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1

Peromyscus leucopus mice: a potential animal model for haematological studies.  

PubMed

Peromyscus leucopus mice share physical similarities with laboratory mice Mus musculus (MM) but have higher agility and longer lifespan. We compared domesticated P. leucopus linville (PLL) and M. musculus C57BL/6 (MMB6) mice for cellular composition of peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and spleen. PLL mice had significantly fewer platelets and significantly more monocytes in the blood, and notably fewer megakaryocytes in the BM. Spleens of PLL mice were significantly smaller, with 50% fewer cells and reduced 'red pulp'. There was no obvious haematological change in PLL mice between 2-8 and 16-26 months of age, except for a significant increase in blood monocytes. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content showed no change with age but differed significantly between different cell types. Treating two to eight month-old PLL mice with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in drinking water for three  months did not affect cellular ROS content, but increased blood leucocytes especially the concentration of monocytes. The low platelets, low megakaryocytes, high monocytes and low splenic erythropoiesis in PLL mice resemble human measurements better than the values seen in MMB6. PMID:25116892

Sun, Yu; Desierto, Marie J; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S

2014-10-01

2

First Results of Small Animal Imaging Spect Detector for Cardiovascular Disease Studies on Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a compact, open, Dual Head pinhole SPECT system for high resolution molecular imaging with radionuclides of mice, dedicated mainly to preclinical study of stem cells capability to recover myocardial infarction. The gamma detector is made of pinhole tungsten collimators, pixellated scintillators, matrix of multi-anode PMTs and individual channel readout. Measurements have been performed on phantoms and live mice devoted initially to test and calibrate the system and to optimize protocols. The implemented system and the first results will be presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of our dedicated SPECT detector for small animal imaging.

Magliozzi, M. L.; Ballerini, M.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Veneroni, P.; Majewsky, S.; Mok, S. P. G.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Wang, Y.; Marano, G.; Musumeci, M.; Palazzesi, S.; Ciccariello, G.; de Vincentis, G.; Accorsi, R.

2008-06-01

3

Impact of Animal Handling on the Results of 18F-FDG PET Studies in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-animal PET scanning with 18F-FDG is increasingly used in murine models of human diseases. However, the impact of dietary conditions, mode of anesthesia, and ambient tempera- ture on the biodistribution of 18F-FDG in mice has not been systematically studied so far. The aim of this study was to deter- mine how these factors affect assessment of tumor glucose use by

Barbara J. Fueger; Johannes Czernin; Isabel Hildebrandt; Chris Tran; Benjamin S. Halpern; David Stout; Michael E. Phelps; Wolfgang A. Weber

4

Mice Long-Term High-Fat Diet Feeding Recapitulates Human Cardiovascular Alterations: An Animal Model to Study the Early Phases of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods/Results Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese) or regular diet (normal) for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method) and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method). Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction), and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. Conclusions Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23593350

Calligaris, Sebastian D.; Lecanda, Manuel; Solis, Felipe; Ezquer, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Jaime; Brandan, Enrique; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis; Conget, Paulette

2013-01-01

5

Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.  

PubMed

Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia. PMID:17414418

Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

2007-04-01

6

Mice examined in Animal Laboratory of Lunar Receiving Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landrum Young (seated), Brown and Root-Northrup, and Russell Stullken, Manned Spacecraft Center, examine mice in the Animal laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory which have been inoculated with lunar sample material. wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

1969-01-01

7

Animal Model Mice with Cardiac-Restricted Angiotensin-Converting  

E-print Network

Animal Model Mice with Cardiac-Restricted Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Have Atrial created a mouse model with 100-fold nor- mal cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), but no ACE morphological changes, cardiac arrhythmia, and sudden death. (Am J Pathol 2004, 165:1019­1032) The renin

Capecchi, Mario R.

8

Helicobacter spp. in wild mice (Peromyscus leucopus) found in laboratory animal facilities.  

PubMed

Wild rodents are a potential source for pathogen introduction into laboratory animal research facilities. A study was designed to assess wild mice found at our institution by infectious disease surveillance. Wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were captured with live capture traps placed in areas in which wild mice had been reported in several animal facilities. Captured animals were euthanized by inhalation of CO(2), blood was collected by cardiocentesis (n = 10), and necropsy was performed (n = 8). Serum samples were negative for antibodies to mouse parvovirus (types 1 and 2), mouse minute virus, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice, mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, reovirus, rotavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, mouse adenovirus, ectromelia virus, K virus, cilia-associated respiratory bacillus, and Mycoplasma pulmonis. Of the 8 animals that were necropsied, pelt and cecal examinations were negative for ectoparasites and pinworms, respectively. Histopathologic examination of brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, and small intestine revealed bacteria morphologically compatible with Helicobacter spp. in the cecal and colonic glands and occasionally in the gastric lumen and pits. Mesenteric lymph nodes and feces from 8 of the animals were submitted for PCR analysis for the detection of mouse parvovirus, mouse minute virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and Helicobacter spp.; 7 of the samples were PCR-positive for Helicobacter spp. At this time, wild mice found in our animal facilities do not appear to be a significant source of common laboratory mouse viral pathogens. However, they are a potential source of Helicobacter infections. PMID:19930823

Dyson, Melissa C; Eaton, Kathryn A; Chang, Cherie

2009-11-01

9

ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study  

E-print Network

ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study Research Facilities Applying The M.S. degree in Animal Sciences may be earned for a program of study in reproductive physiology, animal health, nutrition to assistantships in the Animal and Veterinary Sciences field devote half time to work as directed by their major

Thomas, Andrew

10

Strain Differences in the Chronic Mild Stress Animal Model of Depression and Anxiety in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been reported to induce an anhedonic-like state in mice that resembles some of the symptoms of human depression. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress animal model of depression and anxiety to examine the responses of two strains of mice that have different behavioral responsiveness. An outbred ICR and an inbred C57BL/6 strain of mice were selected because they are widely used strains in behavioral tests. The results showed that the inbred C57BL/6 and outbred ICR mice were similarly responsive to CMS treatment in sucrose intake test (SIT) and open field test (OFT). However, the two strains showed quite different responses in forced swimming test (FST) and novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) test after 3 weeks of CMS treatment. Only C57BL/6 mice displayed the depression- and anxiety-like behavioral effects in response to CMS treatment in FST and NSF test. Our results suggest that there are differences in responsiveness to CMS according to the different types of strain of mice and behavioral tests. Therefore, these results provide useful information for the selection of appropriate behavioral methods to test depression- and anxiety-like behaviors using CMS in ICR and C57BL/6 mice.

Jung, Yang-Hee; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Jun-Sup; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

2014-01-01

11

Advanced brain dopamine transporter imaging in mice using small-animal SPECT/CT  

PubMed Central

Background Iodine-123-?-CIT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ligand for dopamine transporters (DATs), has been used for in vivo studies in humans, monkeys, and rats but has not yet been used extensively in mice. To validate the imaging and analysis methods for preclinical DAT imaging, wild-type healthy mice were scanned using 123I-?-CIT. Methods The pharmacokinetics and reliability of 123I-?-CIT in mice (n = 8) were studied with a multipinhole SPECT/CT camera after intravenous injection of 123I-?-CIT (38 ± 3 MBq). Kinetic imaging of three mice was continued for 7 h postinjection to obtain the time-activity curves in the striatum and cerebellum volumes. Five mice had repeated measures 4 h post-123I-?-CIT injection to provide an indication of test-retest reliability. The same five mice served as a basis for a healthy mean SPECT template. Results Specific binding of 123I-?-CIT within the mouse striatum could be clearly visualized with SPECT. The kinetics of 123I-?-CIT was similar to that in previously published autoradiography studies. Binding potential mean values of the test-retest studies were 6.6 ± 15.7% and 6.6 ± 4.6%, respectively, and the variability was 9%. The SPECT template was aggregated from the first and second imaging of the test-retest animals. No significant difference between the templates (P > 0.05) was found. From the test template, a striatal volume of 22.3 mm3 was defined. Conclusions This study demonstrates that high-resolution SPECT/CT is capable of accurate, repeatable, and semiquantitative measurement of 123I-?-CIT DAT binding in the mouse brain. This methodology will enable further studies on DAT density and neuroprotective properties of drugs in mice. PMID:23021250

2012-01-01

12

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

13

Expression of Interleukin4 in the Epidermis of Transgenic Mice Results in a Pruritic Inflammatory Skin Disease: An Experimental Animal Model to Study Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atopic dermatitis, a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease that occurs with increasing prevalence, is characterized by hyperactivated cytokines of helper T cell subset 2 and is frequently associated with staphylococcal infection. An experimental animal model of atopic dermatitis induced by transgenically introduced cytokine is not available. We generated a transgenic mouse line expressing epidermal interleukin-4, a critical cytokine of helper

Lawrence S. Chan; Neha Robinson; Luting Xu

2001-01-01

14

Noggin heterozygous mice: an animal model for congenital conductive hearing loss in humans.  

PubMed

Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves are not relayed efficiently to the inner ear. Mutations of the NOGGIN (NOG) gene in humans are associated with several autosomal dominant disorders such as proximal symphalangism and multiple synostoses. These syndromes are characterized by skeletal defects and synostoses, which include conductive hearing loss. Noggin is an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and balanced levels of BMPs and Noggin are required for proper skeletal formation. Depending on the genetic background, some of the Nog(+/-) mice display mild hearing loss, that is, conductive in nature. Since Noggin is a single exon gene, this data strongly suggest that the autosomal dominant disorders associated with NOG mutations are due to haploinsufficiency of NOGGIN. The conductive hearing loss in Nog(+/-) mice is caused by an ectopic bone bridge located between the stapes and the posterior wall of the tympanum, which affects the normal mobility of the ossicle. Our analyses suggest that the ectopic bone formation is caused by a failure of the stapes and styloid process to separate completely during development. This failure of bone separation in the Nog(+/-) mice reveals another consequence of chondrocyte hyperplasia due to unopposed Bmp activities in these mutants such as Bmp4 and Bmp14 (Gdf5). More importantly, these results establish Nog(+/-) mice as the first animal model for the study of conductive rather than neurosensory hearing loss that has direct relevance to human genetic disorders. PMID:18096605

Hwang, Chan-Ho; Wu, Doris K

2008-03-15

15

Animal studies on Spacelab-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

1987-01-01

16

Animal studies on Spacelab-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rates on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hand-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity-dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space-adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferon production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatotrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythopoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.; Berry, W.

1986-01-01

17

Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

18

Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of DR has been investigated using several animal models of diabetes. These models have been generated by pharmacological induction, feeding a galactose diet, and spontaneously by selective inbreeding or genetic modification. Among the available animal models, rodents have been studied most extensively owing to their short generation time and the inherited hyperglycemia and/or obesity that affect certain strains. In particular, mice have proven useful for studying DR and evaluating novel therapies because of their amenability to genetic manipulation. Mouse models suitable for replicating the early, non-proliferative stages of the retinopathy have been characterized, but no animal model has yet been found to demonstrate all of the vascular and neural complications that are associated with the advanced, proliferative stages of DR that occur in humans. In this review, we summarize commonly used animal models of DR, and briefly outline the in vivo imaging techniques used for characterization of DR in these models. Through highlighting the ocular pathological findings, clinical implications, advantages and disadvantages of these models, we provide essential information for planning experimental studies of DR that will lead to new strategies for its prevention and treatment. PMID:22730475

Robinson, Remya; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Wong, Tien Y.; Kern, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

19

The Injustice of Excluding Laboratory Rats, Mice, and Birds from the Animal Welfare Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major shortcoming of the Animal Welfare Act is its exclusion of the species most-used in experimentation-rats, mice, and birds. Considerations of justice dictate that extension of the law to these three species is the morally right thing to do. A brief history of how these species came to be excluded from the laws protecting laboratory animals is also provided,

F. Barbara Orlans

2000-01-01

20

Animal Studies on Spacelab-3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rates on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hand-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differe...

C. Schatte, R. Grindeland, P. Callahan, G. Funk, W. Lencki

1986-01-01

21

Ethical considerations in animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists undoubtedly owe their great advance and knowledge in biomedical research to millions of animals which they use every year in often-times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. One of the important issues in scientific research is to consider ethics in animal experimentation. Since this is a crucial issue in the modern era of medical research, in this paper, we

Mehdi Ghasemi; Ahmad Reza Dehpour

22

Genetically engineered mice as animal models for NIDDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered animals carrying defined alterations in their genome can represent invaluable tools for better understanding complex polygenic diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) at the molecular level. The structure or expression of a number of genes potentially involved in insulin action or pancreatic ?-cell function have recently been altered in the mouse using transgenic or gene-targeting approaches. The

Rajiv L Joshi; Betty Lamothe; Danielle Bucchini; Jacques Jami

1997-01-01

23

Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals  

SciTech Connect

Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

Roszer, Tamas [Research Group of Apoptosis and Genomics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4012 Debrecen, PO Box 6. (Hungary); Pintye, Eva [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary); Benko', Ilona [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary)

2008-12-08

24

Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

R?szer, Tamás; Pintye, Éva; Benk?, Ilona

2008-12-01

25

Mice Lacking TdT: Mature Animals with an Immature Lymphocyte Repertoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult animals, template-independent (or N) nucleotides are frequently added during the rearrangement of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments of lymphocyte receptor genes, greatly enhancing junctional diversity. Receptor genes from adult mice carrying a mutation in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) gene have few N nucleotides, providing proof that this enzyme is essential for creating diversity. Unlike

Susan Gilfillan; Andree Dierich; Marianne Lemeur; Christophe Benoist; Diane Mathis

1993-01-01

26

From dummies to animations: a review of computer-animated stimuli used in animal behavior studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, studies that explored animal communication have been directed towards the observation of natural interactions\\u000a between individuals. Over the years, researchers have long championed the use of artificial stimuli in place of natural ones\\u000a in behavioral experiments to precisely control what the observers get to see or experience. The employment of diverse techniques\\u000a to stage animal interactions has provided an

Kevin L. Woo; Guillaume Rieucau

27

Category Description Study of animals and animal life, including the study of the structure,  

E-print Network

and of interactions between the two. Astronomy is the study of anything in the universe beyond the Earth. Plant1 Category Description Animal Sciences Study of animals and animal life, including the study analysis and design, application and system software design, programming, and datacenter operations. Earth

Cooper, Robin L.

28

Of mice and men: how animal models advance our understanding of T-cell function in RA  

PubMed Central

The involvement of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as in autoimmune animal models of arthritis has been well established; however, unanswered questions, such as the role of joint-homing T cells, remain. Animal models of arthritis are superb experimental tools in demonstrating how T cells trigger joint inflammation, and thus can help to further our knowledge of disease mechanisms and potential therapies. In this Review, we discuss the similarities and differences in T-cell subsets and functions between RA and mouse arthritis models. For example, various T-cell subsets are involved in both human and mouse arthritis, but differences might exist in the cytokine regulation and plasticity of these cells. With regard to joint-homing T cells, an abundance of synovial T cells is present in humans compared with mice. On the other hand, local expansion of type 17 T helper (TH17) cells is observed in some animal models, but not in RA. Finally, whereas T-cell depletion essentially failed in RA, antibody targeting of T cells can work, at least preventatively, in most arthritis models. Clearly, additional human and animal studies are needed to fill the gap in our understanding of the specific contribution of T-cell subsets to arthritis in mice and men. PMID:24394350

Kobezda, Tamas; Ghassemi-Nejad, Sheida; Mikecz, Katalin; Glant, Tibor T.; Szekanecz, Zoltan

2014-01-01

29

Galactose Metabolism in Mice with Galactose1Phosphate Uridyltransferase Deficiency: Sucklings and 7-Week-Old Animals Fed a High-Galactose Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice deficient in galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) demonstrate abnormal galactose metabolism but no obvious clinical phenotype. To further dissect the pathways of galactose metabolism in these animals, galactose oxidation and metabolite levels were studied in 16-day-old sucklings and the effect of a 4 week prior exposure to a 40% glucose or 40% galactose diet was determined in 7-week-old mice. Suckling GALT-deficient

Cong Ning; Robert Reynolds; Jie Chen; Claire Yager; Gerard T. Berry; Nancy Leslie; Stanton Segal

2001-01-01

30

Satellite animal tracking feasibility studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated in Tsavo National Park to determine movements and home ranges of individual elephants and their relations to overall distribution patterns and environmental factors such as rainfall. Methods used were radio tracking and observations of visually identifiable individuals. Aerial counts provided data on overall distribution. Two bulls and two cows were radio-tagged in Tsavo West and two bulls and four cows in Tsavo East, providing home range and movement data. The movements of individuals were useful in interpreting relatively major shifts in elephant distribution. Results point to the following preliminary conclusions: (1) elephants in the Tsavo area undertook long distance movements in fairly direct response to localized rainfall; (2) a subdivision of the overall population into locally distinct units may exist during the dry season but did not occur after significant rainfall; and (3) food appears to be the primary factor governing movements and distribution of elephants in the area.

Buechner, H. K.

1975-01-01

31

A novel small animal model to study the replication of simian foamy virus in vivo.  

PubMed

Preclinical evaluation in a small animal model would help the development of gene therapies and vaccines based on foamy virus vectors. The establishment of persistent, non-pathogenic infection with the prototype foamy virus in mice and rabbits has been described previously. To extend this spectrum of available animal models, hamsters were inoculated with infectious cell supernatant or bioballistically with a foamy virus plasmid. In addition, a novel foamy virus from a rhesus macaque was isolated and characterised genetically. Hamsters and mice were infected with this new SFVmac isolate to evaluate whether hamsters are also susceptible to infection. Both hamsters and mice developed humoral responses to either virus subtype. Virus integration and replication in different animal tissues were analysed by PCR and co-cultivation. The results strongly indicate establishment of a persistent infection in hamsters. These studies provide a further small animal model for studying FV-based vectors in addition to the established models. PMID:24314637

Blochmann, Rico; Curths, Christoph; Coulibaly, Cheick; Cichutek, Klaus; Kurth, Reinhard; Norley, Stephen; Bannert, Norbert; Fiebig, Uwe

2014-01-01

32

Neutral aminoaciduria in cystathionine ?-synthase-deficient mice; an animal model of homocystinuria.  

PubMed

The kidney is one of the major loci for the expression of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH). While CBS-deficient (Cbs(-/-)) mice display homocysteinemia/methioninemia and severe growth retardation, and rarely survive beyond the first 4 wk, CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice show homocysteinemia/cystathioninemia but develop with no apparent abnormality. This study examined renal amino acid reabsorption in those mice. Although both 2-wk-old Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice had normal renal architecture, their serum/urinary amino acid profiles largely differed from wild-type mice. The most striking feature was marked accumulation of Met and cystathionine in serum/urine/kidney samples of Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice, respectively. Levels of some neutral amino acids (Val, Leu, Ile, and Tyr) that were not elevated in Cbs(-/-) serum were highly elevated in Cbs(-/-) urine, and urinary excretion of other neutral amino acids (except Met) was much higher than expected from their serum levels, demonstrating neutral aminoaciduria in Cbs(-/-) (not Cth(-/-)) mice. Because the bulk of neutral amino acids is absorbed via a B(0)AT1 transporter and Met has the highest substrate affinity for B(0)AT1 than other neutral amino acids, hypermethioninemia may cause hyperexcretion of neutral amino acids. PMID:24761004

Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Kamata, Shotaro; Kubota, Masashi; Hishiki, Takako; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Matsuura, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Chiho; Yoshida, Yuka; Yamada, Hidenori; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Suematsu, Makoto; Kasahara, Tadashi; Ishii, Isao

2014-06-15

33

Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

2004-01-01

34

Establishment of NOD-Pdcd1-/- mice as an efficient animal model of type I diabetes  

PubMed Central

Mice deficient in programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, Pdcd1), an immunoinhibitory receptor belonging to the CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 family, spontaneously develop lupus-like autoimmune disease and autoimmune dilated cardiomyopathy on C57BL/6 and BALB/c backgrounds, respectively. However, how PD-1 deficiency induces different forms of autoimmune diseases on these two strains was unknown. Here, we report that PD-1 deficiency specifically accelerates the onset and frequency of type I diabetes in NOD (nonobese diabetic) mice, with strong T helper 1 polarization of T cells infiltrating into islets. These results suggest that PD-1 deficiency accelerates autoimmune predisposition of the background strain, leading to the induction of different forms of autoimmune diseases depending on the genetic background of the strain. Using NOD-Pdcd1-/- mice as an efficient animal model of type I diabetes, we screened diabetes-susceptible loci by genetic linkage analysis. The diabetic incidence of NOD-Pdcd1-/- mice was controlled by five genetic loci, including three known recessive loci [Idd (insulin-dependent diabetes) 1, Idd17, and Idd20] and two previously unidentified dominant loci [Iddp (Idd under PD-1 deficiency) 1 and Iddp2]. PMID:16087865

Wang, Jian; Yoshida, Taku; Nakaki, Fumio; Hiai, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Taku; Honjo, Tasuku

2005-01-01

35

Mice do not habituate to metabolism cage housing--a three week study of male BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia) and the fur state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall metabolism warrant caution when interpreting data obtained from metabolism cage housed mice, as their condition cannot be considered representative of a normal physiology. PMID:23505511

Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Darusman, Huda S; Henriksen, Trine; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik E; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

2013-01-01

36

Preclinical animal efficacy studies and drug development  

E-print Network

statistics, biased reporting etc Most of these major issues are caught during peer-review. Most journals do set of standards that will fit *all* studies. Limits to journals' power: Journals rely on peerPreclinical animal efficacy studies and drug development Most basic science journals do

37

A Study of Statistical Errors in MICE  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will measure ionization cooling from a beam of muons at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The aim of MICE is to measure a fractional drop in emittance, due to ionization cooling, of order 10% for a range of emittances and momenta, to an accuracy of 1%. A greater understanding of the statistical (as well as systematic) errors on emittance measurement in MICE is paramount to meeting this goal.This paper describes a study aimed at exploiting the computing power of the Grid to determine the number of muons necessary to meet the scientific goals of MICE. In this study, tens of thousands of G4MICE Monte Carlo simulations were run to determine the scaling laws that govern the fractional change in emittance as a function of the number of muons (N) in the simulation. By varying random conditions, the standard deviation of these distributions was studied as a function of N. The results of the study indicate that, due to the effect of correlations, of order 10{sup 5} muons are required to meet the goal of MICE for large emittance beams, without which 10{sup 6} would be required.

Forrest, D.; Soler, F. J. P. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2010-03-30

38

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

39

Mtmr13/Sbf2-deficient mice: an animal model for CMT4B2.  

PubMed

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease denotes a large group of genetically heterogeneous hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies and ranks among the most common inherited neurological disorders. Mutations in the Myotubularin-Related Protein-2 (MTMR2) or MTMR13/Set-Binding Factor-2 (SBF2) genes are associated with the autosomal recessive disease subtypes CMT4B1 or CMT4B2. Both forms of CMT share similar features including a demyelinating neuropathy associated with reduced nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and focally folded myelin. Consistent with a common disease mechanism, the homodimeric MTMR2 acts as a phosphoinositide D3-phosphatase with phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-phosphate and PtdIns 3,5-bisphosphate as substrates while MTMR13/SBF2 is catalytically inactive but can form a tetrameric complex with MTMR2, resulting in a strong increase of the enzymatic activity of complexed MTMR2. To prove that MTMR13/SBF2 is the disease-causing gene in CMT4B2 and to provide a suitable animal model, we have generated Mtmr13/Sbf2-deficient mice. These animals reproduced myelin outfoldings and infoldings in motor and sensory peripheral nerves as the pathological hallmarks of CMT4B2, concomitant with decreased motor performance. The number and complexity of myelin misfoldings increased with age, associated with axonal degeneration, and decreased compound motor action potential amplitude. Prolonged F-wave latency indicated a mild NCV impairment. Loss of Mtmr13/Sbf2 did not affect the levels of its binding partner Mtmr2 and the Mtmr2-binding Dlg1/Sap97 in peripheral nerves. Mice deficient in Mtmr13/Sbf2 together with known Mtmr2-deficient animals will be of major value to unravel the disease mechanism in CMT4B and to elucidate the critical functions of protein complexes that are involved in phosphoinositide-controlled processes in peripheral nerves. PMID:17855448

Tersar, Kristian; Boentert, Matthias; Berger, Philipp; Bonneick, Sonja; Wessig, Carsten; Toyka, Klaus V; Young, Peter; Suter, Ueli

2007-12-15

40

Study of Camelpox Virus Pathogenesis in Athymic Nude Mice  

PubMed Central

Camelpox virus (CMLV) is the closest known orthopoxvirus genetically related to variola virus. So far, CMLV was restricted to camelids but, recently, three human cases of camelpox have been described in India, highlighting the need to pursue research on its pathogenesis, which has been hampered by the lack of small animal models. Here, we confirm that NMRI immunocompetent mice are resistant to intranasal (i.n.) CMLV infection. However, we demonstrate that CMLV induced a severe disease following i.n. challenge of athymic nude mice, which was accompanied with a failure in gaining weight, leading to euthanasia of the animals. On the other hand, intracutaneous (i.c.) infection resulted in disease development without impacting the body weight evolution. CMLV replication in tissues and body fluids was confirmed in the two models. We further analyzed innate immune and B cell responses induced in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after exposure to CMLV. In both models, strong increases in CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages were seen in the spleen, while neutrophils, NK and B cell responses varied between the routes of infection. In the lymph nodes, the magnitude of CD11c+CD8?+ lymphoid and CD11c+CD11b+ myeloid dendritic cell responses increased in i.n. challenged animals. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 in the sera of infected animals, while those of other cytokines were similar to uninfected controls. The efficacy of two antivirals (cidofovir or HPMPC, and its 2, 6-diaminopurine analog) was evaluated in both models. HPMPC was the most effective molecule affording 100% protection from morbidity. It appeared that both treatments did not affect immune cell responses or cytokine expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immunodeficient mice are permissive for CMLV propagation. These results provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis of CMLV, as well as for evaluating potential antiviral therapies in an immunodeficiency context. PMID:21738709

Duraffour, Sophie; Matthys, Patrick; van den Oord, Joost J.; De Schutter, Tim; Mitera, Tania; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela

2011-01-01

41

Transgenic mice with increased Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene in a manner similar to that of humans, with 0.9- and 0.7-kilobase transcripts in a 1:4 ratio, and synthesize the human enzyme in an active form capable of forming human-mouse enzyme heterodimers. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity is increased from 1.6- to 6.0-fold in the brains of four transgenic strains and to an equal or lesser extent in several other tissues. These animals provide a unique system for studying the consequences of increased dosage of the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene in Down syndrome and the role of this enzyme in a variety of other pathological processes.

Epstein, C.J.; Avraham, K.B.; Lovett, M.; Smith, S.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Rotman, G.; Bry, C.; Groner, Y.

1987-11-01

42

INTRODUCTION Studies of animal developmental processes have typically  

E-print Network

animal experimental systems have been lacking for the study of animal/bacterial interactions experimental system for the study of the influence of bacteria on animal development. Taking advantageINTRODUCTION Studies of animal developmental processes have typically focused on defining

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

43

Of mice and men (and women and children): scientific and ethical implications of animal models.  

PubMed

1. Animal models of human behavior and disease are commonly used and have contributed significantly to progress in understanding the physiological mechanisms of both normal function and disease, and in the development of effective therapies. 2. Little attention has been given, however, to the scientific and ethical implications of choosing a particular animal model. 3. This paper discusses the rationale for the selection of particular animal models that have been chosen to study certain human diseases or behaviors, and provides examples to illustrate how underlying assumptions about methods and about physiological mechanisms and other relevant features of the disease or behavior of interest are embedded in the choice of an animal model. 4. Although these assumptions influence the direction of research, they are rarely analyzed explicitly, or evaluated empirically. The authors recommend that assumptions should be clearly stated and that, whenever possible, they be specifically and thoroughly evaluated empirically. PMID:11125850

Bird, S J; Parlee, M B

2000-11-01

44

Transgenic mice with increased Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene

C. J. Epstein; K. B. Avraham; M. Lovett; S. Smith; O. Elroy-Stein; G. Rotman; C. Bry; Y. Groner

1987-01-01

45

Cadmium Absorption in Mice: Effects of Broiling on Bioavailability of Cadmium in Foods of Animal Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and organ distribution of organic Cd from raw and broiled horse kidney was compared to that of CdCl2 at two dose levels (0.05 and 3 mg Cd\\/kg feed) in a feeding study in mice. The high Cd concentration in the horse kidney (raw 112 mg\\/kg; broiled 53 mg\\/kg) made it possible to mix kidney into mouse feed without

Ylva Lind; Joakim Engman; Lars Jorhem; Anders Wicklund Glynn

2001-01-01

46

Animal escapology II: escape trajectory case studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Escape trajectories (ETs; measured as the angle relative to the direction of the threat) have been studied in many taxa using a variety of methodologies and definitions. Here, we provide a review of methodological issues followed by a survey of ET studies across animal taxa, including insects, crustaceans, molluscs, lizards, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. Variability in ETs is examined in terms of ecological significance and morpho-physiological constraints. The survey shows that certain escape strategies (single ETs and highly variable ETs within a limited angular sector) are found in most taxa reviewed here, suggesting that at least some of these ET distributions are the result of convergent evolution. High variability in ETs is found to be associated with multiple preferred trajectories in species from all taxa, and is suggested to provide unpredictability in the escape response. Random ETs are relatively rare and may be related to constraints in the manoeuvrability of the prey. Similarly, reports of the effect of refuges in the immediate environment are relatively uncommon, and mainly confined to lizards and mammals. This may be related to the fact that work on ETs carried out in laboratory settings has rarely provided shelters. Although there are a relatively large number of examples in the literature that suggest trends in the distribution of ETs, our understanding of animal escape strategies would benefit from a standardization of the analytical approach in the study of ETs, using circular statistics and related tests, in addition to the generation of large data sets. PMID:21753040

Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Bacon, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

47

Aged Mice Repeatedly Injected with Plasma from Young Mice: A Survival Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract It was reported using various biological models that the administration of blood factors from young animals to old animals could rejuvenate certain functions. To assess the anti-aging effect of young blood we tested the influence of repeated injections of plasma from young mice on the lifespan of aged mice. One group of 36 CBA/Ca female mice aged 10–12 months was treated by repeated injections of plasma from 2- to 4-month-old females (averaging 75–150??L per injection, once intravenously and once intraperitoneally per week for 16 months). Their lifespan was compared to a control group that received saline injections. The median lifespan of mice from the control group was 27 months versus 26.4 months in plasma-treated group; the repeated injections of young plasma did not significantly impact either median or maximal lifespan. PMID:25371859

Shytikov, Dmytro; Balva, Olexiy; Debonneuil, Edouard; Glukhovskiy, Pavel

2014-01-01

48

The feasibility of sensitization studies using fewer test animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of reducing the number of animals in sensitization studies (maximization method) is discussed on the basis of results from 20 sensitization tests. It appears that the number of test animals in sensitization studies may be reduced to ten treated animals and five control animals without prejudice to the quality of the test.

T. Hofmann; K. H. Diehl; K. H. Leist; W. Weigand

1987-01-01

49

A SHAPE ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR SMALL ANIMAL PHENOTYPING WITH APPLICATION TO MICE WITH A TARGETED DISRUPTION OF HOXD11  

E-print Network

A SHAPE ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR SMALL ANIMAL PHENOTYPING WITH APPLICATION TO MICE WITH A TARGETED DISRUPTION OF HOXD11 Joshua Cates , P Thomas Fletcher , Zachary Warnock and Ross Whitaker Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute Howard Hughes Medical Institute University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Utah, University of

50

Model systems for studying kisspeptin signalling: mice and cells.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins are a family of overlapping neuropeptides, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, that are required for activation and maintenance of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kisspeptins act within the hypothalamus to stimulate release of gonadotrophic releasing hormone and activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Robust model systems are required to dissect the regulatory mechanisms that control Kiss1 neuronal activity and to examine the molecular consequences of kisspeptin signalling. While studies in normal animals have been important in this, transgenic mice with targeted mutations affecting the kisspeptin signalling pathway have played a significant role in extending our understanding of kisspeptin physiology. Knock-out mice recapitulate the reproductive defects associated with mutations in humans and provide an experimentally tractable model system to interrogate regulatory feedback mechanisms. In addition, transgenic mice with cell-specific expression of modulator proteins such as the CRE recombinase or fluorescent reporter proteins such as GFP allow more sophisticated analyses such as cell or gene ablation or electrophysiological profiling. At a less complex level, immortalized cell lines have been useful for studying the role of kisspeptin in cell migration and metastasis and examining the intracellular signalling events associated with kisspeptin signalling. PMID:23550020

Colledge, William H; Doran, Joanne; Mei, Hua

2013-01-01

51

Exenatide promotes cognitive enhancement and positive brain metabolic changes in PS1-KI mice but has no effects in 3xTg-AD animals  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia. Insulin resistance is often associated with T2DM and can induce defective insulin signaling in the central nervous system as well as increase the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Glucagone like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone and, like GLP-1 analogs, stimulates insulin secretion and has been employed in the treatment of T2DM. GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs also enhance synaptic plasticity and counteract cognitive deficits in mouse models of neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of long-term treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analog, in two animal models of neuronal dysfunction: the PS1-KI and 3xTg-AD mice. We found that exenatide promoted beneficial effects on short- and long-term memory performances in PS1-KI but not in 3xTg-AD animals. In PS1-KI mice, the drug increased brain lactate dehydrogenase activity leading to a net increase in lactate levels, while no effects were observed on mitochondrial respiration. On the contrary, exenatide had no effects on brain metabolism of 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data indicate that exenatide improves cognition in PS1-KI mice, an effect likely driven by increasing the brain anaerobic glycolysis rate. PMID:23640454

Bomba, M; Ciavardelli, D; Silvestri, E; Canzoniero, L MT; Lattanzio, R; Chiappini, P; Piantelli, M; Di Ilio, C; Consoli, A; Sensi, S L

2013-01-01

52

GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM  

E-print Network

of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training (US Government Principles), the ASP1 GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) Regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

Bandettini, Peter A.

53

Genome-wide association studies in mice.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have transformed the field of human genetics and have led to the discovery of hundreds of genes that are implicated in human disease. The technological advances that drove this revolution are now poised to transform genetic studies in model organisms, including mice. However, the design of GWASs in mouse strains is fundamentally different from the design of human GWASs, creating new challenges and opportunities. This Review gives an overview of the novel study designs for mouse GWASs, which dramatically improve both the statistical power and resolution compared to classical gene-mapping approaches. PMID:23044826

Flint, Jonathan; Eskin, Eleazar

2012-11-01

54

Experimental Animal Models for Studying Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality for both men and women worldwide. The use of animal models of\\u000a lung cancer is necessary to improve our understanding of lung tumor biology and facilitate novel therapies and diagnostics.\\u000a To this end, animal models should mimic both the genetic alterations found in human lung tumors and their histological characteristics.\\u000a Currently,

Jiang Liu; Michael R. Johnston

55

Do algorithm animations assist learning?: an empirical study and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithm animations are dynamic graphical illustrations of computer algorithms, and they are used as teaching aids to help explain how the algorithms work. Although many people believe that algorithm animations are useful this way, no empirical evidence has ever been presented supporting this belief. We have conducted an empirical study of a priority queue algorithm animation, and the study's results

John T. Stasko; Albert N. Badre; Clayton H. Lewis

1993-01-01

56

Guidelines for Endpoints in Animal Study Proposals Introduction  

E-print Network

in an experimental animal can be prevented, terminated, or relieved, while meeting the scientific aims and objectives1 Guidelines for Endpoints in Animal Study Proposals Introduction Endpoints appropriate to the species are a part of every Animal Study Proposal (ASP) and the ACUC must address the endpoint for every

Bandettini, Peter A.

57

Creating Automated Interactive Video Playback for Studies of Animal Communications  

E-print Network

Video playback is a technique used to study the visual communication and behaviors of animals. While video playback is a useful tool, most experiments lack the ability for the visual stimulus to interact with the live animal. The limited number...

Butkowski, Trisha

2010-01-16

58

Lead hepatotoxicology: a study in an animal model.  

PubMed

The increasing use of lead (Pb) for industrial purposes has resulted in the significant increase in environmental contamination of our planet especially in concern to water and food. In this study using the electron scanning microscopy (SEM), the authors showed the effects of this metal as a result of a chronic and cumulative process. As a primary method of detection of Pb in situ, SEM was chosen, coupled with a detection system Noran Voyager of basic microanalysis X-ray (SEM-XRM), with detection system energy dispersive spectrometry. Mice BALB/c was used as a study model. An animal model of inflammation was used, that consisted in the formation of a subcutaneous pocket of air. It was observed that 75% of Pb stock was captured by the liver, the main target organ in the capture of the metal, the kidney was the second organ to capture the Pb stock and the third was the spleen. It was verified that a low deposition of Pb was found in the lungs and the brain. The main results of this study showed how Pb is captured by different organs. We also demonstrated the vulnerability to inflammation of this metal. PMID:21665903

Sá, I; da Costa, M J P; Cunha, E M

2012-03-01

59

Behavioral characterization of CD26 deficient mice in animal tests of anxiety and antidepressant-like activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD26 exhibits a dipeptidylpeptidase-IV function (DPPIV) which regulates neuropeptide activity by N-terminal processing. Because abnormal plasma DPPIV was associated in mammals with behavioral changes, we examined the behavior of CD26?\\/? mice resulting from targeted inactivation of the gene. These animals had a decreased immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, indicating a reduced depression-like behavior. We addressed some

Malika El Yacoubi; Jean-Marie Vaugeois; Didier Marguet; Nicole Sauze; Régis Guieu; Jean Costentin; Emmanuel Fenouillet

2006-01-01

60

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Griffith, Christopher

61

Gene Expression Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Mice Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Are Dependent on Animal Rearing Environment  

PubMed Central

There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust. PMID:23940539

Yokota, Satoshi; Hori, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Masakazu; Kubota, Natsuko; Niki, Rikio; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

2013-01-01

62

Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans  

SciTech Connect

For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: pprice@dow.com; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

2008-11-15

63

Guidelines for Diet Control in Behavioral Animal Studies Introduction  

E-print Network

, gender, age, prior experimental manipulation, body condition, and/or hydration status of each animal that experimental animals on food or fluid control be weighed several times a week, ideally before experimental1 Guidelines for Diet Control in Behavioral Animal Studies Introduction The purpose

Bandettini, Peter A.

64

Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliative and anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The present study aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental) received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control) received ethanol and group 4 (positive control) was administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups were sacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histological examinations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbers of ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE), 27.2 ± 4.1 for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE), 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control) and 17.2 ± 3.9 for the saline control group (group 4). The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increased significantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05), however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups. The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMS analysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound. Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number of growing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect. PMID:25101154

Khazaei, Mozafar; Montaseri, Azadeh; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool; Khanahmadi, Masumeh

2011-01-01

65

Selenium and diabetes--evidence from animal studies.  

PubMed

Whereas selenium was found to act as an insulin mimic and to be antidiabetic in earlier studies, recent animal experiments and human trials have shown an unexpected risk of prolonged high Se intake in potentiating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Elevating dietary Se intake (0.4 to 3.0mg/kg of diet) above the nutrient requirements, similar to overproduction of selenoproteins, led to insulin resistance and/or diabetes-like phenotypes in mice, rats, and pigs. Although its diabetogenic mechanism remains unclear, high Se intake elevated activity or production of selenoproteins including GPx1, MsrB1, SelS, and SelP. This upregulation diminished intracellular reactive oxygen species and then dysregulated key regulators of ? cells and insulin synthesis and secretion, leading to chronic hyperinsulinemia. Overscavenging intracellular H2O2 also attenuated oxidative inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases and suppressed insulin signaling. High Se intake might affect expression and/or function of key regulators of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipogenesis. Future research is needed to find out if certain forms of Se metabolites in addition to selenoproteins and if mechanisms other than intracellular redox control mediate the diabetogenic effects of high Se intake. Furthermore, a potential interactive role of high Se intake in the interphase of carcinogenesis and diabetogenesis should be explored to make optimal use of Se in human nutrition and health. PMID:23867154

Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun; Lei, Xin Gen

2013-12-01

66

The value of juvenile animal studies: a Japanese industry perspective.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals have been used on adults and children; however, they were previously investigated only by adult human clinical studies and adult animal nonclinical studies. The US FDA finalized the guidance of juvenile animal toxicity studies in 2006, and EMEA was finalized in 2008. At that point, juvenile animal toxicity studies were encouraged to investigate the safety of the pediatric population. In Japan, the awareness of the development of pediatric drugs is increasing, and many scientific meetings about juvenile animal studies are being held. A Japanese guideline for juvenile animal toxicity studies has been long awaited by many Japanese pharmaceutical companies because concrete directionality has not been available in Japan thus far. The Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare started to prepare the guideline for nonclinical safety studies in juvenile animals since October 2010. After completion of the Japanese guideline, guidelines would exist in the three regions: Japan, US, and Europe. Then, global development of pediatric pharmaceuticals would be accelerated effectively. PMID:21594974

Shimomura, Kazuhiro

2011-08-01

67

Caloric Restriction and Aging: Studies in Mice and Monkeys  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition delays the onset of aging and extends lifespan in diverse animal models including yeast, worms, flies and laboratory rodents. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still unknown. We have hypothesized that a reprogramming of energy metabolism is a key event in the mechanism of CR (Anderson and Weindruch, Interdiscip. Topics in Gerontol. 2007). Data will be presented from studies of mice on CR, which lend support to this hypothesis. Effects of long-term CR (but not short-term CR) on gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) are overt. In mice and monkeys, a chronic 30% reduction in energy intake yields approximately a 70% decrease in adiposity. In mouse epididymal WAT, long-term CR causes overt shifts in the gene expression profile: CR increased the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism (Higami et al. FASEB J, 2004) while it down regulates the expression of more than 50 pro-inflammatory genes (Higami et al. J. Nutr., 2006). Whether aging retardation occurs in primates on CR is unknown. We have been investigating this issue in rhesus monkeys subjected to CR since 1989 and will discuss the current status of this project. A new finding from this project is that CR reduces the rate of age-associated muscle loss (sarcopenia) in monkeys (Colman et al., J. Gerontol., 2008). PMID:19075044

Anderson, Rozalyn M.; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Weindruch, Richard

2013-01-01

68

SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessing the methodological quality of RCTs. A similar initiative is warranted in the field of animal experimentation. Methods We provide an RoB tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE’s RoB tool). This tool is based on the Cochrane RoB tool and has been adjusted for aspects of bias that play a specific role in animal intervention studies. To enhance transparency and applicability, we formulated signalling questions to facilitate judgment. Results The resulting RoB tool for animal studies contains 10 entries. These entries are related to selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other biases. Half these items are in agreement with the items in the Cochrane RoB tool. Most of the variations between the two tools are due to differences in design between RCTs and animal studies. Shortcomings in, or unfamiliarity with, specific aspects of experimental design of animal studies compared to clinical studies also play a role. Conclusions SYRCLE’s RoB tool is an adapted version of the Cochrane RoB tool. Widespread adoption and implementation of this tool will facilitate and improve critical appraisal of evidence from animal studies. This may subsequently enhance the efficiency of translating animal research into clinical practice and increase awareness of the necessity of improving the methodological quality of animal studies. PMID:24667063

2014-01-01

69

Noggin heterozygous mice: an animal model for congenital conductive hearing loss in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

the genetic background, some of the Nog1\\/2 mice display mild hearing loss, that is, conductive in nature. Since Noggin is a single exon gene, this data strongly suggest that the autosomal dominant disorders associ- ated with NOG mutations are due to haploinsufficiency of NOGGIN. The conductive hearing loss in Nog1\\/2 mice is caused by an ectopic bone bridge located between

Chan-Ho Hwang; Doris K. Wu

2008-01-01

70

Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers  

Microsoft Academic Search

After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research\\u000a has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and\\u000a rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal\\u000a is to further extend the

Vera Gorbunova; Michael J. Bozzella; Andrei Seluanov

2008-01-01

71

Hypogammaglobulinemia in BLT Humanized Mice - An Animal Model of Primary Antibody Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Primary antibody deficiencies present clinically as reduced or absent plasma antibodies without another identified disorder that could explain the low immunoglobulin levels. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice also exhibit primary antibody deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia. Comprehensive characterization of B cell development and differentiation in BLT mice revealed other key parallels with primary immunodeficiency patients. We found that B cell ontogeny was normal in the bone marrow of BLT mice but observed an absence of switched memory B cells in the periphery. PC-KLH immunizations led to the presence of switched memory B cells in immunized BLT mice although plasma cells producing PC- or KLH- specific IgG were not detected in tissues. Overall, we have identified the following parallels between the humoral immune systems of primary antibody deficiency patients and those in BLT mice that make this in vivo model a robust and translational experimental platform for gaining a greater understanding of this heterogeneous array of humoral immunodeficiency disorders in humans: (i) hypogammaglobulinemia; (ii) normal B cell ontogeny in bone marrow; and (iii) poor antigen-specific IgG response to immunization. Furthermore, the development of strategies to overcome these humoral immune aberrations in BLT mice may in turn provide insights into the pathogenesis of some primary antibody deficiency patients which could lead to novel clinical interventions for improved humoral immune function. PMID:25271886

Martinez-Torres, Francisco; Nochi, Tomonori; Wahl, Angela; Garcia, J. Victor; Denton, Paul W.

2014-01-01

72

Disruption of hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice leads to early-onset obesity, but physiological adaptations in mature animals stabilize adiposity levels  

PubMed Central

Distinct populations of leptin-sensing neurons in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis. To assess the requirement for leptin signaling in the hypothalamus, we crossed mice with a floxed leptin receptor allele (Leprfl) to mice transgenic for Nkx2.1-Cre, which drives Cre expression in the hypothalamus and not in more caudal brain regions, generating LeprNkx2.1KO mice. From weaning, LeprNkx2.1KO mice exhibited phenotypes similar to those observed in mice with global loss of leptin signaling (Leprdb/db mice), including increased weight gain and adiposity, hyperphagia, cold intolerance, and insulin resistance. However, after 8 weeks of age, LeprNkx2.1KO mice maintained stable adiposity levels, whereas the body fat percentage of Leprdb/db animals continued to escalate. The divergence in the adiposity phenotypes of Leprdb/db and LeprNkx2.1KO mice with age was concomitant with increased rates of linear growth and energy expenditure in LeprNkx2.1KO mice. These data suggest that remaining leptin signals in LeprNkx2.1KO mice mediate physiological adaptations that prevent the escalation of the adiposity phenotype in adult mice. The persistence of severe adiposity in LeprNkx2.1KO mice, however, suggests that compensatory actions of circuits regulating growth and energy expenditure are not sufficient to reverse obesity established at an early age. PMID:20592471

Ring, Laurence E.; Zeltser, Lori M.

2010-01-01

73

Stanford study shows anxiety increases cancer severity in mice  

Cancer.gov

In a new study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine, anxiety-prone mice developed more severe cancer then their calm counterparts. The study, published online April 25 in PLoS ONE, found that after hairless mice were dosed with ultraviolet rays, the nervous ones — with a penchant for reticence and risk aversion — developed more tumors and invasive cancer.

74

Metabolomic analysis of long-term spontaneous exercise in mice suggests increased lipolysis and altered glucose metabolism when animals are at rest.  

PubMed

Exercise has been associated with several beneficial effects and is one of the major modulators of metabolism. The working muscle produces and releases substances during exercise that mediate the adaptation of the muscle but also improve the metabolic flexibility of the complete organism, leading to adjustable substrate utilization. Metabolomic studies on physical exercise are scarce and most of them have been focused on the effects of intense exercise in professional sportsmen. The aim of our study was to determine plasma metabolomic adaptations in mice after a long-term spontaneous exercise intervention study (18 mo). The metabolic changes induced by long-term spontaneous exercise were sufficient to achieve complete discrimination between groups in the principal component analysis scores plot. We identified plasma indicators of an increase in lipolysis (elevated unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol), a decrease in glucose and insulin plasma levels and in heart glucose consumption (by PET), and altered glucose metabolism (decreased alanine and lactate) in the wheel running group. Collectively these data are compatible with an increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the active mice. We also found an increase in amino acids involved in catecholamine synthesis (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in the skeletal muscle pool of creatine phosphate and taurine, and changes in phospholipid metabolism (phosphocholine and choline in lipids) between the sedentary and the active mice. In conclusion, long-term spontaneous wheel running induces significant plasma and tissue (heart) metabolic responses that remain even when the animal is at rest. PMID:25190738

Monleon, Daniel; Garcia-Valles, Rebeca; Morales, Jose Manuel; Brioche, Thomas; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Lopez-Grueso, Raul; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

2014-11-15

75

Assessing clinical prospects of silicon quantum dots: studies in mice and monkeys.  

PubMed

Silicon nanocrystals can provide the outstanding imaging capabilities of toxic heavy-metal-based quantum dots without employing heavy metals and have potential for rapid progression to the clinic. Understanding the toxicity of silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) is essential to realizing this potential. However, existing studies of SiQD biocompatibility are limited, with no systematic progression from small-animal to large-animal studies that are more clinically relevant. Here, we test the response of both mice and monkeys to high intravenous doses of a nanoconstruct created using only SiQDs and FDA-approved materials. We show that (1) neither mice nor monkeys show overt signs of toxicity reflected in their behavior, body mass, or blood chemistry, even at a dose of 200 mg/kg. (2) This formulation did not biodegrade as expected. Elevated levels of silicon were present in the liver and spleen of mice three months post-treatment. (3) Histopathology three months after treatment showed adverse effects of the nanoformulation in the livers of mice, but showed no such effects in monkeys. This investigation reveals that the systemic reactions of the two animal models may have some differences and there are no signs of toxicity clearly attributable to silicon quantum dots. PMID:23841561

Liu, Jianwei; Erogbogbo, Folarin; Yong, Ken-Tye; Ye, Ling; Liu, Jing; Hu, Rui; Chen, Hongyan; Hu, Yazhuo; Yang, Yi; Yang, Jinghui; Roy, Indrajit; Karker, Nicholas A; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

2013-08-27

76

Exploratory study of oral mucosal colonization of human gastric Helicobacter pylori in mice  

PubMed Central

In this study, human gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was closely attached to the pre-treated mouse buccal mucosa by using artificial oral film to induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. Sixty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, in which Hp biofilm colonization was detected in three mice in Hp film group (Hp mesh biofilm accumulation under an optical microscope; Hp accumulated colonization under an electron microscope). There were no Hp biofilms detected in Hp smear group or the control group with black film. In this study, human gastric Hp was first used to artificially induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. The mouse model of oral infection with Hp was initially established, providing animal experimental evidences for oral conditions of growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice, and providing a workable animal modeling method for further research of joint infection of Hp on the mouth and stomach, as well as the relationship between oral Hp and gastric Hp. PMID:24753744

Wan, Xueqin; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohuan; Li, Hongming; Cui, Zhixin; Hu, Sijuan; Huang, Ming

2014-01-01

77

Non-invasive echocardiographic studies in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic murine models of cardiovascular disease offer great potential insights regarding mechanisms of human disease, but efficient and reliable methods for phenotype evaluation are necessary. We employed non-invasive echocardiography to evaluate hemodynamic parameters in mice, and evaluated statistical reliability of these parameters with respect to anesthesia regimen. Male CF-1 mice received inhaled halothane (0.25–0.75% in 95% O2) or ketamine\\/xylazine (80\\/10mg\\/kg

Alysia A. Chaves; David M. Weinstein; John Anthony Bauer

2001-01-01

78

Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice  

PubMed Central

Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7–10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion. PMID:24669846

2014-01-01

79

Animal Models to Study Gluten Sensitivity1  

PubMed Central

The initial development and maintenance of tolerance to dietary antigens is a complex process that, when prevented or interrupted, can lead to human disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which tolerance to specific dietary antigens is attained and maintained is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases related to intolerance of specific dietary antigens. Two diseases that are the result of intolerance to a dietary antigen are celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). Both of these diseases are dependent upon the ingestion of gluten (the protein fraction of wheat, rye, and barley) and manifest in the gastrointestinal tract and skin, respectively. These gluten-sensitive diseases are two examples of how devastating abnormal immune responses to a ubiquitous food can be. The well-recognized risk genotype for both is conferred by either of the HLA class II molecules DQ2 or DQ8. However, only a minority of individuals who carry these molecules will develop either disease. Also of interest is that the age at diagnosis can range from infancy to 70–80 years of age. This would indicate that intolerance to gluten may potentially be the result of two different phenomena. The first would be that, for various reasons, tolerance to gluten never developed in certain individuals, but that for other individuals, prior tolerance to gluten was lost at some point after childhood. Of recent interest is the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, which manifests as chronic digestive or neurologic symptoms due to gluten, but through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. This review will address how animal models of gluten-sensitive disorders have substantially contributed to a better understanding of how gluten intolerance can arise and cause disease. PMID:22572887

Marietta, Eric V.; Murray, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

80

Animal models to study gluten sensitivity.  

PubMed

The initial development and maintenance of tolerance to dietary antigens is a complex process that, when prevented or interrupted, can lead to human disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which tolerance to specific dietary antigens is attained and maintained is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases related to intolerance of specific dietary antigens. Two diseases that are the result of intolerance to a dietary antigen are celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). Both of these diseases are dependent upon the ingestion of gluten (the protein fraction of wheat, rye, and barley) and manifest in the gastrointestinal tract and skin, respectively. These gluten-sensitive diseases are two examples of how devastating abnormal immune responses to a ubiquitous food can be. The well-recognized risk genotype for both is conferred by either of the HLA class II molecules DQ2 or DQ8. However, only a minority of individuals who carry these molecules will develop either disease. Also of interest is that the age at diagnosis can range from infancy to 70-80 years of age. This would indicate that intolerance to gluten may potentially be the result of two different phenomena. The first would be that, for various reasons, tolerance to gluten never developed in certain individuals, but that for other individuals, prior tolerance to gluten was lost at some point after childhood. Of recent interest is the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, which manifests as chronic digestive or neurologic symptoms due to gluten, but through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. This review will address how animal models of gluten-sensitive disorders have substantially contributed to a better understanding of how gluten intolerance can arise and cause disease. PMID:22572887

Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

2012-07-01

81

Study of interaction of tramadol with amlodipine in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study a possible interaction between tramadol, an opioid analgesic and amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with proposed antinociceptive property. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of Haffkine strain were used for the study. The experiment was carried out using tail-flick method. Different doses of tramadol (50 mg/kg, 22.8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to select the nonanalgesic dose. The animals were treated with different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg, 3.5 mg/kg) to study its antinociceptive action. Combination of different doses of both the drugs were administered to study antinociceptive effect of the combination. Results: Tramadol, showed dose dependent antinociception which persisted for entire two hours of the study period. Antinociceptive action was seen with amlodipine at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg. Different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg) in combination with the nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) produced a significant enhancement of antinociceptive effect of tramadol. Combination of 3.5 mg/kg dose of amlodipine with nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) further enhances antinociceptive activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that combination of amlodipine, a N - type calcium channel blocker, with tramadol produce significant enhancement of antinociceptive activity of tramadol. PMID:23543914

Modi, Hiral; Mazumdar, Bipa; Bhatt, Jagatkumar

2013-01-01

82

Progress of genome wide association study in domestic animals  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals are invaluable resources for study of the molecular architecture of complex traits. Although the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for economically important traits in domestic animals has achieved remarkable results in recent decades, not all of the genetic variation in the complex traits has been captured because of the low density of markers used in QTL mapping studies. The genome wide association study (GWAS), which utilizes high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), provides a new way to tackle this issue. Encouraging achievements in dissection of the genetic mechanisms of complex diseases in humans have resulted from the use of GWAS. At present, GWAS has been applied to the field of domestic animal breeding and genetics, and some advances have been made. Many genes or markers that affect economic traits of interest in domestic animals have been identified. In this review, advances in the use of GWAS in domestic animals are described. PMID:22958308

2012-01-01

83

Studies of human breast cancer metastasis using nude mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athymic nude mice have been used in recent years to study the biology of human tumors and to assess therapeutic responses in vivo rather than just in vitro. Some human tumors metastasize in nude mice, providing model systems for analyzing various aspects of the metastatic phenotype of human neoplasms. For breast carcinomas, however, the tumor-take rate of surgical specimens is

Janet E. Price; Ruo Dan Zhang

1990-01-01

84

NASA Animal Enclosure Module Mouse Odor Containment Study for STS-107 September 15, 1999;SJSU Odor Panel Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiment #153 by Scott Brady is manifested for shuttle flight STS-107. This evaluation of space flight induced stress and its effects on neuronal plasticity will use 18 six month old C57Bl/6 male mice. A 21 day evaluation study was proposed to determine the length of time groups of 6, 9, or 12 mice could be housed in the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) without odor breakthrough. This study was performed at NASA-Ames Research Center beginning on September 15, 1999. NASA personnel, were responsible for animal care, maintenance, facilities, hardware, etc. San Jose State personnel performed the odor panel evaluations and data reduction. We used similar procedures and methods for earlier tests evaluating female mice.

Holley, Daniel C.; Mele, Gary D.; Poffenroth, Mary; Young, Cliff

2000-01-01

85

Animal and human studies with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ.  

PubMed

As mitochondrial oxidative damage contributes to a wide range of human diseases, antioxidants designed to be accumulated by mitochondria in vivo have been developed. The most extensively studied of these mitochondria-targeted antioxidants is MitoQ, which contains the antioxidant quinone moiety covalently attached to a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation. MitoQ has now been used in a range of in vivo studies in rats and mice and in two phase II human trials. Here, we review what has been learned from these animal and human studies with MitoQ. PMID:20649545

Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

2010-07-01

86

Animal models are reliably mimicking human diseases? A morphological study that compares animal with human NAFLD.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical-pathological syndrome that includes a wide spectrum of morphological alterations. In research, animal models are crucial in evaluating not only the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression, but also the therapeutic effects of various agents. Investigations on the ultrastructural features of NAFLD in humans are not copious, due to the difficulty to obtain human samples and to the long time of NAFLD to evolve. Translational comparative studies on the reliability of animal models in representing the histopathologic picture as seen in humans are missing. To overcome this lack of investigations, we compared the ultrastructural NAFLD features of an animal model versus human. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 1-4 weeks, while control rats were fed with a standard diet. Human specimens were collected from patients with diagnosed fatty liver disease, undergoing liver biopsies or surgery. Rat and human samples were examined by light microscopy and by transmission and high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The present work demonstrated that NAFLD in animal model and in human, share overlapping ultrastructural features. In conclusion, animal HFD represent an appropriate tool in studying the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:790-796, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044260

Solinas, Paola; Isola, Michela; Lilliu, Maria Alberta; Conti, Gabriele; Civolani, Alberto; Demelia, Luigi; Loy, Francesco; Isola, Raffaella

2014-10-01

87

Targeted deletion of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase in mice: a new tool for studying kynurenine pathway metabolism in periphery and brain.  

PubMed

Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a pivotal enzyme in the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, has been suggested to play a major role in physiological and pathological events involving bioactive KP metabolites. To explore this role in greater detail, we generated mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Kmo and present here the first biochemical and neurochemical characterization of these mutant animals. Kmo(-/-) mice lacked KMO activity but showed no obvious abnormalities in the activity of four additional KP enzymes tested. As expected, Kmo(-/-) mice showed substantial reductions in the levels of its enzymatic product, 3-hydroxykynurenine, in liver, brain, and plasma. Compared with wild-type animals, the levels of the downstream metabolite quinolinic acid were also greatly decreased in liver and plasma of the mutant mice but surprisingly were only slightly reduced (by ?20%) in the brain. The levels of three other KP metabolites: kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and anthranilic acid, were substantially, but differentially, elevated in the liver, brain, and plasma of Kmo(-/-) mice, whereas the liver and brain content of the major end product of the enzymatic cascade, NAD(+), did not differ between Kmo(-/-) and wild-type animals. When assessed by in vivo microdialysis, extracellular kynurenic acid levels were found to be significantly elevated in the brains of Kmo(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results provide further evidence that KMO plays a key regulatory role in the KP and indicate that Kmo(-/-) mice will be useful for studying tissue-specific functions of individual KP metabolites in health and disease. PMID:24189070

Giorgini, Flaviano; Huang, Shao-Yi; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V; Notarangelo, Francesca M; Thomas, Marian A R; Tararina, Margarita; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert; Muchowski, Paul J

2013-12-20

88

A novel experimental paradigm for studying cognitive functions related to delayed response tasks in mice.  

PubMed

Rodents are the animals most commonly employed to model human cognitive functions, but serious problems arise from the non-selective use of behavioral paradigms that measure different processes in rodents than those found in humans. To avoid problems stemming from the use of different paradigms on humans and mice, a new experimental paradigm for mice was developed to study the cognitive functions involved in delayed response tasks. The experiments were conducted in an olfactory tubing maze using three successive delayed response tasks: an alternation task, a non-alternation task, and a reversal task. Mice had to discover the rule by themselves by choosing one of two identical odor cues presented simultaneously at the left and right sides of a testing chamber. The success criterion was set at 10, 8, 6, or 4 consecutive correct responses, with a maximum of 80 trials per task, as used in primates. In the delayed alternation task with the criterion of 10 or 8 consecutive successful trials, the rule was discovered but required many more than 80 trials for most of the mice. With a criterion of 6 or 4, the mice were successful but twice as many trials were necessary to reach the criterion of 6 as opposed to 4. In the delayed non-alternation and reversal tasks, more than 80 trials were needed to figure out the new rule with the criterion of 10 or 8. All mice were successful with the criterion of 6 or 4. The results indicated that no matter what criterion was used, mice were able to discover the two rules on the three consecutive delayed response tasks, but they did so with more or less ease. This novel paradigm for mice should be useful in experiments on pharmacological treatments or for testing transgenic or gene-targeting mice to gain insight into the brain structures involved in this type of task. PMID:15820628

Belhaoues, R; Soumireu-Mourat, B; Caverni, J P; Roman, F S

2005-05-01

89

Insufficiently Defined Genetic Background Confounds Phenotypes in Transgenic Studies As Exemplified by Malaria Infection in Tlr9 Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically modified mice, i.e. transgenic as well as gene knockout (KO) and knock-in mice, has become an established tool to study gene function in many animal models for human diseases . However, a gene functions in a particular genomic context. This implies the importance of a well-defined homogenous genetic background for the analysis and interpretation of phenotypes

Nathalie Geurts; Erik Martens; Sebastien Verhenne; Natacha Lays; Greet Thijs; Stefan Magez; Bénédicte Cauwe; Sandra Li; Hubertine Heremans; Ghislain Opdenakker; Philippe E. Van den Steen

2011-01-01

90

Protective effect of kombucha tea against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: a biochemical and histopathological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaminophen overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity leading to liver failure in experimental animals and humans. This study\\u000a was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of kombucha tea (KT) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty\\u000a male Balb\\/c mice were divided into four equal groups: (1) the control group, (2) KT-treated group, (3) acetaminophen-treated\\u000a group, and (4) KT\\/acetaminophen-treated group. All mice in group 4 were

Jalil Abshenas; Amin Derakhshanfar; Mohammad Hosein Ferdosi; Saeid Hasanzadeh

91

An Animal Model of Chronic Aplastic Bone Marrow Failure Following Pesticide Exposure in Mice  

PubMed Central

The wide use of pesticides for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes and evaluation of their subsequent effect is of major concern for public health. Human exposure to these contaminants especially bone marrow with its rapidly renewing cell population is one of the most sensitive tissues to these toxic agents represents a risk for the immune system leading to the onset of different pathologies. In this experimental protocol we have developed a mouse model of pesticide(s) induced hypoplastic/aplastic marrow failure to study quantitative changes in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell (BMHSC) population through flowcytometric analysis, defects in the stromal microenvironment through short term adherent cell colony (STACC) forming assay and immune functional capacity of the bone marrow derived cells through cell mediated immune (CMI) parameter study. A time course dependent analysis for consecutive 90 days were performed to monitor the associated changes in the marrow’s physiology after 30th, 60th and 90th days of chronic pesticide exposure. The peripheral blood showed maximum lowering of the blood cell count after 90 days which actually reflected the bone marrow scenario. Severe depression of BMHSC population, immune profile of the bone marrow derived cells and reduction of adherent cell colonies pointed towards an essentially empty and hypoplastic marrow condition that resembled the disease aplastic anemia. The changes were accompanied by splenomegaly and splenic erythroid hyperplasia. In conclusion, this animal model allowed us a better understanding of clinico-biological findings of the disease aplastic anemia following toxic exposure to the pesticide(s) used for agricultural and industrial purposes. PMID:24855541

Chatterjee, Sumanta; Chaklader, Malay; Basak, Pratima; Das, Prosun; Das, Madhurima; Pereira, Jacintha Archana; Dutta, Ranjan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Law, Sujata

2010-01-01

92

Candidate Genes for Alcohol Dependence: Animal Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

LCOHOL DEPENDENCE IS a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. Its strong heritability component has been demonstrated in family, twin, and adoption studies (Reich et al., 1999). Alcohol dependence is a polygenic disorder, and segregation anal- yses suggest that a major gene is not likely to be operative in this disorder (Enoch and Goldman, 1999; Goldman, 1993). Thus, any

Gunter Schumann; Rainer Spanagel; Karl Mann

2003-01-01

93

John Buckley, Animal Technician  

Cancer.gov

John Buckley is an animal technician who provides murine expertise to the entire Pediatric Oncology Branch. John is well versed in the breeding and husbandry of mice as well as a variety of surgical techniques. John’s expertise and teaching serves as a vital resource for the conduct of animal studies in the Immunology Section.

94

Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience  

SciTech Connect

Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

Fry, R.J.M.

1982-01-01

95

Stanford study shows a single antibody shrinks variety of human tumors transplanted into mice  

Cancer.gov

Human tumors transplanted into laboratory mice disappeared or shrank when scientists treated the animals with a single antibody, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine. The antibody works by masking a protein flag on cancer cells that protects them from macrophages and other cells in the immune system. The scientists achieved the findings with human breast, ovarian, colon, bladder, brain, liver and prostate cancer samples.

96

An animal model for the study of Chamomilla in stress and depression: pilot study.  

PubMed

The behavioral and hematological effects of treatment with Chamomilla 6cH in mice subjected to experimental stress are described. Swiss mice were randomly divided into pairs, one animal was inoculated with Ehrlich's tumor, the other was treated daily with Chamomilla 6cH or control or received no treatment. After 7 days, the animals were observed in an open-field arena and blood samples taken. Mice who cohabitated with a sick cage-mate showed a decrease in their general activity, but those treated with Chamomilla 6cH were less severely affected (p=0.0426). No hematological changes were observed. In a second experiment, the forced swimming test was applied to mice pre-treated with Chamomilla 6cH, controls were: water, 10% ethanol or amitriptyline. Only the amitriptyline and ethanol treated groups showed significant excitatory behavior (p=0.0020), Chamomilla 6cH treated animals' scores intermediate between water control and ethanol or amitriptyline. A decrease in the leukocyte count was observed in the amitriptyline and Chamomilla 6cH treated groups (p=0.039). These data suggest that treatment with Chamomilla 6cH is related to the recovery of basal behavioral conditions in mice subjected to stressful conditions. PMID:18657773

Pinto, Sandra Augusta Gordinho; Bohland, Elisabeth; Coelho, Cideli de Paula; Morgulis, Maria Sílvia Furquim de Azevedo; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

2008-07-01

97

Childhood cruelty to animals: a tri-national study.  

PubMed

Childhood cruelty to animals is a symptom of conduct disorder that has been linked to the perpetration of violence in later life. Research has identified several factors associated with its etiology, including social factors. However, no cross-cultural studies on this phenomenon have been reported. This study investigated childhood cruelty to animals in Japan, Australia and Malaysia. Parents of 1,358 children between the ages of 5 and 13 years completed the Children's Attitudes and Behaviours towards Animals questionnaire (CABTA) which assesses Typical and Malicious Cruelty to animals. Analyses revealed no overall differences between children from these countries on either scale. However, younger boys were more likely to be cruel than younger girls in each country, and younger children in Australia and Japan were more likely to be cruel that older children in those countries. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research, and recommendations for future studies are suggested. PMID:19449100

Mellor, David; Yeow, James; Mohd Hapidzal, Noor Fizlee; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yokoyama, Akimitsu; Nobuzane, Yosuke

2009-12-01

98

Studying extinct animals using three-dimensional visualization, scanning, animation, and prototyping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology provides an important means for studying the biology of extinct animals. Skeletons of these species must be constructed virtually by scanning in data for individual bones and building virtual models for each. These then are used to produce prototypes of each of the bones at varying scales, allowing the construction of a starter skeleton configuration and the analysis of movement along each joint. The individual virtual bones are then assembled into a starter virtual skeleton using digitized landmark points on the starter physical skeleton to help place them in three-dimensional space. This virtual skeleton is then modified and improved by analyzing the movement at each joint, using the prototype bones. Once this is done, the movement is constrained further by doing animations of the whole skeleton and noting areas of impossible overlap between bones and unreasonable movement. The problems are corrected and new animations attempted until the movement is perfected. This provides a means for understanding locomotion and mastication in these extinct animals.

Chapman, Ralph E.; Andersen, Arthur; Wilcox, Brian

2003-05-01

99

An Animal Model of Type A Cystinuria Due to Spontaneous Mutation in 129S2/SvPasCrl Mice  

PubMed Central

Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the mutation of either SLC3A1 gene encoding for rBAT (type A cystinuria) or SLC7A9 gene encoding for b0,+AT (type B cystinuria). Here, we evidenced in a commonly used congenic 129S2/SvPasCrl mouse substrain a dramatically high frequency of kidney stones that were similar to those of patients with cystinuria. Most of 129S2/SvPasCrl exhibited pathognomonic cystine crystals in urine and an aminoaciduria profile similar to that of patients with cystinuria. In addition, we observed a heterogeneous inflammatory infiltrate and cystine tubular casts in the kidney of cystinuric mice. As compared to another classical mouse strain, C57BL/6J mice, 129S2/SvPasCrl mice had an increased mortality associated with bilateral obstructive hydronephrosis. In 129S2/SvPasCrl mice, the heavy subunit rBAT of the tetrameric transporter of dibasic amino acids was absent in proximal tubules and we identified a single pathogenic mutation in a highly conserved region of the Slc3a1 gene. This novel mouse model mimicking human disease would allow us further pathophysiological studies and may be useful to analyse the crystal/tissue interactions in cystinuria. PMID:25048459

Livrozet, Marine; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Mesnard, Laurent; Thioulouse, Elizabeth; Jaubert, Jean; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Baud, Laurent; Bazin, Dominique; Daudon, Michel; Letavernier, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

100

Inhalation studies in laboratory animals--current concepts and alternatives.  

PubMed

Highly standardized and controlled inhalation studies are required for hazard identification to make test results reproducible and comparable and to fulfill general regulatory requirements for the registration of new drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. Despite significant efforts, the results of inhalation studies have to be analyzed judiciously due to the great number of variables. These variables may be related to technical issues or to the specific features of the animal model. Although inhalation exposure of animals mimics human exposure best, ie, error-prone route-to-route extrapolations are not necessary, not all results obtained under such very rigorous test conditions may necessarily also occur under real-life exposure conditions. Attempts are often made to duplicate as closely as possible these real-life exposure conditions of humans in appropriate bioassays. However, this in turn might affect established baseline data, rendering the interpretation of new findings difficult. In addition, specific use patterns, eg, of inhalation pharmaceuticals or pesticide-containing consumer products, may impose test agent-specific constraints that challenge traditional approaches. Moreover, specific modes of action of the substance under investigation, the evaluation of specific endpoints, or the clarification of equivocal findings in common rodent species may require exposure paradigms or the use of animal species not commonly used in inhalation toxicology. However, particularly in inhalation toxicology, the choice of animal models for inhalation toxicity testing is usually based on guideline requirements and practical considerations, such as exposure technology, expediency, and previous experience rather than validity for use in human beings. Larger animal species, apart from the welfare aspects, may require larger inhalation chambers to accommodate the animals, but for technical reasons and the difficulty of generating homogeneous exposure atmospheres in such inhalation chambers, this may jeopardize the outcome of the study. Some of the many variables and possible artifacts likely to occur in animal inhalation studies are addressed in this paper. PMID:11026610

Pauluhn, J; Mohr, U

2000-01-01

101

Childhood Cruelty to Animals: A Tri-National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood cruelty to animals is a symptom of conduct disorder that has been linked to the perpetration of violence in later life. Research has identified several factors associated with its etiology, including social factors. However, no cross-cultural studies on this phenomenon have been reported. This study investigated childhood cruelty to…

Mellor, David; Yeow, James; Hapidzal, Noor Fizlee Mohd; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yokoyama, Akimitsu; Nobuzane, Yosuke

2009-01-01

102

The development of response surface pathway design to reduce animal numbers in toxicity studies  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes the development of Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design, assesses its performance and effectiveness in estimating LD50, and compares RSP with Up and Down Procedures (UDPs) and Random Walk (RW) design. Methods A basic 4-level RSP design was used on 36 male ICR mice given intraperitoneal doses of Yessotoxin. Simulations were performed to optimise the design. A k-adjustment factor was introduced to ensure coverage of the dose window and calculate the dose steps. Instead of using equal numbers of mice on all levels, the number of mice was increased at each design level. Additionally, the binomial outcome variable was changed to multinomial. The performance of the RSP designs and a comparison of UDPs and RW were assessed by simulations. The optimised 4-level RSP design was used on 24 female NMRI mice given Azaspiracid-1 intraperitoneally. Results The in vivo experiment with basic 4-level RSP design estimated the LD50 of Yessotoxin to be 463 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 383–535). By inclusion of the k-adjustment factor with equal or increasing numbers of mice on increasing dose levels, the estimate changed to 481 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 362–566) and 447 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 378–504 ?g/kgBW), respectively. The optimised 4-level RSP estimated the LD50 to be 473 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 442–517). A similar increase in power was demonstrated using the optimised RSP design on real Azaspiracid-1 data. The simulations showed that the inclusion of the k-adjustment factor, reduction in sample size by increasing the number of mice on higher design levels and incorporation of a multinomial outcome gave estimates of the LD50 that were as good as those with the basic RSP design. Furthermore, optimised RSP design performed on just three levels reduced the number of animals from 36 to 15 without loss of information, when compared with the 4-level designs. Simulated comparison of the RSP design with UDPs and RW design demonstrated the superiority of RSP. Conclusion Optimised RSP design reduces the number of animals needed. The design converges rapidly on the area of interest and is at least as efficient as both the UDPs and RW design. PMID:24661560

2014-01-01

103

Characterization of protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 knockout mice in animal models of local and systemic inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background PTPH1 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in T cells but its effect on immune response is still controversial. PTPH1 dephosphorylates TCRzeta in vitro, inhibiting the downstream inflammatory signaling pathway, however no immunological phenotype has been detected in primary T cells derived from PTPH1-KO mice. The aim of the present study is to characterize PTPH1 phenotype in two in vivo inflammatory models and to give insights in possible PTPH1 functions in cytokine release. Methods We challenged PTPH1-KO mice with two potent immunomodulatory molecules, carrageenan and LPS, in order to determine PTPH1 possible role in inflammatory response in vivo. Cytokine release, inflammatory pain and gene expression were investigated in challenged PTPH1-WT and KO mice. Results The present study shows that carrageenan induces a trend of slightly increased spontaneous pain sensitivity in PTPH1-KO mice compared to WT (wild-type) littermates, but no differences in cytokine release, induced pain perception and cellular infiltration have been detected between the two genotypes in this mouse model. On the other hand, LPS-induced TNF?, MCP-1 and IL10 release was significantly reduced in PTPH1-KO plasma compared to WTs 30 and 60 minutes post challenge. No cytokine release modulation was detectable 180 minutes post LPS challenge. Conclusion In conclusion, the present study points out a slight potential role for PTPH1 in spontaneous pain sensitivity and it indicates that this phosphatase might play a role in the positive regulation of the LPS-induced cytokines release in vivo, in contrast to previous reports indicating PTPH1 as potential negative regulator of immune response. PMID:20353590

2010-01-01

104

Animal models to study cancer-initiating cells from glioblastoma.  

PubMed

Three main subtypes of gliomas with distinct molecular pathologies have been modeled in animals to better understand their biology. Genetically engineered mouse models that take advantage of genetic abnormalities observed in human gliomas have been instrumental in this process. These models better recapitulate signaling transduction pathways and the microenvironment that play crucial roles in glioma formation than in vitro systems or transplantation models. An increasing amount of data supports the existence of cells functionally defined by their self-renewal ability and tumor-initiating potential upon serial transplantation. As the issue of these cells with stem cell character in gliomagenesis becomes more illusive, animal models that provide an accurate experimental system where the stem cell character can be manipulated and studied are urgently needed. This review provides an overview of the current state of the literature with respect to animal models used in the study of gliomas and cells with stem cell character in their native environment. PMID:21622174

Wee, Boyoung; Charles, Nikki; Holland, Eric C

2011-01-01

105

Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock-in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross-talk between pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin-neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3(R451C) knock-in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin- (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3(R451C) mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV-expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo-cortical inputs the feed-forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin-positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV-expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

106

Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock-in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

107

Autobacteriographic studies of clarithromycin and erythromycin in mice  

SciTech Connect

The antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin was compared with that of erythromycin in experimentally infected mice by whole-body autobacteriography. In mice with systemic staphylococcal infections, the number of vital microbes in the body was relatively low in the early period after oral administration of erythromycin, but increased thereafter to the levels found in nonmedicated control mice. On the other hand, with clarithromycin treatment, a significantly smaller number of microbes was evident throughout the body. The microbes were scarcely seen in the parenchyma of any organs during the examination period. This potent antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin compared with that of erythromycin was further demonstrated in mice with respiratory infections. On the other hand, to examine the distribution properties of both antibiotics in the whole body, an autoradiographic study was carried out with (N-methyl-14C)clarithromycin and (N-methyl-14C)erythromycin. Both labeled antibiotics were distributed widely throughout the body after oral administration in both uninfected control mice and mice with systemic infections. However, the radioactivity was more marked and persistent for (14C)clarithromycin than it was for (14C)erythromycin, particularly in the lungs. The observations described above indicate the superior in vivo antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin compared with that of erythromycin and suggest that the superiority of clarithromycin is largely attributed to its favorable distribution properties. The advantages of whole-body autobacteriography, coupled with whole-body autoradiography, are discussed.

Kohno, Y.; Ohta, K.; Suwa, T.; Suga, T. (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ohmiya (Japan))

1990-04-01

108

Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers  

PubMed Central

After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

Bozzella, Michael J.; Seluanov, Andrei

2008-01-01

109

Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal–dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. PMID:24855386

Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Vigano, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

110

Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

As new drugs are developed, it is essen- tial to appropriately translate the drug dosage from one animal species to another. A misunderstanding appears to exist regarding the appropriate method for allomet- ric dose translations, especially when starting new ani- mal or clinical studies. The need for education regard- ing appropriate translation is evident from the media response regarding some

Shannon Reagan-Shaw; Minakshi Nihal; Nihal Ahmad

2007-01-01

111

[The study and manufacture of spinning counter for experimental animals].  

PubMed

The single-chip microcomputer technique is used in the present study of spinning counter, which has 4 observation tunnels, the spinning behave of four experiment animals can be recorded at same time. The function of this instrument has four selections according to different experiment, and the recording data can be compute processed. PMID:11189275

Qi, X P; Zhou, C; Liu, F J; Chen, Z; Jiang, L; Yan, Z

1997-09-01

112

Nicotine and smoking: a perspective from animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine plays a key role in reinforcing tobacco smoking, and exerts several psychoneuropharmacological actions which may contribute to its reinforcing effects. Thus, nicotine can improve mood and alleviate withdrawal symptoms; it can also alter CNS arousal, reduce stress, suppress appetite, and improve performance on certain tasks. Behavioural studies in animals have tended to corroborate existing theories of smoking behaviour, and

P. B. S. Clarke

1987-01-01

113

Why zoology? Zoology is the study of animals how they  

E-print Network

Why zoology? Zoology is the study of animals ­ how they function, behave and evolve. As well as being intrinsically fascinating, zoology is also of real- world importance. Understanding zoology for zoologists than today. Courses Essentials Courses MSci (Hons) in Zoology MSci (Hons) in Zoology (research

Sussex, University of

114

Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-12-31

115

Carcinogenicity of policosanol in mice: an 18-month study.  

PubMed

Policosanol (trade name Ateromixol) is a new cholesterol-lowering drug that has been isolated and purified from sugar cane wax. The effects of policosanol (50-500 mg/kg) administered orally for 18 months to male and female Swiss mice were investigated. No differences in daily clinical observations, weight gain, food consumption and mortality (survival analysis) between groups were found. Histopathological study showed that the frequency of neoplastic (benign and malignant) lesions was similar in the control and policosanol-treated groups. The lesions observed were similar to the spontaneous lesions in Swiss mice reported in previous studies. As no drug-related increase in the occurrence of malignant or benign neoplasm was found, nor acceleration in tumour growth in any specific group observed, this study shows no evidence of policosanol-induced carcinogenicity in Swiss mice. PMID:7628793

Alemán, C L; Puig, M N; Elías, E C; Ortega, C H; Guerra, I R; Ferreiro, R M; Briñis, F

1995-07-01

116

Narcosis studies and oxygen poisoning of mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research for a mechanism by which narcotic gases alter metabolism is reported. Possible sites of action by narcotic and anesthetic gases in isolated electron transport particles were explored. Using the relative activities of the NADH-oxygen, NADH-ferricyanide, succinate-cytochrome C and succinate-NAD oxidoreductase systems as parameters, the relative potency of volatile anesthetics were tested. Testing the relative ability of human subjects to contract and repay an oxygen debt while in the narcotic versus alert state, it was found that narcosis induced by 33% nitrous oxide increased the size of the oxygen debt contracted and the amount of oxygen required to repay it during recovery. Mice acclimatized to sea level (760 mm Hg), 5000 feet (632 mm Hg) or 15,000 feet 437 mm Hg) for from one to eight weeks were found to be more susceptible to convulsion and death as a function of altitude acclimatization when tested in hyperoxic environments. There were no reasonable explanations for the connection between hypoxia and oxygen poisoning but several practical implications for persons living at altitude are discussed.

1973-01-01

117

Studies on the interaction between ethanol and two industrial solvents (methyl isobutyl ketone) in mice  

SciTech Connect

Methyl n-butyl ketone (MnBK) and methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK) prolong the duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (EILRR) in mice. MnBK was almost twice as potent in this regard. To explain this difference, the metabolism of both ketones was studied in male CD-1 mice using GC. MiBK was converted to 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4MPOL) and 4-hydroxy methyl isobutyl ketone (HMP). MnBK metabolites were 2-hexanol (2HOL) and 2,5-hexanedione (2,5HD). The effects of both ketones and metabolites on EILRR and ethanol (E) elimination were studied in mice. The ketones and their metabolites were dissolved in corn oil and injected intraperitoneally 30 min before E 4g/kg for EILRR and 2g/kg for E elimination. In the following doses: MnBK, 5; MiBK, 5; 2HOL, 2.5; 4MPOL, 2.5; and HMP 2.5, significantly prolonged EILRR. Concentrations of E in blood and brain upon return of the righting reflex were similar in solvent-treated and control animals. The mean elimination rate of E was slower in groups given MnBK or 2HOL than in control animals. No change in E elimination was observed with MiBK, HMP, 4MPOL, or 2, 5HD.

Granvil, C.P.; Sharkawi, M.; Plaa, G.L. (Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1991-03-11

118

The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

1993-12-01

119

Sepsis in Old Age: Review of Human and Animal Studies  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a serious problem among the geriatric population as its incidence and mortality rates dramatically increase with advanced age. Despite a large number of ongoing clinical and basic research studies, there is currently no effective therapeutic strategy that rescues elderly patients with severe sepsis. Recognition of this problem is relatively low as compared to other age-associated diseases. The disparity between clinical and basic studies is a problem, and this is likely due, in part, to the fact that most laboratory animals used for sepsis research are not old while the majority of sepsis cases occur in the geriatric population. The objective of this article is to review recent epidemiological studies and clinical observations, and compare these with findings from basic laboratory studies which have used aged animals in experimental sepsis. PMID:24729938

Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

120

Chronotolerance study of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of absence seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The present work aims to study whether VPA-induced toxicity varies according to the dosing-time in the 24 hour-scale. Methods The influence of dosing-time on tolerance to VPA was investigated in 120 male Swiss mice synchronized under a light-dark cycle (12:12). The mean VPA lethal dose was first determined to be 850?±?0.2?mg/kg, i.p.. Such a dose was administered by i.p. route to a total of 90 mice divided in six circadian stages [1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 Hours After Light Onset (HALO)] (15 mice/circadian time); 30 mice were used as control (5 mice / circadian time). Results The surviving treated mice exhibited a significant circadian variation in rectal temperature and body weight loss (p?mice which is physiologically analogous to the second half of the night for human patients. PMID:22574933

2012-01-01

121

Humanimalia: A journal of human/animal interface studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.

122

Human Malaria in Immunocompromised Mice: New In Vivo Model for Chemotherapy Studies  

PubMed Central

We have recently designed a new Plasmodium falciparum mouse model and documented its potential for the study of immune effector mechanisms. In order to determine its value for drug studies, we evaluated its response to existing antimalarial drugs compared to that observed in humans. Immunocompromised BXN (bg/bg xid/xid nu/nu) mice were infected with either the sensitive NF54 strain or the multiresistant T24 strain and then treated with chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, or dihydroartemisinin. A parallelism was observed between previously reported human responses and P. falciparum-parasitized human red blood cell (huRBC)–BXN mouse responses to classical antimalarial drugs, measured in terms of speed of decrease in parasitemia and of morphological alterations of the parasites. Mice infected with the sensitive strain were successfully cured after treatment with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast, mice infected with the multiresistant strain failed to be cured by chloroquine or quinine but thereafter responded to dihydroartemisinin treatment. The speed of parasite clearance and the morphological alterations induced differed for each drug and matched previously reported observations, hence stressing the relevance of the model. These data thus suggest that P. falciparum-huRBC–BXN mice can provide a valuable in vivo system and should be included in the short list of animals that can be used for the evaluation of P. falciparum responses to drugs. PMID:11353636

Moreno, A.; Badell, E.; Van Rooijen, N.; Druilhe, P.

2001-01-01

123

Choline acetyltransferase activity at different ages in brain of Ts65Dn mice, an animal model for Down's syndrome and related neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Ts65Dn mice, trisomic for a portion of chromosome 16 segmentally homologous to human chromosome 21, are an animal model for Down's syndrome and related neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia of the Alzheimer type. In these mice, cognitive deficits and alterations in number of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons have been described. We have measured in Ts65Dn mice the catalytic activity of the cholinergic marker, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as well as the activity of the acetylcholine-degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in the hippocampus and in cortical targets of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In mice aged 10 months, ChAT activity was significantly higher in Ts65Dn mice, compared to 2N animals, in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, pre-frontal cortex, but not in other neocortical regions. At 19 months of age, on the other hand, no differences in ChAT activity were found. Thus, alterations of ChAT activity in these forebrain areas seem to recapitulate those recently described in patients scored as cases of mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. Other neurochemical markers putatively associated with the disease progression, such as those implicating astrocytic hyperactivity and overproduction of amyloid precursor protein family, were preferentially found altered in some brain regions at the oldest age examined (19 months). PMID:16539660

Contestabile, Andrea; Fila, Tatiana; Bartesaghi, Renata; Contestabile, Antonio; Ciani, Elisabetta

2006-04-01

124

H-2 class I knockout, HLA-A2.1-transgenic mice: a versatile animal model for preclinical evaluation of antitumor immunotherapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

H-2 class I-negative, HLA-A2.1-transgenic HHD mice were used for a comparative evaluation of the immunogenicity of HLA-A2.1-restricted human tumor-associated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. A hierarchy was established among these peptides injected into mice in incomplete Freund's adjuvant which correlates globally with their capacity to bind and stabilize HLA-A2.1 molecules. Co-injection of a helper peptide enhanced most CTL responses. In contrast, classical HLA class I-transgenic mice which still express their own class I molecules did not, in most cases, develop HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL responses under the same experimental conditions. Different monoepitope immunization strategies of acceptable clinical usage were compared in HHD mice. Recombinant Ty-virus-like particles, or DNA encoding epitopes fused to the hepatitis B virus middle envelope protein gave the best results. Using this latter approach and a melanoma-based polyepitope construct, CTL responses against five distinct epitopes could be elicited simultaneously in a single animal. Thus, HHD mice provide a versatile animal model for preclinical evaluation of peptide-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:10540322

Firat, H; Garcia-Pons, F; Tourdot, S; Pascolo, S; Scardino, A; Garcia, Z; Michel, M L; Jack, R W; Jung, G; Kosmatopoulos, K; Mateo, L; Suhrbier, A; Lemonnier, F A; Langlade-Demoyen, P

1999-10-01

125

Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.  

PubMed

Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

2012-01-01

126

Animal carcinogenicity studies on radiofrequency fields related to mobile phones and base stations  

SciTech Connect

Since a report in 1997 on an increased lymphoma incidence in mice chronically exposed to a mobile phone radiofrequency signal, none of the subsequent long-term studies in rodents have confirmed these results. On the other hand, several of the follow-up co- and carcinogenicity studies are still underway or are presently being initiated. Most of the published long-term studies used 1 exposure level only and suffer from a poor dosimetry which does not consider the animal's growth. Additional points of criticism are a limited, in some cases, questionable histopathology and inadequate group sizes. Overall, if dealing with new chemicals or drugs, these studies would not be acceptable for registration with the responsible authorities. The major critical points are taken into consideration within the European co- and carcinogenicity projects (CEMFEC and PERFORM-A), which are in their final stages and in the US long-term studies in mice and rats which are about to be initiated. Nevertheless, the WHO evaluation for health risk assessment of long-term telephone use and base station exposure will start in late 2005.

Dasenbrock, Clemens [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: clemens-dasebrock@bc.boehringer-ingelheim.com

2005-09-01

127

Significance of ecological studies of wild animal reservoirs of zoonoses  

PubMed Central

The paucity of information on the ecology of wild animal reservoirs over most of the world is one of the factors that has led to hesitation and failure in controlling these diseases in many areas. Extensive application of ecological studies and methods would not only assist in zoonosis control but might well also lead to the discovery of new diseases, to the acquisition of fundamental knowledge capable of application in other fields of biology, and to the finding of new experimental animals for laboratory work. Although such studies properly require the co-operation of a wide variety of specialists—epidemiologists, ecologists, parasitologists, botanists, geologists and climatologists are among those who may to advantage be called upon—in practice much can be accomplished by a few interested and well-equipped field workers backed by a good museum and laboratory services. PMID:13791420

Abdussalam, M.

1959-01-01

128

Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Spirulina maxima, a blue–green alga used as food supplement and food coloring, after 13 weeks of treatment. Groups of ten mice of each sex were given S. maxima in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, 20 or 30% (w\\/w) for 13 weeks. The alga ingestion had no

M Salazar; E Mart??nez; E Madrigal; L. E Ruiz; G. A Chamorro

1998-01-01

129

Benthic studies in Buzzards Bay. I. Animal-sediment relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

During October and November 1955 a bottom faunal study was undertaken at 19 lo- calities in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. The number of animals ranged from 1,064 to 12,576\\/m2 with a mean number of 4,430. In comparison with certain other areas these numbers appeared small and seemed to be due to the relatively low concentrations of chemical nutrients and modest primary

HOWARD L. SANDERS

1958-01-01

130

Painful dilemmas: A study of the way the public's assessment of animal research balances costs to animals against human benefits.  

PubMed

The conflict between animal costs and human benefits has dominated public as well as academic debates about animal research. However, surveys of public perceptions of animal research rarely focus on this part of attitude formation. This paper traces the prevalence of different attitudes to animal research in the public when people are asked to take benefit and cost considerations into account concurrently. Results from the examination of two representative samples of the Danish public identify three reproducible attitude stances. Approximately 30-35% of people questioned approved of animal research quite strongly, and 15-20% opposed animal research. The remaining 50% were reserved in their views. Further studies will ideally use the measure developed here to make possible relatively fine-grained comparisons and understandings of differences between populations and changes in attitudes over time. PMID:23825251

Lund, Thomas Bøker; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

2014-05-01

131

Experimental study on light induced influence model to mice using support vector machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous researchers have made studies on different influences created by light irradiation to animals, including retinal damage, changes of inner index and so on. However, the model of light induced damage to animals using physiological indicators as features in machine learning method is never founded. This study was designed to evaluate the changes in micro vascular diameter, the serum absorption spectrum and the blood flow influenced by light irradiation of different wavelengths, powers and exposure time with support vector machine (SVM). The micro images of the mice auricle were recorded and the vessel diameters were calculated by computer program. The serum absorption spectrums were analyzed. The result shows that training sample rate 20% and 50% have almost the same correct recognition rate. Better performance and accuracy was achieved by third-order polynomial kernel SVM quadratic optimization method and it worked suitably for predicting the light induced damage to organisms.

Ji, Lei; Zhao, Zhimin; Yu, Yinshan; Zhu, Xingyue

2014-08-01

132

Role of papillomavirus oncogenes in human cervical cancer: Transgenic animal studies  

SciTech Connect

Human papillomaviruses are believed to be etiologic agents for the majority of human cervical carcinoma, a common cancer that is a leading cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. In cervical carcinoma, a subset of papillomaviral genes, namely E6 and E7, are expressed. In vitro tissue culture studies indicate that HPV E6 and E7 are oncogenes, and that their oncogenicity is due in part to their capacity to inactivate cellular tumor suppressor genes. The behavior of E6 and E7 in vitro and the genetic evidence from analysis of human cancers suggest that the E6 and E7 genes play a significant role in the development of cervical cancer. This hypothesis is now being tested using animal models. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the oncogenicity of papillomavirus genes that has been generated through their study in transgenic mice. 82 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Griep, A.E.; Lambert, P.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

1994-05-01

133

The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

2014-01-01

134

Natural Behavior, Animal Rights, or Making Money – A Study of Swedish Organic Farmers' View of Animal Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire study was performed among Swedish organic livestock farmers to determine their view of animal welfare and other ethical issues in animal production. The questionnaire was sent to 56.5% of the target group and the response rate was 75.6%. A principal components analysis (exploratory factor analysis) was performed to get a more manageable data set. A matrix of intercorrelations

Vonne Lund; Sven Hemlin; James White

2004-01-01

135

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

136

Reporter Mice for the Study of Intracellular Receptor Activity  

PubMed Central

During the past decade the remarkable progress in molecular genetics and the possibility to engineer cells to express genes reporting on the activity of specific promoters has produced major changes in biological research. The description and validation of reporter mice for non-invasive assessment of biological and biochemical processes in living subjects and the results obtained with the models reporting on the activity of estrogen and peroxisome proliferator receptors clearly showed that such technologies have the potential to enhance our understanding of disease and drug activity. Although reporter-gene technology is in its infancy, reporter animals already represent a valuable tool for biomedical investigation. The present chapter aims at critically illustrating the methodology to be applied when dealing with reporter systems and in vivo imaging. PMID:19763513

Maggi, Adriana; Rando, Gianpaolo

2010-01-01

137

Using Computational and Mechanical Models to Study Animal Locomotion  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in computational methods have made realistic large-scale simulations of animal locomotion possible. This has resulted in numerous mathematical and computational studies of animal movement through fluids and over substrates with the purpose of better understanding organisms’ performance and improving the design of vehicles moving through air and water and on land. This work has also motivated the development of improved numerical methods and modeling techniques for animal locomotion that is characterized by the interactions of fluids, substrates, and structures. Despite the large body of recent work in this area, the application of mathematical and numerical methods to improve our understanding of organisms in the context of their environment and physiology has remained relatively unexplored. Nature has evolved a wide variety of fascinating mechanisms of locomotion that exploit the properties of complex materials and fluids, but only recently are the mathematical, computational, and robotic tools available to rigorously compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods of locomotion in variable environments. Similarly, advances in computational physiology have only recently allowed investigators to explore how changes at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels might lead to changes in performance at the organismal level. In this article, we highlight recent examples of how computational, mathematical, and experimental tools can be combined to ultimately answer the questions posed in one of the grand challenges in organismal biology: “Integrating living and physical systems.” PMID:22988026

Miller, Laura A.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Tytell, Eric D.; Wang, Z. Jane; Yen, Jeannette; Alben, Silas

2012-01-01

138

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats  

SciTech Connect

Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

1990-12-01

139

Transgenic mice expressing human glucocerebrosidase variants: utility for the study of Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessively inherited storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase, acid ?-glucosidase. The disease manifestations seen in Gaucher patients are highly heterogeneous as is the responsiveness to therapy. The elucidation of the precise factors responsible for this heterogeneity has been challenging as the development of clinically relevant animal models of Gaucher disease has been problematic. Although numerous murine models for Gaucher disease have been described each has limitations in their specific utility. We describe here, transgenic murine models of Gaucher disease that will be particularly useful for the study of pharmacological chaperones. We have produced stable transgenic mouse strains that individually express wild type, N370S and L444P containing human acid ?-glucosidase and show that each of these transgenic lines rescues the lethal phenotype characteristic of acid ?-glucosidase null mice. Both the N370S and L444P transgenic models show early and progressive elevations of tissue sphingolipids with L444P mice developing progressive splenic Gaucher cell infiltration. We demonstrate the potential utility of these new transgenic models for the study of Gaucher disease pathogenesis. In addition, since these mice produce only human enzyme, they are particularly relevant for the study of pharmacological chaperones that are specifically targeted to human acid ?-glucosidase and the common mutations underlying Gaucher disease. PMID:23642305

Sanders, Angela; Hemmelgarn, Harmony; Melrose, Heather L; Hein, Leanne; Fuller, Maria; Clarke, Lorne A

2013-08-01

140

New Animal Model for Studying Mastication in Oral Motor Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the basic parameters of oral behavior in mice, we recorded the three-dimensional jaw movement trajectories and masseter and digastric muscle activities in freely behaving mice eating foods of various textures. Results showed that: (1) there are characteristic jaw movement patterns for food intake and mastication; (2) the pattern in a chewing cycle may be divided into opening, closing,

I. Okayasu; Y. Yamada; S. Kohno; N. Yoshida

2003-01-01

141

Effects of Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure on Reproductive-Related Behaviors in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus): A Monogamous Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA), a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), acts as a mixed agonist- antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or ethinyl estradiol (EE) (0.1 part per billion) to provide a “pure” estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a consideration in risk assessment studies. PMID:23405200

Williams, Scott A.; Jasarevic, Eldin; Vandas, Gregory M.; Warzak, Denise A.; Geary, David C.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Roberts, R. Michael; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

2013-01-01

142

Effects of developmental bisphenol A exposure on reproductive-related behaviors in California mice (Peromyscus californicus): a monogamous animal model.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or ethinyl estradiol (EE) (0.1 part per billion) to provide a "pure" estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a consideration in risk assessment studies. PMID:23405200

Williams, Scott A; Jasarevic, Eldin; Vandas, Gregory M; Warzak, Denise A; Geary, David C; Ellersieck, Mark R; Roberts, R Michael; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

2013-01-01

143

Guideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory  

E-print Network

of the experimental animals, and thus need review and approval by the ACUC. To aid the ACUCs in fulfillingGuideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy) require that Animal Care and Use

Bandettini, Peter A.

144

Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model  

PubMed Central

Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200?mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200?mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rasedee, Abdullah; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Namvar, Farideh; Abdul Samad, Nozlena; Andas, Reena Joys; Ng, Kuan Beng; How, Chee Wun

2014-01-01

145

Acute toxicity study of zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier on BALB/c mice model.  

PubMed

Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200?mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200?mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration. PMID:25276798

Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rasedee, Abdullah; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Namvar, Farideh; Yeap, Swee Keong; Abdul Samad, Nozlena; Andas, Reena Joys; Muhammad Nadzri, Nabilah; Anasamy, Theebaa; Ng, Kuan Beng; How, Chee Wun

2014-01-01

146

A comparative study of age-related brain pathology – are neurodegenerative diseases present in nonhuman animals ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some aged dogs definitely have dementia-like conditions, they have rather different brain histopathology from that seen in Alzheimer's disease including the shape of senile plaques, severity of neuron loss and absence of neurofibrillary tangles. Aged wild-type mice never show such brain lesions at all. In addition, no cases of Parkinson's disease have been reported in nonhuman animals yet. The

Hiroyuki Nakayama; Kazuyuki Uchida; Kunio Doi

2004-01-01

147

Structure and mechanical properties of Ank/Ank mutant mouse dental tissues--an animal model for studying periodontal regeneration.  

PubMed

Enamel, dentine and cementum are dental tissues with distinct functional properties associated with their unique hierarchical structures. Some potential ways to repair or regenerate lost tooth structures have been revealed in our studies focused on examining teeth obtained from mice with mutations at the mouse progressive ankylosis (ank) locus. Previous studies have shown that mice with such mutations have decreased levels of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) at local sites resulting in ectopic calcification in joint areas and in formation of a significantly thicker cementum layer when compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) tissue [Ho AM, Johnson MD, Kingsley DM. Role of the mouse ank gene in control of tissue calcification and arthritis. Science 2000;289:265-70; Nociti Jr FH, Berry JE, Foster BL, Gurley KA, Kingsley DM, Takata T, et al. Cementum: a phosphate-sensitive tissue. J Dent Res 2002;81:817-21]. As a next step, to determine the quality of the cementum tissue formed in mice with a mutation in the ank gene (ank/ank), we compared the microstructure and mechanical properties of cementum and other dental tissues in mature ank/ank vs. age-matched WT mice. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses on mineralized tissues revealed no decrease in the extent of mineralization between ank/ank cementum vs. WT controls. Atomic-force-microscopy-based nanoindentation performed on enamel, dentine or cementum of ank/ank vs. age-matched WT molars revealed no significant difference in any of the tested tissues in terms of hardness and elastic modulus. These results indicate that the tissue quality was not compromised in ank/ank mice despite faster rate of formation and more abundant cementum when compared with age-matched WT mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that this animal model can be utilized for studies focused on defining mechanisms to promote cementum formation without loss of mechanical integrity. PMID:19338977

Fong, H; Foster, B L; Sarikaya, M; Somerman, M J

2009-06-01

148

Carcinogenicity of policosanol in mice: An 18-month study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policosanol (trade name Ateromixol) is a new cholesterol-lowering drug that has been isolated and purified from sugar cane wax. The effects of policosanol (50–500 mg\\/kg) administered orally for 18 months to male and female Swiss mice were investigated. No differences in daily clinical observations, weight gain, food consumption and mortality (survival analysis) between groups were found. Histopathological study showed that

C. L. Alemán; M. N. Puig; E. C. Elias; C. H. Ortega; I. R. Guerra; R. M. Ferreiro; F. Briñis

1995-01-01

149

Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

2012-01-01

150

Copyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies  

E-print Network

/factory farming 71 Further issues 72 Vivisection/animal experimentation 72 Zoos 74 Section 3: Attitudes to animalsCopyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Cruelty-Director: New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha/University of Canterbury

Hickman, Mark

151

Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review  

E-print Network

, justification of the number of animals required and experimental refinement. #12;2 Protocols with procedures1 Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review In the NIH Animal Study Proposal (ASP) review process, Animal Care and Use

Bandettini, Peter A.

152

A Gamma Ray Imaging Device for Small-Animal Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, modular nuclear imaging device for in vivo imaging of small animals is described. A segmented scintillator is coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier. This combination is used to view the living system under study with a variety of collimators employed to limit the angular acceptance. A personal computer is coupled to a CAMAC electronic system for event-by-event data acquisition and subsequent selective data analysis. The system has been designed to exploit the availability of a wide range of ligands tagged with the isotope 125I. It has most recently been employed for a study of the transport of the cocaine analog, RTI-55, to the brain of a mouse. Results of studies to date and options for future expansion of the system will be described.

Saunders, Robert; Bradley, Eric; Majewski, Stan; Saha, Margaret S.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

1999-11-01

153

Behavioural study of the d-galactose induced aging model in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent chronically injected with d-galactose (d-gal) has been used as an animal aging model for brain aging or anti-aging pharmacology research. However, the dosage of d-gal used to establish this model in mice has been reported in a wide range. To study the dose-dependent effect of d-gal on rodent behaviour, we investigated the learning and memory ability of C57BL\\/6J (C57)

Haifeng Wei; Lin Li; Qiujie Song; Houxi Ai; Jin Chu; Wei Li

2005-01-01

154

Light microscopic study of the effect of new antischistosmal drug (myrrh extract) on the liver of mice.  

PubMed

The efficacy of purified oleo-resin extract of myrrh derived from Commiphora molmol tree, (known as Mirazid) was studied against an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Seventy adult male mice were used in this study. They were divided into 4 groups: G.I: consisted of control noninfected nontreated mice. G.II: comprised the noninfected treated mice and was subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup II-A: included mice which received Myrrh extract dissolved in cremophore EL and subgroup II-B: included mice which were treated with cremophore EL. G.III: consisted of the infected nontreated animals and G.IV: included infected mice which were treated with myrrh extract. The drug was given 8 weeks post infection in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 successive days. All animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Liver paraffin sections were prepared and stained with H&E, Masson's Trichrome stain, PAS stain and Wilder's technique. A morphometric study was performed for the mean number and perimeter of the granulomas. Area percentage of the total collagen content around central veins as well as in portal areas was also estimated. The livers of the animals in G.II which received either myrrh extract (subgroup II-A) or cremophore EL (subgroup II-B) showed a more or less normal histological profile when compared to G.I (noninfected-nontreated group). G.IV (Infected treated G.) showed complete preservation of the hepatic architecture. Most of the hepatocytes appeared almost normal. The reticular network in the central part of the granulomas as well as in the portal tracts appeared rarefied. The hepatic reticular network was preserved. A significant decrease in the number and size of granulomas with significant reduction in the collagen content deposition in portal tracts and around central veins was detected when compared to G.III (infected nontreated mice). The data of this study proved the efficacy of myrrh as a promising antischistosomal drug. PMID:16333904

Massoud, Ahmed M A; el Ebiary, Faika H; Ibrahim, Suzi H

2005-12-01

155

Inflammatory diarrhea due to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: evidence from clinical and mice model studies  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to determine the role of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in inflammatory diarrhea among hospitalized patients in Kolkata. The inflammatory pathogenesis of EAEC was established in mice model and histopathological studies. Presence of fecal leucocytes (FLCs) can be suspected for EAEC infection solely or as a mixed with other enteric pathogens. Methods Active surveillance was conducted for 2 years on 2 random days per week with every 5th patient admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH). Diarrheal samples were processed by conventional culture, microscopy, ELISA and molecular methods. Two EAEC isolated as sole pathogens were examined in mice after induced intestinal infection. The intestinal tissue samples were processed to analyze the histological changes. Results Of the 2519 samples screened, fecal leucocytes, erythrocytes and occult blood were detected in 1629 samples. Most of the patients had acute watery diarrhea (75%) and vomiting (78%). Vibrio cholerae O1 was the main pathogen in patients of 5–10 years age group (33%). Shigellosis was more in children from 2–5 years of age (19%), whereas children <2 years appeared to be susceptible for infection caused by EAEC (16%). When tested for the pathogenicity, the EAEC strains colonized well and caused inflammatory infection in the gut mucosa of BALB/C mice. Conclusion This hospital-based surveillance revealed prevalence of large number of inflammatory diarrhea. EAEC was the suspected pathogen and <2 years children appeared to be the most susceptible age group. BALB/C mice may be a suitable animal model to study the EAEC-mediated pathogenesis. PMID:24294997

2013-01-01

156

A study of quantification of aortic compliance in mice using radial acquisition phase contrast MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatiotemporal changes in blood flow velocity measured using Phase contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to quantify Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and Wall Shear Stress (WSS), well known indices of vessel compliance. A study was conducted to measure the PWV in the aortic arch in young healthy children using conventional phase contrast MRI and a post processing algorithm that automatically track the peak velocity in phase contrast images. It is shown that the PWV calculated using peak velocity-time data has less variability compared to that using mean velocity and flow. Conventional MR data acquisition techniques lack both the spatial and temporal resolution needed to accurately calculate PWV and WSS in in vivo studies using transgenic animal models of arterial diseases. Radial k-space acquisition can improve both spatial and temporal resolution. A major part of this thesis was devoted to developing technology for Radial Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance (RPCMR) cine imaging on a 7 Tesla Animal scanner. A pulse sequence with asymmetric radial k-space acquisition was designed and implemented. Software developed to reconstruct the RPCMR images include gridding, density compensation and centering of k-Space that corrects the image ghosting introduced by hardware response time. Image processing software was developed to automatically segment the vessel lumen and correct for phase offset due to eddy currents. Finally, in vivo and ex vivo aortic compliance measurements were conducted in a well-established mouse model for atherosclerosis: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO). Using RPCMR technique, a significantly higher PWV value as well as a higher average WSS was detected among 9 months old ApoE-KO mice compare to in wild type mice. A follow up ex-vivo test of tissue elasticity confirmed the impaired distensibility of aortic arteries among ApoE-KO mice.

Zhao, Xuandong

157

Choosing the Correct AED: From Animal Studies to the Clinic  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a chronic condition caused by an imbalance of normal excitatory and inhibitory forces in the brain. Antiepileptic drug therapy has been directed primarily toward reducing excitability through blockage of voltage-gated Na+ or Ca2+ channels, or increasing inhibition through enhancement of ?-aminobutyric acid currents. Prior to clinical studies, putative antiepileptic drugs are screened in animals, usually rodents. Maximal electrical shock, pentylenetetrazol, and kindling are typically used as non-mechanistic screens for antiseizure properties and the rotorod test for assessing acute toxicity. While antiseizure drug screening has been successful in bringing drugs to the market and improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of seizures, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of drug screening occurs in mature male rodents and involves models of seizures, not epilepsy. Effective drugs in acute seizures may not be effective in chronic models of epilepsy. Seizure type, clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype, syndrome, and etiology are often quite different in children with epilepsy than adults. Despite these age-related unique features, drugs used in children are generally the same as used in adults. As awareness of the unique features of seizures during development increases, it is anticipated that more drug screening in the immature animal will occur. PMID:18279749

Holmes, Gregory L.; Zhao, Qian

2009-01-01

158

Epidemiological Study of Animal Leptospirosis in New Caledonia  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa), 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7%) were found to be positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. According to the species, the positive sera were obtained from 43% of 30 cattle, 72% of 29 Rusa deer, 80% of 25 horses, and 43% of 51 dogs, and fromall of the 8 cats tested. This study shows the broad dispersion and the high prevalence of the different serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira species tested, particularly among deer and horses. The disease is endemic in domestic animals and concerns all the species. PMID:23533965

Roqueplo, Cedric; Cabre, Olivier; Davoust, Bernard; Kodjo, Angeli

2013-01-01

159

People's Study Time Allocation and its Relation to Animal Foraging  

PubMed Central

In this article we suggest a relation between people's metacognitively guided study time allocation strategies and animal foraging. These two domains are similar insofar as people use specific metacognitive cues to assist their study time allocation just as other species use cues, such as scent marking. People decline to study items that they know they already know, just as other species use a win-shift strategy – avoiding already visited and depleted patches – in foraging. People selectively study the easiest as-yet-unlearned items first, before turning to more difficult items just as other species take the ‘just right’ size and challenge of prey--the so-called Goldilocks principle. People use a stop rule by which they give up on one item and turn to another when the returns diminish just as others species use a stop rule that guides shifting from one patch to another. The value that each item is assigned on the criterion test, if known during study, influenced which items people choose to study and how long they study them just as knowledge of the nutritional or energy value of the food influences choices and perseverance in foraging. Finally, study time allocation strategies can differ in their effectiveness depending upon the expertise of the student just as some species forage close to optimally while others do not. PMID:20026197

Metcalfe, Janet; Jacobs, W. Jake

2010-01-01

160

Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies  

SciTech Connect

The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors including histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study.

Ward, J.M.; Quander, R.; Devor, D.; Wenk, M.L.; Spangler, E.F.

1986-09-01

161

Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2010-01-01

162

Mouse Studies to Shape Clinical Trials for Mitochondrial Diseases: High Fat Diet in Harlequin Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic options in human mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases have been poorly evaluated mostly because of the scarcity of cohorts and the inter-individual variability of disease progression. Thus, while a high fat diet (HFD) is often recommended, data regarding efficacy are limited. Our objectives were 1) to determine our ability to evaluate therapeutic options in the Harlequin OXPHOS complex I (CI)-deficient mice, in the context of a mitochondrial disease with human hallmarks and 2) to assess the effects of a HFD. Methods and Findings Before launching long and expensive animal studies, we showed that palmitate afforded long-term death-protection in 3 CI-mutant human fibroblasts cell lines. We next demonstrated that using the Harlequin mouse, it was possible to draw solid conclusions on the efficacy of a 5-month-HFD on neurodegenerative symptoms. Moreover, we could identify a group of highly responsive animals, echoing the high variability of the disease progression in Harlequin mice. Conclusions These results suggest that a reduced number of patients with identical genetic disease should be sufficient to reach firm conclusions as far as the potential existence of responders and non responders is recognized. They also positively prefigure HFD-trials in OXPHOS-deficient patients. PMID:22174907

Schiff, Manuel; Benit, Paule; El-Khoury, Riyad; Schlemmer, Dimitri; Benoist, Jean-Francois; Rustin, Pierre

2011-01-01

163

Animal Models For Disease--Knockout, Knockin And Conditional Mutant Mice David F. LePage and Ronald A. Conlon  

E-print Network

. Knockouts, knockins and conditional alleles are generated in a similar fashion using the protocols given almost twenty years since the first gene targeted mice were constructed (4, 5), not all parameters which

164

Transgenic Models to Study Disorders of Respiratory Control in Newborn Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies described the in vivo respiratory phenotype of mutant newborn mice with targeted deletions of genes involved in respiratory control development. Whole-body flow barometric plethysmography is the noninvasive method of choice for studying unrestrained newborn mice. The main characteristics of the early postnatal development of respiratory control in mice are reviewed, including avail- able data on breathing patterns and

Claude Gaultier; Boris Matrot; Jorge Gallego

2006-01-01

165

Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.ed [David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Grimm, Jan [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Guimaraes, Alexander R. [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R. [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Perez, Bradford A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Santiago, Philip M. [David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-03-15

166

Toward new understandings of human–animal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of studying human–animal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

2012-01-01

167

Mice with human livers.  

PubMed

Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections. PMID:24042096

Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

2013-12-01

168

Genesis of Prolactinomas: Studies Using Estrogen-Treated Animals  

PubMed Central

Prolactin-secreting adenomas (prolactinomas) are the most prevalent form of pituitary tumors in humans. Our knowledge of the formation of these tumors is limited. Experimental work in animal has uncovered that estradiol exposure leads to prolactinoma formation via orchestrated events involving dopamine D2 receptors, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) isoforms and their receptors, as well as factors secondary to TGF-? action. Additionally, these studies determined that TGF-? and b-FGF interact to facilitate the communication between lactotropes and folliculo-stellate cells that is necessary for the mitogenic action of estradiol. The downstream signaling that governs lactotropic cell proliferation involves activation of the MAP kinase p44/42-dependent pathway. PMID:16809921

Sarkar, Dipak K.

2010-01-01

169

Assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity by ultrasound: a feasibility study in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness and could be useful for characterizing cardiovascular disease progression even in mouse models. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for assessing arterial PWV in mice using ultrasound (US) images only and test it on the evaluation of age-associated differences in abdominal aorta PWV (aaPWV). US scans were obtained from six adult (7 months) and six old (19 months) wild type male mice (strain C57BL6) under gaseous anaesthesia. For each mouse, diameter and flow velocity instantaneous values were achieved from abdominal aorta B-mode and PW-Doppler images; all measurements were obtained using edge detection and contour tracking techniques. Single-beat mean diameter and velocity were calculated and time-aligned, providing the lnD-V loop. aaPWV values were obtained from the slope of the linear part of the loop (the early systolic phase), while relative distension (relD) measurements were calculated from the mean diameter signal. aaPWV values for young mice (3.5±0.52 m/s) were lower than those obtained for older ones (5.12±0.98 m/s) while relD measurements were higher in young (25%±7%) compared with older animals evaluations (15%±3%). All measurements were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01 both). In conclusion, the proposed image processing technique well discriminate between age groups. Since it provides PWV assessment just from US images, it could represent a simply and useful system for vascular stiffness evaluation at any arterial site in the mouse, even in preclinical small animal models.

Faita, Francesco; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Sicari, Rosa

2014-03-01

170

Development of an Animal Holding Facility for Space Shuttle studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modular Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) developed by NASA is described. Besides providing general housing for various animal species, the RAHF is designed to minimize disturbance of the specimens caused by vehicle and mission operations. The RAHF system offers life-sustaining capabilities, such as food, water, and waste removal, as well as environmental control. Modularity of construction to accommodate a variety of small animals and associated instrumentation ensures continued use of RAHF as the sophistication of experiments increases on subsequent missions.

Berry, W. E.; Bowman, G. H.; Jagow, R. B.; Olcott, T. M.

1981-01-01

171

Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about social learning in animals. The last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.

BENNETT G. GALEF JR. and KEVIN N. LALAND (;)

2005-06-01

172

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

173

Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

Davidoff, Donald J.

1989-01-01

174

Toxicological study of plant extracts on termite and laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Toxic activity of leaf extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. and Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. were tested in the laboratory against tea termite, Odontotermes assamensis Holm. Both the tested extracts caused mortality of the termite. The highest toxic activity (100%) was found in the 2.0% chloroform extracts of P. hydropiper. The chloroform extract of P. hydropiper was explored for possible mammalian toxicological effects. The LD50 was 758.58 mg/kg in male albino mice. Subcutaneous injection of sub-lethal dose of extract into male mice once a week for 6 weeks failed to express any significant influence on WBC, RBC count and blood cholesterol. PMID:16161979

Rahman, I; Gogoi, Inee; Dolui, A K; Handique, Ruma

2005-04-01

175

The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior.  

PubMed

Audio recordings made from free-ranging animals can be used to investigate aspects of physiology, behavior, and ecology through acoustic signal processing. On-animal acoustical monitoring applications allow continuous remote data collection, and can serve to address questions across temporal and spatial scales. We report on the design of an inexpensive collar-mounted recording device and present data on the activity budget of wild mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) derived from these devices applied for a 2-week period. Over 3300 h of acoustical recordings were collected from 10 deer on their winter range in a natural gas extraction field in northwestern Colorado. Analysis of a subset of the data indicated deer spent approximately 33.5% of their time browsing, 20.8% of their time processing food through mastication, and nearly 38.3% of their time digesting through rumination, with marked differences in diel patterning of these activities. Systematic auditory vigilance was a salient activity when masticating, and these data offer options for quantifying wildlife responses to varying listening conditions and predation risk. These results (validated using direct observation) demonstrate that acoustical monitoring is a viable and accurate method for characterizing individual time budgets and behaviors of ungulates, and may provide new insight into the ways external forces affect wildlife behavior. PMID:23919149

Lynch, Emma; Angeloni, Lisa; Fristrup, Kurt; Joyce, Damon; Wittemyer, George

2013-07-01

176

The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior  

PubMed Central

Audio recordings made from free-ranging animals can be used to investigate aspects of physiology, behavior, and ecology through acoustic signal processing. On-animal acoustical monitoring applications allow continuous remote data collection, and can serve to address questions across temporal and spatial scales. We report on the design of an inexpensive collar-mounted recording device and present data on the activity budget of wild mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) derived from these devices applied for a 2-week period. Over 3300 h of acoustical recordings were collected from 10 deer on their winter range in a natural gas extraction field in northwestern Colorado. Analysis of a subset of the data indicated deer spent approximately 33.5% of their time browsing, 20.8% of their time processing food through mastication, and nearly 38.3% of their time digesting through rumination, with marked differences in diel patterning of these activities. Systematic auditory vigilance was a salient activity when masticating, and these data offer options for quantifying wildlife responses to varying listening conditions and predation risk. These results (validated using direct observation) demonstrate that acoustical monitoring is a viable and accurate method for characterizing individual time budgets and behaviors of ungulates, and may provide new insight into the ways external forces affect wildlife behavior. PMID:23919149

Lynch, Emma; Angeloni, Lisa; Fristrup, Kurt; Joyce, Damon; Wittemyer, George

2013-01-01

177

[The biological effects in animals in relation to the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. 9. The morphofunctional indices of the immunocompetent organs in mice].  

PubMed

The permanent action of small doses of low-intensity radiation on the immune status of 2.5-3.5 month CC57W mice has been investigated. Total doses of internal and external irradiation were about few cGy. The permanent action of low-level radiation on the experimental animals of the first and fourth generations was shown to change spleen and lymph nodes weights and the count of lymphocytes isolated from these organs. Cellularity and DNA synthesis in the lymph-node lymphocytes and their proliferative response to polyclonal mitogens also changed. The alterations in the parameters that characterized T-lymphocyte population were statistically significant. PMID:1745756

Savtsova, Z D; Kovbasiuk, S A; Iudina, O Iu; Zaritskaia, M Iu; Voe?kova, I M; Indyk, V M; Serkiz, Ia I

1991-01-01

178

STUDIES ON THE LYMPHOCYTOSIS INDUCED IN MICE BY BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS  

PubMed Central

1. Intravenous injection into mice of phase I Bordetella pertussis vaccine resulted in a striking hyperleucocytosis with a predominating lymphocytosis. Intraperitoneal inoculation was less effective, and subcutaneous administration was inactive. 2. Active immunization prevented the hyperleucocytosis; passive immunization was less effective. 3. Reticuloendothelial blockage reduced the effect of the vaccine. 4. Extirpation of the spleen or thymus did not alter the leucocyte response. 5. Histologic studies suggested that the increase in circulating lymphocytes resulted from release of cells from lymphoid organs, including the thymus. PMID:14253487

Morse, Stephen I.

1965-01-01

179

Comparison of Ehrlichia muris Strains Isolated from Wild Mice and Ticks and Serologic Survey of Humans and Animals with E. muris as Antigen  

PubMed Central

In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan. PMID:10074536

Kawahara, Makoto; Ito, Tadahiko; Suto, Chiharu; Shibata, Shinichiro; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Hata, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Katsuya

1999-01-01

180

Pain and Distress Categories for Animal Studies Compared CURRENT U.T. CATEGORIES  

E-print Network

-- NO EXPERIMENTAL MANIPULATION Animal holding or breeding when no research is being conducted. Category CPain and Distress Categories for Animal Studies Compared CURRENT U.T. CATEGORIES 1. ACUTE STUDIES Studies under anesthesia after which animals do not regain consciousness, or involving tissues collected

Cui, Yan

181

Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  

PubMed

Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

2014-01-01

182

Studies of Hard and Soft Tissue Elemental Compositions in Mice and Rats Subjected to Simulated Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microgravity has profound effects on skeletal as well as other body systems. To investigate the effect of microgravity, we have used a NASA validated Hind-limb suspension (HLS) animal model of simulated weightlessness. Groups of mice and rats were subjected to hind limb suspension between 1 and 14 days while the control groups were maintained without suspension for the same duration. To study the effect of diet, some groups of animals were fed on a special diet with defined composition. At term, the animals were sacrificed and the tibia, femur, and skull bones were collected. In addition, soft tissues from pancreas and muscles were also collected. All of the bones and tissues samples were analyzed for elemental analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) equipped on a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In the EDS, 10-20 keV electrons bombarded the samples and a Si (Li) detector measured K-, L- and M-shell x-rays. Independently, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) provided the data for comparison and normalization. Flame software, with Fuzzy Logic, was used to form elemental ratios. Elemental analysis of bone samples indicated a variation in the compositional ratios of calcium, potassium, oxygen and carbon in the leg bones and skulls of the HLS versus control specimens. These variations showed dependence on sample position in the bone.

Mehta, Rahul; Lane, Ryan A.; Fitch, Hannah M.; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

2009-03-01

183

Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES) of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation. PMID:19358702

Amelina, Hanna; Cristobal, Susana

2009-01-01

184

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

1987-11-01

185

Animal experimentation in Japan: regulatory processes and application for microbiological studies.  

PubMed

We have conducted animal experimentation as a highly effective technique in biological studies. Also in microbiological studies, we have used experimentation to prevent and treat many infectious diseases in humans and animals. In Japan, the 'Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals', which covers the consideration of the three R principles, refinement, replacement and reduction for an international humane approach to animal experimentation came into effect in June 2006. Looking towards the straightforward operation of the law in animal experimentation, three government ministries established new basic guidelines for experimentation performed in their jurisdictional research and testing facilities. For future microbiological studies involving animals in Japan, we need to perform animal experiments according to the basic guidelines in association with overseas management systems. In this report, we discussed essential actions for the management of animal experimentation in microbiological studies in Japan. PMID:17416418

Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

2007-07-01

186

Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin\\/+ mice and azoxymethane\\/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, ApcMin\\/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)\\/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. METHODS: In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female ApcMin\\/+ mice

Jihyeung Ju; Bonnie Nolan; Michelle Cheh; Mousumi Bose; Yong Lin; George C Wagner; Chung S Yang

2008-01-01

187

Haemolysis and Perturbations in the Systemic Iron Metabolism of Suckling, Copper-Deficient Mosaic Mutant Mice - An Animal Model of Menkes Disease  

PubMed Central

The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism. PMID:25247420

Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Starzynski, Rafal R.; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Grzmil, Pawel; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Ogorek, Mateusz; Pierzchala, Olga; Staron, Robert; Gajowiak, Anna; Lipinski, Pawel

2014-01-01

188

In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu{sup III}(OH){sub 3}] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

Patra, Chitta Ranjan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu; Abdel Moneim, Soha S. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Eshed, Michal [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shah, Vijay H. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

2009-10-01

189

In Vivo Toxicity Studies of Europium Hydroxide Nanorods in Mice  

PubMed Central

Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence properties and pro-angiogenic to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mgKg?1day?1) and time dependent manner (8–60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice sacrificed on day 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods. PMID:19616569

Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

2009-01-01

190

Evaluating the dose effects of a longitudinal micro-CT study on pulmonary tissue in C57BL/6 mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Micro-computed tomography offers numerous advantages for small animal imaging, including the ability to monitor the same animals throughout a longitudinal study. However, concerns are often raised regarding the effects of x-ray dose accumulated over the course of the experiment. In this study, we scan C57BL/6 mice multiple times per week for six weeks, to determine the effect of the cumulative dose on pulmonary tissue at the end of the study. Methods/Results: C57BL/6 male mice were split into two groups (irradiated group=10, control group=10). The irradiated group was scanned (80kVp/50mA) each week for 6 weeks; the weekly scan session had three scans. This resulted in a weekly dose of 0.84 Gy, and a total study dose of 5.04 Gy. The control group was scanned on the final week. Scans from weeks 1 and 6 were reconstructed and analyzed: overall, there was no significant difference in lung volume or lung density between the control group and the irradiated group. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the week 1 and week 6 scans in the irradiated group. Histological samples taken from excised lung tissue also showed no evidence of inflammation or fibrosis in the irradiated group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that a 5 Gy x-ray dose accumulated over six weeks during a longitudinal micro-CT study has no significant effects on the pulmonary tissue of C57BL/6 mice. As a result, the many advantages of micro- CT imaging, including rapid acquisition of high-resolution, isotropic images in free-breathing mice, can be taken advantage of in longitudinal studies without concern for negative dose-related effects.

Detombe, Sarah A.; Dunmore-Buyze, Joy; Petrov, Ivailo E.; Drangova, Maria

2012-03-01

191

Delay in the Recovery of Normal Sleep-Wake Cycle after Disruption of the Light-Dark Cycle in Mice: A Bipolar Disorder-Prone Animal Model?  

PubMed Central

Objective Disruption of the circadian rhythm is known as a provoking factor for manic episodes. Individual differences exist in the recovery rate from disruption in the general population. To develop a screening method to detect individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder, the authors observed the relationship between the recovery of the normal sleep-wake cycle after switching the light-dark (LD) cycle and quinpirole-induced hyperactivity in mice. Methods Sixteen male mice (age of 5 weeks, weight 28-29 gm) were subjected to a circadian rhythm disruption protocol. Sleep-wake behaviors were checked every 5 min for a total duration of 15 days, i.e., 2 days of baseline observations, 3 days of LD cycle changes, and 10 days of recovery. During the dark cycle on the 16th experimental day, their general locomotor activities were measured in an open field for 120 minutes after an injection of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Results The individual differences in the recovery rate of the baseline sleep-wake cycle were noted after 3 days of switching the LD cycle. Fifty percent (n=8) of the mice returned to the baseline cycle within 6 days after normalizing the LD cycle (early recovery group). The locomotor activities of mice that failed to recover within 6 days (delayed recovery group) were significantly higher (mean rank=12.25) than those of the early recovery group (mean rank=4.75, u=62.0, p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion Given that the quinpirole-induced hyperactivity is an animal model of bipolar disorder, our results suggest individuals who have difficulties in recovery from circadian rhythm disruption may be vulnerable to bipolar disorder. PMID:25395982

Jung, Sun Hwa; Moon, Eunsoo; Chung, Young In; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Jeong, Hee Jeong

2014-01-01

192

Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoietin (EPO) is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of) EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse). Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls), using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p??1.4) and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio?mice induced muscle hypoxia, oxidative stress and proteolysis associated with energy pathway disruptions in glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail. PMID:22748015

2012-01-01

193

A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g) were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.). Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.). Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity) and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS. PMID:25276064

Borah, Mukundam; Sarma, Phulen; Das, Swarnamoni

2014-01-01

194

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics #12;Overview · Animation techniques ­Performance-based (motion capture) ­Traditional animation (frame

Treuille, Adrien

195

Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani  

E-print Network

Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani i://www-imagis.imag.fr/Membres/Marie-Paule.Cani/ Abstract How can Implicit Surfaces be used in the context of high-end Com- puter Animation ? This paper approach. Their respective advantages and limitations for the definition of animation and morphing

Boyer, Edmond

196

Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal studies  

E-print Network

reference to whole bone testing in small animal studies. In this tutorial, we consider the many techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802 Toughness testing of whole bone: small animal modelsReview Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal

Ritchie, Robert

197

Experimental studies of animal movement have traditionally focused upon steady locomotor behaviors (i.e. involving  

E-print Network

Experimental studies of animal movement have traditionally focused upon steady locomotor behaviors of control over the animal's direction and speed of translation. In spite of the focus on steady locomotion, however, such behavior probably constitutes only a relatively small fraction of any animal's locomotor

Lauder, George V.

198

Attitudes towards wild animal conservation: a comparative study of the Yi and Mosuo in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global wild animal resources are declining due to various pressures, which will greatly affect local biodiversity and ecosystem services. Understanding local people's attitudes towards wild animal conservation in high biodiversity areas is of major importance for conservation efforts. Sampling and questionnaire survey methods were employed to examine people's attitudes toward wild animal conservation in a comparative case study of two

Naiyi Yang; Endi Zhang; Min Chen

2010-01-01

199

CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF ETHYL ACRYLATE USING C57BL/6 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The clastogenicity of ethyl acrylate (EA) was examined in vivo by injecting i.p. 5 male C57BL/6 mice per dose group with either 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg EA dissolved in saline. wenty-four hours after injection, the animals were anesthetized, the spleens aseptically removed, and ...

200

A morphologic study of Fluorogold labeled tensor tympani motoneurons in mice.  

PubMed

The tensor tympani is one of two middle ear muscles that regulates the transmission of sound through the middle ear. Contraction of the tensor tympani in response to both auditory and non-auditory stimulation is mediated by the tensor tympani motoneurons (TTMNs). There are interesting differences among species in the acoustic thresholds for contraction of the middle ear muscles, which may be a reflection of underlying anatomical differences such as the number of TTMNs. However anatomical data for mice are lacking, even though the mouse is becoming the most common animal model for auditory and neuroscience research. We investigated the number and morphology of TTMNs in mice using Fluorogold, a retrograde neuronal tracer. After injections of Fluorogold into the tensor tympani muscle, a column of labeled TTMNs was identified ventro-lateral to the ipsilateral trigeminal nucleus. The labeled TTMNs were classified according to their morphological characteristics into three subtypes: "octopus-like", "fusiform" and "stellate", suggesting underlying differences in function. All three subtypes formed sparsely branched and radiating dendrites, some longer than 600 microm. Dendrites were longest and most numerous in the dorso-medial direction. In 18 cases, the mean number of mouse TTMNs was 51; the largest numbers were 70, 74 and 90 (n=3 injections). The mean size of mouse TTMNs was 13.0 microm (minor axis) and 23.5 microm (major axis). Compared with studies of TTMNs in larger species (cats and rats), mouse TTMNs are both fewer in number and smaller in size. PMID:19397898

Mukerji, Sudeep; Brown, M Christian; Lee, Daniel J

2009-06-30

201

Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies.  

PubMed

Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective. PMID:24972869

Sellers, William Irvin; Hirasaki, Eishi

2014-01-01

202

Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

Adams, Clark E.

1983-01-01

203

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

·Social learning #12;Social learning ·Possibly associative at least in some aspects. ·ObservingCHAPTER 9 ANIMAL COGNITION #12;Animal cognition ·Basic concepts ·Case study: incentive learning ·Rule learning ·Social learning #12;Rule learning ·A cognitive form of learning. ·Initial learning based

Cooper, Brenton G.

204

Guidelines for the Genotyping of Mice and Rats The specific genetic identification of genetically engineered animals in a litter is critical to the  

E-print Network

. For mice and rats greater than 21 days of age: The use of a local or general anesthetic is required prior impact and rodent pain ontogeny studies, investigators are strongly encouraged to apply local anesthesia to the tail and to conduct tail biopsy as early as possible within this age range. Local anesthesia may

Bandettini, Peter A.

205

ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-products Authors & affiliations: Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

206

Histopathological Study of the Lungs of Mice Receiving Human Secretory IgA and Challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Humoral and cellular immune responses are associated with protection against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of receiving human secretory immunoglobulin A (hsIgA) on the histopathology of the lungs of mice challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: The hsIgA was purified from human colostrum and administered to Balb/c mice by the intranasal route prior to infection with M. tuberculosis or in a pre-incubated formulation with mycobacteria, with the principal aim to study its effect on qualitative pulmonary histopathology. Results: The intranasal administration of hsIgA and the pre-incubation of mycobacteria with this preparation was associated with the presence of organised granulomas with signs of immune activation and histological features related to efficient disease control. This effect was highly evident during the late stage of infection (60 days), as demonstrated by numerous organised granulomas with numerous activated macrophages in the lungs of treated mice. Conclusion: The administration of hsIgA to mice before intratracheal infection with M. tuberculosis or the pre-incubation of the bacteria with the antibody formulation induced the formation of well-organised granulomas and inflammatory lesions in lungs compared with non-treated animals which correlates with the protective effect already demonstrated by these antibody formulations.

ALVAREZ, Nadine; INFANTE, Juan Francisco; BORRERO, Reinier; MATA, Dulce; PAYAN, JORGE BARRIOS-; HOSSAIN, Md. Murad; MOHD NOR, Norazmi; SARMIENTO, Maria Elena; HERNANDEZ-PANDO, Rogelio; ACOSTA, Armando

2014-01-01

207

Studies on tumor incidence in mice exposed to GSM cell-phone radiation [Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies on tumor incidence in mice exposed to GSM cell-phone radiation. The first study of lymphomas in female Emu_Pim1 transgenic mice using frequencies and modulations specific to cellular mobile phones was conducted in Australia in which the incidence was shown to be significantly higher (odds ratio, OR = 2.4) in the exposed mice (43%) than in the sham

James C. Lin

2008-01-01

208

From mice to men: What can animal models tell us about the relationship between mental health and physical activity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity has been associated with numerous benefits that extend to mental health, although how these benefits are accrued is not clear. The notion that animal research can prove useful in this regard may initially seem irrelevant and even inapplicable. However, there is a growing body of evidence, focusing in particular on exercise, to suggest that the biochemical changes induced

Gary Remington

2009-01-01

209

A quantitative study of cerebrovascular variation in inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

The arteries of the base of the mouse brain were examined after perfusion with India ink. A qualitative difference exists between inbred mice of three strains (C57BL/6J, 129/J and BALB/cCF) on the one hand, and genetically defined heterogeneous mice on the other; the latter consistently show anomalies similar to those previously described in genetically undefined rodents, whereas inbred mice do not. A quantitative morphometric analysis of the Circle of Willis of inbred mice was undertaken. The results of this analysis are consistent with the notion that the differences in shape between the circles of Willis of different strains of inbred mice are due to additive genetic variation between these strains. PMID:2074233

Ward, R; Collins, R L; Tanguay, G; Miceli, D

1990-01-01

210

Studying Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Animal Models  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Over the recent years, there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Examination of retinal changes in various animals has aided our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. Notably, mouse strains, carrying genetic anomalies similar to those affecting humans, have provided a foundation for understanding how various genetic risk factors affect retinal integrity. However, to date, no single mouse strain that develops all the features of AMD in a progressive age-related manner has been identified. In addition, a mutation present in some background strains has clouded the interpretation of retinal phenotypes in many mouse strains. The aim of this perspective was to describe how animals can be used to understand the significance of each sign of AMD, as well as key genetic risk factors. PMID:24978866

Fletcher, Erica L.; Jobling, Andrew I.; Greferath, Ursula; Mills, Samuel A.; Waugh, Michelle; Ho, Tracy; de Iongh, Robb U.; Phipps, Joanna A.; Vessey, Kirstan A.

2014-01-01

211

Effects of Antagonists of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) on GH and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Levels in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing the Human GHRH Gene, an Animal Model of Acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic mice overexpressing the human GH-releasing hormone (hGHRH) gene, an animal model of acromegaly, were used to inves- tigate the effects of potent GHRH antagonists MZ-4 -71 and MZ-5- 156 on the excessive GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) secretion caused by overproduction of hGHRH. Because metallothio- nein (MT)-GHRH mice express the hGHRH transgene in various tissues, including the

MAGDOLNA KOVACS; RHONDA D. KINEMAN; ANDREW V. SCHALLY; MARTA ZARANDI; KATE GROOT; LAWRENCE A. FROHMAN

1997-01-01

212

Collective behavior in animal groups: theoretical models and empirical studies  

PubMed Central

Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431

Giardina, Irene

2008-01-01

213

Imaging Lung Clearance of Radiolabeled Tumor Cells to Study Mice with Normal, Activated or Depleted Natural Killer (NK) Cells  

SciTech Connect

Lung clearance of 51CR and 125I iododeoxyuridine (IUDR) labeled cancer cells assess NK cell activity. It is desirable to develop noninvasive imaging technique to assess NK activity in mice. We labeled target YAC-1 tumor cells with 125I, 111In, 99mTc, or 67Ga and injected I.V. into three groups of BALB/c mice. Animals were treated with medium (group I), 300mg/kg cyclophosmamide (CY) to kill NK cell (group II), or anti-LY49C/1) (ab')2 mAb to augment NK function (group III). Lungs were removed 15 min or 2 h later for tissue counting. Control and treated mice were imaged every 5 min with a scintillating camera for 1 h after 15 min of infusion of the 111In labeled cells. Lung clearance increased after 15 min (lodging: 60-80%) and (2 h retention: 3-7%). Similar results were obtained with all the isotopes studied. Images distinguished the control and treated mice for lung activity. Cells labeled with 111In, 99mTc or 67Ga are cleared similar to those labeled with 51Cr or 125I. NK cell destruction of tumor cells may be assessed by noninvasive imaging method either by SPECT (99mTc, 111In, 67Ga) or by PET (68Ga)

Kulkarni, P.V.; Bennett, M.; Constantinescu, A.; Arora, V.; Viguet, M.; Antich, P.; Parkey, R.W.; Mathews, D.; Mason, R.P.; Oz, O.K. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

2003-08-26

214

Imaging Lung Clearance of Radiolabeled Tumor Cells to Study Mice with Normal, Activated or Depleted Natural Killer (NK) Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lung clearance of 51CR and 125I iododeoxyuridine (IUDR) labeled cancer cells assess NK cell activity. It is desirable to develop noninvasive imaging technique to assess NK activity in mice. We labeled target YAC-1 tumor cells with 125I, 111In, 99mTc, or 67Ga and injected I.V. into three groups of BALB/c mice. Animals were treated with medium (group I), 300mg/kg cyclophosmamide (CY) to kill NK cell (group II), or anti-LY49C/1) (ab')2 mAb to augment NK function (group III). Lungs were removed 15 min or 2 h later for tissue counting. Control and treated mice were imaged every 5 min with a scintillating camera for 1 h after 15 min of infusion of the 111In labeled cells. Lung clearance increased after 15 min (lodging: 60-80%) and (2 h retention: 3-7%). Similar results were obtained with all the isotopes studied. Images distinguished the control and treated mice for lung activity. Cells labeled with 111In, 99mTc or 67Ga are cleared similar to those labeled with 51Cr or 125I. NK cell destruction of tumor cells may be assessed by noninvasive imaging method either by SPECT (99mTc, 111In, 67Ga) or by PET (68Ga).

Kulkarni, P. V.; Bennett, M.; Constantinescu, A.; Arora, V.; Viguet, M.; Antich, P.; Parkey, R. W.; Mathews, D.; Mason, R. P.; Oz, O. K.

2003-08-01

215

Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-04-01

216

Pulmonary Hypertension in Wild Type Mice and Animals with Genetic Deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 Channels  

PubMed Central

Objective In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Approach and Result Male wild type and KCa3.1?/?/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX) mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1?/?/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX) mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype. Conclusion Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of KCa2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a novel mechanism to counteract pulmonary hypertension and to a potential therapeutic utility of KCa2.3/KCa3.1 activators for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24858807

Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu; Nielsen, Gorm; Hedegaard, Elise R?ge; Mogensen, Susie; Kohler, Ralf; Simonsen, Ulf

2014-01-01

217

Inhalation toxicity studies on cigarette smoke II. Tobacco smoke inhalation dosimetry studies on small laboratory animals.  

PubMed

A newly developed exposure system has been used to carry out smoke dosimetry studies on rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. In all species, smoke total particulate matter (TPM) deposited in significant amounts in the lower respiratory system (LRS) at dose levels ranging from 0.515 to 1.710 mg TPM/g respiratory tissue. Nasal deposition of smoke particulates did occur in all of the species examined. The significance of these dosimetry data in relation to the conduct of long-term comparative inhalation toxicity studies with tobacco smoke is discussed. PMID:968915

Binns, R; Beven, J L; Wilton, L V; Lugton, W G

1976-01-01

218

Choroidal Neovascularization in Transgenic Mice Expressing Prokineticin 1: An Animal Model for Age-related Macular Degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is poor and existing treatments are limited in retarding the progression of disease. The development of an animal model for AMD will be beneficial for finding potential treatments, including gene therapy. Recently prokineticin 1 (hPK1) was identified as a mitogen of fenestrated endothelium. We hypothesized that hPK1 could induce

Nobushige Tanaka; Masahito Ikawa; Nathan L. Mata; Inder M. Verma

2006-01-01

219

Animal models of pancreatitis: Can it be translated to human pain study?  

PubMed Central

Chronic pancreatitis affects many individuals around the world, and the study of the underlying mechanisms leading to better treatment possibilities are important tasks. Therefore, animal models are needed to illustrate the basic study of pancreatitis. Recently, animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been thoroughly reviewed, but few reviews address the important aspect on the translation of animal studies to human studies. It is well known that pancreatitis is associated with epigastric pain, but the understanding regarding to mechanisms and appropriate treatment of this pain is still unclear. Using animal models to study pancreatitis associated visceral pain is difficult, however, these types of models are a unique way to reveal the mechanisms behind pancreatitis associated visceral pain. In this review, the animal models of acute, chronic and un-common pancreatitis are briefly outlined and animal models related to pancreatitis associated visceral pain are also addressed. PMID:24259952

Zhao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Dong-Hua; Nissen, Thomas Dahl

2013-01-01

220

NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Polyvinyl Alcohol (CAS No.9002-89-5) in Female B6C3F1 Mice (Intravaginal Studies).  

PubMed

Polyvinyl alcohol is produced primarily for use in textile sizing, adhesives, polymerization aids, and paper coatings. It is also used in surgical drapes, towels, and gauze sponges; protective gloves; cosmetic formulations; topical ophthalmic preparations; plastic sponge implants for reconstructive surgery; and intravaginal contraceptive foam and film. In addition, polyvinyl alcohol is used with magnesium sulfate to dilate the cervix of women prior to induction of labor. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of women in the United States use an intravaginal product containing polyvinyl alcohol each year. The Food and Drug Administration nominated low-viscosity polyvinyl alcohol for a 2-year study because of concern about the lack of information about the long-term toxic and carcinogenic effects by the intravaginal route. Female B6C3F1 mice received polyvinyl alcohol (approximately 99% pure) in deionized water by intravaginal administration for 30 days or 2 years. 30-DAY STUDY IN MICE: Three groups of 50 female B6C3F1 mice were used in this intravaginal study. The vehicle control group received only 20 &mgr;L of a deionized water vehicle. The other two groups each received 20 &mgr;L of 25% polyvinyl alcohol in deionized water. Animals in one dose group were returned to their cages after dosing; animals in the other dose group were restrained in a vertical nose-down position in restraint bags for several minutes after dosing. Animals were dosed daily for 30 consecutive days. All mice survived to the end of the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of dosed mice were similar to those of the vehicle control group. Abnormalities noted in the vaginal area after dosing included vaginal plugs, secretions, and swelling. These vaginal changes were minimal to mild and occurred in vehicle controls as well as in dosed mice. Restraint of mice after dosing appeared to eliminate vaginal secretions but increased both the incidence of vaginal irritation and the severity of vaginal opening swelling. At necropsy, mildly enlarged uterine horns were observed in 10 vehicle control mice, three 25% mice, and seven 25% (restrained) mice. No chemical-related lesions were observed. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Three groups of 100 female B6C3F1 mice were used in this intravaginal study: an untreated control group, a vehicle control group receiving 20 &mgr;L deionized water vehicle only, and a dosed group receiving 20 &mgr;L 25%% polyvinyl alcohol in deionized water. Animals were dosed 5 days per week, excluding holidays, for 104 to 105 weeks. Survival, Body Weights, and Clinical Findings: Survival of dosed mice was similar to that of the two control groups. The final mean body weight of vehicle control mice was less than that of the untreated control group. The mean body weights of the dosed mice were less than those of the untreated controls from week 17 until the end of the study. The only clinical finding was vaginal irritation, observed in six mice in the vehicle control group and 11 mice in the dosed group. Pathology Findings: No neoplasms or nonneoplastic lesions related to chemical treatment were observed. The incidences of reproductive tract nonneoplastic lesions in the dosed group did not differ significantly from those in the vehicle control group; similarly, the incidences of reproductive tract nonneoplastic lesions in the vehicle control group did not differ significantly from those in the untreated control group. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this 2-year study, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of polyvinyl alcohol (molecular weight approximately 24,000) in female B6C3F1 mice administered 20 &mgr;L of a 25%% solution intravaginally. There were no neoplasms or nonneoplastic lesions considered related to treatment with polyvinyl alcohol. Synonyms: Ethenol homopolymer, PVA Trade names: Akwa Tears, Alcotex, Alvyl, Aracet, Cipoviol, Covol, Elvanol, Ethenol, Gelvatol, Gohsenol, Ivalon, Kuralon, Kurare, Lemol, Liquifilm, Mowiol, Polydesis, Polysizer, Polyvinol, Polyviol, Poval, Resistoflex, Rhodoviol, Sno,

1998-05-01

221

Transgenic mice: beyond the knockout  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mice have had a tremendous impact on biomedical research. Most researchers are familiar with transgenic mice that carry Cre recombinase (Cre) and how they are used to create conditional knockouts. However, some researchers are less familiar with many of the other types of transgenic mice and their applications. For example, transgenic mice can be used to study biochemical and molecular pathways in primary cultures and cell suspensions derived from transgenic mice, cell-cell interactions using multiple fluorescent proteins in the same mouse, and the cell cycle in real time and in the whole animal, and they can be used to perform deep tissue imaging in the whole animal, follow cell lineage during development and disease, and isolate large quantities of a pure cell type directly from organs. These novel transgenic mice and their applications provide the means for studying of molecular and biochemical events in the whole animal that was previously limited to cell cultures. In conclusion, transgenic mice are not just for generating knockouts. PMID:21068085

2011-01-01

222

LSD in Mice: Abnormalities in Meiotic Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiotic chromosomes of six mice injected with high doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and of six controls were studied. Several breaks, gaps, and unidentifiable fragments were found in the treated but, with a few exceptions, not in the control animals. Secondary constrictions were more numerous in the treated than in the untreated mice. Possible consequences are discussed.

N. E. Skakkebaek; J. Philip; O. J. Rafaelsen

1968-01-01

223

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

224

STUDIES ON THE SENSITIZATION OF ANIMALS WITH SIMPLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS  

PubMed Central

Sensitization of guinea pigs to picric acid was obtained by application of oil solutions to the skin, preferably on inflamed sites or by treatment with a compound of picric acid with n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate. The lesions obtained in sensitive animals on superficial administration bore resemblance to human eczema. It seems probable that picric acid sensitization is an instance where a substance does not sensitize directly but after conversion into a more reactive compound, a principle which should be of wider application to instances where the original substance does not readily form conjugates. PMID:19871030

Landsteiner, K.; Di Somma, A. A.

1940-01-01

225

Second hand smoke and COPD: lessons from animal studies  

PubMed Central

Exposure to second hand smoke is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the non-smoker. In this review we explore the use of animal smoke exposure models and their insight into disease pathogenesis. The methods of smoke exposure, including exposure delivery systems, are described. Key findings from the acute and chronic smoke exposure models are outlined, including descriptions of the inflammation processes, proteases involved, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Finally, alternatives to rodent models of lung disease are presented. PMID:23450717

Goldklang, Monica P.; Marks, Sarah M.; D'Armiento, Jeanine M.

2013-01-01

226

Insights from the Study of Animals Lacking Functional Estrogen Receptor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrogen hormones produce physiological actions within a variety of target sites in the body and during development by activating a specific receptor protein. Hormone responsiveness for the estrogen receptor protein was investigated at different stages of development with the use of gene knockout techniques because no natural genetic mutants have been described. A mutant mouse line without a functional estrogen receptor was created and is being used to assess estrogen responsiveness. Both sexes of these mutant animals are infertile and show a variety of phenotypic changes, some of which are associated with the gonads, mammary glands, reproductive tracts, and skeletal tissues.

Korach, Kenneth S.

1994-12-01

227

Study of high-g effects in animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General aspects of animal centrifugation are examined. It is shown that once a covariance is established and the nature of the kinetics is determined it is possible to calculate a regression of the biological change (with suitable numerical transforms of the data) upon field strength. This should yield a rather simple equation containing two arbitrary constants: a, the zero intercept (a mathematical prediction of the magnitude of the parameter y, when G = 0); and b, the proportionality coefficient, the change in the parameter y per unit change in G: Y = a + bG.

Smith, A. H.

1982-01-01

228

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

1988-08-01

229

Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies  

PubMed Central

Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, ‘gold standard’ multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2?0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ?0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ?0.8 mm could be obtained. PMID:18827321

Zhang, Mutian; Huang, Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S; Martin, Kyle; Ling, C Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A; Humm, John L

2009-01-01

230

3D visualization and quantification of bone and teeth mineralization for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis in mice models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on bone and teeth mineralization in animal models is critical for understanding human pathologies. Genetically modified mice represent highly valuable models for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis defects and osteoporosis. Current investigations on mice dental and skeletal phenotype use destructive and time consuming methods such as histology and scanning microscopy. Micro-CT imaging is quicker and provides high resolution qualitative phenotypic description. However reliable quantification of mineralization processes in mouse bone and teeth are still lacking. We have established novel CT imaging-based software for accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of mouse mandibular bone and molars. Data were obtained from mandibles of mice lacking the Fibromodulin gene which is involved in mineralization processes. Mandibles were imaged with a micro-CT originally devoted to industrial applications (Viscom, X8060 NDT). 3D advanced visualization was performed using the VoxBox software (UsefulProgress) with ray casting algorithms. Comparison between control and defective mice mandibles was made by applying the same transfer function for each 3D data, thus allowing to detect shape, colour and density discrepencies. The 2D images of transverse slices of mandible and teeth were similar and even more accurate than those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. Image processing of the molars allowed the 3D reconstruction of the pulp chamber, providing a unique tool for the quantitative evaluation of dentinogenesis. This new method is highly powerful for the study of oro-facial mineralizations defects in mice models, complementary and even competitive to current histological and scanning microscopy appoaches.

Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.; Young, M.; Goldberg, M.

2011-03-01

231

Further studies on trypanosomers in game animals in Wyoming.  

PubMed

Blood samples were collected from captive and free-ranging elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer, (Odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), moose (Alces alces), and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for cultural evidence of Trypanosoma sp. infection. Eleven of 188 (12%) hunter-killed elk, 22 of 37 (59%) free-ranging elk, and 79 of 119 (66%) captive elk were culture positive in 1973-74. Parasitemia in adult captive elk showed seasonal variation. Other captive or live-trapped animals found positive included 16 mule deer, two white-tailed deer, and one black-tailed deer. No pronghorn, moose, or bighorn sheep were positive. A 0.25 ml inoculum of elk blood was sufficient to give positive culture results. Small sample size may have contributed to negative results from elk trapped in March 1973. PMID:933315

Morton, J K; Kingston, N

1976-04-01

232

Animal model of menopausal depressive-like state in female mice: prolongation of immobility time in the forced swimming test following ovariectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The onset of menopause produces a depressive state in women, but the mechanism involved in menopause-induced depression is poorly understood.Objectives  Building upon previous studies that used the duration of immobility in male rodents during the forced swimming test as a behavioral measure of the depression-like state, we investigated whether the duration of immobility in female mice was altered following bilateral ovariectomy.

Naoko Bekku; Hiroyuki Yoshimura

2005-01-01

233

Molecular Approach to Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: LMP2-Deficient Mice as an Animal Model of Spontaneous Uterine Leiomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) develops more often in the muscle tissue layer of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix. The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, the development of uterine LMS is not substantially correlated with hormonal conditions, and the risk factors are not yet known. Importantly, a diagnostic-biomarker which distinguishes malignant LMS from benign tumor leiomyoma (LMA) is yet to be established. Accordingly, it is necessary to analyze risk factors associated with uterine LMS, in order to establish a treatment method. LMP2-deficient mice spontaneously develop uterine LMS, with a disease prevalence of ~40% by 14 months of age. We found LMP2 expression to be absent in human LMS, but present in human LMA. Therefore, defective LMP2 expression may be one of the risk factors for LMS. LMP2 is a potential diagnostic-biomarker for uterine LMS, and may be targeted-molecule for a new therapeutic approach. PMID:21437229

Hayashi, Takuma; Horiuchi, Akiko; Sano, Kenji; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kanai, Yae; Shiozawa, Tanri; Tonegawa, Susumu; Konishi, Ikuo

2011-01-01

234

SOURCES OF VARIATION IN BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS FROM TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY CONTROL ANIMALS ACROSS MULTIPLE LABORATORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Variations in study design are typical for toxicogenomic studies, but their impact on gene expression in control animals has not been well characterized. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Scienc...

235

Introduction Removal of endotoxin from solutions for animal studies, cell culture, transplanta-  

E-print Network

as a defense mechanism against gram-negative bacteria [1,2]. This degranulation re- leases a series of enzymesIntroduction Removal of endotoxin from solutions for animal studies, cell culture, transplanta,7]. To make protein samples suitable for animal studies and cell culture, contaminat- ing pyrogens

Lebendiker, Mario

236

CYTOGENETIC STUDIES IN MICE TREATED WITH THE JET FUELS, JET-A AND JP-8  

EPA Science Inventory

Cytogenetic studies in mice treated with the jet fuels, Jet-A and JP-8 Abstract The genotoxic potential of the jet fuels, Jet-A and JP-8, were examined in mice treated on the skin with a single dose of 240 ug/mouse. Peripheral blood smears were prepared at the start of the ...

237

Approaches to the study of traditional behaviors of free-living animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review literature on four different approaches to the study of traditions in animals: observation of free-living animals,\\u000a laboratory experiment, armchair analysis, and field experiment. Because, by definition, a tradition entails social learning\\u000a of some kind, it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to establish that a behavior is in fact traditional without knowledge of\\u000a how it develops. Observations of free-living animals

Bennett G. Galef

2004-01-01

238

Anatomic and electrophysiologic evidence for a proconvulsive circuit in the dentate gyrus of reeler mutant mice, an animal model of diffuse cortical malformation.  

PubMed

Although cortical malformations (CMs) are often associated with epilepsy, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The reeler mouse is a model of CM with enhanced susceptibility to epileptiform activity, including the in vitro dentate gyrus, a region normally resistant to seizures. In this study, field potential recordings in hippocampal slices and the Timm stain were used to examine mossy fiber distribution in the dentate gyrus. In artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing bicuculline, 100% of reeler slices and 0% of control slices had spontaneous and antidromic evoked prolonged negative field potential shifts that were blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists. Sections from reeler mice, but not controls, exhibited a dark band of Timm's stain at the molecular layer/granule cell layer border. These data reveal that mossy fiber distribution is altered in reeler mice and coincides with the presence of an abnormal proconvulsive glutamatergic circuit. PMID:17148950

Patrylo, Peter R; Willingham, Amy

2007-01-01

239

Alkali burn versus suture-induced corneal neovascularization in C57BL/6 mice: an overview of two common animal models of corneal neovascularization.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to quantify and compare corneal hem- and lymphangiogenesis between alkali burn and suture-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV) in two commonly used mouse strains. A retrospective analysis was performed on C57BL/6 and FVB neovascularized corneas. CNV was induced by surface caustication with NaOH or intrastromal placement of three 10.0 nylon sutures. Hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis extent was calculated on whole mounted corneas by CD31 and LYVE1 immunofluorescence analysis. Blood vessel growth was similar between alkali burn and suture-induced CNV in C57BL/6 mice, and between C57BL/6 and FVB sutured strains. On the contrary, corneal lymphangiogenesis was more pronounced in the C57BL/6 sutured mice versus the alkali burn group, and in the FVB strain versus both C57BL/6 models. These results indicate that significant differences occur in lymphangiogenesis, but not hemangiogenesis, in the alkali burn and suture-induced models in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, lymphangiogenesis is more pronounced in the albino (FVB) strain after suture placement. We suggest that the suture model has a number of advantages and may be preferentially used to study corneal lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24560796

Giacomini, Chiara; Ferrari, Giulio; Bignami, Fabio; Rama, Paolo

2014-04-01

240

Generation of Li combustion aerosols for animal inhalation studies.  

PubMed

A system was developed for generating Li aerosols to determine the potential health hazards of postulated accidents associated with the use of Li as a fusion reactor blanket or coolant. The aerosol was generated by sweeping Ar through a stainless steel chamber filled with Li metal that was heated inductively to temperatures up to 1300 degrees C. Argon carried the Li vapor into a burning chamber where it was mixed with air. The reaction of Li vapor with air formed an intense white flame that produced typical branched-chain condensation aerosol particles. This system generated well-controlled concentrations up to 2500 mg/m3 for periods of 4 h. The mass median aeordynamic diameter of the aerosol was approximately 0.66 micron with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5. Aerosols could be generated that were greater than 96% Li2O and LiOH, LiOH.H2O, or Li2CO3 by controlling the CO2 and H2O concentrations in the supply air. The system is currently being used to investigate the acute toxicity of Li combustion aerosols in laboratory animals. PMID:3455403

Allen, M D; Greenspan, B J; Briant, J K; Hoover, M D

1986-07-01

241

International Workshop on Lessons From Animal Models for Human Type 1 Diabetes: identification of insulin but not glutamic acid decarboxylase or IA2 as specific autoantigens of humoral autoimmunity in nonobese diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several self-antigens have been reported as targets of the autoimmune response in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The aim of this workshop was to identify autoantibody assays that could provide useful markers of autoimmunity in this animal model for type 1 diabetes. More than 400 serum samples from NOD (4, 8, and 12 weeks of age and at diabetes onset), BALB\\/c,

E. Bonifacio; M. Atkinson; G. Eisenbarth; D. Serreze; T. W. H. Kay; Chan E Lee; B. Singh

2001-01-01

242

Commercially Available Outbred Mice for Genome-Wide Association Studies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies using commercially available outbred mice can detect genes involved in phenotypes of biomedical interest. Useful populations need high-frequency alleles to ensure high power to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs), low linkage disequilibrium between markers to obtain accurate mapping resolution, and an absence of population structure to prevent false positive associations. We surveyed 66 colonies for inbreeding, genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium, and we demonstrate that some have haplotype blocks of less than 100 Kb, enabling gene-level mapping resolution. The same alleles contribute to variation in different colonies, so that when mapping progress stalls in one, another can be used in its stead. Colonies are genetically diverse: 45% of the total genetic variation is attributable to differences between colonies. However, quantitative differences in allele frequencies, rather than the existence of private alleles, are responsible for these population differences. The colonies derive from a limited pool of ancestral haplotypes resembling those found in inbred strains: over 95% of sequence variants segregating in outbred populations are found in inbred strains. Consequently it is possible to impute the sequence of any mouse from a dense SNP map combined with inbred strain sequence data, which opens up the possibility of cataloguing and testing all variants for association, a situation that has so far eluded studies in completely outbred populations. We demonstrate the colonies' potential by identifying a deletion in the promoter of H2-Ea as the molecular change that strongly contributes to setting the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. PMID:20838427

Yalcin, Binnaz; Nicod, Jerome; Bhomra, Amarjit; Davidson, Stuart; Cleak, James; Farinelli, Laurent; ?steras, Magne; Whitley, Adam; Yuan, Wei; Gan, Xiangchao; Goodson, Martin; Klenerman, Paul; Satpathy, Ansu; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Adams, David J.; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

2010-01-01

243

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-11-01

244

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

1989-01-01

245

A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.  

PubMed

Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances. PMID:21987728

Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

2012-06-01

246

A Conditioned Aversion Study of Sucrose and SC45647 Taste in TRPM5 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances. PMID:21987728

Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F.

2012-01-01

247

Study of the Protective Effect of Teucrium polium L. Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, protective effect of Teucrium polium L. (Labiatae) extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in mice. Animals were divided into six groups, each group consist of 8 mice. Group one as the negative control group received normal saline, while group two received only crude extract of T. polium L. (500 mg/Kg) for five days and group three as the positive group received acetaminophen (500 mg/Kg). Groups four, five and six received crude extract in doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/Kg, respectively, and on the fifth day, one hour after the last administration, acetaminophen was given orally (500 mg/Kg). Then on the 6th day, animals were sacrificed, their blood was collected to determine serum enzyme activities of ALT, AST and ALP to measure the serum levels of directed and total bilirubin. The livers were removed for histological examination. The results of this study showed the protective effect in all doses but the most significant protection was observed in doses of 250 and 500 mg/Kg (p < 0.05). Also these findings were supported and confirmed by histological examination. PMID:24250580

Forouzandeh, Hossein; Azemi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Rashidi, Iran; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Kalantari, Heibatullah

2013-01-01

248

Interleukin-6 reduces cartilage destruction during experimental arthritis. A study in interleukin-6-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Using interleukin (IL)-6-deficient (IL-6(0/0) mice or wild-type mice, we investigated the controversial role of IL-6 in joint inflammation and cartilage pathology during zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA). Monoarticular arthritis was elicited by injection of zymosan into the right knee joint cavity. Production of IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, and nitric oxide by the inflamed knee was assessed in washouts of joint capsule specimens. Plasma corticosterone was measured using a radioimmunoassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was assessed using [35S]sulfate incorporation into patellas ex vivo. Joint swelling was quantified by joint uptake of circulating 99mTechnetium pertechnetate. Histology was taken to evaluate cellular infiltration and cartilage damage. Zymosan caused a rapid increase in articular IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and NO levels. Except for IL-6, the released amounts and time course of these mediators were comparable in the IL-6-deficient mice and the wild-type mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels were measured during the first day of arthritis in both strains. At day 2 of ZIA, joint inflammation (joint swelling and cell exudate) in IL-6-deficient mice was comparable with that in the wild-type mice. The marked suppression of chondrocyte proteoglycan synthesis and proteoglycan degradation were on the average higher in the IL-6-deficient mice. Together this resulted in a more pronounced proteoglycan depletion in the IL-6-deficient mice as compared with the wild-type mice during the first week of arthritis. Injection of recombinant IL-6 into the joint cavity corrected the IL-6 deficiency and significantly reduced cartilage destruction. Inflammation was more chronic in the wild-type mice, and these mice also showed a higher prevalence for osteophyte formation. In ZIA, IL-6 plays a dual role in connective tissue pathology, reducing proteoglycan loss in the acute phase and enhancing osteophyte formation in the chronic phase. The latter could be related to the more severe joint inflammation as seen in the normal (IL-6-producing) animals during the chronic phase of arthritis. PMID:9212744

van de Loo, F A; Kuiper, S; van Enckevort, F H; Arntz, O J; van den Berg, W B

1997-07-01

249

21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2011-04-01

250

21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2012-04-01

251

21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2013-04-01

252

21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2010-04-01

253

21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2010-04-01

254

21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2014-04-01

255

21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2013-04-01

256

21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2012-04-01

257

21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2014-04-01

258

21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commitments in the event such studies become ethical and feasible...the performance of specified medical procedures, including medical followup; and (iii) Distribution...approval was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals...

2011-04-01

259

How a Child Builds Its Brain: Some Lessons from Animal Studies of Neural Plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the potential vulnerability of children's brain development is generally recognized, relatively little is known about the timing, resiliency, or mechanisms involved. While animal research should be applied only cautiously to human policy, some findings do have important clinical implications. This paper briefly reviews animal studies demonstrating the effects of experience on brain structure. Contemporary theories emphasize the self-organizing potential

James E. Black

1998-01-01

260

An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

2011-01-01

261

An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in mental health. The techniques and intentions, along with demographic queries, were

Dana M. OCallaghan; Cynthia K. Chandler

2011-01-01

262

Using Physical Models to Study the Gliding Performance of Extinct Animals  

E-print Network

SYMPOSIUM Using Physical Models to Study the Gliding Performance of Extinct Animals M. A. R. Koehl of extinct animals using examples from our research on the theropod dinosaur, Microraptor gui, which had hypotheses about the function of extinct organisms that are not physically plausible and to determine

Koehl, Mimi

263

Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

Enticott, Gareth

2012-01-01

264

Animal bone finds and economic archaeology: A critical study of ‘osteo?archaeological’ method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how the study of animal bones from archaeological sites ('osteo?archaeology') may contribute to our reconstruction of cultural and economic history. Methods of identification, quantification and sex and age determination are critically reviewed. The basic problem of relating bone debris at archaeological sites to a prehistoric animal population is discussed.

1973-01-01

265

The Value of Animations in Biology Teaching: A Study of Long-Term Memory Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a…

O'Day, Danton H.

2007-01-01

266

CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF MICE EXPOSED TO STYRENE BY INHALATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The published data for the in vivo genotoxicity of styrene (STY) are equivocal. o evaluate the clastogenicity and sister chromatid exchange (SCE)-inducing potential of STY in vivo under carefully controlled conditions, 36C3F1 female mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 hours/day...

267

PERINATAL STUDY OF TOLUENE IN CD-1 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene administered by inhalation at 400 ppm to CD-1 mice from Days 6 to 16 of gestation was teratogenic but not fetotoxic resulting in a significant shift in the fetal rib profile. At the lower concentration of 200 ppm, there was an increase in dilated renal pelves which might ...

268

Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.  

PubMed

The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value. PMID:22571623

de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

2012-12-01

269

Animal prion diseases.  

PubMed

Prion diseases occur in many animal species, most notably in ruminants. While scrapie in sheep has been recognised for three centuries and goat scrapie has been recognised for decades, BSE in cattle is a relatively novel disease which was first diagnosed in the UK in the mid 1980s. BSE was most likely caused through dietary exposure to animal feed contaminated with prions and disease was subsequently transmitted to people. The BSE epidemic is almost at an end, but the recent identification of so called atypical forms of BSE and scrapie pose many questions about the possible spectrum of prion diseases in animals and their transmissibility to other species, including humans.The pathogenesis of animal prion diseases has been studied both in natural infections and in experimental animal models. Detection of infectivity is greatly helped by suitable rodent models, in particular transgenic mice. Clinically infected animals show characteristic neuropathology in the brain and spinal cord which is accompanied by the accumulation of a conformationally altered, protease-resistant host protein. The post-mortem diagnosis is based on the detection of this protein, PrP(Sc), but despite recent impressive developments a routine ante-mortem diagnostic test has proved elusive.There is no treatment for prion diseases in animals, but disease outbreaks are controlled through a mixture of movement restrictions on holdings, culling of affected animals and herds and, for classical scrapie in sheep, selective breeding for genetic resistance. Prions are very stable and can remain in the environment for prolonged periods. This poses serious practical questions with regard to the decontamination of infected premises. The control of BSE specifically through restrictions in animal feeding practises has been successful, but the changing spectrum of these diseases plus the economic pressures to relax feed bans and reduce levels of surveillance will require constant vigilance to safeguard animal and public health. PMID:23225014

Windl, Otto; Dawson, Mike

2012-01-01

270

Case Study: An Unusual Case of Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study for undergraduate and graduate students in biology and can be adapted for anatomy, physiology, and/or anatomy and physiology courses. In particular this case study explores anatomy and physiology associated with reproductive biology. Users of the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, case study, teaching notes and answer key.

Joann B Powell (Clark Atlanta University Biological Sciences)

2011-12-08

271

Animal models of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, however each of current animal models have some limitations. Among these animal models, the apolipoprotein (apo) E-knockout (KO) mice have been used extensively because they develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerotic lesions developed in this model depending on experimental design may resemble humans' stable and unstable atherosclerotic lesions. This mouse model of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis has been also used to investigate the impact of oxidative stress and inflammation on atherogenesis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-r-KO mice are a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. However, unlike apo E-KO mice, the LDL-r-KO mice do not develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both apo E-KO and LDL-r-KO mice have been employed to generate other relevant mouse models of cardiovascular disease through breeding strategies. In addition to mice, rabbits have been used extensively particularly to understand the mechanisms of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The present review paper details the characteristics of animal models that are used in atherosclerosis research. PMID:24868511

Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Chen, Li; Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

2014-05-16

272

The central importance of information in studies of animal communication Robert M. Seyfarth a,*, Dorothy L. Cheney b  

E-print Network

The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The conceptEssay The central importance of information in studies of animal communication Robert M. Seyfarth a Available online 21 May 2010 MS. number: AE-09-00802 Keywords: animal communication animal signal

273

Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

Jonas, Albert M.

1984-01-01

274

A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

HABER, S.B.

1987-06-26

275

Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies  

PubMed Central

This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Estivill-Torrus, Guillermo; Santin, Luis J.

2014-01-01

276

Animal models for the study of milk secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk secretion is regulated by a complex interaction of galactopoietic hormones which is not yet fully understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that this systemic control is modulated within the mammary gland by local mechanisms responsive to the frequency and completeness of milk removal. New insights into the endocrine and local (paracrine and autocrine) regulation of milk secretion have come from

Colin J. Wilde; Walter L. Hurley

1996-01-01

277

Geomedical studies on fluorosis in dairy animals in Punjab, India  

E-print Network

included for haemato-biochemical studies. Blood samples from 10 healthy buffaloes were also analysed wear and pitting of teeth, lowered milk yield, emaciation, lameness and exostoses of long bones.60 x 106/mm3 in healthy controls. Mean plasma UN and creatinine in affected buffaloes was significantly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Sleep, sleep deprivation and infectious disease: Studies in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common perceptions that the desire for sleep is increased during mild infectious diseases like colds and ‘the flu’ have fostered beliefs that sleep promotes recovery from infectious disease and that lack of sleep increases susceptibility to infections. However, until recently, the relationship between infectious disease and vigilance received relatively little systematic study. At present, several model systems provide evidence that

Linda A. Toth

1995-01-01

279

FURTHER STUDIES ON TRYPANOSOMES IN GAME ANIMALS IN WYOMING 1100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American bison (Bison bison) being brought

NEWTON KINGSTON; E. TOM; GEORGE M. THOMAS; B LINDA McHOLLANDand; MALCOLM S. TRUEBLOOD

280

Attenuation correction for freely moving small animal brain PET studies based on a virtual scanner geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals is a very challenging problem since the torso of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible attenuating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. In the context of unrestrained small animal imaging, estimation of the attenuation correction factors without the need for a transmission scan is highly desirable. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the hull of the animal’s head based on the reconstructed motion corrected emission images. However, this approach ignores the attenuation introduced by the animal’s torso. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry which moves in synchrony with the animal’s head and discriminates between those events that traversed only the animal’s head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal’s torso. For each recorded pose of the animal’s head a new virtual scanner geometry is defined and therefore a new system matrix must be calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made phantom and step-wise motion. Results showed that when the animal’s torso is within the FOV and not appropriately accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10% . Attenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias < 2%), without the need to account for the attenuation introduced by the extraneous compartment. Although the proposed method requires increased computational resources, it can provide a reliable approach towards quantitatively accurate attenuation correction for freely moving animal studies.

Angelis, G. I.; Kyme, A. Z.; Ryder, W. J.; Fulton, R. R.; Meikle, S. R.

2014-10-01

281

The scientific basis for chelation: animal studies and lead chelation.  

PubMed

This presentation summarizes several of the rodent and non-human studies that we have conducted to help inform the efficacy and clinical utility of succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccincinic acid) chelation treatment. We address the following questions: (1) What is the extent of body lead, and in particular brain lead reduction with chelation, and do reductions in blood lead accurately reflect reductions in brain lead? (2) Can succimer treatment alleviate the neurobehavioral impacts of lead poisoning? And (3) does succimer treatment, in the absence of lead poisoning, produce neurobehavioral deficits? Results from our studies in juvenile primates show that succimer treatment is effective at accelerating the elimination of lead from the body, but chelation was only marginally better than the complete cessation of lead exposure alone. Studies in lead-exposed adult primates treated with a single 19-day course of succimer showed that chelation did not measurably reduce brain lead levels compared to vehicle-treated controls. A follow-up study in rodents that underwent one or two 21-day courses of succimer treatment showed that chelation significantly reduced brain lead levels, and that two courses of succimer were significantly more efficacious at reducing brain lead levels than one. In both the primate and rodent studies, reductions in blood lead levels were a relatively poor predictor of reductions in brain lead levels. Our studies in rodents demonstrated that it is possible for succimer chelation therapy to alleviate certain types of lead-induced behavioral/cognitive dysfunction, suggesting that if a succimer treatment protocol that produced a substantial reduction of brain lead levels could be identified for humans, a functional benefit might be derived. Finally, we also found that succimer treatment produced lasting adverse neurobehavioral effects when administered to non-lead-exposed rodents, highlighting the potential risks of administering succimer or other metal-chelating agents to children who do not have elevated tissue lead levels. It is of significant concern that this type of therapy has been advocated for treating autism. PMID:24113857

Smith, Donald; Strupp, Barbara J

2013-12-01

282

Predictive Criteria to Study the Pathogenesis of Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS in Mice  

PubMed Central

Malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) often results in morbidity and mortality. Murine models to study malaria-associated ALI/ARDS have been described; we still lack a method of distinguishing which mice will develop ALI/ARDS before death. This work aimed to characterize malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in a murine model and to demonstrate the first method to predict whether mice are suffering from ALI/ARDS before death. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA developing ALI/ARDS or hyperparasitemia (HP) were compared using histopathology, PaO2 measurement, pulmonary X-ray, breathing capacity, lung permeability, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels according to either the day of death or the suggested predictive criteria. We proposed a model to predict malaria-associated ALI/ARDS using breathing patterns (enhanced pause and frequency respiration) and parasitemia as predictive criteria from mice whose cause of death was known to retrospectively diagnose the sacrificed mice as likely to die of ALI/ARDS as early as 7 days after infection. Using this method, we showed increased VEGF levels and increased lung permeability in mice predicted to die of ALI/ARDS. This proposed method for accurately identifying mice suffering from ALI/ARDS before death will enable the use of this model to study the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25276057

Ortolan, Luana S.; Sercundes, Michelle K.; Debone, Daniela; Hagen, Stefano C. F.; D' Imperio Lima, Maria Regina; Alvarez, Jose M.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Epiphanio, Sabrina

2014-01-01

283

Keeping two animal systems in one lab – a frog plus fish case study  

E-print Network

For two decades, my lab has been studying development using two vertebrate animals, the frog Xenopus and the zebrafish, Danio. This has been both productive and challenging. The initial rationale for the choice was to ...

Sive, Hazel L.

2011-01-01

284

A Study of Farm Waste. Farm Animal Waste: Characterization, Handling, Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Characterization of animal wastes--Chemical and bacteriological (Analyses by methods appropriate for sewage parameters and bacterial flora); Evaluation of lagooning for treatment of bovine wastes in Wisconsin (Study of the American Breeders Serv...

1970-01-01

285

Studies on the toxicity of biuret to animals  

E-print Network

? out the experiments, and no illneceec or deaths occurredi I slightly higher feed consumption by ths 10. % b1uret-fsd up was noted which was probably an attempt to fulfill thsix energy requirements. uiuret has no useful energy value and the addition... ARALYSIS OF VARZARCE OF QAIRS SOQgoee oZ Variatfon Deggeee ei' FL ee&oa Sma ef Eeen Squares 8~me Total Re tie@a lndividuala 831 6V 33. 5 31. 8 ex i t pu? uret I dns h Xn addition Co ths previously deaoribs4 f'ee4ing study~ two lambe were...

Berry, William T

2012-06-07

286

Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models  

PubMed Central

There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

2014-01-01

287

Further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in Wyoming II.  

PubMed

Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American Bison (Bison bison) being brought into Wyoming from Nebraska. Nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. Identification of species was not possible due to the failure to obtain bloodstream trypomastigotes from this host. Trypanosomes were recovered from 8 of 57 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). This is the first report of Trypanosoma sp. from bison and from pronghorn; the trypanosome from moose was identified as Trypanosoma cervi from bloodstream trypomastigotes. In 1978, natural transplacental transmission of trypanosomes was found to occur in 1 of 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fetuses, examined near term by blood culture. No trypanosomes were found in 18 male deer fetuses examined in 1979. Of 100 free-ranging elk from western Wyoming examined by blood culture in 1979, 71 were infected. These data are compared with data from 1973-74. PMID:7338978

Kingston, N; Thorne, E T; Thomas, G M; McHolland, L; Trueblood, M S

1981-10-01

288

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1989-02-01

289

Rinderpest: a case study of animal health emergency management.  

PubMed

The history of rinderpest and control of the disease in Africa and Asia is reviewed briefly. The present distribution of rinderpest virus in relation to its phylogenetic lineages is presented. Rinderpest-free countries bordering rinderpest-infected countries are considered to be under permanent threat of a transboundary rinderpest incursion and therefore face continuous and serious emergency situations. The nature of these emergencies in relation to the remaining foci of the three lineages is described. It is argued that the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) eradication strategies now need to focus on the use of epidemiological studies to define foci of infection and guide targeted, pulsed vaccination campaigns rather than broad, routine vaccination. The emergency posed by the re-emergence of African lineage 2 virus in East Africa and the challenge of mild rinderpest is explored in some detail as a phenomenon which may be more widespread than has been assumed. Points at which the future of GREP is threatened are illustrated and means of removing some of the dangers are suggested. The lessons which need to be learnt from the experience of the Indian National Project on Rinderpest Eradication and the Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign are discussed, including the value of strengthening surveillance systems in accordance with the Office International des Epizooties Pathway and how to cope with the problem associated with cryptic foci of rinderpest persistence--perhaps the greatest challenge facing GREP. The value of vaccine buffer zones is considered in detail and the authors conclude that unless those zones are of considerable depth and are well maintained, they are unlikely to prevent dissemination of the virus. The role of emergency preparedness planning in preventing the spread of rinderpest is discussed, with the understanding that effective surveillance, as a component of emergency preparedness planning, is safer than vaccination as a means of ensuring that the disease does not re-enter or penetrate a population. The swift initiation of a programme for the eradication of rinderpest from Pakistan is seen as the key issue in dealing with the Asian lineage rinderpest emergency. Development and implementation of strategies with the benefit of experience gained in Africa and India could provide a rapid resolution of the emergency. PMID:10190212

Mukhopadhyay, A K; Taylor, W P; Roeder, P L

1999-04-01

290

Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet

Arun S. Shet; Thomas J. Hoffmann; Marketa Jirouskova; Christin A. Janczak; Jacqueline R. M. Stevens; Adewole Adamson; Narla Mohandas; Elizabeth A. Manci; Therese Cynober; Barry S. Coller

2008-01-01

291

Assessment of Myocardial Metabolism in Diabetic Rats Using Small-Animal PET: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This feasibility study was undertaken to determine whether kinetic modeling in conjunction with small-animal PET could noninvasively quantify alterations in myocardial perfusion and substrate metabolism in rats. Methods: All small-animal PET was performed on either of 2 tomographs. Myocardial blood flow and substrate metabolism were measured in 10 male Zucker diabeticfattyrats(ZDF,fa\\/fa)and10leanlittermates(Lean,Fa\\/1) using 15O-water, 1-11C-glucose, 1-11C-acetate, and 1-11C- palmitate. Animals were

Michael J. Welch; Jason S. Lewis; Joonyoung Kim; Terry L. Sharp; Carmen S. Dence; Robert J. Gropler; Pilar Herrero

292

Radioprotection by mangiferin in DBAxC 57BL mice: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioprotective effects of various concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 17.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100mg\\/kg b.wt.) of mangiferin (MGN) was studied in the DBAxC57BL mice whole body exposed to 10Gy of ?-irradiation. Treatment of mice with different doses of MGN, one hour before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness and delayed the onset of mortality

G. C. Jagetia; M. S. Baliga

2005-01-01

293

Current Studies of Acupuncture in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe and harmless treatment option for alleviating pain. To explore the pain mechanism, numerous animal models have been developed to simulate specific human pain conditions, including cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we analyzed the current research methodology of acupuncture for the treatment of CIBP. We electronically searched the PubMed database for animal studies published from 2000 onward using these search terms: (bone cancer OR cancer) AND (pain OR analgesia) AND (acupuncture OR pharmacopuncture OR bee venom). We selected articles that described cancer pain in animal models. We analyzed the methods used to induce cancer pain and the outcome measures used to assess the effects of acupuncture on CIBP in animal models. We reviewed articles that met our inclusion criteria. Injection of mammary cancer cells into the cavity of the tibia was the most frequently used method for inducing CIBP in the animal models. Among the eight selected studies, five studies demonstrated the effects of electroacupuncture on CIBP. The effects of acupuncture were assessed by measuring pain-related behavior. Future researches will be needed to ascertain the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating CIBP and to explore the specific mechanism of CIBP in animal models. PMID:25383081

Ryu, Hee Kyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Park, Yeon-Cheol

2014-01-01

294

Are Covered Stents Really Effective at Closing Esophagotracheal Fistulas? Results of an Animal Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether covered self-expanding metal stents successfully exclude experimentally created esophagotracheal fistulas.Methods: Esophagotracheal fistulas were surgically created in the upper third of the esophagus in 12 minipigs and immediately sealed by implantation of a covered self-expanding metal stent (20 mm expanded diameter) in the esophagus. Before the animals were killed, after 3, 7, 14, 28, 30, and 36 days, the position of the stent and the sealing of the fistula were monitored fluoroscopically. The esophagus, trachea, and both lungs were examined histologically.Results: Creation of an esophagotracheal fistula was successful in all cases. All fistulas were widely patent at autopsy. The technical success rate for stent deployment and initial sealing of the fistula was 100%. During follow-up, five stents migrated distally, but none into the stomach. Therefore, the fistula was no longer excluded in five animals. In seven animals the stent sealed the fistula until the death of the animal. Tracheal narrowing necessitated additional tracheal stenting in three animals. Two minipigs died due to aspiration of food. Histologic examination showed signs of aspiration in all animals with stents in place for longer than 2 weeks.Conclusion: This experimental animal study revealed worse results for sealing of esophagotracheal fistulas with covered self-expanding metal stents than have been reported for the clinical use of these devices.

Wagner, Hans-Joachim [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Stinner, Benno [Department of General Surgery, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Barth, Peter [Department of Pathology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Klose, Klaus-Jochen [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany)

2000-07-15

295

Porcine Heterotopic Composite Tissue Allograft Transplantation using A Large Animal Model for Preclinical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Composite tissue allograft (CTA) transplantation is currently limited by the risks of side effects resulting from long-term high-dose immunosuppression. Therefore, preclinical animal models are essential to help CTA transplanta- tion advance into clinical reality. Evidence has shown that small-animal model (rodents) immunotherapy protocols cannot be directly applied to humans. This study investigated whether a miniature porcine model is repro-

Yur-Ren Kuo; Justin M Sacks; W. P. Andrew Lee; Wen-Sheng Wu; Nai-Siong Kueh; Sheng-Fa Yao; Yuan-Cheng Chiang

296

Small animal positron emission tomography during vagus nerve stimulation in rats: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective neurophysiological treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy, however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) permits the monitoring of biochemical processes during multiple scans in the same animal. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the potential of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG)-PET to investigate the effect of acute

Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere; Bart Cornelissen; Koen Van Laere; Kristl Vonck; Eric Achten; Guido Slegers; Paul Boon

2005-01-01

297

The last decade of solvent research in animal models of abuse: Mechanistic and behavioral studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Last Decade of Animal solvent Abuse Research: Mechanistic and Behavioral Studies. Bowen, S. E., Batis, J.C., Paez-Martinez, N., and Cruz, S.L. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, XX, 2006. The abuse of volatile organic solvents (inhalants) leads to diverse sequelae at levels ranging from the cell to the whole organism. This paper reviews findings from the last 10 years of animal models investigating

Scott E. Bowen; Jeffery C. Batis; Nayeli Paez-Martinez; Silvia L. Cruz

2006-01-01

298

Treatment of Alport syndrome: beyond animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary glomerulopathy due to abnormal composition of the glomerular basement membrane, leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Studies of animal models of AS have suggested a variety of potentially effective therapies, but none of these has been definitely shown to prevent or delay ESRD in human AS. Studies in Alport mice suggest that angiotensin inhibition

Oliver Gross; Clifford E Kashtan

2009-01-01

299

Treatment of Alport syndrome: beyond animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary glomerulopathy due to abnormal composition of the glomerular basement membrane, leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Studies of animal models of AS have suggested a variety of potentially effective therapies, but none of these has been definitely shown to prevent or delay ESRD in human AS. Studies in Alport mice suggest that angiotensin inhibition

Clifford E. Kashtan

300

Col6a1 null mice as a model to study skin phenotypes in patients with collagen VI related myopathies: expression of classical and novel collagen VI variants during wound healing.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from collagen VI related myopathies caused by mutations in COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 often also display skin abnormalities, like formation of keloids or "cigarette paper" scars, dry skin, striae rubrae and keratosis pilaris (follicular keratosis). Here we evaluated if Col6a1 null mice, an established animal model for the muscle changes in collagen VI related myopathies, are also suitable for the study of mechanisms leading to the skin pathology. We performed a comprehensive study of the expression of all six collagen VI chains in unwounded and challenged skin of wild type and Col6a1 null mice. Expression of collagen VI chains is regulated in both skin wounds and bleomycin-induced fibrosis and the collagen VI ?3 chain is proteolytically processed in both wild type and Col6a1 null mice. Interestingly, we detected a decreased tensile strength of the skin and an altered collagen fibril and basement membrane architecture in Col6a1 null mice, the latter being features that are also found in collagen VI myopathy patients. Although Col6a1 null mice do not display an overt wound healing defect, these mice are a relevant animal model to study the skin pathology in collagen VI related disease. PMID:25158062

Lettmann, Sandra; Bloch, Wilhelm; Maaß, Tobias; Niehoff, Anja; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Eckes, Beate; Eming, Sabine A; Bonaldo, Paolo; Paulsson, Mats; Wagener, Raimund

2014-01-01

301

Heat Shock Protein 72 Expressing Stress in Sepsis: Unbridgeable Gap between Animal and Human Studies--A Hypothetical "Comparative" Study  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) exhibits a protective role during times of increased risk of pathogenic challenge and/or tissue damage. The aim of the study was to ascertain Hsp72 protective effect differences between animal and human studies in sepsis using a hypothetical “comparative study” model. Forty-one in vivo (56.1%), in vitro (17.1%), or combined (26.8%) animal and 14 in vivo (2) or in vitro (12) human Hsp72 studies (P < 0.0001) were enrolled in the analysis. Of the 14 human studies, 50% showed a protective Hsp72 effect compared to 95.8% protection shown in septic animal studies (P < 0.0001). Only human studies reported Hsp72-associated mortality (21.4%) or infection (7.1%) or reported results (14.3%) to be nonprotective (P < 0.001). In animal models, any Hsp72 induction method tried increased intracellular Hsp72 (100%), compared to 57.1% of human studies (P < 0.02), reduced proinflammatory cytokines (28/29), and enhanced survival (18/18). Animal studies show a clear Hsp72 protective effect in sepsis. Human studies are inconclusive, showing either protection or a possible relation to mortality and infections. This might be due to the fact that using evermore purified target cell populations in animal models, a lot of clinical information regarding the net response that occurs in sepsis is missing. PMID:24524071

Briassouli, Efrossini; Fitrolaki, Diana-Michaela; Plati, Ioanna; Apostolou, Kleovoulos; Tavladaki, Theonymfi; Spanaki, Anna-Maria

2014-01-01

302

Carcinogenicity studies of diesel engine exhausts in laboratory animals: a review of past studies and a discussion of future research needs.  

PubMed

Diesel engines play a vital role in world economy, especially in transportation. Exhaust from traditional diesel engines using high-sulfur fuel contains high concentrations of respirable carbonaceous particles with absorbed organic compounds. Recognition that some of these compounds are mutagenic has raised concern for the cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust exposure. Extensive research addressing this issue has been conducted during the last three decades. This critical review is offered to facilitate an updated assessment of the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust and to provide a rationale for future animal research of new diesel technology. Life-span bioassays in rats, mice, and Syrian hamsters demonstrated that chronic inhalation of high concentrations of diesel exhaust caused lung tumors in rats but not in mice or Syrian hamsters. In 1989, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) characterized the rat findings as "sufficient evidence of animal carcinogenicity," and, with "limited" evidence from epidemiological studies, classified diesel exhaust Category 2A, a "probable human carcinogen." Subsequent research has shown that similar chronic high concentration exposure to particulate matter generally considered innocuous (such as carbon black and titanium dioxide) also caused lung tumors in rats. Thus, in 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that the findings in the rats should not be used to characterize the cancer hazard or quantify the cancer risk of diesel exhaust. Concurrent with the conduct of the health effects studies, progressively more stringent standards have been promulgated for diesel exhaust particles and NOx. Engine manufacturers have responded with new technology diesel (improved engines, fuel injection, fuels, lubricants, and exhaust treatments) to meet the standards. This review concludes with an outline of research to evaluate the health effects of the new technology, research that is consistent with recommendations included in the U.S. EPA 2002 health assessment document. When this research has been completed, it will be appropriate for IARC to evaluate the potential cancer hazard of the new technology diesel. PMID:16097136

Hesterberg, Thomas W; Bunn, William B; McClellan, Roger O; Hart, Georgia A; Lapin, Charles A

2005-06-01

303

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

304

Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies.  

PubMed

Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data. PMID:24512227

Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2013-12-01

305

Carcinogenesis studies with the lyophilized mushroom Agaricus bisporus in mice.  

PubMed

Continuous administration of 10, 5, and 2.5% lyophilized Agaricus bisporus (AB) mushroom in the diet of six-week-old, randomly bred Swiss mice for life induced tumors in the lungs, forestomach, glandular stomach, and ovaries in certain groups. Some of the tumor incidences were found to be statistically significant, although no dose-response relationship was established. Histopathologically, the neoplasms were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs, glandular stomach, and ovaries and squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach. AB given in both raw and baked forms induced tumors in the same species in earlier experiments. Since this fungus is consumed in lyophilized form to a certain degree in the United States, the results may carry practical significance. PMID:9627808

Toth, B; Gannett, P; Visek, W J; Patil, K

1998-01-01

306

Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models  

PubMed Central

Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5) ?g/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (? = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]). TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements. PMID:22074419

2011-01-01

307

Inhalation studies of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash in animals. III. Host defense mechanisms.  

PubMed

The effects of inhalation exposure of mice or rats to 9.4 mg/m3 volcanic ash, 2.5 mg/m3 SO2, or both on host defense mechanisms were assessed. Cytologic changes in pulmonary lavage fluid included an increase in percentage polymorphonuclear leukocytes due to SO2 exposure and an increase in eosinophils due to ash. SO2 and ash also produced decreases in percentage alveolar macrophages. In the case of ash-exposed animals, this decrease was offset by an increase in lymphocytes. Total cell counts and viability were not affected by any of the exposures. Pulmonary clearance mechanisms were affected in that there were both decreased alveolar macrophage phagocytic capability following ash and ash + SO2 exposures and depressed ciliary beat frequency attributable to ash exposure. None of the inhalation exposures caused increases in susceptibility to an immediate or 24 hr postexposure aerosol challenge with Streptococcus. However, intratracheal instillation of both fine- and coarse-mode volcanic ash caused slight but significant increases in mortality due to bacterial challenge 24 hr after the instillation. The phytohemagglutinin-induced blastogenic response of splenic lymphocytes from exposed animals did not differ significantly from that of control lymphocytes, although the lipopolysaccharide-induced blastogenic response was enhanced. Ash exposure had no effect on susceptibility to murine cytomegalovirus. In summary, volcanic ash alone or in combination with SO2 had only minimal effects on certain host defense mechanisms. PMID:3996344

Grose, E C; Grady, M A; Illing, J W; Daniels, M J; Selgrade, M K; Hatch, G E

1985-06-01

308

Harmonization of Animal Clinical Pathology Testing in Toxicity and Safety Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten scientific organizations formed a joint international committee to provide expert recommendations for clinical pathology testing of laboratory animal species used in regulated toxicity and safety studies. For repeated-dose studies in rodent species, clinical pathology testing is necessary at study termination. Interim study testing may not be necessary in long-duration studies provided that it has been done in short-duration studies

Kurt Weingand; Geoff Brown; Robert Hall; Dai Davies; Kent Gossett; Doug Neptun; Trevor Waner; Toshiaki Matsuzawa; Paul Salemink; Wilhelm Froelke; Jean-Pierre Provost; Gianni Dal Negro; John Batchelor; Mamoru Nomura; Horst Groetsch; Alphons Boink; Jon Kimball; David Woodman; Malcolm York; Eva Fabianson-Johnson; Michel Lupart; Elsa Melloni

1996-01-01

309

Orthotopic aortic transplantation in mice for the study of vascular disease.  

PubMed

Vascular procedures involving anastomoses in the mouse are generally thought to be difficult and highly dependent on the skill of the individual surgeon. This is largely true, but there are a number of important principles that can reduce the difficulty of these procedures and enhance reproducibility. Orthotopic aortic transplantation is an excellent procedure in which to learn these principles because it involves only two end-to-end anastomoses, but requires good suturing technique and handling of the vessels for consistent success. This procedure begins with the procurement of a length of abdominal aorta from a donor animal, followed by division of the native aorta in the recipient. The procured aorta is then placed between the divided ends of the recipient aorta and sutured into place using end-to-end anastomoses. To accomplish this objective successfully requires a high degree of concentration, good tools, a steady hand, and an appreciation of how easily the vasculature of a mouse can be damaged, resulting in thrombosis. Learning these important principles is what occupies most of the beginner's time when learning microsurgery in small rodents. Throughout this protocol, we refer to these important points. This model can be used to study vascular disease in a variety of different experimental systems(1-8). In the context shown here, it is most often used for the study of post-transplant vascular disease, a common long-term complication of solid organ transplantation in which intimal hyperplasia occurs within the allograft. The primary advantage of the model is that it facilitates quantitative morphometric analyses and the transplanted vessel lies contiguous to the endogenous vessel, which can serve as an additional control(9). The technique shown here is most often used for mice weighing 18-25 grams. We have accumulated most of our experience using the C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and C3H/HeJ strains. PMID:23222533

Guo, Lingling; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F

2012-01-01

310

Orthotopic Aortic Transplantation in Mice for the Study of Vascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Vascular procedures involving anastomoses in the mouse are generally thought to be difficult and highly dependent on the skill of the individual surgeon. This is largely true, but there are a number of important principles that can reduce the difficulty of these procedures and enhance reproducibility. Orthotopic aortic transplantation is an excellent procedure in which to learn these principles because it involves only two end-to-end anastomoses, but requires good suturing technique and handling of the vessels for consistent success. This procedure begins with the procurement of a length of abdominal aorta from a donor animal, followed by division of the native aorta in the recipient. The procured aorta is then placed between the divided ends of the recipient aorta and sutured into place using end-to-end anastomoses. To accomplish this objective successfully requires a high degree of concentration, good tools, a steady hand, and an appreciation of how easily the vasculature of a mouse can be damaged, resulting in thrombosis. Learning these important principles is what occupies most of the beginner's time when learning microsurgery in small rodents. Throughout this protocol, we refer to these important points. This model can be used to study vascular disease in a variety of different experimental systems1-8. In the context shown here, it is most often used for the study of post-transplant vascular disease, a common long-term complication of solid organ transplantation in which intimal hyperplasia occurs within the allograft. The primary advantage of the model is that it facilitates quantitative morphometric analyses and the transplanted vessel lies contiguous to the endogenous vessel, which can serve as an additional control9. The technique shown here is most often used for mice weighing 18-25 grams. We have accumulated most of our experience using the C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and C3H/HeJ strains. PMID:23222533

Guo, Lingling; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F.

2012-01-01

311

Evaluation of Excess Significance Bias in Animal Studies of Neurological Diseases  

PubMed Central

Animal studies generate valuable hypotheses that lead to the conduct of preventive or therapeutic clinical trials. We assessed whether there is evidence for excess statistical significance in results of animal studies on neurological disorders, suggesting biases. We used data from meta-analyses of interventions deposited in Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies (CAMARADES). The number of observed studies with statistically significant results (O) was compared with the expected number (E), based on the statistical power of each study under different assumptions for the plausible effect size. We assessed 4,445 datasets synthesized in 160 meta-analyses on Alzheimer disease (n?=?2), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n?=?34), focal ischemia (n?=?16), intracerebral hemorrhage (n?=?61), Parkinson disease (n?=?45), and spinal cord injury (n?=?2). 112 meta-analyses (70%) found nominally (p?0.05) statistically significant summary fixed effects. Assuming the effect size in the most precise study to be a plausible effect, 919 out of 4,445 nominally significant results were expected versus 1,719 observed (p<10?9). Excess significance was present across all neurological disorders, in all subgroups defined by methodological characteristics, and also according to alternative plausible effects. Asymmetry tests also showed evidence of small-study effects in 74 (46%) meta-analyses. Significantly effective interventions with more than 500 animals, and no hints of bias were seen in eight (5%) meta-analyses. Overall, there are too many animal studies with statistically significant results in the literature of neurological disorders. This observation suggests strong biases, with selective analysis and outcome reporting biases being plausible explanations, and provides novel evidence on how these biases might influence the whole research domain of neurological animal literature. PMID:23874156

Sena, Emily S.; Aretouli, Eleni; Evangelou, Evangelos; Howells, David W.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Ioannidis, John P. A.

2013-01-01

312

Behavioral effects in adult mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, very little information concerning the effects on behavior in mammals of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely distributed persistent environmental pollutant, is available. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral effects of PFOS on 3 months old mice after 1 month of exposure to this pollutant. Thirty adult mice were divided into three groups. Animals were given by gavage

Silvia Fuentes; Paloma Vicens; M. Teresa Colomina; José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

313

Elaboration of laboratory strains of Ebola virus and study of pathophysiological reactions of animals inoculated with these strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective passages in animals and cell cultures were used to produce a set of Ebola virus (EBO) laboratory strains with changed virulence for some animal genera. Comparative study of the genomes of wild-type EBO and selected variants formed the basis for studying the molecular causes of EBO virulence. Investigation of pathophysiological reactions of the animals inoculated with these strains allowed

A. A. Chepurnov; N. M. Zubavichene; A. A. Dadaeva

2003-01-01

314

Dioxin--an analysis of the major human studies: comparison with animal-based cancer risks.  

PubMed

Several major epidemiological studies have reported significant mortality rates (SMRs) for both rare cancers (soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's, lymphoma, liver) and the more common cancers (lung, colon, etc), all allegedly caused by TCDD. In this paper, we use the potency of TCDD in animals to establish a plausible worst case cancer risk and ask whether its likely that TCDD is responsible for the epidemiological findings assuming the animal carcinogenic potency is applicable to the conditions of human exposure. Two new features of the technique are the use of measured TCDD blood levels in both animals and humans for dose scale-up and the calculation of an integrated life-time exposure for the exposed workers using measured blood levels. On the basis of the stated assumptions it appears unlikely that any of the major epidemiological studies, with the possible exception of the NIOSH study have adequate power to detect the common cancers potentially caused by TCDD. PMID:7604166

Scheuplein, R J; Bowers, J C

1995-06-01

315

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

. Additionally, mice should be tested for Helicobacter as outlined in SOP 2.D.6, "Animal Health Monitoring health concerns: i. Additional testing of the sentinels or quarantine animals may be required2.D.9 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES for ANIMAL

Krovi, Venkat

316

Inhalation studies of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash in animals *1I. Introduction and exposure system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the lack of information on the effects of inhaled Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash and its potential interaction with sulfur dioxide (SOâ), animal studies were performed to determine the acute and chronic health effects of a short-term exposure. This paper describes the inhalation exposure system designed for these studies and theoretically compares the pulmonary deposition in the rats

J. A. Graham; F. J. Miller; D. W. Davies; M. E. Hiteshew; L. C. Walsh

1985-01-01

317

Animal-assisted therapy for persons with aphasia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effects and effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for persons with aphasia. Three men with aphasia from left-hemisphere strokes participated in this study. The men received one semester of traditional ther- apy followed by one semester of AAT. While both therapies were effective, in that each participant met his goals, no significant differences existed between test results

Beth L. Macauley

2006-01-01

318

Social network analysis of animal behaviour: a promising tool for the study of sociality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social animals live and interact together, forming complex relationships and social structure. These rela- tionships can have important fitness consequences, but most studies do not explicitly measure those rela- tionships. An approach that explicitly measures relationships will further our understanding of social complexity and the consequences of both direct and indirect interactions. Social network analysis is the study of social

Tina W Ey; D Aniel T. Blumstein; W Eiwei Shen; Ferenc Jorda N

319

Biological markers in animal sentinels: Laboratory studies improve interpretation of field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper described some of the results of our studies of biomarker responses of fish. We report results of field surveys of animals from contaminated and unpolluted reference streams, as well as laboratory studies of biomarker responses. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize two points that are critical to the successful application and interpretation of biomarker responses in

J. F. McCarthy; B. D. Jimenez; L. R. Shugart; F. V. Sloop; A. Oikari

1988-01-01

320

The Relationship Between Domestic Violence and Animal AbuseAn Australian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly

Anne M. Volant; Judy A. Johnson; Eleonora Gullone; Grahame J. Coleman

2008-01-01

321

What Free-Ranging Animals Do at the Zoo: A Study of the Behavior and Habitat  

E-print Network

What Free-Ranging Animals Do at the Zoo: A Study of the Behavior and Habitat Use of Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) on the Grounds of the St. Louis Zoo Luke J. Harmon,1n Karen Bauman,2 Matt McCloud,2. Louis, Missouri 2 St. Louis Zoo, St. Louis, Missouri Studies of urban wildlife are important because

Harmon, Luke

322

Animal models of human disease. Pathology and molecular biology of spontaneous neoplasms occurring in transgenic mice carrying and expressing activated cellular oncogenes.  

PubMed Central

This present review focuses on spontaneous neoplasms occurring in transgenic mice carrying and expressing activated cellular oncogenes. The historical development of transgenic mice as in vivo disease models is briefly traced, followed by a brief description of the actual technology in such systems. Additional emphasis is placed on the concept of targeting activated cellular oncogenes to specific tissues in transgenic mice. Cumulative experience with activated (Vmyc, ras, and neu (erb-B2] oncogenes in transgenic mice is considered in detail, with particular attention paid to the observed pathology, as well as to the kinetics of disease occurrence. It is concluded that transgenic mice offer the interested investigator(s) an excellent prospective, in vivo model of oncogenesis. Images Figure 8 p[57]-a p[53]-a Figure 9 Figure 3 Figure 5 p47-a Figure 6 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:2672826

Pattengale, P. K.; Stewart, T. A.; Leder, A.; Sinn, E.; Muller, W.; Tepler, I.; Schmidt, E.; Leder, P.

1989-01-01

323

The elevated T-maze task as an animal model to simultaneously investigate the effects of drugs on long-term memory and anxiety in mice.  

PubMed

The elevated T-maze (ETM) is an apparatus derived from the elevated plus-maze test, which is used to evaluate anxiety. Because anxiety is a biasing factor in models of memory, this study proposed the ETM as a task for the simultaneous assessment of memory and anxiety in mice. The ETM consists of one enclosed and two open arms. The procedure is based on the avoidance of open spaces learned during training session, in which mice were exposed to the enclosed arm as many times as needed to stay 300s. In the test session, memory is assessed by re-exposing the mouse to the enclosed arm and the latency to enter an open arm was recorded. The anxiolytic diazepam (DZP; 1 or 2mg/kg) and the amnestic biperiden (BPR; 0.5, 1 or 3mg/kg) were injected at three distinct times: pre-training, post-training, and pre-test. Pre-training administration of BPR 1 and DZP 2 increased the number of trials needed to reach the avoidance criterion, suggesting a passive avoidance learning impairment. However, BPR induced hyperlocomotion, which could bias the interpretation of any BPR-induced effects during the training session. Pre-training injection of BPR did not affect the spontaneous increase in the latency to enter an open arm between trials, while DZP reduced latencies in the first three trials suggesting anxiolysis. In the test session, pre-training injection of BPR 1 and DZP 2 reduced latencies to enter an open arm, indicating memory impairment. Post-training and pre-test injection of DZP or BPR did not affect memory. In conclusion, the proposed ETM task is practical for the detection of the anxiolytic and amnesic effects of drugs. PMID:22394406

Asth, Laila; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; André, Eunice; Soares, Vanessa de Paula; Gavioli, Elaine Cristina

2012-04-10

324

Developmental regulation of GABAergic signalling in the hippocampus of neuroligin 3 R451C knock-in mice: an animal model of Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) comprise an heterogeneous group of neuro-developmental abnormalities, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by impaired social interactions, communications deficits, and stereotyped behaviors. In a small percentage of cases, ASDs have been found to be associated with single mutations in genes involved in synaptic function. One of these involves the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin (NL) 3. NLs interact with presynaptic neurexins (Nrxs) to ensure a correct cross talk between post and presynaptic specializations. Here, transgenic mice carrying the human R451C mutation of Nlgn3, were used to study GABAergic signaling in the hippocampus early in postnatal life. Whole cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons in slices from NL3R451C knock-in mice revealed an enhanced frequency of Giant Depolarizing Potentials (GDPs), as compared to controls. This effect was probably dependent on an increased GABAergic drive to principal cells as demonstrated by the enhanced frequency of miniature GABAA-mediated (GPSCs), but not AMPA-mediated postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Changes in frequency of mGPSCs were associated with an acceleration of their decay kinetics, in the absence of any change in unitary synaptic conductance or in the number of GABAA receptor channels, as assessed by peak scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis. The enhanced GABAergic but not glutamatergic transmission early in postnatal life may change the excitatory/inhibitory balance known to play a key role in the construction and refinement of neuronal circuits during postnatal development. This may lead to behavioral deficits reminiscent of those observed in ASDs patients. PMID:23761734

Pizzarelli, Rocco; Cherubini, Enrico

2013-01-01

325

Developmental regulation of GABAergic signalling in the hippocampus of neuroligin 3 R451C knock-in mice: an animal model of Autism.  

PubMed

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) comprise an heterogeneous group of neuro-developmental abnormalities, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by impaired social interactions, communications deficits, and stereotyped behaviors. In a small percentage of cases, ASDs have been found to be associated with single mutations in genes involved in synaptic function. One of these involves the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin (NL) 3. NLs interact with presynaptic neurexins (Nrxs) to ensure a correct cross talk between post and presynaptic specializations. Here, transgenic mice carrying the human R451C mutation of Nlgn3, were used to study GABAergic signaling in the hippocampus early in postnatal life. Whole cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons in slices from NL3(R451C) knock-in mice revealed an enhanced frequency of Giant Depolarizing Potentials (GDPs), as compared to controls. This effect was probably dependent on an increased GABAergic drive to principal cells as demonstrated by the enhanced frequency of miniature GABAA-mediated (GPSCs), but not AMPA-mediated postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Changes in frequency of mGPSCs were associated with an acceleration of their decay kinetics, in the absence of any change in unitary synaptic conductance or in the number of GABAA receptor channels, as assessed by peak scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis. The enhanced GABAergic but not glutamatergic transmission early in postnatal life may change the excitatory/inhibitory balance known to play a key role in the construction and refinement of neuronal circuits during postnatal development. This may lead to behavioral deficits reminiscent of those observed in ASDs patients. PMID:23761734

Pizzarelli, Rocco; Cherubini, Enrico

2013-01-01

326

Evaluation on carcinogenicity of chemicals using transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since new guidelines on ICH carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have been adopted, evaluation on carcinogenicity of newly-developed pharmaceuticals using genetically modified animals has been conducted. Validation studies have suggested that rasH2 mice carrying human prototype c-Ha-ras gene, heterozygous p53 deficient [p53 (+\\/?)] mice and homozygous XPA deficient [XPA (?\\/?)] mice are very susceptible to genotoxic carcinogens. In addition, many experimental

Kunitoshi Mitsumori

2002-01-01

327

Immunological studies on mice exposed subacutely to methyl isocyanate  

SciTech Connect

The immunotoxicity of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice exposed via inhalation to 0, 1, or 3 ppm for 6 hr per day on 4 consecutive days. The antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and natural killer cell activity were found to be unaffected by MIC exposure. Although lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens were moderately suppressed by MIC, the differences were not statistically significant. The response of splenic lymphocytes to allogeneic leukocytes in a mixed leukocyte response (MLR) was suppressed in a dose-related fashion and was significantly different from the control response at the 3 ppm level. This effect was thought to be secondary and a result of general toxicity rather than a direct effect of MIC on the immune system. Furthermore, resistance to the infectious agents Listeria monocytogenes, mouse malaria parasite, and influenza virus, or to transplantable tumor cells was not compromised by MIC exposure. Thus, the immune system does not appear to be a primary target for MIC toxicity.

Tucker, A.N.; Bucher, J.R.; Germolec, D.R.; Silver, M.T.; Vore, S.J.; Luster, M.I.

1987-06-01

328

Lifetime toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of FD & C red no. 40 (allura red) in mice.  

PubMed

FD & C Red No. 40 (allura red) was fed to Charles River HaM/ICR (CD-1) (study A) and CD-1 outbred (study B) mice as a dietary admixture in two separate lifetime toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. Each study included an in utero exposure phase during which the colouring was fed at dietary concentrations of 0.0, 0.37, 1.39 or 5.19% throughout the mating, gestation and lactation periods. After random selection, the lifetime exposure phase was initiated using the same dietary concentrations with 50 mice/sex/group in study A and 100 mice/sex/group in study B. Exposure was for 104 wk in study A and 109 wk in study B. No compound-related adverse effects were observed. The no-observable-adverse-effect level in these studies was 5.19%; approximately 7300 and 8300 mg/kg body weight/day for male and female mice, respectively. PMID:2060889

Borzelleca, J F; Olson, J W; Reno, F E

1991-05-01

329

Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

2005-01-01

330

Tolerability and toxicological profile of pixantrone (Pixuvri®) in juvenile mice. Comparative study with doxorubicin.  

PubMed

The tolerability of pixantrone dimaleate (Pixuvri(®)), an aza-anthracenedione for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, was assessed in juvenile mice after intraperitoneal injection. Twenty animals/sex/dose received pixantrone 15 or 27 mg/kg/day on Post-Natal-Days (PND) 10, 13, 17, 20, 35, 39 and 42 in comparison with doxorubicin, 3 mg/kg/day. Animals were sacrificed on PND 42, 73 and 96. All pixantrone animals survived, while doxorubicin induced 52.5% mortality and the surviving animals were sacrificed early due to severe toxicity. Recoverable bone marrow toxicity (pixantrone), and toxicity to thymus and reproductive organs (pixantrone, doxorubicin) were observed without nephro- or hepatotoxicity. Pixantrone was measurable in plasma up to 2h (occasionally 6h) post-dose. At PND 42, mean Cmax and AUC values increased proportionally with dose, without gender difference or accumulation. Pixantrone showed minimal cardiotoxicity in males and negligible in females at PND 96. Doxorubicin induced significant heart weight reduction at PND 42, however early sacrifice impeded further cardiac assessments. PMID:24602559

Longo, Monica; Della Torre, Paola; Allievi, Cecilia; Morisetti, Alberto; Al-Fayoumi, Suliman; Singer, Jack W

2014-07-01

331

[Evidence for and against anti-aging effects based on model animal studies].  

PubMed

Exciting recent findings are remarkable extension of lifespan of model animals in which single genes are mutated. Studies on model animals have provided valuable as well as limited and often misleading information in understanding human aging and anti-aging practice. It is important to realize that extension of lifespan and retardation of aging processes are two different things in principle, the latter being apparently more important for improving QOL in human. Discussed here are selected topics on the limitation of model animal studies and potential problems of popular anti-oxidants. Also discussed are caloric restriction and exercise that have anti-aging effects in rodents that might be translated into human but with limitations. PMID:19591282

Goto, Sataro

2009-07-01

332

Heterotopic Bone Formation Around Vessels: Pilot Study of a New Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Abstract To achieve an easily established, safe, and reproducible animal model for the study of heterotopic bone formation around vessels, a small animal series using New Zealand White rabbits was performed. Three different dosages of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) carried by fibrin matrix were tested. A guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane sheet was formed into a tube and allowed to harden; it served both to maintain the space around the vessel bundle and to separate the fibrin matrix with rhBMP-2 from skeletal muscle. Wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle and fixed in place, the tube was filled with the fibrin matrix containing rhBMP-2. The surgical site was closed in layers, and the postoperative healing was uneventful. All animals resumed their full preoperative daily activities 3–4 days after the operation. No adverse events such as wound dehiscence or infection occurred, and all animals could be sacrified at the scheduled date. Micro–computed tomography and histological investigations showed heterotopic bone formation around the vessel bundle in the medium- and high-dosage rhBMP-2 groups. An easy, safe, and reproducible animal model that allows the study of heterotopic bone formation around vessels was successfully established. PMID:23914333

Cai, Wei-Xin; Zheng, Li-Wu; Weber, Franz E.; Li, Chun-Lei; Ma, Li; Ehrbar, Martin

2013-01-01

333

[Comparative analysis of disorders in duodenal lymphoid tissue of mice treated with azathioprine and herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and their correction by plant and animal origin remedies].  

PubMed

Comparative study of disturbances of intramural duodenal lymphoid tissue in mice, which were induced by the action of "classical" immunosuppressing drug azathioprine and by herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed similar immunosuppressing effect that was more potent after herbicide treatment. Significant reduction in the number of the cells of lymphoid series found in the duodenal wall was accompanied by inflammatory-destructive processes and adipose tissue outgrowth. Administration of hypolipidemic plant extract to animals immunosuppressed with either azathioprine or herbicide 2,4-D, promoted the restoration of intramural duodenal morphological structures and the restitution of lymphoid cell parameters in lamina propria practically to the level of control values. The results obtained indicate the immuno-correcting effect of the plant extract, which is determined by a rich complex of biologically active substances of its components. Active thymic fraction (AFT-2) was also found to possess an immuno-correcting effect, promoting the restoration of cellular composition of diffuse lymphoid tissue in duodenal lamina propria. Immuno-correcting effect of AFT-2 seems to result from the activity of its component thymic peptides. PMID:14628561

Sapin, M R; Lebedeva, S N; Zhamsaranova, S D; Erofeeva, L M

2003-01-01

334

The production of transgenic mice expressing human cystathionine beta-synthase to study Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of significant cognitive disability. We hypothesize that by identifying metabolic alterations associated with cognitive impairment, it may be possible to develop medical or dietary interventions to ameliorate cognitive disabilities in persons with DS. Evidence suggests that one-carbon/transsulfuration (1C-TS) metabolism is abnormal in persons with DS. Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) plays a critical role in this metabolic system. The gene for CBS is on human chromosome 21, and there is evidence of elevated CBS enzyme activity in tissues and cells from individuals with DS. To analyze the possible role of CBS in Down syndrome, we have produced several lines of transgenic mice expressing the human CBS gene. We describe the use of Florescence Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis to characterize the transgene insertion site for each line. Our initial expression analysis of each transgenic line by RT-PCR shows that the tissue specificity of human CBS mRNA levels in these mice may differ from the tissue specificity of mouse CBS mRNA levels in the same animals. These mice will be invaluable for assessing the regulation of the CBS gene and the role of CBS in cognition. They can also be used to develop therapies that target abnormalities in 1C-TS metabolism to improve cognition in persons with DS. PMID:16541333

Butler, Christine; Knox, Aaron J; Bowersox, Jeffrey; Forbes, Stacy; Patterson, David

2006-05-01

335

Preliminary Studies on the Antinociceptive Activity of Vaccinium ashei Berry in Experimental Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacological screening in order to evaluate the potential effects of lyophilized fruits of different cultivars of Vaccinium ashei Reade (Family Ericaceae) berries, commonly known as rabbiteye blueberries, on nociception. This was achieved using the formalin, hot plate, tail-flick, and writhing tests in mice. During this experiment the mice consumed approximately 3.2–6.4?mg/kg/day (p.o.) of the anthocyanins. The extract was administered for 21 days or 60 minutes before test. Morphine and diclofenac (10?mg/kg, p.o.) as the standard drug (positive control) and water (via oral gavage) as the negative control were administered before all tests. The blueberry extract produced a significant decrease in constrictions induced by acetic acid and caused graded inhibition of the second phase of formalin-induced pain. Moreover, in both the hot plate and tail-flick tests, it significantly increased the threshold. These data suggest that the extract from V. ashei produced antinociceptive effects, as demonstrated in the experimental models of nociception in mice. Additional experiments are necessary in order to clarify the true target for the antinociceptive effects of rabbiteye blueberry extract. PMID:20170358

Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Guterres, Leandra; Dickel, Odila E.; de Castro, Micheli R.; Henriques, Amelia T.; de Souza, Marcia M.

2010-01-01

336

Efficacy and safety/toxicity study of recombinant vaccinia virus JX-594 in two immunocompetent animal models of glioma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the oncolytic potential of the recombinant, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expressing vaccinia virus (VV) JX-594 in experimental malignant glioma (MGs) in vitro and in immunocompetent rodent models. We have found that JX-594 killed all MG cell lines tested in vitro. Intratumoral (i.t.) administration of JX-594 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in rats-bearing RG2 intracranial (i.c.) tumors and mice-bearing GL261 brain tumors. Combination therapy with JX-594 and rapamycin significantly increased viral replication and further prolonged survival in both immunocompetent i.c. MG models with several animals considered "cured" (three out of seven rats >120 days, terminated experiment). JX-594 infected and killed brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) from patient samples grown ex vivo, and did so more efficiently than other oncolytic viruses MYXV, Reovirus type-3, and VSV(?M51). Additional safety/toxicity studies in nontumor-bearing rodents treated with a supratherapeutic dose of JX-594 demonstrated GM-CSF-dependent inflammation and necrosis. These results suggest that i.c. administered JX-594 triggers a predictable GM-CSF-mediated inflammation in murine models. Before proceeding to clinical trials, JX-594 should be evaluated in the brains of nonhuman primates and optimized for the viral doses, delivery routes as well as the combination agents (e.g., mTOR inhibitors). PMID:20808290

Lun, XueQing; Chan, Jennifer; Zhou, Hongyuan; Sun, Beichen; Kelly, John J P; Stechishin, Owen Owen; Bell, John C; Parato, Kelley; Hu, Kang; Vaillant, Dominique; Wang, Jiahu; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Breitbach, Caroline; Kirn, David; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

2010-11-01

337

Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas. PMID:23569755

Ofusori, David A; Adejuwon, Adebomi O

2011-01-01

338

Quantitative Studies on Tissue Transplantation Immunity. IV. Induction of Tolerance in Newborn Mice and Studies on the Phenomenon of Runt Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the induction of actively acquired tolerance of homologous tissues in newborn mice is described (SS2\\\\cdot1, 2\\\\cdot2 and 2\\\\cdot3). With some donor\\/recipient strain combinations a high proportion of mice injected intravenously with homologous tissue cells is rendered tolerant of skin grafts from animals of the donor strain (SS3\\\\cdot1, 3\\\\cdot4 and 3\\\\cdot5), provided that the cells are administered

R. E. Billingham; L. Brent

1959-01-01

339

Information supplementary to V. L. Boyartchuk et al. Nature Genet.(2001) Mice. All animals used in Listeria infection experiments were 6 to  

E-print Network

was determined in a dose response experiment. Intravenous infection of BALB/cByJ animals by tail vein injection by intravenous injection of 300 µl of approx. 3x104 Listeria monocytogenes in PBS. For technical reasons as the number of hours elapsed between injection and death of the animal. All moribund animals were recorded

Broman, Karl W.

340

Study of the Process of Substrate Activation of Ca 2+ ATPase of Skeletal Muscle Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Ectothermic Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrate activation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase of skeletal muscles of ectothermic (the ground frog Rana temporaria and a Black Sea fish, the chuco Dasyatis pastinaca) and endothermic (rabbit) animals was studied. Comparison of kinetic dependencies (v on [S]) of this process for ectothermic animals with similar dependencies for endothermic animals has revealed their principal similarity. The cooperative character of

V. K. Shmelev

2004-01-01

341

Selenium and blood pressure studies in young and adult normotensive, renal, and spontaneously hypertensive animals.  

PubMed

With reports of either no change or reduction of blood pressure, the relationship between selenium and blood pressure has not been clear. Normal Se values are not available for the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat or in the young and adult rat with various models of experimental hypertension. This study measured serum Se levels in the young and adult normotensive (NT), Grollman renal hypertensive (RH), and Okamoto-Aoki spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). The young animals have statistically significant (P less than 0.001) lower Se values as measured by the fluorometric method than those found at adulthood. Selenium levels were found to be altered in the adult SHR animals when compared with the RH and NT animals. The serum Se value for the normotensive SD rat was found to be 65.0 +/- 3.5 micrograms/dL, and for the two experimental models, 63.7 +/- 4.6 micrograms/dL for the RH, whereas the SHR level was elevated to 75.04 +/- 4.8 micrograms/dL (P less than 0.001). Elevated serum Se values in the adult SHR animals suggests an altered metabolism in SHR animals. PMID:1379450

Loyke, H F

1992-01-01

342

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

343

In Vivo Monitoring of the Antiangiogenic Effect of Neurotensin Receptor-Mediated Radiotherapy by Small-Animal Positron Emission Tomography: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The neurotensin receptor (NTS1) has emerged as an interesting target for molecular imaging and radiotherapy of NTS-positive tumors due to the overexpression in a range of tumors. The aim of this study was to develop a 177Lu-labeled NTS1 radioligand, its application for radiotherapy in a preclinical model and the imaging of therapy success by small-animal positron emission tomography (µPET) using [68Ga]DOTA-RGD as a specific tracer for imaging angiogenesis. The 177Lu-labeled peptide was subjected to studies on HT29-tumor-bearing nude mice in vivo, defining four groups of animals (single dose, two fractionated doses, four fractionated doses and sham-treated animals). Body weight and tumor diameters were determined three times per week. Up to day 28 after treatment, µPET studies were performed with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD. At days 7–10 after treatment with four fractionated doses of 11–14 MBq (each at days 0, 3, 6 and 10), the tumor growth was slightly decreased in comparison with untreated animals. Using a single high dose of 51 MBq, a significantly decreased tumor diameter of about 50% was observed with the beginning of treatment. Our preliminary PET imaging data suggested decreased tumor uptake values of [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in treated animals compared to controls at day 7 after treatment. This pilot study suggests that early PET imaging with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in radiotherapy studies to monitor integrin expression could be a promising tool to predict therapy success in vivo. Further successive PET experiments are needed to confirm the significance and predictive value of RGD-PET for NTS-mediated radiotherapy. PMID:24743103

Maschauer, Simone; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Tripal, Philipp; Haubner, Roland; Einsiedel, Jurgen; Hubner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Kuwert, Torsten; Prante, Olaf

2014-01-01

344

Genetic consequences of animal translocations: A case study using the field cricket, Gryllus campestris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal relocations have become a common tool in nature conservation, but the genetic consequences of such projects have rarely been studied in insects. As both natural and artificial formation of new populations may lead to genetic drift (founder effect), decreased genetic diversity and increased rates of inbreeding, genetic analyses can provide valuable information to evaluate the success of a relocation

K. A. Witzenberger; A. Hochkirch

2008-01-01

345

Dosimetry for Small Animal Studies Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital  

E-print Network

Dosimetry for Small Animal Studies Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital · Image-guidance Kilovoltage Radiation Sources (100-320 kVp) #12;Absolute Dosimetry · Absolute dosimetry #12;Relative Dosimetry · Percent depth dose (PDD) and relative output factors (ROF) · Small volume (0

346

Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

2012-01-01

347

Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine dependence is a disease of constantly growing importance. This mini-review describes the effects of nicotine in humans and focuses on the various laboratory animal models developed to study the dependence-related behavioral effects of nicotine. In ad- dition, we outline the current therapeutic approaches designed to substitute nicotine from cigarette smoke with safer compounds or to relieve symptoms of nicotine

Magdalena Zaniewska

348

Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color diffuse optical tomography imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present newly developed instrumentation for full-tomographic four-wavelength, continuous wave, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging on small animals. A small-animal imaging stage was constructed, from materials compatible with in-magnet studies, which offers stereotaxic fixation of the animal and precise, stable probe positioning. Instrument performance, based on calibration and phantom studies, demonstrates excellent long-term signal stability. DOT measurements of the functional rat brain response to electric paw stimulation are presented, and these demonstrate high data quality and excellent sensitivity to hemodynamic changes. A general linear model analysis on individual trials is used to localize and quantify the occurrence of functional behavior associated with the different hemoglobin state responses. Statistical evaluation of outcomes of individual trials is employed to identify significant regional response variations for different stimulation sites. Image results reveal a diffuse cortical response and a strong reaction of the thalamus, both indicative of activation of pain pathways by the stimulation. In addition, a weaker lateralized functional component is observed in the brain response, suggesting presence of motor activation. An important outcome of the experiment is that it shows that reactions to individual provocations can be monitored, without having to resort to signal averaging. Thus the described technology may be useful for studies of long-term trends in hemodynamic response, as would occur, for example, in behavioral studies involving freely moving animals.

Schmitz, Christoph H.; Graber, Harry L.; Pei, Yaling; Farber, Mark; Stewart, Mark; Levina, Rita D.; Levin, Mikhail B.; Xu, Yong; Barbour, Randall L.

2005-09-01

349

Angiogenic gene therapy for heart disease: a review of animal studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current published clinical literature on angiogenic gene therapy for the treatment of myocardial ischemia does not include a single randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Based on current clinical literature, it is an unproven therapy. Successful animal studies combined with published reports of good outcomes in patients enrolled in uncontrolled trials has led to the expectation that angiogenic gene therapy will ultimately

H. Kirk Hammond; M. Dan McKirnan

2001-01-01

350

Odor Plumes and Animal Navigation in Turbulent Water Flow: A Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulence causes chemical stimuli to be highly variable in time and space; hence the study of animal orientation in odor plumes presents a formidable challenge. Through combined chemical and physical measurements, we char- acterized the transport of attractant released by clam prey in a turbulent aquatic environment. Concurrently, we quantified the locomotory responses of predatory crabs successfully searching for sources

RICHARD K. ZIMMER-FAUST; CHRISTOPHER M. FINELLI; N. DEAN PENTCHEFF; DAVID S. WETHEY

351

Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety, and Depression  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety of grooming activity and its microstructure may serve as a useful measure of stress and anxiety in both wild into the effects of stress, anxiety, and depression on this behavioral domain. The method involves quantification

Kalueff, Allan V.

352

Pesticide poisoning in domestic animals and livestock in Austria: A 6 years retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6 years retrospective study of pesticide poisonings in domestic animals and livestock from 1999 to 2004 submitted to the Institute for Medical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria was compiled and analysed. Totally 380 pesticide analysis requests were referred by veterinary practitioners, from the Institute for Pathology of the above university, by regional and central governments as

Yingzi Wang; Paul Kruzik; Albert Helsberg; Inge Helsberg; Wolf-Dieter Rausch

2007-01-01

353

General Organizational Principles of the Brain as Key to the Study of Animal Consciousness<1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a framework to study consciousness in animals is proposed which is based on (i) a hierarchical organizational feedback model of the central nervous system, (ii) the separation of a given mental state into two components, i.e. an invariant part, and a variant part, which are separately related to the organization of the central nervous system, i.e. 'a

Ruud van den Bos

354

Studies on the Use of Animals of Economic Importance in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of keeping animals in schools and problems encountered in their maintenance are summarized. Two curriculum units, one on fruit flies and one on honey bees are described. Reasons for a widespread negative image of rural studies are discussed and positive outcomes of an environmental science course are presented. (Author/EB)

Blum, Abraham

1976-01-01

355

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Point and interval estimation of pollinator importance: a study  

E-print Network

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Point and interval estimation of pollinator importance: a study using pollination data of Silene caroliniana Richard J. Reynolds Ã? Charles B. Fenster Received: 4 Abstract Pollinator importance, the product of visitation rate and pollinator effectiveness

Fenster, Charles B.

356

The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

2008-01-01

357

Autoethnographic Poems and Narrative Reflections: A Qualitative Study on the Death of a Companion Animal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the meaning of the death of a companion animal through autoethnographic poetry in conjunction with narrative reflections. This method expands the depth and scope of poetry in qualitative research by transforming expressive works into both the subject and product of inquiry.

Furman, Rich

2005-01-01

358

Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety

Roland R. Griffiths; Phillip P. Woodson

1988-01-01

359

INHALATION STUDIES OF MT. ST. HELENS VOLCANIC ASH IN ANIMALS. 1. INTRODUCTION AND EXPOSURE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to the lack of information on the effects of inhaled Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash and its potential interaction with sulfur dioxide (SO2), animal studies were performed to determine the acute and chronic health effects of a short-term exposure. This paper describes the inhalat...

360

A Study of Firesetting and Animal Cruelty in Children: Family Influences and Adolescent Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…

Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.

2004-01-01

361

Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

362

Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies  

SciTech Connect

There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

Anderson, L.E.

1994-03-01

363

Generating Animal and Tool Names: An fMRI Study of Effective Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present fMRI study of semantic fluency for animal and tool names provides further evidence for category-specific brain activations, and reports task-related changes in effective connectivity among defined cerebral regions. Two partially segregated systems of functional integration were highlighted: the tool condition was associated with an…

Vitali, P.; Abutalebi, J.; Tettamanti, M.; Rowe, J.; Scifo, P.; Fazio, F.; Cappa, S.F.; Perani, D.

2005-01-01

364

Formation of a committee for the study of animal societies under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the highlights of the first conference meeting of the Committee for the Study of Animal Societies Under Natural Conditions. The first meeting of this committee was held in New York under the auspices of the New York Zoological Society on January 31 and February 1, 1947. The primary purpose of the conference was to help organize a

J. P. Scott

1947-01-01

365

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido RöÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

366

Development of implant loading device for animal study about various loading protocol: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aims of this pilot study were to introduce implant loading devices designed for animal study and to evaluate the validity of the load transmission ability of the loading devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant loading devices were specially designed and fabricated with two implant abutments and cast metal bars, and orthodontic expansion screw. In six Beagles, all premolars were extracted and two implants were placed in each side of the mandibles. The loading device was inserted two weeks after the implant placement. According to the loading protocol, the load was applied to the implants with different time and method,simulating early, progressive, and delayed loading. The implants were clinically evaluated and the loading devices were removed and replaced to the master cast, followed by stress-strain analysis. Descriptive statistics of remained strain (µ?) was evaluated after repeating three cycles of the loading device activation. Statistic analysis was performed using nonparametric, independent t-test with 5% significance level and Friedman's test was also used for verification. RESULTS The loading devices were in good action. However, four implants in three Beagles showed loss of osseointegration. In stress-strain analysis, loading devices showed similar amount of increase in the remained strain after applying 1-unit load for three times. CONCLUSION Specialized design of the implant loading device was introduced. The loading device applied similar amount of loads near the implant after each 1-unit loading. However, the direction of the loads was not parallel to the long axis of the implants as predicted before the study. PMID:23236575

Yoon, Joon-Ho; Park, Young-Bum; Cho, Yuna; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Moon, Hong-Seok; Lee, Keun-Woo

2012-01-01

367

Fourteen-Week Toxicity Study of Green Tea Extract in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

The toxicity of green tea extract (GTE) was evaluated in 14-week gavage studies in male and female F344/NTac rats and B6C3F1 mice at doses up to 1,000 mg/kg. In the rats, no treatment-related mortality was noted. In the mice, treatment-related mortality occurred in male and female mice in the 1,000 mg/kg dose groups. The cause of early deaths was likely related to liver necrosis. Treatment-related histopathological changes were seen in both species in the liver, nose, mesenteric lymph nodes, and thymus. In addition, in mice, changes were seen in the Peyer’s patches, spleen, and mandibular lymph nodes. The no adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the liver in both species was 500 mg/kg. In the nose of rats, the NOAEL in males was 62.5 mg/kg, and in females no NOAEL was found. No NOAEL was found in the nose of female or male mice. The changes in the liver and nose were considered primary toxic effects of GTE, while the changes in other organs were considered to be secondary effects. The nose and liver are organs with high metabolic enzyme activity. The increased susceptibility of the nose and liver suggests a role for GTE metabolites in toxicity induction. PMID:20884815

Chan, Po C.; Ramot, Yuval; Malarkey, David E.; Blackshear, Pamela; Kissling, Grace E.; Travlos, Greg; Nyska, Abraham

2011-01-01

368

Humanized Mice, a New Model To Study the Influence of Drug Treatment on Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infection with group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a prominent threat to neonates and fetuses in the Western world, causing severe organ damage and even death. To improve current therapeutic strategies and to investigate new approaches, an appropriate in vivo model to study the immune response of a human immune system is needed. Therefore, we introduced humanized mice as a new model for GBS-induced sepsis. Humanized mice feature deficiencies similar to those found in neonates, such as lower immunoglobulin levels and myeloid cell dysfunction. Due to the husbandry in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) facilities, the human immune cells in these mice also exhibit a naive phenotype which mimics the conditions in fetuses/neonates. Following infection, cytokine release and leukocyte trafficking from the bone marrow to the lymphoid organ (spleen) and into the peritoneum (site of infection) as well as bacterial spreading and clearance were traceable in the humanized mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of betamethasone and indomethacin treatment using this novel sepsis model. Although both drugs are commonly used in perinatal care, little is known about their effects on the neonatal immune system. Treatment of infected humanized mice not only induced the reduction of human leukocytes in the spleen but also increased the bacterial load in all analyzed organs, including the brain, which did not show infiltration of live GBS in untreated controls. These studies demonstrate the utility of the humanized mice as a new model to study an immature human immune response during bacterial infection and allow the investigation of side effects induced by various treatments. PMID:23439310

Ernst, Wolfgang; Zimara, Nicole; Hanses, Frank; Mannel, Daniela N.; Seelbach-Gobel, Birgit

2013-01-01

369

Teratogenic, biochemical, and histological studies with mice prenatally exposed to 2. 45-GHz microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to 2.45-GHz continuous wave microwave radiation at an incident power density of 30 mW/Cm/sup 2/. The local specific absorption rate near the uterine area (deep colonic location), as determined from time-temperature profiles measured with a Vitek thermistor probe, was 40.2 mW/G. Groups of mice were exposed 8 hr per day through Days 1-6 or 6-15 of pregnancy. Other groups of animals were exposed to an elevated ambient temperature of 31/sup 0/C which increased the colonic temperature 2.3/sup 0/C, the same as that produced by the microwaves. For the two conditions, temperature exposed and sham exposed, two groups of animals were used. One group was handled in the same manner as the microwave-irradiated group and the other group was not handled so as to evaluate the effects of stressing the animals by handling. On Day 18 of gestation the dams of all experimental groups were sacrificed and their reproductive status was determined. The fetuses were examined for visceral and skeletal alterations. Brain cholinesterase activity and histology were evaluated in the groups exposed on Days 6-15. The results show that microwave radiation increases embryo lethality at the early stages of gestation. Fetal toxicity and teratogenicity were not significantly increased by exposure to microwaves on either Days 1-6 or 6-15 of gestation. Cholinesterase activity and histology of the brain of 18-day-old fetuses were not adversely affected.

Nawrot, P.S.; McRee, D.I.; Galvin, M.J.

1985-04-01

370

Are animal models useful for studying human disc disorders/degeneration?  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is an often investigated pathophysiological condition because of its implication in causing low back pain. As human material for such studies is difficult to obtain because of ethical and government regulatory restriction, animal tissue, organs and in vivo models have often been used for this purpose. However, there are many differences in cell population, tissue composition, disc and spine anatomy, development, physiology and mechanical properties, between animal species and human. Both naturally occurring and induced degenerative changes may differ significantly from those seen in humans. This paper reviews the many animal models developed for the study of IVD degeneration aetiopathogenesis and treatments thereof. In particular, the limitations and relevance of these models to the human condition are examined, and some general consensus guidelines are presented. Although animal models are invaluable to increase our understanding of disc biology, because of the differences between species, care must be taken when used to study human disc degeneration and much more effort is needed to facilitate research on human disc material. PMID:17632738

Eisenstein, Stephen M.; Ito, Keita; Little, Christopher; Kettler, A. Annette; Masuda, Koichi; Melrose, James; Ralphs, Jim; Stokes, Ian; Wilke, Hans Joachim

2007-01-01

371

Fabrication of Nano-Injection Needles for Neural Pathway Study in Mice  

E-print Network

: · To fabricate microneedles to deliver pico-liter volumes of virus into the visual cortex of mice · To study to the right. #12;Design Consideration · Research on microneedles began in the late 1990s, when the sale of MEMS devices increased by 15 ­ 20% per year · Out-of-plane microneedle array are not long enough

Wu, Jayne

372

Genetically engineered mice for studies of stress-related clinical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered mice with a specific deletion of targeted genes provide a novel and useful tool to study the endogenous mechanisms underlying aberrant behaviour. In this review we take the stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical) system as an example to demonstrate how refined molecular technologies have allowed to target individual genes involved in stress hormone regulation. We describe different gene targeting methods:

Marianne B Müller; Martin E Keck

2002-01-01

373

Mayo Clinic study finds nutritional supplement works against some pancreatic cancer cells in mice  

Cancer.gov

The dietary supplement gamma-linolenic acid can inhibit the growth of a subset of pancreatic cancer cells and selectively promote cancer cell death in mice, a Mayo Clinic study has found. The supplement, a fatty acid also known as GLA, worked particularly well when combined with the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine, the researchers say.

374

Mast cells in renal inflammation and fibrosis: lessons learnt from animal studies.  

PubMed

Mast cells are hematopoietic cells involved in inflammation and immunity and have been recognized also as important effector cells in kidney inflammation. In humans, only a few mast cells reside in kidneys constitutively but in progressive renal diseases their numbers increase substantially representing an essential part of the interstitial infiltrate of inflammatory cells. Recent data obtained in experimental animal models have emphasized a complex role of these cells and the mediators they release as they have been shown both to promote, but also to protect from disease and fibrosis development. Sometimes conflicting results have been reported in similar models suggesting a very narrow window between these activities depending on the pathophysiological context. Interestingly in mice, mast cell or mast cell mediator specific actions became also apparent in the absence of significant mast cell kidney infiltration supporting systemic or regional actions via draining lymph nodes or kidney capsules. Many of their activities rely on the capacity of mast cells to release, in a timely controlled manner, a wide range of inflammatory mediators, which can promote anti-inflammatory actions and repair activities that contribute to healing, but in some circumstances or in case of inappropriate regulation may also promote kidney disease. PMID:24793464

Madjene, Lydia Celia; Pons, Maguelonne; Danelli, Luca; Claver, Julien; Ali, Liza; Madera-Salcedo, Iris K; Kassas, Asma; Pellefigues, Christophe; Marquet, Florian; Dadah, Albert; Attout, Tarik; El-Ghoneimi, Alaa; Gautier, Gregory; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Daugas, Eric; Launay, Pierre; Blank, Ulrich

2015-01-01

375

Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal studies?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative assessment of the strength and toughness of bone has become an integral part of many biological and bioengineering studies on the structural properties of bone and their degradation due to aging, disease and therapeutic treatment. Whereas the biomechanical techniques for characterizing bone strength are well documented, few studies have focused on the theory, methodology, and various experimental procedures for evaluating the fracture toughness of bone, i.e., its resistance to fracture, with particular reference to whole bone testing in small animal studies. In this tutorial, we consider the many techniques for evaluating toughness and assess their specific relevance and application to the mechanical testing of small animal bones. Parallel experimental studies on wild-type rat and mouse femurs are used to evaluate the utility of these techniques and specifically to determine the coefficient of variation of the measured toughness values. PMID:18647665

Ritchie, R.O.; Koester, K.J.; Ionova, S.; Yao, W.; Lane, N.E.; Ager, J.W.

2013-01-01

376

Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. I - Physiological studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were carried out on pocket mice to ascertain their tolerance to elevated oxygen pressures alone and to a combination of hyperoxia and heat in excess of that expected during the flight of the mice on Apollo XVII. The mice withstood oxygen partial pressures up to 12 psi at normal room temperature (24 C, 75 F) over a period of 7 days. A few mice previously exposed to increased PO2 died in the course of exposure to an oxygen pressure of 10 psi or 12 psi (517 mm or 620 mm Hg) for 13 d in ambient heat of 32 C (90 F). Supplemental vitamin E and physiological saline loading given prior to exposure had no apparent protective effect. The overall conclusion was that the pocket mice which were to go on Apollo XVII could readily survive the ambient atmosphere to which they would be exposed.

Leon, H. A.; Suri, K.; Mctigue, M.; Smith, J.; Cooper, W.; Miquel, J.; Ashley, W. W.; Behnke, A. R., Jr.; Saunders, J. F.

1975-01-01

377

Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting  

PubMed Central

Nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms encountered in medicine as either symptoms of disease or side effects of treatments. Developing novel anti-emetics and identifying emetic liability in novel chemical entities rely on models that can recreate the complexity of these multi-system reflexes. Animal models (especially the ferret and dog) are the current gold standard; however, the selection of appropriate models is still a matter of debate, especially when studying the subjective human sensation of nausea. Furthermore, these studies are associated with animal suffering. Here, following a recent workshop held to review the utility of animal models in nausea and vomiting research, we discuss the limitations of some of the current models in the context of basic research, anti-emetic development and emetic liability detection. We provide suggestions for how these limitations may be overcome using non-animal alternatives, including greater use of human volunteers, in silico and in vitro techniques and lower organisms. PMID:19371333

Holmes, AM; Rudd, JA; Tattersall, FD; Aziz, Q; Andrews, PLR

2009-01-01

378

Selection of an appropriate animal model for study of bone loss in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prolonged weightlessness in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. A number of preventative measures have been suggested, i.e., exercise during flight, dietary calcium supplements, use of specific prophylactic drugs. In order to facilitate research in these areas it is necessary to develop appropriate ground-based animal models that simulate the human condition of osteoporsis. An appropriate animal model would permit bone density studies, calcium balance studies, biochemical analyses, ground-based simulation models of weightlessness (bed rest, restraint, immobilization) and the planning of inflight experiments. Several animal models have been proposed in the biomedical research literature, but have inherent deficiencies. The purpose of this project was to evaluate models in the literature and determine which of these most closely simulates the phenomenon of bone loss in humans with regard to growth, bone remodeling, structural, chemical and mineralization similarities to human. This was accomplished by a comprehensive computer assisted literature search and report. Three animal models were examined closely for their relative suitability: the albino rat, monkey, and Beagle.

Wolinsky, I.

1986-01-01

379

Performance evaluation of a mouse-sized camera for dynamic studies in small animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mouse sized camera has been built in terms of collaboration between the presenting institutions. The system is used for the performance of dynamic studies in small animals, in order to evaluate novel radiopharmaceuticals. The active area of the detector is approximately 48×96 mm allowing depiction of the entire mouse in a single view. The system is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator. In this work, the evaluation results of the system are presented, using phantoms and small animals injected with conventional radiophrmaceuticals. Average resolution was ˜1.6 mm on the collimator surface and increased to ˜4.1 mm in 12 cm distance from the detector. The average energy resolution was measured and found to be ˜15.6% for Tc 99m. Results from imaging thin capillaries demonstrated system's high resolution and sensitivity in activity variations was shown. Initial dynamic studies have been carried out in small animals injected with Tc 99m-DTPA and Tc 99m-MDP. The results show system's ability to perform kinetic imaging in small animals.

Loudos, George; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randy; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakellios, Nicolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Varvarigou, Alexandra

2007-02-01

380

Development of a high-sensitivity BGO well counter for small animal PET studies.  

PubMed

In quantitative measurements of small animal PET studies, blood sampling is limited due to the small amounts of blood such animals can provide. In addition, injection doses are quite limited. In this situation, a high-sensitivity well counter would be useful for reducing the amount of the blood sample needed from small animals. Bismuth germinate (BGO) has a high stopping power for high-energy gamma rays compared to NaI(Tl), which is commonly used for conventional well counters. We have developed a BGO well counter and have tested it for blood-sampling measurements in small animals. The BGO well counter uses a square BGO block (59 × 59 × 50 mm) with a square open space (27 × 27 × 34 mm) in the center of the block. The BGO block was optically coupled to a 59-mm square-shaped photomultiplier tube (PMT). Signals from the PMT were digitally processed for the integration and energy window setting. The results showed that the energy spectrum of the BGO well counter measured with a Na-22 point source provided counts that were about 6 times higher for a 1022-keV (511 keV × 2) gamma peak than the spectrum of a 2-in. NaI(Tl) well counter. The relative sensitivity of the developed BGO well counter was 3.4 times higher than that of a NaI(Tl) well counter. The time activity curve of arterial blood was obtained successfully with the BGO well counter for a F-18-FDG study on rat. The BGO well counter will contribute to reducing the amount of sampled blood and to improving the throughput of quantitative measurements in small animal PET studies. PMID:21987349

Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Tadashi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun

2012-01-01

381

Behavioral and pharmaco-toxicological study of Papaver rhoeas L. in mice.  

PubMed

A lyophilized ethanolic aqueous extract of Papaver rhoeas petals was evaluated for its behavioral and pharmaco-toxicological effects in mice and its chemical composition was studied using thin layer chromatography (TLC). In this study, chemical analysis by TLC showed that the petals contain some anthocyanins, whereas no alkaloids were detected. The toxicological effect of alcoholic and aqueous plant extract administered intraperitoneally was determined in mice. The toxicological results obtained indicated that 2000 mg/kg is LD10 and 4000 mg/kg is LD50. Behavioral and pharmacological studies of ethanolic and aqueous extract showed that the plant extract reduced locomotory, exploratory and postural behavior of mice. This was evaluated through two specific behavioral tests; a non-familiar environment test (the Staircase test) and a familiar environment test (Free exploratory test). These behavioral and pharmacological effects are more pronounced when the solvent used for extraction is 10% ethanol and is not antagonized by benzodiazepines, opioids, dopaminergic and cholinergic compounds (flumazenil, naloxone, sulpuride and atropine). The plant extract did not induce sleep in mice after treatment with an infrahypnotic dose of pentobarbital. This finding shows that the plant extract has a sedative effect at a 400 mg/kg dosage. PMID:11274828

Soulimani, R; Younos, C; Jarmouni-Idrissi, S; Bousta, D; Khallouki, F; Khalouki, F; Laila, A

2001-03-01

382

A comparative study of free oligosaccharides in the milk of domestic animals.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of oligosaccharides present in the milk of a variety of important domestic animals including cows, goats, sheep, pigs, horses and dromedary camels. Using an analytical workflow that included ultra-performance liquid chromatography-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight MS, detailed oligosaccharide libraries were established. The partial or full characterisation of the neutral/fucosylated, phosphorylated and sialylated structures was facilitated by sequencing with linkage- and sugar-specific exoglycosidases. Relative peak quantification of the 2-aminobenzamide-labelled oligosaccharides provided additional information. Milk from domestic animals contained a much larger variety of complex oligosaccharides than was previously assumed, and thirteen of these structures have been identified previously in human milk. The direct comparison of the oligosaccharide mixtures reflects their role in the postnatal maturation of different types of gastrointestinal systems, which, in this way, are prepared for certain post-weaning diets. The potential value of animal milk for the commercial extraction of oligosaccharides to be used in human and animal health is highlighted. PMID:24635885

Albrecht, Simone; Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Al Busadah, Khalid A; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M; Rudd, Pauline M

2014-04-14

383

Immunotoxicity of sodium bromate in female B6C3F1 mice: a 28-day drinking water study.  

PubMed

Bromate is one of the water disinfection by-products (DBPs) produced during the process of ozonation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunotoxic potential of sodium bromate (SB) in female B6C3F1 mice. SB was administered in the drinking water for 28 days at doses of 80-800 mg/l. There was no difference in drinking water consumption between the animals exposed to SB and the tap water controls. Exposure to SB did not produce any signs of overt toxicity. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in body weight, body weight gain, or the weights of thymus, liver, kidneys or lungs. No gross pathological lesions were observed in SB-treated animals. However, animals exposed to SB had a significant increase in absolute (28%) and relative (26%) spleen weights. The erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet count, total leukocyte count, and counts of differential leukocytes were unaffected by SB. A dose-related increase in reticulocytes was observed following exposure to SB with the greatest increase (78%) observed at the highest dose level. Overall, there were no changes in the absolute number of total T cells, CD4+CD8- T cells, CD4-CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages. Exposure to SB did not affect the percentage of B cells, although a slight increase in absolute number of B cells at the dose of 600 mg/l was observed. There was no alteration in IgM antibody-forming cell (AFC) response, mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) and NK cell activity after exposure to SB. When the activity of peritoneal macrophages, unstimulated or stimulated with IFN-gamma and LPS, was evaluated using the cytotoxic/cytostatic assay of B16F10 tumor cells, the suppressive effect of macrophages on the proliferation of B16F10 tumor cells was decreased after exposure to SB. In conclusion, SB, when administered in the drinking water at doses from 80 mg/l to 800 mg/l, produced minimal toxicological and immunotoxic effects in female B6C3F1 mice. PMID:11360431

Guo, T L; McCay, J A; Karrow, N A; Brown, R D; Musgrove, D L; Luebke, R W; Germolec, D R; White, K L

2001-05-01

384

Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

2002-06-01

385

Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies  

PubMed Central

Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445

Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.

2011-01-01

386

Animal health studies using participatory epidemiology in the Mandrare Valley, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Pastoral herders in Madagascar have limited access to animal health workers and veterinary medicines, and more information on their livestock diseases is needed, so that effective animal health programmes can be implemented. In this study, participatory epidemiology methods were used to gather such information in the Mandrare Valley. These included pair-wise ranking and matrix scoring. Eleven diseases were deemed to be priorities by pair-wise ranking. Matrix scoring and characterisation showed that the informant groups associated many disease syndromes with the same diseases, indicating agreement and understanding of the key diseases. The Malagasy-named syndromes, Soko, Besorko and Mamany lio, which are gastrointestinal parasitism, clostridial disease and babesiosis, respectively, were identified by every informant group. A greater sample size may be needed to characterise the diseases precisely with matrix scoring because, in this study, the matrices' scores had wide confidence intervals. PMID:23999777

Bardsley, Elise L; Thrusfield, Michael V

2014-01-01

387

The use of SCID mice in biotechnology and as a model for human disease  

SciTech Connect

The use of SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice in medical research and biotechnology has increased tremendously in recent years. This review outlines the major characteristics of these animals and the impediments that they poise to the engraftment of human cells and tissues. The development of the SCID mice pretreatment protocol (anti-asialo GM 1 antisera and radiation) is described, and the results of xenotransplantation studies of human cells and tissues in these pretreated animals are outlined. Wherever possible, data from transplantation studies (of human tissues and cells) in pretreated and nonpretreated animals are compared. The potential of the pretreated SCID mice for medical research and biotechnology is discussed.

Sandhu, J.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Surgery]|[Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Samuel Lunenfeld Research Inst.; Boynton, E.; Gorczynski, R. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Surgery; Hozumi, N. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Samuel Lunenfeld Research Inst.

1996-05-01

388

Animal Models of Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subjects are used widely in the study of sleep and sleep disorders, the study of animals has been invaluable in developing our understanding about the physiology of sleep and the underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Historically, the use of animals for the study of sleep disorders has arguably been most fruitful for the condition of narcolepsy, in which studies of dogs and mice revealed previously unsuspected mechanisms for this condition. The current overview considers animal models that have been used to study 4 of the most common human sleep disorders—insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea—and summarizes considerations relevant to the use of animals for the study of sleep and sleep disorders. Animal-based research has been vital to the elucidation of mechanisms that underlie sleep, its regulation, and its disorders and undoubtedly will remain crucial for discovering and validating sleep mechanisms and testing interventions for sleep disorders. PMID:23582416

Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

2013-01-01

389

Preventing Intra-Abdominal Adhesions With Polylactic Acid Film: An Animal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an absorbable polylactic acid film (SurgiWrapTM) in preventing postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in an animal model.METHODS  Forty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laparotomy with subsequent cecal wall abrasion and abdominal wall injury. Rats were divided equally between untreated and treated groups. Treated rats had a polylactic acid film (SurgiWrapTM) placed between the

Shmuel Avital; Thomas J. Bollinger; James D. Wilkinson; Floriano Marchetti; Michael D. Hellinger; Laurence R. Sands

2005-01-01

390

The Human-Animal Team Approach for Children with Emotional Disorders: Two Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic potential of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) was assessed in two case studies of emotionally disturbed children. Two boys (11 and 12 years of age) participated in weekly AAT sessions for 12 weeks. Progress of individual goals was assessed through The ADD-H Comprehensive Teacher Rating Scale (ACTeRS), direct observation and videotapes of the therapy sessions, Individual Education Plans (IEP), and

Lori R. Kogan; Ben P. Granger; Jennifer A. Fitchett; Kimberly A. Helmer; Kaili J. Young

1999-01-01

391

The Pig as a Model Animal for Studying Cognition and Neurobehavioral Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In experimental animal research, a short phylogenetic distance, i.e., high resemblance between the model species and the species\\u000a to be modeled is expected to increase the relevance and generalizability of results obtained in the model species. The (mini)pig\\u000a shows multiple advantageous characteristics that have led to an increase in the use of this species in studies modeling human\\u000a medical issues,

Elise T. Gieling; Teun Schuurman; Rebecca E. Nordquist; F. Josef van der Staay

2011-01-01

392

A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.  

PubMed

To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys. PMID:23444337

Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

2013-09-01

393

Inhalation studies of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash in animals. I. Introduction and exposure system  

SciTech Connect

Due to the lack of information on the effects of inhaled Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash and its potential interaction with sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), animal studies were performed to determine the acute and chronic health effects of a short-term exposure. This paper describes the inhalation exposure system designed for these studies and theoretically compares the pulmonary deposition in the rats to that in humans. Considering the similarities and differences in regional pulmonary deposition in humans and animals, inhalation studies were performed with fine-mode (less than 2.5 micron aerodynamic diameter, Dae) ash. Comparisons to coarse-mode (greater than 2.5 micron Dae) ash were made using intratracheal instillation. A whole-body exposure system was designed to provide inhalation exposures of animals to Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash, SO2, or a combination of both. All exposures were conducted using fine-mode ash samples generated by a Wright dust feed mechanism at a mean concentration of 9.4 mg/m/sup 3/ SD. Sulfur dioxide was maintained at 2.5 mg/m/sup 3/ SD. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence were used to characterize the ash.

Graham, J.A.; Miller, F.J.; Davies, D.W.; Hiteshew, M.E.; Walsh, L.C.

1985-06-01

394

Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

Klump, Kelly L

2013-07-01

395

Possible carcinogenic effects of X-rays in a transgenerational study with CBA mice.  

PubMed

A lifetime experiment using 4279 CBA/J mice was carried out to investigate whether the pre-conceptual exposure of sperm cells to X-ray radiation or urethane would result in an increased cancer risk in the untreated progeny, and/or increased susceptibility to cancer following exposure to a promoting agent. The study consisted of four main groups, namely a control group (saline), a urethane group (1 mg/g body wt) and two X-ray radiation groups (1 Gy, 2 Gy). At 1, 3 and 9 weeks after treatment, the males of these four parental groups were mated with untreated virgin females. The offspring of each parental group was divided into two subgroups: one received s.c. urethane (0.1 mg/g body wt once) as a promoter, the other saline, at the age of 6 weeks. All animals were evaluated for the occurrence of tumours. K-ras oncogene and p53 tumour suppressor gene mutations were investigated in frozen lung tumour samples. The female offspring of male parents exposed to X-rays 1 week before their mating showed a trend towards a higher tumour incidence of the haematopoietic system than the F1 controls. In addition, a higher percentage of bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinomas in male offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 1 week after X-ray treatment points to a plausible increased sensitivity of post-meiotic germ cell stages towards transgenerational carcinogenic effects. On the other hand, no increased tumour incidence and malignancy were observed in the offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 3 and 9 weeks after X-ray treatment. Paternal urethane treatment 1, 3 and 9 weeks prior to conception did not result in significantly altered incidence or malignancy of tumours of the lung, liver and haematopoietic tissue in the offspring. K-ras mutations increased during tumour progression from bronchioloalveolar hyperplasia to adenoma. Codon 61 K-ras mutations were more frequent in lung tumours of urethane-promoted progeny from irradiated parents than from control parents. P53 mutations were absent from these lung alterations. PMID:10069472

Mohr, U; Dasenbrock, C; Tillmann, T; Kohler, M; Kamino, K; Hagemann, G; Morawietz, G; Campo, E; Cazorla, M; Fernandez, P; Hernandez, L; Cardesa, A; Tomatis, L

1999-02-01

396

Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies  

PubMed Central

Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective and tiered approaches in animal testing are discussed. PMID:23777200

Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

2013-01-01

397

Animal Population Dynamics Jennifer Gervais  

E-print Network

1 Animal Population Dynamics Jennifer Gervais Weniger 449 737-6122 jennifer Press. In The Beginning... Population fluctuations of animals have been recognized for millenia However of epidemic diseases among wild animals 1942: Voles, Mice and Lemmings: Problems in Population Dynamics 1958

Gervais, Jennifer

398

LDL Receptor Knock-Out Mice Are a Physiological Model Particularly Vulnerable to Study the Onset of Inflammation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) involves steatosis combined with inflammation, which can progress into fibrosis and cirrhosis. Exploring the molecular mechanisms of NASH is highly dependent on the availability of animal models. Currently, the most commonly used animal models for NASH imitate particularly late stages of human disease. Thus, there is a need for an animal model that can be used for investigating the factors that potentiate the inflammatory response within NASH. We have previously shown that 7-day high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFC) feeding induces steatosis and inflammation in both APOE2ki and Ldlr?/? mice. However, it is not known whether the early inflammatory response observed in these mice will sustain over time and lead to liver damage. We hypothesized that the inflammatory response in both models is sufficient to induce liver damage over time. Methods APOE2ki and Ldlr?/? mice were fed a chow or HFC diet for 3 months. C57Bl6/J mice were used as control. Results Surprisingly, hepatic inflammation was abolished in APOE2ki mice, while it was sustained in Ldlr?/? mice. In addition, increased apoptosis and hepatic fibrosis was only demonstrated in Ldlr?/? mice. Finally, bone-marrow-derived-macrophages of Ldlr?/? mice showed an increased inflammatory response after oxidized LDL (oxLDL) loading compared to APOE2ki mice. Conclusion Ldlr?/? mice, but not APOE2ki mice, developed sustained hepatic inflammation and liver damage upon long term HFC feeding due to increased sensitivity for oxLDL uptake. Therefore, the Ldlr?/? mice are a promising physiological model particularly vulnerable for investigating the onset of hepatic inflammation in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:22295101

Bieghs, Veerle; Van Gorp, Patrick J.; Wouters, Kristiaan; Hendrikx, Tim; Gijbels, Marion J.; van Bilsen, Marc; Bakker, Jaap; Binder, Christoph J.; Lutjohann, Dieter; Staels, Bart; Hofker, Marten H.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

2012-01-01

399

Different Susceptibility to Neurodegeneration of Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus: A Study with Transgenic Mice Overexpressing GSK3?  

PubMed Central

Dorsal hippocampal regions are involved in memory and learning processes, while ventral areas are related to emotional and anxiety processes. Hippocampal dependent memory and behaviour alterations do not always come out in neurodegenerative diseases at the same time. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus (DG) regions respond in a different manner to increased glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) levels in GSK3? transgenic mice, a genetic model of neurodegeneration. Reactive astrocytosis indicate tissue stress in dorsal DG, while ventral area does not show that marker. These changes occurred with a significant reduction of total cell number and with a significantly higher level of cell death in dorsal area than in ventral one as measured by fractin-positive cells. Biochemistry analysis showed higher levels of phosphorylated GSK3? in those residues that inactivate the enzyme in hippocampal ventral areas compared with dorsal area suggesting that the observed susceptibility is in part due to different GSK3 regulation. Previous studies carried out with this animal model had demonstrated impairment in Morris Water Maze and Object recognition tests point out to dorsal hippocampal atrophy. Here, we show that two tests used to evaluate emotional status, the light–dark box and the novelty suppressed feeding test, suggest that GSK3? mice do not show any anxiety-related disorder. Thus, our results demonstrate that in vivo overexpression of GSK3? results in dorsal but not ventral hippocampal DG neurodegeneration and suggest that both areas do not behave in a similar manner in neurodegenerative processes. PMID:22073301

Fuster-Matanzo, Almudena; Llorens-Martin, Maria; de Barreda, Elena Gomez; Avila, Jesus; Hernandez, Felix

2011-01-01

400

Murine models of premature ageing for the study of diet-induced immune changes: improvement of leucocyte functions in two strains of old prematurely ageing mice by dietary supplementation with sulphur-containing antioxidants.  

PubMed

Several immune functions are markers of health, biological age and predictors of longevity. A chronic oxidative and inflammatory state is the main cause of ageing and the immune system is involved in the rate of ageing. Thus, several murine models of premature ageing have been proposed owing to their early immunosenescence and oxidative stress, such as ovariectomised rats and mice, obese rats and anxious mice. In the last model, the most extensively studied by us, mice showing anxiety have an aged immune function and redox status as well as a shorter longevity in comparison with animals without anxiety of the same chronological age, being denominated prematurely ageing mice. A confirmation of the above is that the administration of diets supplemented with antioxidants improves the redox status and immune functions and increases the longevity of prematurely ageing mice. Antioxidant precursors of glutathione such as thioproline or N-acetylcysteine, which have a relevant role in ageing, have been the most widely investigated in adult prematurely ageing mice in our laboratory. In the present work, we have studied the effects of the ingestion for 5 weeks of a diet supplemented with 0·1% (w/w) thioproline+N-acetylcysteine on several functions of leucocytes from chronological old (69-73 weeks of age) prematurely ageing mice of two strains (Swiss and BALB/c). The results show an improvement of the immune functions, with their values becoming closer to those in adult animals (24±2 weeks). Thus, an adequate nutrition with antioxidants, even in aged subjects, could be a good strategy to retard ageing. PMID:20875196

De la Fuente, Mónica

2010-11-01

401

Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma  

PubMed Central

A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements, or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration, and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the comparative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link between experiments and studies of human cases. However, in order for mathematical simulations to be completely useful, the predictions will most likely have to be validated by detailed data from animal experiments. Some aspects of BINT can conceivably be studied in vitro. However, factors such as systemic response, brain edema, inflammation, vasospasm, or changes in synaptic transmission and behavior must be evaluated in experimental animals. Against this background, it is necessary that such animal experiments are carefully developed imitations of actual components in the blast injury. This paper describes and discusses examples of different designs of experimental models relevant to BINT. PMID:22485104

Risling, Marten; Davidsson, Johan

2012-01-01

402

Oxytocin in the Treatment of Dystocia in Mice  

PubMed Central

Physicians and veterinarians often prescribe oxytocin to treat dystocia. However, oxytocin administration to pregnant women or animals is not without risk. In the venue of laboratory animal medicine, the use of oxytocin may present confounding variables to research. Although oxytocin has been studied extensively, many of its physiologic effects and interactions with other hormones remain unclear. Investigator concerns about adverse and confounding effects of oxytocin in their research mice prompted the current review of oxytocin and its use to treat murine dystocia. Well-controlled studies of oxytocin in dystocic mice have not been conducted. However, in humans and other animals, inconsistent and adverse effects are well-documented. Limited knowledge of the complex physiologic and molecular mechanisms of action of oxytocin and scant support for the efficacy of oxytocin in dystocic mice fail to meet the standards of evidence-based veterinary medical practice. The administration of oxytocin is contraindicated in many cases of dystocia in research mice, and its use in dystocic mice may be unfounded. A brief review of oxytocin and the physiologic mechanisms of parturition are provided to support this conclusion. Alternative treatments for murine dystocia are discussed, and a holistic approach is advocated to better serve animal welfare and to safeguard the integrity of valuable research. Laboratory animal veterinarians overseeing the development of guidelines or standard operating procedures for technician or investigator treatment of dystocic mice should understand the effects of oxytocin administration in light of relevant research. PMID:22330862

Narver, Heather L

2012-01-01

403

Oxytocin in the treatment of dystocia in mice.  

PubMed

Physicians and veterinarians often prescribe oxytocin to treat dystocia. However, oxytocin administration to pregnant women or animals is not without risk. In the venue of laboratory animal medicine, the use of oxytocin may present confounding variables to research. Although oxytocin has been studied extensively, many of its physiologic effects and interactions with other hormones remain unclear. Investigator concerns about adverse and confounding effects of oxytocin in their research mice prompted the current review of oxytocin and its use to treat murine dystocia. Well-controlled studies of oxytocin in dystocic mice have not been conducted. However, in humans and other animals, inconsistent and adverse effects are well-documented. Limited knowledge of the complex physiologic and molecular mechanisms of action of oxytocin and scant support for the efficacy of oxytocin in dystocic mice fail to meet the standards of evidence-based veterinary medical practice. The administration of oxytocin is contraindicated in many cases of dystocia in research mice, and its use in dystocic mice may be unfounded. A brief review of oxytocin and the physiologic mechanisms of parturition are provided to support this conclusion. Alternative treatments for murine dystocia are discussed, and a holistic approach is advocated to better serve animal welfare and to safeguard the integrity of valuable research. Laboratory animal veterinarians overseeing the development of guidelines or standard operating procedures for technician or investigator treatment of dystocic mice should understand the effects of oxytocin administration in light of relevant research. PMID:22330862

Narver, Heather L

2012-01-01

404

Anti-scorpion venom activity of Andrographis paniculata: A combined and comparative study with anti-scorpion serum in mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-scorpion venom (ASV) property of Andrographis paniculata in comparison with anti-redscorpion venom serum and this study aimed to determine its combined effect with anti-redscorpion venom serum. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant AP was obtained using soxhlet apparatus. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus and Lyophilized monovalent enzyme refined immunoglobulin anti-scorpion venom serum (ASV) was used. Using lethal dose of scorpion venom (25.12?g/g), the venom neutralizing ability of plant extract (1 g/kg) and ASV individually as well as in combination was studied using in vivo and in vitro methods. Mean survival time, protection fold and percentage survival of animals over the period of 24 h were the parameters used. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: Ethanolic extract of AP (1 g/kg) showed some protective effect against scorpion venom. ASV was found more effective than plant extract. But, when plant extract and ASV were used in combination, potency of ASV was found to be increased both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions: Present study demonstrates that, both plant extract and ASV have their own scorpion venom neutralising ability in vivo and in vitro, but their combination is most effective in venom neutralizing ability. PMID:24501444

Kale, Ranjana S.; Bahekar, Satish E.; Nagpure, Shailesh R.; Salwe, Kartik J.

2013-01-01

405

Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

2014-01-01

406

Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.  

PubMed

The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified. PMID:24902039

Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gawe?, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

2014-07-01

407

Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.  

PubMed

Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. PMID:24863044

Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

2014-10-01

408

[Experimental animal study of the safety of biologically active food supplement obtained from ginseng root].  

PubMed

The aim of present study was an investigations of safety of product "Bioton-1" which is suggested as biologically active food additive. Long-term intake the product "Bioton-1" by the rats Wistar during 6 month at doses of 0.75 ml per kg of body weight hadn't an unfavorable effects on integral, biochemical, hemotologic and morphologic parameters of animals. It was shown on two generations of rats that "Bioton-1" hadn't an embryotoxic, gonadotoxic and teratogenic effects and also hadn't negative effect on growth and development of posterity of rats. Including into the diet of rats product "Bioton-1" at dose of 0.25 per kg of body weight during the whole life hadn't an effect on animals life duration. PMID:10943009

Sorokina, E Iu; Aksiuk, I N; Kirpatovskaia, N A; Levitskaia, A B

2000-01-01

409

Mitochondrial uncoupling prevents cold-induced oxidative stress: a case study using UCP1 knockout mice.  

PubMed

The relationship between metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the mitochondria has often been (wrongly) viewed as straightforward, with increased metabolism leading to higher generation of pro-oxidants. Insights into mitochondrial functioning show that oxygen consumption is principally coupled with either energy conversion as ATP or as heat, depending on whether the ATP-synthase or the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is driving respiration. However, these two processes might greatly differ in terms of oxidative costs. We used a cold challenge to investigate the oxidative stress consequences of an increased metabolism achieved either by the activation of an uncoupled mechanism (i.e. UCP1 activity) in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of wild-type mice or by ATP-dependent muscular shivering thermogenesis in mice deficient for UCP1. Although both mouse strains increased their metabolism by more than twofold when acclimatised for 4 weeks to moderate cold (12°C), only mice deficient for UCP1 suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress. When exposed to cold, mice deficient for UCP1 showed an increase of 20.2% in plasmatic reactive oxygen metabolites, 81.8% in muscular oxidized glutathione and 47.1% in muscular protein carbonyls. In contrast, there was no evidence of elevated levels of oxidative stress in the plasma, muscles or BAT of wild-type mice exposed to cold despite a drastic increase in BAT activity. Our study demonstrates differing oxidative costs linked to the functioning of two highly metabolically active organs during thermogenesis, and advises careful consideration of mitochondrial functioning when investigating the links between metabolism and oxidative stress. PMID:24265420

Stier, Antoine; Bize, Pierre; Habold, Caroline; Bouillaud, Frederic; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

2014-02-15

410

Cytokines and atherosclerosis: a comprehensive review of studies in mice  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, inflammation has emerged as a major driving force of atherosclerotic lesion development. It is now well-established that from early lesion to vulnerable plaque formation, numerous cellular and molecular inflammatory components participate in the disease process. The most prominent cells that invade in evolving lesions are monocyte-derived macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Both cell types produce a wide array of soluble inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines) which are critically important in the initiation and perpetuation of the disease. This review summarizes the currently available information from mouse studies on the contribution of a specified group of cytokines expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, viz. interleukins (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IL-20) and macrophage-associated cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF); interferon-? (IFN-?); colony stimulating factors G-CSF,-M-CSF,-GM-CSF) to atherogenesis. Emphasis is put on the consistency of the effects of these cytokines, i.e. inasmuch an effect depends on the experimental approach applied (overexpression/deletion, strain, gender, dietary conditions, and disease stage). An important outcome of this survey is (i) that only for a few cytokines there is sufficient consistent data allowing classifying them as typically proatherogenic (IL-1, IL-12, IL-18, MIF, IFN-?, TNF-?, and M-CSF) or antiatherogenic (IL-10) and (ii) that some cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and GM-CSF) can exert pro- or anti-atherogenic effects depending on the experimental conditions. This knowledge can be used for improved early detection, prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:18487233

Kleemann, Robert; Zadelaar, Susanne; Kooistra, Teake

2008-01-01

411

Abstract The use of video playback is a growing practice in animal behaviour. Studies that lead to unpredicted neg-  

E-print Network

in which the behaviour of the test animal in response to a video stimulus substantially differs fromAbstract The use of video playback is a growing practice in animal behaviour. Studies that lead review some of the published and unpublished studies that have led to negative results. Analysis

Schlupp, Ingo

412

Chronic alcohol consumption, abstinence and relapse: brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This chapter summarizes the peer-reviewed literature of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies on the effects of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption in both the animal and human brain. After a brief summary of the neuropathology of alcohol use disorders (AUD), we describe the primary brain metabolites measured by in vivo (1)H MRS. We then focus on published MRS studies of animal models of alcohol dependence and of treatment-seeking humans with AUD. We also summarize the scant MRS research on the much larger fraction of treatment-naïve individuals with AUD and the similarities and discrepancies relative to treatment-seekers. It is exceedingly apparent that premorbid and/or comorbid disorders/conditions, especially chronic smoking, among individuals with AUD contribute to the considerable variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurobiological and neurocognitive abnormalities in AUD. Therefore, we also review studies on the neurobiological consequences of the combined effects of chronic drinking and smoking in AUD. Finally, as AUD is characterized by a chronically relapsing/remitting course over lifetime and identification of those at greatest risk for relapse is important, we review (1)H MRS studies on brain spectroscopic measures that contribute to the prediction of relapse in AUD. We conclude with an overall assessment of the MRS research literature on brain alcohol effects, the role of animal and human studies in understanding the disease, and discuss the need of widely integrative MRS studies of cohorts that include individuals with comorbidies that are reflective of the general population with AUD. PMID:21688208

Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Durazzo, Timothy C; Ende, Gabriele

2013-01-01

413

Press Release No Blue Skies for Mice  

E-print Network

Seite 1/2 Press Release No Blue Skies for Mice Scientists at the University of Tübingen study to make intuitive sense: blue light from the sky is detected by the blue cones, while the greenish light the animals no advantage. "The green cones would `see' the light in the sky just like the blue cones

Tübingen, Universität

414

Allyl isothiocyanate as a potential inducer of paraoxonase-1--studies in cultured hepatocytes and in mice.  

PubMed

In this study, we tested the ability of structure-related isothiocyanates to induce the antiatherogenic enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in cultured hepatocytes. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and sulforaphane (SFN), but not butyl isothiocyanate (BITC) resulted in dose-dependent induction of PON1 transactivation in Huh7 cells in vitro. Induction of PON1 due to AITC was inhibited by the selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-antagonist T0070907. AITC was used in a subsequent in vivo study in mice (n = 10 per group, Western-type diet) to test its PON1 inducing activity. Unlike in cultured hepatocytes, AITC supplementation (15 mg/kg body weight) did not increase hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein levels in mice. Thus, it is suggested that AITC may be a potent inducer of PON1 in vitro, but not in mouse liver in vivo. PMID:22131196

Schrader, Charlotte; Graeser, Anne-Christin; Huebbe, Patricia; Wagner, Anika E; Rimbach, Gerald

2012-02-01

415

The debate on animal ADME studies in drug development: an update.  

PubMed

The preparation and release of the International Conference on Harmonisation guideline on safety evaluation of human metabolites and the technical progresses in bioanalysis have triggered an intense debate on the value of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion radiolabelled studies in animals. Some authors have radically challenged the traditional approach whereas others, while accepting the need of significant changes, argue that these studies remain an irreplaceable component of the preclinical registration dossier. This paper reviews som