedures allow appropriate treatment of exposure that is accumulated over time and lead to improved understanding of patterns of risk over time. The approach is illustrated using data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled Pu.

  10. Time-related factors in the study of risks in animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies of humans exposed to potentially harmful substances are usually analyzed using methods that account for the dependence of risks on time-related factors such as age and follow-up period. Recently developed statistical procedures allow modeling of the age-specific risks as a function of dose as well as factors such as age at exposure, time from exposure, exposure duration, and dose rate. These procedures potentially allow more rigorous inferences and clearer understanding of the patterns of risks observed in epidemiological studies than has been available in the past. Statistical procedures that consider time-related factors can also be applied to laboratory animal data, and provide information that is useful for the problem of extrapolating from animal studies to humans. By applying such procedures to data on exposure to the same substance in different species (including humans) or to different substances in the same species, a better understanding of the relationship of risks across species and across substances can be achieved. In addition, such statistical procedures allow appropriate treatment of exposure that is accumulated over time and lead to improved understanding of patterns of risk over time. The approach is illustrated using data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. PHOTOSENSITIZATION OF ANIMALS AFTER THE INGES- TION OF BUCKWHEAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES SHEARD; HAROLD D. CAYLOR; CARL SCHLOTTHAUER

    It has been known for a long time that certain animals, following the ingestion of various substances, are rendered sensitive to certain types of radiant energy. The present study covers biologic and physical observations on the degree of sensitization, the character of the sensitizing light and the nature of the photodynamic substance of buckwheat. White rabbits, mice, rats, goats, swine,

  12. Studies of the effect of a platelet-activating factor antagonist, CL 184,005, in animal models of gram-negative bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Torley, L W; Pickett, W C; Carroll, M L; Kohler, C A; Schaub, R E; Wissner, A; DeJoy, S Q; Oronsky, A L; Kerwar, S S

    1992-01-01

    The effect of CL 184,005, a potent and specific platelet-activating factor antagonist, has been examined in a variety of animal models relevant to gram-negative bacterial sepsis. Pretreatment of mice with CL 184,005 protected them from the lethal effects of platelet-activating factor. When rats or primates rendered hypotensive with endotoxin were treated with CL 184,005, blood pressure was normalized. Pretreatment of rats with CL 184,005 protected them from the gastrointestinal lesions induced by endotoxin. Pretreatment of rats and mice with CL 184,005 protected them from the lethal effects of endotoxin. Plasma tumor necrosis factor levels in endotoxin-treated mice were lower when the mice were pretreated with CL 184,005. These observations suggest that CL 184,005 may be potentially useful in the treatment of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, and the agent is undergoing clinical evaluation. PMID:1416889

  13. Studies of the effect of a platelet-activating factor antagonist, CL 184,005, in animal models of gram-negative bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Torley, L W; Pickett, W C; Carroll, M L; Kohler, C A; Schaub, R E; Wissner, A; DeJoy, S Q; Oronsky, A L; Kerwar, S S

    1992-09-01

    The effect of CL 184,005, a potent and specific platelet-activating factor antagonist, has been examined in a variety of animal models relevant to gram-negative bacterial sepsis. Pretreatment of mice with CL 184,005 protected them from the lethal effects of platelet-activating factor. When rats or primates rendered hypotensive with endotoxin were treated with CL 184,005, blood pressure was normalized. Pretreatment of rats with CL 184,005 protected them from the gastrointestinal lesions induced by endotoxin. Pretreatment of rats and mice with CL 184,005 protected them from the lethal effects of endotoxin. Plasma tumor necrosis factor levels in endotoxin-treated mice were lower when the mice were pretreated with CL 184,005. These observations suggest that CL 184,005 may be potentially useful in the treatment of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, and the agent is undergoing clinical evaluation. PMID:1416889

  14. Four-Week Repeated Oral Toxicity Study of AIP1, a Water-soluble Carbohydrate Fraction from Artemisia iwayomogi in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sung Ha; Jo, Haeran; Kim, Ji Won

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia iwayomogi, a member of the Compositae, is a perennial herb easily found in Korea and used as a traditional medicine to treat liver disease. AIP1, a water-soluble carbohydrate fraction from Artemisia iwayomogi, showed anti-tumor and immuno-modulating activities in animal studies. A subacute toxicological evaluation of AIP1 was performed for 4 weeks in ICR mice. After administration of AIP1 (0, 20, 100, 500 mg/kg/day), the clinical signs, mortalities, body weight changes, hematology, blood clinical biochemistry, urinalysis, organ histopathology, organ weights and gross finding were examined. The results showed that there were no significant differences in body weight changes, food intakes, water consumptions, or organ weights among different dose groups. Also we observed no death and abnormal clinical signs during the experimental period. Between the groups orally treated with AIP1 and the control group, there was no statistical significance in hematological test or serum biochemical values. Histopathological examination showed no abnormal changes in AIP1 groups. These results suggest that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the oral administration of AIP1 for 4 weeks was considered to be more than 500 mg/kg/ day in mice under the condition investigated in current study. PMID:24278581

  15. Traditional plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Bailey, C J; Flatt, P R

    1990-08-01

    The effects on glucose homeostasis of eleven plants used as traditional treatments for diabetes mellitus were evaluated in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Dried leaves of agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), blackberry (Rubus fructicosus), celandine (Chelidonium majus), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), and lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis); seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum); dried berries of juniper (Juniperus communis); bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and roots of liquorice (Glycyrhizza glabra) were studied. Each plant material was supplied in the diet (6.25% by weight) and some plants were additionally supplied as decoctions or infusions (1 g/400 ml) in place of drinking water to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Food and fluid intake, body weight gain, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in normal mice were not altered by 12 days of treatment with any of the plants. After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg i.p.) on day 12 the development of hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia were not affected by blackberry, celandine, lady's mantle or lily of the valley. Garlic and liquorice reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia but did not significantly alter the hyperglycaemia or hypoinsulinaemia. Treatment with agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper reduced the level of hyperglycaemia during the development of streptozotocin diabetes. This was associated with reduced polydipsia (except coriander) and a reduced rate of body weight loss (except agrimony). Alfalfa initially countered the hypoinsulinaemic effect of streptozotocin, but the other treatments did not affect the fall in plasma insulin. The results suggest that certain traditional plant treatments for diabetes, namely agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper, can retard the development of streptozotocin diabetes in mice. PMID:2210118

  16. Sedative-hypnotic Effect of Ash of Silver in Mice: A Reverse Pharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Inder, Deep; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Ash of silver is used in traditional systems of medicine for various neurological conditions like insomnias, neuralgias, anxiety disorders, and convulsions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the sedative-hypnotic activity of ash of silver in comparison to pentobarbitone (standard drug) in albino mice. The mice were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (control): Gum acacia [GA; 1% per os (p.o.)], group 2 (standard): Pentobarbitone [50 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)], group 3 (test): Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.), and group 4: Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.) given 30 min prior to administration of pentobarbitone (50 mg/kg i.p.). Time of onset, recovery, and total duration of loss of righting reflex were studied. Ash of silver (test) produced significant sedation (P < 0.01) compared to control (GA 1%), but the effect was significantly less compared to that of standard pentobarbitone at the doses used. Also, significant potentiation (P < 0.001) of the sedative-hypnotic effect of pentobarbitone was observed with the test drug. PMID:25379470

  17. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used. Inductive coupling plasma atom emission spectral analysis technology is also adopted in the experiment. This method has several advantages: the rapidity of the examination, the scope width of the examination, low consumption of test specimens and low limitation of picking out. This method is able to simultaneously examine the aluminum, the iron, the calcium, the magnesium, the boron, the barium, the cadmium, the cobalt, the copper, the chromium, the manganese, the molybdenum, the nickel, the phosphorus, the lead, the strontium, the zinc, the titanium, 18 kind of constants and trace element existed in the animal fur. There kinds of animal furs were examined. Basically, the constants of calcium were close. The content of magnesium and strontium in the furs of the herbivorous were higher than the omnivorous and the carnivorous, while the content of phosphorus in the furs of the herbivorous was lower than the other tow, so did the trace element, namely aluminum, iron, copper, zinc. It was obvious that only in the fur of the carnivorous was the content trace element titanium included. Based on the examination result, we could draw the conclusion that contain connection, which may explain the intrinsic and the external relationship concerning the animal, exists between the animal habit and the element content in their body. This method sends the standard material GBW07601 confirmation after the national person, obtains the method relative error in between 0.83%-9.59%, the relatively standard deviation between 0.81%-5.20%. The limitation of picking out, the accuracy and the accuracy each examination target is obtained in the animal fur by the actual sample analysis in the confirmation, which can satisfy the biological sample examination request. PMID:18975837

  18. Animal intrusion studies for protective barriers: Status report for FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Simmons, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the Biointrusion Control Task is to provide technical support to Westinghouse Hanford Company's Protective Barrier Development Program for evaluating and predicting potential impacts of animal burrowing on long-term barrier performance. This document reviews the major accomplishments for FY 1988, which is the initial year of the work. The scope of work includes a literature review, field studies, and modeling to assess burrowing impacts as they may contribute to increased infiltration of surface water through barriers, increased quantities of soil available for erosion because of surface soil disturbance, and direct physical transport of contaminants to the surface. 68 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Studies of hypokinesia in animals to solve urgent problems of space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranski, S.; Bodya, K.; Reklevska, V.; Tomashevska, L.; Gayevskaya, M. S.; Ilina-Kakuyeva, Y. I.; Katsyuba-Ustiko, G.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Kurkina, L. M.; Mailyan, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of hypokinesia on animals were studied by observing: (1) hormonal and mediator balance of the body; (2) gas exchange and tissue respiration; (3) protein content in skeletal muscles; (4) structure of skeletal muscles; and (5) function of skeletal muscles. Sharp limitation of motor activity causes interconnected processes of a dystropic and pathological character expressed as a reduction in the force of various muscle group with disturbance of velocity properties and motor coordination due to disturbances in the control link of the neuromuscular system.

  20. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Intestinal Dilation in Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Mice Deficient in Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ny, Lars; Li, Hua; Mukherjee, Shankar; Persson, Katarina; Holmqvist, Bo; Zhao, Dazhi; Shtutin, Vitaliy; Huang, Huan; Weiss, Louis M.; Machado, Fabiana S.; Factor, Stephen M.; Chan, John; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Jelicks, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi causes megasyndromes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor alterations in the GI tract of T. cruzi–infected mice, and to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of intestinal dilation. Brazil strain–infected C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice exhibited dilatation of the intestines by 30 days post-infection. Average intestine lumen diameter increased by 72%. Levels of intestinal NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, NOS2 and NOS3, were elevated in infected WT mice. Inflammation and ganglionitis were observed in all infected mice. Intestinal dilation was observed in infected WT, NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 null mice. This study demonstrates that MRI is a useful tool to monitor intestinal dilation in living mice and that these alterations may begin during acute infection. Furthermore, our data strongly suggests that NO may not be the sole contributor to intestinal dysfunction resulting from this infection. PMID:18981519

  1. Assessment of post-laparotomy pain in laboratory mice by telemetric recording of heart rate and heart rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarete Arras; Andreas Rettich; Paolo Cinelli; Hans P Kasermann; Kurt Burki

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we investigated the use of telemetry to identify indicators of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain. RESULTS: Adult mice were subjected to laparotomy, either combined with

  2. ACUTE, 14-DAY REPEATED DOSING, AND 90-DAY SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY STUDIES OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN CD-1 MICE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD-1 mice were utilized in 14-day repeated dosing and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies of carbon tetrachloride employing oral gavage with a corn-oil vehicle. The 14-day study used doses of 625, 1250 and 2500 mg/kg and the 90-day subchronic study used doses of 12, 120, 540 and 1...

  3. Effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic fields on mice injected with cyclophosphamide

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Franceschi, C.; Cossarizza, A.; Santantonio, M.; Mandolini, G.; Torelli, G. (Univ. of Modena (Italy))

    1991-03-01

    C3H mice have been used to investigate the effect of a combination of cyclophosphamide (CY) and electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Mice were injected i.p. with a single dose of 200 mg/kg body weight of CY and then exposed to PEMF 24 h per day. In an initial series of experiments immediately after CY injection mice were exposed to PEMF until sacrifice. WBC counts in the peripheral blood demonstrated a quicker decline in WBC at days 1 and 2 in mice exposed to PEMF. Groups of mice were sacrificed at days 1, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after CY injection. In mice exposed to PEMF the spleen weight was less than in controls at days 6, 8, and 10. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that the labeling index of bone marrow smears did not significantly differ between controls and experimental mice exposed to PEMF, whereas the spleen labeling index proved to be higher among control mice versus mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, and higher among mice exposed to PEMF versus controls at day 8. In a second series of experiments mice were exposed to PEMF only over the 24 h following CY injection. We found that the spleens of mice exposed to PEMF weighed less than those of controls at days 6 and 8. The labeling index of bone marrow did evidence a slight decrease among mice exposed to PEMF at days 8 and 10 after CY injection versus control mice. The spleen labeling index proved to be lower in experimental mice exposed to PEMF than in controls at days 4, 6, and 8. Mice were then injected with CY, half were exposed to PEMF, and 24 h later bone marrow was recovered from both groups of animals. The same number of bone marrow cells was injected via the tail vein into recipient mice irradiated to 8.5 Gy.

  4. A computational framework for the study of confidence in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Kepecs, Adam; Mainen, Zachary F.

    2012-01-01

    Confidence judgements, self-assessments about the quality of a subject's knowledge, are considered a central example of metacognition. Prima facie, introspection and self-report appear the only way to access the subjective sense of confidence or uncertainty. Contrary to this notion, overt behavioural measures can be used to study confidence judgements by animals trained in decision-making tasks with perceptual or mnemonic uncertainty. Here, we suggest that a computational approach can clarify the issues involved in interpreting these tasks and provide a much needed springboard for advancing the scientific understanding of confidence. We first review relevant theories of probabilistic inference and decision-making. We then critically discuss behavioural tasks employed to measure confidence in animals and show how quantitative models can help to constrain the computational strategies underlying confidence-reporting behaviours. In our view, post-decision wagering tasks with continuous measures of confidence appear to offer the best available metrics of confidence. Since behavioural reports alone provide a limited window into mechanism, we argue that progress calls for measuring the neural representations and identifying the computations underlying confidence reports. We present a case study using such a computational approach to study the neural correlates of decision confidence in rats. This work shows that confidence assessments may be considered higher order, but can be generated using elementary neural computations that are available to a wide range of species. Finally, we discuss the relationship of confidence judgements to the wider behavioural uses of confidence and uncertainty. PMID:22492750

  5. Environmental factors acting during development to influence MS risk: insights from animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Dimitry N.; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an increasing incidence in females. Epidemiological data strongly implicate environmental factors acting at the population level during gestation, childhood, and adulthood in the increasing incidence of MS. Several such factors have been implicated in disease risk, but their causality remains unproven, while other factors remain unknown. The understanding of risk factors acting during development is particularly limited. Animal studies could potentially bridge the gap between observational epidemiology and clinical intervention, providing not only direct evidence of causality for a given environmental agent, but also an opportunity to dissect the underlying molecular mechanisms. Given the short gestational and developmental period in rodents, effects of developmental exposure can also be readily addressed. Nonetheless, studies in this area have so far been few. In this review, we summarize the insights gleaned from studies that test environmental influences in animal models of MS, with a particular focus on gestational and early life exposures. PMID:24077054

  6. The genomics of preterm birth: from animal models to human studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. So far, the application of animal models to understand human birth timing has not substantially revealed mechanisms that could be used to prevent prematurity. However, with amassing data implicating an important role for genetics in the timing of the onset of human labor, the use of modern genomic approaches, such as genome-wide association studies, rare variant analyses using whole-exome or genome sequencing, and family-based designs, holds enormous potential. Although some progress has been made in the search for causative genes and variants associated with preterm birth, the major genetic determinants remain to be identified. Here, we review insights from and limitations of animal models for understanding the physiology of parturition, recent human genetic and genomic studies to identify genes involved in preterm birth, and emerging areas that are likely to be informative in future investigations. Further advances in understanding fundamental mechanisms, and the development of preventative measures, will depend upon the acquisition of greater numbers of carefully phenotyped pregnancies, large-scale informatics approaches combining genomic information with information on environmental exposures, and new conceptual models for studying the interaction between the maternal and fetal genomes to personalize therapies for mothers and infants. Information emerging from these advances will help us to identify new biomarkers for earlier detection of preterm labor, develop more effective therapeutic agents, and/or promote prophylactic measures even before conception. PMID:23673148

  7. Toward forward-looking OCT needle tip vision of the spinal neuroforamen: animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; Yang, Changhuei; Tresser, Nancy; Wu, Jigang; Zhang, Yaoping; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Rever, Linda

    2007-02-01

    Neurologic complications have been reported with spinal transforaminal injections. Causes include intraneural injection, plus embolization occlusion of the radicular artery with subsequent spinal cord infarction. 1 Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality, which is used to image tissue microstructure with very high resolution (less than 20 microns) in real-time. With a view toward needle tip OCT visualization of the spinal neuroforamen, we conducted animal studies to explore OCT imaging of paraspinal neurovascular structures. With institutional animal care committee approval, we performed ex-vivo and in situ OCT studies in a euthanized dog, pig, and rabbit. Image data was gathered on spinal nerve roots, dura, and brachial plexus. Two systems were used: frequency domain OCT imaging system developed at California Institute of Technology, and time domain Imalux NIRIS system with a 2.7 mm diameter probe. In a euthanized pig, excised dura was punctured with a 17-gauge Tuohy needle. FDOCT dural images of the puncture showed a subsurface cone-shaped defect. In a rabbit in situ study, puncture of the dura with a 26-gauge needle is imaged as a discontinuity. FDOCT imaging of both small artery and large arteries will be presented, along with H&E and OCT images of the brachial plexus.

  8. Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2009-12-01

    Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary dose-limiting organ in systemic alpha-RIT when using (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2). PMID:20025544

  9. Effects of Tear Substitutes on Conjunctival Epithelium of Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasquale Aragona; Antonio Micali; Grazia Paladino; Felicia Ferreri; Domenico Puzzolo

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The effects of the administration of three tear substitutes on normal conjunctival epithelium of the mouse, with particular regard to goblet cells, were studied. Methods: Three-month-old Swiss CD 1 mice were divided into four groups of 7 animals each. Group 1 was untreated (control). The other animals were treated with the instillation of 5 drops\\/day for 10 days as

  10. Pharmacokinetics of fusidic acid in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Findon, G; Miller, T E; Rowe, L C

    1991-10-01

    The ability of evaluate the efficacy of fusidic acid in animal models of infectious disease is limited by the absence of pharmacokinetic data for the agent in laboratory animals. In our study, aspects of fusidic acid pharmacokinetics were compared in rats (Rattus norwegicus), mice (Mus musculus), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Sodium fusidate was poorly absorbed after oral administration to rats, although limited absorption occurred in guinea pigs, mice, and rabbits. Subcutaneous injections of diethanolamine fusidate to laboratory rats, however, achieved a serum profile similar to that observed in humans. There was no evidence of drug accumulation in rats given repeated subcutaneous doses of diethanolamine fusidate during a 4-day period, but rabbits showed clear evidence of a cumulative effect. PMID:1666148

  11. Evaluation of CNS activities of ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EECR significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics, viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EECR showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EECR caused significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of C. rotundus. PMID:19894649

  12. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Gestational exposure to n-hexane resulted in an increase in the number of resorbed fetuses for exposure groups relative to the control group; however, the increases were not directly correlated to exposure concentration. The differences were statistically significant for the 200-ppM with respect to total intrauterine death (early plus late resorptions), and with respect to late resorptions for the 5000-ppM group. A small, but statistically significant, reduction in female (but not male) fetal body weight relative to the control group was observed at the 5000-ppM exposure level. There were no exposure-related increases in any individual fetal malformation or variation, nor was there any increase in the incidence of combined malformations or variations. Gestational exposure of CD-1 mice to n-hexane vapors appeared to cause a degree of concentration-related developmental toxicity in the absence of overt maternal toxicity, but the test material was not found to be teratogenic. This developmental toxicity was manifested as an increase in the number of resorptions per litter for all exposure levels, and as a decrease in the uterine: extra-gestational weight gain ratio at the 5000-ppM exposure level. Because of the significant increase in the number of resorptions at the 200-ppM exposure level, a no observable effect level (NOEL) for developmental toxicity was not established for exposure of mice to 200, 1000 or 5000-ppM n-hexane vapors. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Individually ventilated cages: beneficial for mice and men?

    PubMed

    Baumans, Vera; Schlingmann, Freek; Vonck, Marlice; van Lith, Hein A

    2002-01-01

    Housing systems are an important element in the well-being of laboratory animals and, consequently, influence the outcomes of animal experiments. Individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems were developed to maintain low ammonia and CO(2) concentrations, to support a low relative humidity, and to reduce spread of infective agents and allergenic contaminants. However, the increased intracage ventilation rates (25 to 100 air changes/h) in these systems have animal welfare implications. In four preference studies involving a total of 36 pairs of female BALB/c mice and three different types of IVC racks, we tested the preference/avoidance of mice for the intracage ventilation rate, cage size, location of air supply, and presence of nesting material in a two-cage system. In this system, the two cages were connected by a passage with a swing-door to allow mice to move freely between the cages. We found that the mice avoided high intracage ventilation rates but that providing nesting material could counteract this avoidance. In addition, the mice preferred larger cages and an air supply in the cover. We conclude that the location of the air supply in the cage, cage size, ventilation rate and the presence of nesting material in IVC systems influence the well-being of the animals. PMID:11860253

  14. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research

    PubMed Central

    Panfil, Amanda R; Al-Saleem, Jacob J; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP). Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examining viral persistence. Viral transmission, persistence, and immune responses have been widely studied using New Zealand White rabbits. The advent of molecular clones of HTLV-1 has offered the opportunity to assess the importance of various viral genes in rabbits, non-human primates, and mice. Additionally, over-expression of viral genes using transgenic mice has helped uncover the importance of Tax and Hbz in the induction of lymphoma and other lymphocyte-mediated diseases. HTLV-1 inoculation of certain strains of rats results in histopathological features and clinical symptoms similar to that of humans with HAM/TSP. Transplantation of certain types of ATL cell lines in immunocompromised mice results in lymphoma. Recently, “humanized” mice have been used to model ATL development for the first time. Not all HTLV-1 animal models develop disease and those that do vary in consistency depending on the type of monkey, strain of rat, or even type of ATL cell line used. However, the progress made using animal models cannot be understated as it has led to insights into the mechanisms regulating viral replication, viral persistence, disease development, and, most importantly, model systems to test disease treatments. PMID:25512694

  15. A metabolomic study of the PPAR? agonist GW501516 for enhancing running endurance in Kunming mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xie, Xinni; Zheng, Zhibing; Li, Haijing; Li, Song; Dong, Fangting; Wang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) expression in skeletal muscle. PPAR? regulates muscle metabolism and reprograms muscle fibre types to enhance running endurance. This study utilized metabolomic profiling to examine the effects of GW501516, a PPAR? agonist, on running endurance in mice. While training alone increased the exhaustive running performance, GW501516 treatment enhanced running endurance and the proportion of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-positive muscle fibres in both trained and untrained mice. Furthermore, increased levels of intermediate metabolites and key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation pathways were observed following training and/or treatment. Training alone increased serum inositol, glucogenic amino acids, and branch chain amino acids. However, GW501516 increased serum galactose and ?-hydroxybutyrate, independent of training. Additionally, GW501516 alone raised serum unsaturated fatty acid levels, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, but levels increased even more when combined with training. These findings suggest that mechanisms behind enhanced running capacity are not identical for GW501516 and training. Training increases energy availability by promoting catabolism of proteins, and gluconeogenesis, whereas GW501516 enhances specific consumption of fatty acids and reducing glucose utilization. PMID:25943561

  16. Histological Quantitation of Brain Injury Using Whole Slide Imaging: A Pilot Validation Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenzhou; Shin, Dmitriy; Chen, Shanyan; Mikhail, Kovalenko; Hadass, Orr; Tomlison, Brittany N.; Korkin, Dmitry; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Cui, Jiankun; Anthony, Douglas C.; Gu, Zezong

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of serial brain sections provides an objective measure of neurological events at cellular and molecular levels but is difficult to implement in experimental neuroscience laboratories because of variation from person-to-person and the time required for analysis. Whole slide imaging (WSI) technology, recently introduced for pathological diagnoses, offers an electronic environment and a variety of computational tools for performing high-throughput histological analysis and managing the associated information. In our study, we applied various algorithms to quantify histologic changes associated with brain injury and compared the results to manual assessment. WSI showed a high degree of concordance with manual quantitation by Pearson correlation and strong agreement using Bland-Altman plots in: (i) cortical necrosis in cresyl-violet-stained brain sections of mice after focal cerebral ischemia; (ii) intracerebral hemorrhage in ischemic mouse brains for automated annotation of the small regions, rather than whole hemisphere of the tissue sections; (iii) Iba1-immunoreactive cell density in the adjacent and remote brain regions of mice subject to controlled cortical impact (CCI); and (iv) neuronal degeneration by silver staining after CCI. These results show that WSI, when appropriately applied and carefully validated, is a highly efficient and unbiased tool to locate and identify neuropathological features, delineate affected regions and histologically quantify these events. PMID:24637518

  17. Nicotinic acid inhibits hepatic APOA gene expression: studies in humans and in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chennamsetty, Indumathi; Kostner, Karam M; Claudel, Thierry; Vinod, Manjula; Frank, Sasa; Weiss, Thomas S; Trauner, Michael; Kostner, Gerhard M

    2012-11-01

    Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) (LPA) levels are recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Our knowledge on LPA metabolism is incomplete, which makes it difficult to develop LPA-lowering medications. Nicotinic acid (NA) is the main drug recommended for the treatment of patients with increased plasma LPA concentrations. The mechanism of NA in lowering LPA is virtually unknown. To study this mechanism, we treated transgenic (tg) APOA mice with NA and measured plasma APOA and hepatic mRNA levels. In addition, mouse and human primary hepatocytes were incubated with NA, and the expression of APOA was followed. Feeding 1% NA reduced plasma APOA and hepatic expression of APOA in tg-APOA mice. Experiments with cultured human and mouse primary hepatocytes in addition to reporter assays performed in HepG2 cells revealed that NA suppresses APOA transcription. The region between -1446 and -857 of the human APOA promoter harboring several cAMP response element binding sites conferred the negative effect of NA. In accordance, cAMP stimulated APOA transcription, and NA reduced hepatic cAMP levels. It is suggested that cAMP signaling might be involved in reducing APOA transcription, which leads to the lowering of plasma LPA. PMID:22930813

  18. An in vivo study of the gastrointestinal absorption site for zinc chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J A; Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1998-03-01

    The experimental model presented below enables quantitation of the uptake of zinc (Zn++) into gastrointestinal mucosal cells in vivo using gamma-counting of 65Zn. Experiments were performed in mice fed their normal diet under natural physiological conditions. The in vivo site(s) of significant zinc absorption may thereby be identified. Absorption of zinc was extensive during the first hour after administration of a single oral dose of ZnCl2. Apparently, absorption continued during at least eight hours postdosage, and probably continued for 48 hours. The intestinal mucosal labelling profile for zinc did not depend on dose size or the mode of administration (single oral doses or in drinking water). The duodenum and ileum were important sites for rapid zinc absorption. A continuous, slower absorption of zinc may take place in the jejunum. The stomach, caecum and colon appeared to be insignificant sites of zinc absorption. The transit time for zinc was very short as large quantities of zinc passed through the small intestine within one hour. In contrast to other studies, the intestinal labelling profile or the extent of zinc absorption were not changed in mice that received Tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TTD) in their food. PMID:9638608

  19. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; LEITE, Aline de Lima; CHANG, Sywe-Ren; LIU, Jun; CZAJKA-JAKUBOWSKA, Agata; CLARKSON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain) or resistant (129P3/J strain) to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Material and Methods Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain) were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra) was measured. Results The mean (±SD) Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm) was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm) but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247). Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm) were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013) than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm). Conclusion Enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis. PMID:25025555

  20. Translational value of sheep as animal model to study sinus augmentation.

    PubMed

    Valbonetti, Luca; Berardinelli, Paolo; Scarano, Antonio; Piattelli, Adriano; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara; Vulpiani, Michele Podaliri; Muttini, Aurelio

    2015-05-01

    Sinus augmentation is a routine surgical procedure in dentistry. At present, various animal models are available for the research purpose on this topic. In particular, for the first time, we have performed a morphological study on sheep sinus, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), to precisely define the anatomy of the ovine sinus. Then, we compared the sheep and human sinus morphological parameters, in order to uniform the research approach to the sinus augmentation procedures and to standardize this experimental model. Six fresh heads of adult female sheep were studied with CBCT and histologic examination to determine the dimensions and the organization of the ovine maxillary sinus. The comparison of the dimensional values between man and sheep shows evident differences between the two species; CBCT offers detailed information for studying normal maxillary sinus. Human and sheep maxillary sinus show anatomical differences that must be taken into account in experimental procedures. PMID:25974782

  1. Skinning a cat: a study of the use of supplemental video in teaching introductory 3D computer animation 

    E-print Network

    Woods, Virginia Annemarie

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed to test the hypothesis that a supplemental video would increase student understanding of and ability to apply the 12 principles animation. Eight student volunteers created a walk cycle using the same model. They then watched a...

  2. Skinning a cat: a study of the use of supplemental video in teaching introductory 3D computer animation

    E-print Network

    Woods, Virginia Annemarie

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed to test the hypothesis that a supplemental video would increase student understanding of and ability to apply the 12 principles animation. Eight student volunteers created a walk cycle using the same model. They then watched a...

  3. Is Leadership a Reliable Concept in Animals? An Empirical Study in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Hausberger, Martine; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership – departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates – was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research. PMID:26010442

  4. Influence of the respirator on volatile organic compounds: an animal study in rats over 24?hours.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, F W; Hüppe, T; Fink, T; Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Wolf, B; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2015-03-01

    Long-term animal studies are needed to accomplish measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for medical diagnostics. In order to analyze the time course of VOCs, it is necessary to ventilate these animals. Therefore, a total of 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and ventilated with synthetic air via tracheotomy for 24?h. An ion mobility spectrometry coupled to multi-capillary columns (MCC-IMS) was used to analyze the expired air. To identify background contaminations produced by the respirator itself, six comparative measurements were conducted with ventilators only. Overall, a number of 37 peaks could be detected within the positive mode. According to the ratio peak intensity rat/ peak intensity ventilator blank, 22 peaks with a ratio >1.5 were defined as expired VOCs, 12 peaks with a ratio between 0.5 and 1.5 as unaffected VOCs, and three peaks with a ratio <0.5 as resorbed VOCs. The peak intensity of 12 expired VOCs changed significantly during the 24?h measurement. These results represent the basis for future intervention studies. Notably, online VOC analysis with MCC-IMS is possible over 24?h in ventilated rats and allows different experimental approaches. PMID:25749729

  5. An Animal Model to Study the Clinical Significance of Interictal Spiking

    PubMed Central

    Barkmeier, D.T.; Loeb, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Interictal spikes (IIS) are paroxysmal discharges commonly observed in patients with epilepsy which represent an abnormally-synchronized population of hyperexcitable neurons firing as an aggregate. Due to conflicting studies on the clinical significance of IIS, research focusing on IIS has been sparse. However, recent attention on IIS has increased for patients undergoing surgery for intractable epilepsy as a means to identify epileptic foci for surgical resection. There is growing evidence that IIS are not asymptomatic as has been commonly accepted. Other than epilepsy, IIS have been associated with a wide range of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit disorder, anxiety disorders and psychoses. For these reasons, a well-characterized animal model of interictal spiking which accurately mimics the human phenomenon would be a valuable tool to gain insights both into the pathophysiology of epilepsy as well as a broad variety of human neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we review the literature on the clinical significance of IIS in humans and on animal models where IIS has been observed. We then demonstrate the utility of using tetanus toxin to generate a reproducible pattern of progressive IIS for future studies into their clinical significance. PMID:19780344

  6. Trends in animal use at US research facilities.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Justin; Chandna, Alka; Roe, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Minimising the use of animals in experiments is universally recognised by scientists, governments and advocates as an ethical cornerstone of research. Yet, despite growing public opposition to animal experimentation, mounting evidence that animal studies often do not translate to humans, and the development of new research technologies, a number of countries have reported increased animal use in recent years. In the USA-one of the world's largest users of animals in experiments-a lack of published data on the species most commonly used in laboratories (eg, mice, rats and fish) has prevented such assessments. The current study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the use of all vertebrate animals by the top institutional recipients of National Institutes of Health research funds over a 15-year period. These data show a statistically significant 72.7% increase in the use of animals at these US facilities during this time period-driven primarily by increases in the use of mice. Our results highlight a need for greater efforts to reduce animal use. We discuss technical, institutional, sociological and psychological explanations for this trend. PMID:25717142

  7. Acute and subacute toxicity study of 1,8-cineole in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiao; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Chuan; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Li-Jun; Li, Li; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Li, Mei; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Liang, Xiao-Xia; He, Chang-Liang; Yin, Li-Zi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of acute and subacute toxicity of 1,8-cineole in Kunming mice were studied. After acute oral administration, the LD50 value (95% CL) was 3849 mg/kg (3488.8~4247.1 mg/kg). In the subacute toxicity study, there were no significant differences in body weight and relative organ weight between the control group and 1,8-cineole treatment groups. The histopathological examinations showed that granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration appeared in liver and kidney tissue after administration of high dose of 1,8-cineole. Under electron microscopy, a series of ultrastructural changes were observed: The electron microscopy assays indicated that the influence of 1,8-cineole on the target organ at the subcellular level were mainly on the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and other membrane type structure of liver and kidney. PMID:24817945

  8. 177Lu-DOTA-HH1, a Novel Anti-CD37 Radio-Immunoconjugate: A Study of Toxicity in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H. V.; Larsen, Roy H.; Giusti, Anna Maria; Riccardi, Elena; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Selbo, Pål Kristian; Dahle, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Background CD37 is an internalizing B-cell antigen expressed on Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL). The anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody HH1 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and labelled with the beta-particle emitting radionuclide 177Lu creating the radio-immunoconjugate (RIC) 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1, trade name Betalutin). The present toxicity study was performed prior to initiation of clinical studieswith 177Lu-HH1. Methodology/Principal Findings Nude mice with or without tumor xenografts were treated with 50 to 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu- HH1 and followed for clinical signs of toxicity up to ten months. Acute, life threatening bone marrow toxicity was observed in animals receiving 800 and 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Significant changes in serum concentrations of liver enzymes were evident for treatment with 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Lymphoid depletion, liver necrosis and atrophy, and interstitial cell hyperplasia of the ovaries were also observed for mice in this dose group. Conclusions/Significance 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 was well tolerated at dosages about 10 times above those considered relevant for radioimmunotherapy in patients with B-cell derived malignancies.The toxicity profile was as expected for RICs. Our experimental results have paved the way for clinical evaluation of 177Lu-HH1 in NHL patients. PMID:25068508

  9. Lol p I–specific IgE and IgG synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic subjects in SCID mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rémi Gagnon; Yvan Boutin; Jacques Hébert

    1995-01-01

    Background: The development of an animal model representative of the in vivo situation of human atopic diseases is always of interest for a better understanding of IgE production and regulation. Along these lines, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) engrafted with lymphocytes from atopic subjects might be a suitable model for such studies. Objective: This study aims to analyze

  10. Developing an animal model for the study of fusion using RF energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jessica E. C.; Monnet, Eric; Cosgriff, Ned; Maul, Don; Roy, Jeff; Maass, Janet; Tetzlaff, Philip

    2004-07-01

    BACKGROUND: A reliable method of blood vessel fusion or sealing has been developed. This method works by applying RF energy and pressure to the walls of a vessel to create a seal. Several methods are used to evaluate the quality of the seal. The main criteria include pressurizing the vessel to failure and using histology to evaluate the integrity of the seal. Burst pressure testing quantifies seal quality, and histology stains reveal the fusion quality of the seal. In addition, histology can show the comparison of morphology and degree of fusion in different tissues. The purpose of the study was to develop an animal model for the human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and saphenous vein harvest procedure. METHODS: Experiments were conducted on ovine femoral veins and porcine epigastric veins to demonstrate, through histology and burst testing, the quality of seals. This research details the process of developing an animal model that best approximates the traditional harvest of the saphenous vein for the CABG procedure. RESULTS: Through a series of acute and chronic labs, this research developed a procedure on the ovine model to simulate a peripheral vascular procedure, similar to a femoral bypass. This peripheral vascular procedure on the ovine uses the femoral vein as an interpositional graft onto the femoral artery. In addition, this research identified a second animal model on which to evaluate the healing effects of sealed side branches in a cardiovascular procedure. This research path used the porcine model for a CABG procedure. The epigastric vein was harvested as an autologous vein graft for bypassing the LAD on the pig heart.

  11. Synthesis and animal studies of L-para-(/sup 18/F)-fluorophenyl-alanine as probe for in vivo cerebral protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Coenen, H.H.; Bodsch, W.; Takahashi, K.; Hossmann, A.; Stocklin, G.

    1985-05-01

    For the quantitation of cerebral protein synthesis in man by dynamic PET studies, fluorine-18 analogues seem superior to carbon-11 labeled substrates with respect to half-life and interference of amino acid metabolism giving rise to reutilization. Therefore, para- and ortho- /sup 18/F- fluorophenylalanine were prepared to study its metabolism in neuronal tissue. A labeling method was developed using direct electrophilic fluorination with (/sup 18/F)-F/sub 2/. Reaction of fluorine with L-phenylalanine in CF/sub 3/CO/sub 2/H at O/sup 0/C yielded 12-15% of ortho- and 6-8% of para-/sup 18/F-flurorophenylalanine. Isolation of the isomers was achieved by means of repeated RP-HPLC. The specific activity was about 2 Ci/mmole at 100 min after EOB. Both compounds showed a pharmacokinetic behaviour in mice after i.v. injection typical for natural amino acids. The accumulation in mice brain tissue reaches a plateau value after 5 min with 1.7% of the injected dose/g for para (2.5% in gerbils) and 2% for ortho. In a pilot study, about 1 mCi of p-/sup 18/F-phenylalanine was coinjected with 0.3 mCi (100 Ci/mmole) /sup 3/H-phenylalanine into the femoral vein of halothane-anesthetized Mongolian gerbils. The distribution obtained autoradiographyically in 20 ..mu..m sections of the frozen brain of an animal after 45 min revealed a similar pattern for both compounds indicating protein synthesis. In a parallel study 3-/sup 14/C-para-fluorophenylalanine was used to determine the chemical form of radioactivity in brain by means of HPLC. After 45 minutes, 7% of total brain activity was found as free amino acid and 60% was incorporated into proteins.

  12. Transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1) mediates changes in heart rate variability following a single exposure to acrolein in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data show that a single exposure to acrolein causes autonomic imbalance in mice through the TRPA1 sensor and subsequent cardiac dysfunction. Human and animal studies have shown that short-term air pollution exposure causes...

  13. Infection of type I interferon receptor-deficient mice with various old world arenaviruses: a model for studying virulence and host species barriers.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Toni; Merkler, Doron; Günther, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic Lassa fever in humans, while the related Old World arenaviruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala are supposedly apathogenic to humans and cause only inapparent infection in non-human primates. Here, we studied whether the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in humans and non-human primates is reflected in type I interferon receptor deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice by testing several strains of Lassa virus vs. the apathogenic viruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala. All Lassa virus strains tested-Josiah, AV, BA366, and Nig04-10-replicated to high titers in blood, lung, kidney, heart, spleen, brain, and liver and caused disease as evidenced by weight loss and elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) levels with a high AST/ALT ratio. Lassa fever-like pathology included acute hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pronounced disturbance of splenic cytoarchitecture. Infiltrations of activated monocytes/macrophages expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase and T cells were found in liver and lung. In contrast, Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala virus replicated poorly in the animals and acute inflammatory alterations were not noted. Depletion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells strongly enhanced susceptibility of IFNAR(-/-) mice to the apathogenic viruses. In conclusion, the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in IFNAR(-/-) mice correlates with their virulence in humans and non-human primates. In addition to the type I interferon system, T cells seem to regulate whether or not an arenavirus can productively infect non-host rodent species. The observation that Lassa virus overcomes the species barrier without artificial depletion of T cells suggests it is able to impair T cell functionality in a way that corresponds to depletion. PMID:23991083

  14. Toxicity of inhaled methyl isocyanate in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. II. Repeated exposure and recovery studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, J.R.; Gupta, B.N.; Thompson, M.; Adkins, B. Jr.; Schwetz, B.A.

    1987-06-01

    F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 1, 3, or 6 ppm methyl isocyanate by inhalation for 6 hr on 4 consecutive days. Deaths of rats were observed following 3 ppm exposures, and mice died after exposures to 6 ppm. Deaths appeared to be related to severe respiratory distress. Survivors in high dose groups lost weight initially, then gained weight at rates equal to controls throughout a 91-day recovery period. Lung weights increased significantly in male and female rats exposed to 3 ppm, but not persistent changes in brain, kidney, thymus, spleen, liver, or testis weights were seen in either mice or rats. Blood and serum from male and female rats were taken for clinical pathology and hematology assessments on day 7 of postexposure, the day prior to the first observed deaths of these animals. No changes or only slight changes were seen in measures of serum alanine aminotransferase, sorbital dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, or in blood and brain cholinesterase activities. However, serum creatine kinase increased with dose in both males and females. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and methemoglobin were unchanged. No changes were seen in counts of red blood cells or platelets, or in red cell indicies. Hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits were slightly elevated. No changes were noted in absolute leukocyte counts, but counts of segmented neutrophils increased and lymphocytes decreased. These changes are consistent with slight hemoconcentration and a stress-related leukogram, as seen in acute exposure studies. The results indicate that the respiratory system is the primary site of injury following repeated inhalations of lethal and sublethal concentrations of methyl isocyanate, and give little evidence of direct effects on nonrespiratory tissues.

  15. Theranostic Studies of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Imaging and Therapy Using 188Re: A Human Glioma Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, M.; Xi, Yun; Ma, Yufei; Liang, Sheng; Shi, Shuo; Miao, Ying; Li, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of 188Re in human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) theranostic gene-mediated human glioma imaging and therapy in model mice. Methods The human glioma cell line U87 was transfected with recombinant lentivirus encoding the hNIS gene under the control of cytomegalovirus promoter (U87-hNIS). The uptake and efflux of 188Re were determined after incubating the cells with 188Re. 188Re uptake experiments in the presence of various concentrations of sodium perchlorate were carried out. In vitro cell killing tests with 188Re were performed. U87-hNIS mediated 188Re distribution, imaging and therapy in nude mice were also tested. Results U87-hNIS cell line was successfully established. The uptake of 188Re in U87-hNIS cells increased up to 26-fold compared to control cells, but was released rapidly with a half-life of approximately 4 minutes. Sodium perchlorate reduced hNIS-mediated 188Re uptake to levels of control cell lines. U87-hNIS cells were selectively killed following exposure to 188Re, with a survival of 21.4%, while control cells had a survival of 92.1%. Unlike in vitro studies, U87-hNIS tumor showed a markedly increased 188Re retention even 48 hours after 188Re injection. In the therapy study, there was a significant difference in tumor size between U87-hNIS mice (317±67 mm3) and control mice (861±153 mm3) treated with 188Re for 4 weeks (P<0.01). Conclusion The results indicate that inserting the hNIS gene into U87 cells is sufficient to induce specific 188Re uptake, which has a cell killing effect both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our study, based on the function of hNIS as a theranostic gene allowing noninvasive imaging of hNIS expression by 188Re scintigraphy, provides detailed characterization of in vivo vector biodistribution and level, localization, essential prerequisites for precise planning and monitoring of clinical gene therapy that aims to individualize gene therapy concept. PMID:25000403

  16. Anticancer activity of cationic porphyrins in melanoma tumour-bearing mice and mechanistic in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porphyrin TMPyP4 (P4) and its C14H28-alkyl derivative (C14) are G-quadruplex binders and singlet oxygen (1O2) generators. In contrast, TMPyP2 (P2) produces 1O2 but it is not a G-quadruplex binder. As their photosensitizing activity is currently undefined, we report in this study their efficacy against a melanoma skin tumour and describe an in vitro mechanistic study which gives insights into their anticancer activity. Methods Uptake and antiproliferative activity of photoactivated P2, P4 and C14 have been investigated in murine melanoma B78-H1 cells by FACS, clonogenic and migration assays. Apoptosis was investigated by PARP-1 cleavage and annexin-propidium iodide assays. Biodistribution and in vivo anticancer activity were tested in melanoma tumour-bearing mice. Porphyrin binding and photocleavage of G-rich mRNA regions were investigated by electrophoresis and RT-PCR. Porphyrin effect on ERK pathway was explored by Western blots. Results Thanks to its higher lipophylicity C14 was taken up by murine melanoma B78-H1 cells up to 30-fold more efficiently than P4. When photoactivated (7.2 J/cm2) in B78-H1 melanoma cells, P4 and C14, but not control P2, caused a strong inhibition of metabolic activity, clonogenic growth and cell migration. Biodistribution studies on melanoma tumour-bearing mice showed that P4 and C14 localize in the tumour. Upon irradiation (660 nm, 193 J/cm2), P4 and C14 retarded tumour growth and increased the median survival time of the treated mice by ~50% (P <0.01 by ANOVA), whereas porphyrin P2 did not. The light-dependent mechanism mediated by P4 and C14 is likely due to the binding to and photocleavage of G-rich quadruplex-forming sequences within the 5?-untranslated regions of the mitogenic ras genes. This causes a decrease of RAS protein and inhibition of downstream ERK pathway, which stimulates proliferation. Annexin V/propidium iodide and PARP-1 cleavage assays showed that the porphyrins arrested tumour growth by apoptosis and necrosis. C14 also showed an intrinsic light-independent anticancer activity, as recently reported for G4-RNA binders. Conclusions Porphyrins P4 and C14 impair the clonogenic growth and migration of B78-H1 melanoma cells and inhibit melanoma tumour growth in vivo. Evidence is provided that C14 acts through light-dependent (mRNA photocleavage) and light-independent (translation inhibition) mechanisms. PMID:24684778

  17. Prolactin receptor signal transduction pathways and actions determined in prolactin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P A; Binart, N; Freemark, M; Lucas, B; Goffin, V; Bouchard, B

    2001-05-01

    Prolactin-receptor-deficient mice are a good model in which to study the various actions of prolactin. Female homozygous knockout mice are completely infertile and show a lack of mammary development, while hemizogotes are unable to lactate following their first pregnancy. Male and female homozygotes have markedly elevated serum prolactin levels, and in some instances pituitary hyperplasia is present. Maternal behaviour is severely affected in both hemizygous and homozygous animals. Bone formation is reduced in young animals and in adults (males and females). Finally, older males and females show a slight reduction in body weight, which seems to be due to reduced abdominal fat deposition in the knockout animals. PMID:11356125

  18. Animal Models of Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosol, Thomas J.; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H.; LeRoy, Bruce E.; Mandl, Stefanie; Contag, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Animal models are important tools to investigate the pathogenesis and develop treatment strategies for bone metastases in humans. However, there are few spontaneous models of bone metastasis despite the fact that rodents (rats and mice) and other animals (dogs and cats) often spontaneously develop cancer. Therefore, most experimental models of bone metastasis in rodents require injection or implantation of neoplastic cells into orthotopic locations, bones, or the left ventricle of the heart. METHODS The current study reviews the natural incidence and clinical manifestation of bone metastases of mammary and prostate carcinoma in animals, as well as the experimental models developed in mice using animal and human-derived neoplasms. RESULTS Rats, mice, dogs, and cats often develop spontaneous mammary carcinoma, but bone metastases are rare. Intact and neutered dogs develop prostate carcinoma that is usually androgen independent and may be associated with regional bone invasion or distant bone metastasis. Normal dog prostate tissue induces new bone formation in vivo and can serve as a model of osteoblastic metastasis without concurrent bone destruction. Experimental models of osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic bone metastases include syngeneic rodent neoplasms or human xenografts implanted at orthotopic sites (e.g., breast or prostate glands) in immunodeficient mice, injection of cancer cells into the left ventricle of the heart, or direct injection into bones. New transgenic mouse models of cancer have a low incidence of spontaneous bone metastasis, but cell lines derived from these tumors can be selected in vivo for increased incidence of bone metastasis. It is essential to validate and correctly interpret the lesions in models of bone metastasis to accurately correlate the data from animal models to human disease. Animal models have provided support for the “seed and soil” hypothesis of bone metastasis. However, the roles of vascular patterns in the metaphyses of long bones and rapid bone turnover in young animals in the pathogenesis of metastasis in experimental models are uncertain. Improvements in the imaging of experimental animals in vivo using fluorescent markers or light emitted from luciferase have led to increased sensitivity of detection and more accurate quantification of bone metastases. For example, imaging of human prostate carcinoma PC-3M cells transfected with luciferase, following injection into the left ventricle, has demonstrated that there is rapid localization of tumor cells to bones and other organs, such as the kidneys and lungs. CONCLUSIONS Animal models of metastasis have supported drug development and have been useful for identification of metastasis suppressor and promoter genes as novel targets for the development of novel therapies. Further refinement of these models will involve spatiotemporal analysis of the metastatic process by imaging and use of image data to stage disease and guide tissue sampling for gene expression profiling via gene array technology. In the future, integrated analyses of these models will be needed to understand the complexities of this important disease process. PMID:15043188

  19. The impact of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on ovarian function may extend to the next generation in female mice: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shao-Ping; Wu, Tsung-Chieh J; Chen, Shee-Uan; Wu, Jui; Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Ya-Chien; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2010-07-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) is known to alter the reproductive function of exposed animals and their offspring; however, its influence on cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) remains unclear. This study assessed the toxicity of EGME on oocytes and COCs by analyzing the number of oocytes in the F0 and F1 generations and evaluating apoptosis in oocytes and COCs after treating the F0 generation with EGME. There was a dose-dependent increase in the apoptosis ratios in the COCs from F1 mice, which were not directly exposed to EGME, with apoptosis ratios of 0.065, 0.102, 0.184, and 0.212 for the 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% EGME dose groups, respectively. The increased apoptosis of cumulus cells may play a role in the toxicity of EGME toward ovarian function. EGME toxicity seems to affect female offspring in future generation(s), but further studies with a large number of animals are necessary to verify these conclusions. PMID:20380876

  20. Regeneration of facial nerve after hypoglossal facial anastomosis: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Yanagihara, N; Murakami, S

    1994-12-01

    Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis was carried out in 20 adult guinea pigs. Electromyographic responses of orbicularis oculi muscle evoked by blink reflex were recorded 2, 4, and 6 months after surgery. Then the anastomotic site was reopened, and a segment of buccal branch and the anastomotic trunk were resected for detailed histologic study. Regenerated axons were counted and the cross-sectional area of axons and fasciculi was measured. Data obtained from both blink reflex measurement and histologic study demonstrate a good quality of regeneration of the facial nerve from the hypoglossal nerve completed 6 months after the operation. In addition a new nerve bundle was regenerated from the proximal stump of the facial nerve connecting to the anastomotic site in 80% of the animals. Postoperative change in innervation pattern of the facial nerve was also illustrated. PMID:7991248

  1. Attenuated fever response in mice lacking TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohko Iida; Isao Shimizu; Michele L. Nealen; Ashley Campbell; Michael Caterina

    2005-01-01

    TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, is expressed not only in nociceptive neurons, but also in other locations, including the hypothalamus. Studies involving systemic or intrahypothalamic capsaicin administration have suggested a role for TRPV1 in body temperature control. To explore this possibility, we examined thermoregulatory responses in TRPV1?\\/? mice. These mutant animals exhibited no obvious changes in circadian body temperature fluctuation, tolerance

  2. Silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause pregnancy complications in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohei Yamashita; Yasuo Yoshioka; Kazuma Higashisaka; Kazuya Mimura; Yuki Morishita; Masatoshi Nozaki; Tokuyuki Yoshida; Toshinobu Ogura; Hiromi Nabeshi; Kazuya Nagano; Yasuhiro Abe; Haruhiko Kamada; Youko Monobe; Takayoshi Imazawa; Hisae Aoshima; Kiyoshi Shishido; Yuichi Kawai; Tadanori Mayumi; Shin-Ichi Tsunoda; Norio Itoh; Tomoaki Yoshikawa; Itaru Yanagihara; Shigeru Saito; Yasuo Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about their potential risks to human health. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles can cross the placenta barrier in pregnant mice and cause neurotoxicity in their offspring, but a more detailed understanding of the effects of nanoparticles on pregnant animals remains elusive. Here, we show that silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with

  3. Abnormal reproductive function in female homozygous leaner mice

    E-print Network

    Serpedin, Nesrin

    2004-09-30

    of Reproductive Function???????.??25 Rationale for This Study?????????????????????..28 II. MATERIALS AND METHODS????????????????????31 Animals???????..????????????????..??..?..31 Onset of Puberty.???????????.?????????.32 Estrous Cycle... to neurodegeneration in these mutant mice. Further investigation into the relationship between neurologic syndromes and ion channel impairment on one hand, and the reproductive dysfunction on the other hand should improve the diagnosis and permit the development...

  4. An Electron Microscope Study of Mitochondrial DNA in Spontaneous Human Tumours and Chemically Induced Animal Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. M.; Fox, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    MtDNA was extracted by a phenol method from transplanted and primary DAB induced hepatomata in male Wistar rats, normal rat liver, spontaneous human tumours (2 Wilm's tumours, one neuroblastoma and one adrenal carcinoma), as well as 2 specimens of normal human kidney, BNU induced “leukaemias” in mice and CHO fibroblasts in monolayer culture. The proportion of monomers, catenated dimers and oligomers, open dimers and small circles was determined by electron microscopy of the fractions comprising lower and middle DNA bands in a CsCl-EthBr gradient. Tumours were compared where possible with their normal tissue of origin. Open dimers were found in 2 Wilm's tumours and their attached “normal-looking” kidney tissue but not in normal, non-malignant kidney or any other tissue studied. In Wilm's tumours, the occurrence of open dimers is far from being an all-or-none phenomenon. Malignancy produced little change in the relative proportions of catenated dimers and oligomers in the tissues studied. Small circles were found associated with mtDNA from every tissue. Tumour mtDNA was not more heterogeneous in length than monomers from the corresponding normal tissue, neither was the mean length of tumour mtDNA significantly different from its corresponding normal mtDNA. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:4368398

  5. From experimental zoology to big data: Observation and integration in the study of animal development.

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    The founding of the Journal of Experimental Zoology in 1904 was inspired by a widespread turn toward experimental biology in the 19th century. The founding editors sought to promote experimental, laboratory-based approaches, particularly in developmental biology. This agenda raised key practical and epistemological questions about how and where to study development: Does the environment matter? How do we know that a cell or embryo isolated to facilitate observation reveals normal developmental processes? How can we integrate descriptive and experimental data? R.G. Harrison, the journal's first editor, grappled with these questions in justifying his use of cell culture to study neural patterning. Others confronted them in different contexts: for example, F.B. Sumner insisted on the primacy of fieldwork in his studies on adaptation, but also performed breeding experiments using wild-collected animals. The work of Harrison, Sumner, and other early contributors exemplified both the power of new techniques, and the meticulous explanation of practice and epistemology that was marshaled to promote experimental approaches. A century later, experimentation is widely viewed as the standard way to study development; yet at the same time, cutting-edge "big data" projects are essentially descriptive, closer to natural history than to the approaches championed by Harrison et al. Thus, the original questions about how and where we can best learn about development are still with us. Examining their history can inform current efforts to incorporate data from experiment and description, lab and field, and a broad range of organisms and disciplines, into an integrated understanding of animal development. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 277-291, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25757656

  6. Effect of the timing of tourniquet release on postoperative hematoma formation: an experimental animal study

    SciTech Connect

    Himel, H.N.; Ahmad, M.; Parmett, S.R.; Strauss, H.W.; May, J.W. Jr.

    1989-04-01

    There is a controversy over when to release a pneumatic tourniquet after completing a hand surgical procedure. To study this controversy, we performed a standardized operation with tourniquet inflow occlusion on both lower legs of a series of rabbits. Total tourniquet time and the procedure performed, including intraoperative Bovie electrocautery of actual and potential bleeding points identified with 2.5 X loupe magnification, were identical on the two sides, except for the method of tourniquet release. On one leg, the tourniquet was released and all new bleeding points were controlled prior to wound closure. On the other leg, the tourniquet was released after the wound had been closed and dressed. Animals were injected with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells and scanned to measure hematoma formation. Qualitatively, we observed more label in the leg whose tourniquet was released after wound closure in 17 of the 20 animals (p less than 0.005). Quantitatively, we also measured more mean label in the leg whose tourniquet was released after the wound was closed (p less than 0.001). Tourniquet release after wound closure was associated with greater hematoma formation.

  7. The effects of poststroke aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity: a systematic review of animal and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Ploughman, Michelle; Austin, Mark W; Glynn, Lindsay; Corbett, Dale

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic exercise may be a catalyst to promote neuroplasticity and recovery following stroke; however, the optimal methods to measure neuroplasticity and the effects of training parameters have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of clinical trials and studies in animal models to determine (1) the extent to which aerobic exercise influences poststroke markers of neuroplasticity, (2) the optimal parameters of exercise required to induce beneficial effects, and (3) consistent outcomes in animal models that could help inform the design of future trials. Synthesized findings show that forced exercise at moderate to high intensity increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), nerve growth factor (NGF), and synaptogenesis in multiple brain regions. Dendritic branching was most responsive to moderate rather than intense training. Disparity between clinical stroke and stroke models (timing of initiation of exercise, age, gender) and clinically viable methods to measure neuroplasticity are some of the areas that should be addressed in future research. PMID:25023134

  8. [Study on the method of using ICP-MS to determine microelements in the animal feed].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Long; Su, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Sheng; Wang, Tong; Zhu, Ruo-Hua

    2007-09-01

    The method for the determination of microelements such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, As and Se in the animal feed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was developed. The operation parameters, spectrum interference, matrix effect and memorial effect were studied in detail. Under optimal condition, the detection limits of these nine elements were from 2.03 x 10(-3) to 3.17 microg x L(-1), and the linear range was over three orders with a correlation coefficient above 0.999. This method was applied directly to determine microelements in real samples involving the standard wheat powder, formular feed and pre-mix feed. The determination results of microelements in the standard wheat powder accorded with reference results. The recovery of microelements in the formular feed was from 86% to 115%, and the relative standard deviations < or = 8.2% (n = 6). The results of elements content in the pre-mix feed were identical with those determined by national standard method. This method is simple, sensitive, accurate and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination compared with conventional method of animal feed determination. The results were satisfactory. PMID:18051542

  9. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice. PMID:24473120

  10. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States)] [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States)] [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ? Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ? HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ? We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  11. Aerosol infection of mice with Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Y; Izumiya, K; Sato, H; Cowell, J L; Manclark, C R

    1980-01-01

    Aerosol inhalation of Bordetella pertussis Tohama phase I resulted in a reproducible and uniform infection of mice (strain DDY or ICR). Mice in groups of 10 exposed for 30 min to aerosols generated from bacterial suspensions of 10(9) and 10(10) organisms per ml resulted in mean bacterial counts of 2.3 (+/- 0.3) X 10(4) and 1.0 (+/- 0.3) X 10(5) colony-forming units, respectively, in the lung of each animal. Subsequent studies using a 30-min aerosol inoculation of ICR mice with 2 X 10(9) bacterial cells per ml showed: (i) B. pertussis cells reached a maximum of about 10(7) colony-forming units per lung 14 days after inhalation. (ii) Deaths (10 to 100%, depending on mouse age) occurred 10 to 14 days after exposure. (iii) The lung weight and the leukocyte count increased from basal values of 100 mg and 10(4) leukocytes per mm3 to a plateau of 950 mg and 1.95 X 10(5) leukocytes per mm3, respectively, 14 days after challenge. (iv) There was a significantly reduced rate of body weight gain by infected mice compared to noninfected mice. (v) With mortality as the criterion for disease, susceptibility varied with the age of mice as follows: 10 days old greater than 18 greater than 28 greater than 49. (vi) Bacteria were associated with ciliated respiratory epithelial cells by scanning electron microscopy. Images Fig. 4 PMID:6249758

  12. Comparative Experimental Study of Wound Healing in Mice: Pelnac versus Integra

    PubMed Central

    Wosgrau, Ana Carolina Câmara; Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Leonardi, Dilmar Francisco; Pereima, Maurício José; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for skin regeneration have been developed to provide effective treatment for cutaneous wounds and disease. Dermal substitutes have been used to cover the lesion to facilitate cell colonization, thereby promoting dermal regeneration. However, very little is known about Pelnac matrix especially at histological level. Therefore, the present work carried out an experimental in vivo comparative analysis between Pelnac and Integra, the most used dermal templates, in a mouse model of full-thickness skin wounds. Histological sections performed at the 3rd, 6th and 9th days after surgery were analyzed with regard to inflammatory response and vascularization. Both templates were completely incorporated in all animals at the end of the analyzed period. Pelnac-treated animals displayed reduced granulation tissue during the first 6 days of treatment compared to the animals treated with Integra at the same time period. The number of inflammatory cells (neutrophils) was similar in both groups during the period, significantly reducing at the end of inflammatory phase (9th day of treatment) consistent with the progression of healing process. In addition, the density of blood vessels was also statistically similar in both matrices. Therefore, the two dermal templates displayed comparable biological behavior in tissue repair. It is noteworthy that this is the first experimental study comparing Pelnac and Integra dermal templates with focus on full-thickness skin wounds. PMID:25798623

  13. [Studies of the lymphatic system in mice infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis as well as infected and stimulated by Phytohaemagglutin (PHA-P)].

    PubMed

    Michalska, Z

    1992-01-01

    Mice CFW were infected per os with Trichinella pseudospiralis (150 larvae/mice). The mice were divided in two groups: nonstimulated and stimulated intraperitoneally with PHA-P at dose 10 mg/kg body weight. The animals were killed 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 150 day post infection (d.p.i.). Spleen et mesenteric lymph nodes were examined histopathologically (Hematoxylin-Eosin) and histochemically (nonspecific esterase reaction) for differentiation of T lymphocytes. The obtained results reveal that T. pseudospiralis infection caused weak mobilisation of mouse lymphatic system lasting only to 70 day of experiment. In the lymphatic organs of infected mice small number of T lymphocytes were observed mostly between 28 and 56 d.p.i. The intraperitoneally stimulation with PHA-P give rise to caused only little mobilisation of lymphatic tissue and small increase of T lymphocytes number. The obtained results were compared with analogic earlier experiments with T. spiralis infection. PMID:1299055

  14. Pancreatic islet blood perfusion in the nonobese diabetic mouse: diabetes-prone female mice exhibit a higher blood flow compared with male mice in the prediabetic phase.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, P O; Sandler, S; Jansson, L

    1998-08-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in pancreatic islet blood flow correlate with the difference in diabetes incidence between male and female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The blood flows were determined by a microsphere technique. In animals aged 10 and 14 weeks, the islet blood perfusion was 3-fold higher in female NOD mice compared with that in either age-matched male NOD mice or age- and sex-matched control ICR mice. At 5 weeks of age islet blood flow was similar in all groups. No differences between male and female NOD mice in whole pancreatic, duodenal, ileal, or colonic blood flows were observed at any time point. Administration of a bolus dose of aminoguanidine (a blocker of inducible nitric oxide synthase) to 10-week-old animals selectively and markedly decreased islet blood flow in female NOD mice, whereas islet blood flow in ICR mice and male NOD mice remained unaffected. Aminoguanidine did not affect mean arterial blood pressure or whole pancreatic blood flow in any of the groups. Injection of N(G)-methyl-L-arginine, an unspecific inhibitor of both constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase, markedly decreased whole pancreatic and islet blood flow to the same level in both male and female NOD mice. These combined findings suggest that diabetes-prone female NOD mice have an increased islet blood flow, which is mediated by an excessive production of nitric oxide formed by inducible nitric oxide synthase. The islet blood hyperperfusion may augment homing to the pancreatic islets of inflammatory cells and soluble factors involved in beta-cell destruction during the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in this animal model. The presently observed gender difference in the blood flow response could, therefore, at least partially explain why female NOD mice are more prone to develop hyperglycemia than the males. PMID:9681505

  15. Species difference in the disposition of acrylonitrile: quantitative whole-body autoradiographic study in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sam; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2004-06-01

    Previous studies from this and other laboratories have indicated the role of species difference in acrylonitrile (VCN) toxicity and its metabolism to cyanide. Our recent studies also indicated a more pronounced elimination of VCN following oral as compared to i.v. administration. To further characterize the mechanism of these differences on the distribution of VCN, quantitative whole-body autoradiographic distribution and elimination studies were conducted at various time points (0.08, 8, 24, 48 h) following the administration of an equivalent i.v. dose of 2-[14C]-VCN to male Fischer rats and male CD-1 mice. Whole-body autoradiographs obtained from freeze-dried and acid-extracted sections of rats and mice demonstrated a rapid uptake of 14C in liver, lungs, spleen and bone marrow at early time intervals. Quantitatively, the uptake, retention and covalent interaction of 14C were higher in organs of rats as compared to mice, over 48 h. Mice eliminated 74% of the total administered dose of 2-[14C]-VCN (expired air 4%, urine 16% and feces 54%), while rats eliminated only 26% of the dose (expired air 2%, urine 4% and feces 20%). Species differences in VCN toxicity seem to be correlated with its rate of elimination. The distribution and elimination data demonstrated that mice divest VCN more rapidly than rats. The study also demonstrated that administration of VCN in rats resulted in covalent interactions and retention of 2-[14C]-VCN/metabolites in the tissues thus exerting more chronic toxicity to rats than to mice. PMID:15807404

  16. Milk Collection Methods for Mice and Reeves’ Muntjac Deer

    PubMed Central

    Willingham, Kassandra; McNulty, Erin; Anderson, Kelly; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Mathiason, Candace

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are commonly used throughout research laboratories as a tool to accomplish what would normally be considered impractical in a pathogen's native host. Milk collection from animals allows scientists the opportunity to study many aspects of reproduction including vertical transmission, passive immunity, mammary gland biology, and lactation. Obtaining adequate volumes of milk for these studies is a challenging task, especially from small animal models. Here we illustrate an inexpensive and facile method for milk collection in mice and Reeves’ muntjac deer that does not require specialized equipment or extensive training. PMID:25079295

  17. The utility of animal inhalation studies to assess the risk of mineral fiber-induced pulmonary cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    Animal inhalation exposures to fibrous materials such as crocidolite and erionite produce lesions similar to those found in exposed humans. This indicates that the animal inhalation model is relevant for identifying hazardous fibrous materials. Intratracheal instillations and intracoelomic injections are alternative bioassays that can be used to screen for the most biologically active materials. These nonphysiological routes of administration can give false positive results; therefore, animal inhalation studies should be the ultimate bioassay used in the absence of appropriate epidemiological data. 46 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. PMID:23851038

  19. Alterations in the rate of binge ethanol consumption: implications for preclinical studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Linsenbardt, David N; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-09-01

    The rate at which alcohol (ethanol) is consumed has direct impact on its behavioral and subjective effects. For this reason, alterations in the pattern of ethanol consumption as a function of drinking history might be critical to the development and maintenance of alcoholism. Furthermore, because pharmacological interventions aimed at disrupting the motivation to consume ethanol are dependent on the brain/plasma concentrations present when an individual is most likely to engage in consumption of this substance, characterizing temporal drinking patterns might be useful to determine the timing of such treatments. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate alterations in the timecourse of daily binge (drinking-in-the-dark; DID) ethanol consumption. We gave 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions to male C57BL/6J (B6) mice using a state of the art volumetric drinking monitoring device. We then, primarily as a proof-of-principle, used the GABAB allosteric modulator GS39783 (GS) to determine how this compound influenced the timecourse of binge-like ethanol intake. The rate of ethanol consumption increased dramatically over sessions with the majority occurring in the first few minutes of the final session. Additionally, ethanol consumption occurring immediately following access was almost completely abolished in mice pre-treated with GS; an effect which was ethanol-specific only at this early time interval. These data characterize progressive alterations in the rate of ethanol intake using the DID model and suggest that careful consideration of prior ethanol history and timing of drug administration are warranted when interpreting results of pre-clinical drug administration studies. PMID:23742054

  20. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…