Sample records for animal studies mice

  1. The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals with abnormal hair A V Kalueff1 and P Tuohimaa2 1 Department of Anatomy, Medical School; 2 Department behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test

  2. Animal Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Webster

    \\u000a Because of the potential danger of ventricular fibrillation (VF), numerous TASER conducted electrical weapon (CEW) studies\\u000a have been performed on animals. Holden et al. [1] injected M26 and X26 TASER waveforms to an electrode on the ventricular\\u000a epicardial surface of guinea pig isolated hearts, but were unable to induce VF. However, it is known that inducing sustained\\u000a VF in very

  3. Animation Studies - Animated Dialogues, 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lienors Torre

    There is need for a recorded history - perhaps more than one is necessary to fully reveal the multi-layered identity of animation in Australia. With animation's becoming an accepted discipline for study and source for critical writing, it becomes important to define each country's history of its foundations and growth, whatever the significance, to identify each national animation in its

  4. Selenium deficiency and fulvic acid supplementation induces fibrosis of cartilage and disturbs subchondral ossification in knee joints of mice: An animal model study of Kashin-Beck disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunlin Yang; Eduard Wolf; Kerstin Röser; Günter Delling; Peter K. Müller

    1993-01-01

    Kashin-Beck disease is an acquired, chronic and degenerative osteoarticular disorder. Selenium deficiency and fulvic acid in drinking water have been implicated in the cause of this disease. Pathologically, chondronecrosis of the growth plate and articular cartilage and subconsequent disturbance of ossification were observed in the joints. In this animal model study, mice were fed with a selenium deficient diet and

  5. Mice with Homozygous Disruption of the mdr2 P-Glycoprotein Gene A Novel Animal Model for Studies of Nonsuppurative Inflammatory Cholangitis and Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mauad, Thais H.; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M. J.; Dingemans, Koert P.; Smit, Jaap J. M.; Schinkel, Alfred H.; Notenboom, Robbert G. E.; van den Bergh Weerman, Marius A.; Verkruisen, Ronald P.; Groen, Albert K.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; van der Valk, Martin A.; Borst, Piet; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.

    1994-01-01

    The mouse mdr2gene (and its human homologue MDR3, also called MDR2) encodes a P-glycoprotein that is present in high concentration in the bile canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. The 129/OlaHsd mice with a homozygous disruption of the mdr2 gene (-/-mice) lack this P-glycoprotein in the canalicular membrane. These mice are unable to secrete phospholipids into bile, showing an essential role for the mdr2 P-glycoprotein in the transport of phosphatidylcholine across the canalicular membrane. The complete absence of phospholipids from bile leads to a hepatic disease, which becomes manifest shortly after birth and shows progression to an end stage in the course of 3 months. The liver pathology is that of a nonsuppurative inflammatory cholangitis with portal inflammation and ductular proliferation, consistent with toxic in-jury of the biliary system from bile salts unaccompanied by phospholipids. Thus, the mdr2 (-/-) mice can serve as an animal model for studying mechanisms and potential interventions in nonsuppurative inflammatory cholangitis (in a generic sense) in human disease, be it congenital or acquired. When the mice are 4 to 6 months of age, preneoplastic lesions develop in the liver, progressing to metastatic liver cancer in the terminal phase. The mdr2 (-/-) mice therefore also provide a tumor progression model of value for the study of hepatic carcinogenesis. Interestingly, also in this regard, the model mimicks human disease, because chronic inflammation of the biliary system in humans may similarly carry increased cancer risk. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7977654

  6. Are NCAM deficient mice an animal model for schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Anne; Stork, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and biomarker studies in patients have identified the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) and its associated polysialic acid (PSA) as a susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. NCAM and polysialtransferase mutant mice have been generated that may serve as animal models for this disorder and allow to investigate underlying neurodevelopmental alterations. Indeed, various schizophrenia-relevant morphological, cognitive and emotional deficits have been observed in these mutants. Here we studied social interaction and attention of NCAM null mutant (NCAM?/?) mice as further hallmarks of schizophrenia. Nest building, which is generally associated with social behavior in rodents, was severely impaired, as NCAM?/? mice continuously collected smaller amounts of nest building material than their wild type littermates and built nests of poorer quality. However, social approach tested in a three—compartment—box was not affected and latent inhibition of Pavlovian fear memory was not disturbed in NCAM?/? mice. Although NCAM deficient mice do not display a typical schizophrenia-like phenotype, they may be useful for studying specific endophenotypes with relevance to the disease. PMID:22822393

  7. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia. PMID:17414418

  8. ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    ANIMAL SCIENCES Program of Study Research Facilities Applying The M.S. degree in Animal Sciences may be earned for a program of study in reproductive physiology, animal health, nutrition to assistantships in the Animal and Veterinary Sciences field devote half time to work as directed by their major

  9. Companion animal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

  11. BDNF restricted knockout mice as an animal model for aggression

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Wataru; Chehab, Mahmoud; Thakur, Siddarth; Li, Jiayang; Morozov, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Mice with global deletion of one BDNF allele, or with forebrain-restricted deletion of both alleles show elevated aggression, but this phenotype is accompanied by other behavioral changes, including increases in anxiety and deficits in cognition. Here, we performed behavioral characterization of conditional BDNF knockout mice generated using a Cre recombinase driver line, KA1-Cre, which expresses Cre in few areas of brain: highly at hippocampal area CA3, moderately in dentate gyrus, cerebellum and facial nerve nucleus. The mutant animals exhibited elevated conspecific aggression and social dominance, but did not show changes in anxiety-like behaviors assessed using the elevated plus maze and open field test. There were no changes in depression like behaviors tested in the forced swim test, but small increase in immobility in the tail suspension test. In cognitive tasks, mutants showed normal social recognition and normal spatial and fear memory, but exhibited a deficit in object recognition. Thus, this knockout can serve as a robust model of BDNF-dependent aggression and object recognition deficiency. PMID:21255268

  12. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  13. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  14. Of mice and men: olfactory neuroblastoma among animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Lubojemska, A; Borejko, M; Czapiewski, P; Dziadziuszko, R; Biernat, W

    2014-07-12

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumour of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that arises from the olfactory neuroepithelium and has unpredictable clinical course. As the sense of smell is phylogenetically one of the first senses and olfactory neuroepithelium is evolutionary conserved with striking similarities among different species, we performed an extensive analysis of the literature in order to evaluate the similarities and differences between animals and humans on the clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular level. Our analysis revealed that ONB was reported mainly in mammals and showed striking similarities to human ONB. These observations provide rationale for introduction of therapy modalities used in humans into the veterinary medicine. Animal models of neuroblastoma should be considered for the preclinical studies evaluating novel therapies for ONB. PMID:25041470

  15. Spleen changes in animals inhaling ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kuraitis, K.V.; Richters, A.; Sherwin, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The effects of ambient levels of NO/sub 2/ on the spleens of adult and newborn Swiss Webster (S/W) mice were determined. Spleens were evaluated by the following criteria: (1) spleen weight, expressed as a percent of the body weight (% spleen weight), (2) size of the spleen lymphoid nodules as determined by computed image analysis, (3) spleen cell counts, and (4) histopathologic evaluation. Data for NO/sub 2/-exposed animals were compared with data for control animals that inhaled filtered air. Totals of 217 control and 217 NO/sub 2/-exposed animals were studied. After 6 wk of exposure to NO/sub 2/ at ambient levels (0.35 +- 0.05 ppM), the following significant changes were observed in the spleens of exposed mice: (1) increase in % spleen weight (p <0.0025), (2) increase in size of spleen lymphoid nodules (p <0.01), (3) smaller increase in spleen cell number per given weight increment of spleen as determined by correlation coefficients (p <0.0125) and linear regression analysis of spleen cell counts, and (4) an apparently greater predominance of red cells in the red pulp. It is concluded that inhalation of NO/sub 2/ is associated with quantifiable spleen changes, which may prove to be useful indicators for assessing effects of inhaled NO/sub 2/.

  16. Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Remya; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Wong, Tien Y; Kern, Timothy S

    2012-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of DR has been investigated using several animal models of diabetes. These models have been generated by pharmacological induction, feeding a galactose diet, and spontaneously by selective inbreeding or genetic modification. Among the available animal models, rodents have been studied most extensively owing to their short generation time and the inherited hyperglycemia and/or obesity that affect certain strains. In particular, mice have proven useful for studying DR and evaluating novel therapies because of their amenability to genetic manipulation. Mouse models suitable for replicating the early, non-proliferative stages of the retinopathy have been characterized, but no animal model has yet been found to demonstrate all of the vascular and neural complications that are associated with the advanced, proliferative stages of DR that occur in humans. In this review, we summarize commonly used animal models of DR, and briefly outline the in vivo imaging techniques used for characterization of DR in these models. Through highlighting the ocular pathological findings, clinical implications, advantages and disadvantages of these models, we provide essential information for planning experimental studies of DR that will lead to new strategies for its prevention and treatment. PMID:22730475

  17. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  18. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.; Berry, W.

    1986-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rates on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hand-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity-dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space-adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferon production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatotrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythopoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  19. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  20. Detection of Corynebacterium bovis infection in athymic nude mice from a research animal facility in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Kim, Dong-Su; Han, Ju-Hee; Chang, Seo-Na; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) bovis infection in nude mice causes hyperkeratosis and weight loss and has been reported worldwide but not in Korea. In 2011, nude mice from an animal facility in Korea were found to have white flakes on their dorsal skin. Histopathological testing revealed that the mice had hyperkeratosis and Gram-positive bacteria were found in the skin. We identified isolated bacteria from the skin lesions as C. bovis using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. bovis infection in nude mice from Korea. PMID:24962412

  1. Thermal latency studies in opiate-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Schildhaus, Noam; Trink, Eliana; Polson, Chirs; DeTolla, Louis; Tyler, Betty M.; Jallo, George I.; Tok, Sino; Guarnieri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The change in the reaction time of a tail or paw exposed to a thermal stimulus is a measure of nociceptive activity in laboratory animals. Tail-flick and plantar thermal sensitivity (Hargreaves) tests are non-invasive, minimize stress, and can be used to screen animals for phenotype and drug activity. Objective: Hargreaves testing has been widely used in rats. We investigated its use to measure the activity of opiate analgesia in mice. Methods: Mice were used in thermal stimulus studies at 1-5 hours and 1-5 days to test acute and extended release preparations of buprenorphine. Results: Hargreaves testing had limited value at 1-5 hours because mice can have an obtunded response to opiate therapy. Tail-flick studies with restrained mice are not affected by the initial locomotor stimulation. Discussion: The present report describes a simple restraint system for mice. The utility of the system is demonstrated by examining the efficacy of acute and extended release buprenorphine injections in Balb/c and Swiss mice. Conclusion: Standardized tail-flick testing provides a sensitive robust method to monitor opiate activity in mice. PMID:24459403

  2. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  3. NOD.H-2h4 Mice: An Important and Underutilized Animal Model of Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Sjogren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braley-Mullen, Helen; Yu, Shiguang

    2015-01-01

    NOD.H-2h4 mice express the K haplotype on the NOD genetic background. They spontaneously develop thyroiditis and Sjogren's syndrome, but they do not develop diabetes. Although autoimmune thyroid diseases and Sjogren's syndrome are highly prevalent autoimmune diseases in humans, there has been relatively little emphasis on the use of animal models of these diseases for understanding basic mechanisms involved in development and therapy of chronic organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The goal of this review is to highlight some of the advantages of NOD.H-2h4 mice for studying basic mechanisms involved in development of autoimmunity. NOD.H-2h4 mice are one of relatively few animal models that develop organ-specific autoimmune diseases spontaneously, i.e., without a requirement for immunization with antigen and adjuvant, and in both sexes in a relatively short period of time. Thyroiditis and Sjogren's syndrome in NOD.H-2h4 mice are chronic autoimmune diseases that develop relatively early in life and persist for the life of the animal. Because the animals do not become clinically ill, the NOD.H-2h4 mouse provides an excellent model to test therapeutic protocols over a long period of time. The availability of several mutant mice on this background provides a means to address the impact of particular cells and molecules on the autoimmune diseases. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the only animal model in which the presence or absence of a single cytokine, IFN-?, is sufficient to completely inhibit one autoimmune thyroid disease, with a completely distinct autoimmune thyroid disease developing when it is absent. PMID:25727287

  4. Animal analogues for the study of dental and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Levy, B M

    1980-01-01

    The usual laboratory animals, such as rats and hamsters, may not fit the criteria for an analogue of human periodontal disease, although they may be useful in the study of dental caries. Rats, hamsters, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits have been the animals of choice in studies relating nutritional deficiencies and excesses to the dental and oral tissues. Gerbils, dogs, cats, horses, cows and fowl are useful in the study of mineralized tissues of teeth and bones. Recently, primate analogues have been developed for the study of periodontal diseaes and dental caries, the two most important dental diseases afflicting man. The use of a wide variety of laboratory animals in basic dental research makes it timely to review some of the guidelines for the selection of specific animals for particular diseases. PMID:6772511

  5. Animal Study on Primary Dysmenorrhoea Treatment at Different Administration Times

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Bao-Chan; Fang, Ling; Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Rui; Li, Ai-zhu

    2015-01-01

    The new methods of different administration times for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea are more widely used clinically; however, no obvious mechanism has been reported. Therefore, an animal model which is closer to clinical evaluation is indispensable. A novel animal experiment with different administration times, based on the mice oestrous cycle, for primary dysmenorrhoea treatment was explored in this study. Mice were randomly divided into two parts (one-cycle and three-cycle part) and each part includes five groups (12 mice per group), namely, Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) 6-day group, JQF last 3-day group, Yuanhu Zhitong tablet group, model control group, and normal control group. According to the one-way ANOVAs, results (writhing reaction, and PGF2?, PGE2, NO, and calcium ions analysis by ELISA) of the JQF cycle group were in accordance with those of JQF last 3-day group. Similarly, results of three-cycle continuous administration were consistent with those of one-cycle treatment. In conclusion, the consistency of the experimental results illustrated that the novel animal model based on mice oestrous cycle with different administration times is more reasonable and feasible and can be used to explore in-depth mechanism of drugs for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in future. PMID:25705236

  6. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R?szer, Tamás; Pintye, Éva; Benk?, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

  7. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Roszer, Tamas [Research Group of Apoptosis and Genomics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4012 Debrecen, PO Box 6. (Hungary); Pintye, Eva [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary); Benko', Ilona [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary)

    2008-12-08

    Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

  8. Selenium and diabetes - evidence from animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun; Lei, Xin Gen

    2013-01-01

    Whereas selenium was found to act as an insulin-mimic and to be anti-diabetic in earlier studies, recent animal experiments and human trials have shown unexpected risk of prolonged high Se intake in potentiating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Elevating dietary Se intakes (0.4 to 3.0 mg/kg of diet) above the nutrient requirements, similar to overproduction of selenoproteins, led to insulin resistance and(or) diabetes-like phenotypes in mice, rats, and pigs. Although its diabetogenic mechanism remains unclear, the high Se intake elevated activity or production of selenoproteins including GPx1, MsrB1, SelS, and SelP. This up-regulation diminished intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and then dys-regulated key regulators of ? cells and insulin synthesis and secretion, leading to chronic hyperinsulinaemia. Over-scavenging intracellular H2O2 also attenuated oxidative inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases and suppressed insulin signaling. High Se intake might affect expression and(or) function of key regulators for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipogenesis. Future research is needed to find out if certain forms of Se metabolites in addition to selenoproteins and if mechanisms other than intracellular redox control mediate the diabetogenic effect of high Se intakes. Furthermore, a potential interactive role of high Se intakes in the interphase of carcinogenesis and diabetogenesis should be explored to make the optimal use of Se in human nutrition and health. PMID:23867154

  9. Animal models for microbicide studies

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Shattock, Robin J; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P.

    2013-01-01

    There have been encouraging recent successes in the development of safe and effective topical microbicides to prevent vaginal or rectal HIV-1 transmission, based on the use of anti-retroviral drugs. However, much work remains to be accomplished before a microbicide becomes a standard element of prevention science strategies. Animal models should continue to play an important role in pre-clinical testing, with emphasis on safety, pharmacokinetic and efficacy testing. PMID:22264049

  10. CEW Research Models: Animal and Human Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore C. Chan; Gary M. Vilke

    \\u000a Research on CEWs has involved both animals and humans. Multiple investigators have conducted extensive, detailed and complex\\u000a experimental studies on animal models, as well as human volunteer subjects to measure, monitor, and determine the physiologic\\u000a effects of CEWs. The findings and results of these animal and human experimental studies have varied and, as a result, the\\u000a conclusions drawn by investigators

  11. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Working Party on Certification of Clinical Animal Behaviourists

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    ), and the Companion Animal Behaviour Therapy Study Group, which is an affiliated group of the British Small AnimalAssociation for the Study of Animal Behaviour Working Party on Certification of Clinical Animal for clinical animal behaviourists in the UK, similar to the Animal Behavior Society (ABS) Board of Professional

  12. Epigenetic Case Studies in Agricultural Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many biological processes, the regulation of gene expression involves epigenetic mechanisms. An altered pattern of epigenetic modification is central to many animal diseases. Using animal disease models, we have studied one of the major epigenetic components: DNA methylation. We characterized the...

  13. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: Sensitivity of C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Türkmen, Asl? Zengin; Ça?la, Büyüklü

    2015-05-01

    Food intake triggers convulsions in fasted BALB/c mice and Wistar albino rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs, scopolamine or atropine. Inbred strain studies have yielded considerable information regarding genetic influences on seizure susceptibility and factors contribute to epileptogenesis in rodents. This study, therefore, investigated sensitivity to antimuscarinic-induced seizures in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Food deprivation for 48h in mice and 52h in rats did not produce strain differences in body weight loss. Fasted animals treated i.p. with 3mg/kg scopolamine developed convulsions after food intake. The incidence of convulsions was indifferent in comparison to BALB/c mice and Wistar albino rats. Number of animals developing stage 5 was more and onset of convulsions was longer in C57BL/6J mice than in BALB/c mice. Strain-related differences in sensitivity to seizures in C57BL/6J mice may need further evaluation for investigating genetic influences on scopolamine-induced seizures. PMID:25847350

  14. Mice Drawer System: a Long Duration Animal Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotronei, Vittorio; Liu, Yi; Pignataro, Salvatore

    Mice represent one of the most important animal models for biomedical research. In the past decade mice have been used as surrogates to understand physiological adaption and its under-lying mechanisms to orbital spaceflight. A breakthrough in this field has been achieved with the launch of MDS experiment inside Shuttle Discovery (mission STS-128) on August 28, 2009 at 23:58 EST, and its re-entry to earth by Shuttle Atlantis (mission STS-129) on November 27 2009 at 9:47 EST, marking this as the first long duration animal experiment on the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). This presentation will provide the life history and milestones starting from the project brainstorm to the post-ground activities of the recent MDS payload mission. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) initiated and coordinated this multi-disciplinary project by focusing on five areas: the development of a multi-purpose automated payload by industry; bio-compatibility tests of subsystems throughout various critical phases of the payload development by researchers, development of a ground segment to interface with NASA Payload Operations Center and three different geographically distributed Italian Operations Centers; establishment of an international tissue sharing program; specialized bio-specimen intercontinental shipment. With close collaboration with NASA, activities such as pre-flight payload acceptance, animal preparation, in-flight crew intervention and re-entry animal recovery were smoothly and swiftly accomplished.

  15. Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

  16. Satellite animal tracking feasibility studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    A study was initiated in Tsavo National Park to determine movements and home ranges of individual elephants and their relations to overall distribution patterns and environmental factors such as rainfall. Methods used were radio tracking and observations of visually identifiable individuals. Aerial counts provided data on overall distribution. Two bulls and two cows were radio-tagged in Tsavo West and two bulls and four cows in Tsavo East, providing home range and movement data. The movements of individuals were useful in interpreting relatively major shifts in elephant distribution. Results point to the following preliminary conclusions: (1) elephants in the Tsavo area undertook long distance movements in fairly direct response to localized rainfall; (2) a subdivision of the overall population into locally distinct units may exist during the dry season but did not occur after significant rainfall; and (3) food appears to be the primary factor governing movements and distribution of elephants in the area.

  17. Optimum Transfer Guide: Animal Science Why Study Animal Science?

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    , nutrition, animal well being, breeding and genetics, physiology and with special- ties in cattle, horse clas- ses, guarantees that you will receive the highest quality education with the most current or minor while learning and living in a foreign country. Improve your for- eign language skills and learn

  18. Aged Mice Repeatedly Injected with Plasma from Young Mice: A Survival Study

    PubMed Central

    Shytikov, Dmytro; Balva, Olexiy; Debonneuil, Edouard; Glukhovskiy, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It was reported using various biological models that the administration of blood factors from young animals to old animals could rejuvenate certain functions. To assess the anti-aging effect of young blood we tested the influence of repeated injections of plasma from young mice on the lifespan of aged mice. One group of 36 CBA/Ca female mice aged 10–12 months was treated by repeated injections of plasma from 2- to 4-month-old females (averaging 75–150??L per injection, once intravenously and once intraperitoneally per week for 16 months). Their lifespan was compared to a control group that received saline injections. The median lifespan of mice from the control group was 27 months versus 26.4 months in plasma-treated group; the repeated injections of young plasma did not significantly impact either median or maximal lifespan. PMID:25371859

  19. Model systems for studying kisspeptin signalling: mice and cells.

    PubMed

    Colledge, William H; Doran, Joanne; Mei, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptins are a family of overlapping neuropeptides, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, that are required for activation and maintenance of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kisspeptins act within the hypothalamus to stimulate release of gonadotrophic releasing hormone and activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Robust model systems are required to dissect the regulatory mechanisms that control Kiss1 neuronal activity and to examine the molecular consequences of kisspeptin signalling. While studies in normal animals have been important in this, transgenic mice with targeted mutations affecting the kisspeptin signalling pathway have played a significant role in extending our understanding of kisspeptin physiology. Knock-out mice recapitulate the reproductive defects associated with mutations in humans and provide an experimentally tractable model system to interrogate regulatory feedback mechanisms. In addition, transgenic mice with cell-specific expression of modulator proteins such as the CRE recombinase or fluorescent reporter proteins such as GFP allow more sophisticated analyses such as cell or gene ablation or electrophysiological profiling. At a less complex level, immortalized cell lines have been useful for studying the role of kisspeptin in cell migration and metastasis and examining the intracellular signalling events associated with kisspeptin signalling. PMID:23550020

  20. Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Unsworth

    2005-03-31

    Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

  1. Transgenic mice with increased Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, C.J.; Avraham, K.B.; Lovett, M.; Smith, S.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Rotman, G.; Bry, C.; Groner, Y.

    1987-11-01

    Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene in a manner similar to that of humans, with 0.9- and 0.7-kilobase transcripts in a 1:4 ratio, and synthesize the human enzyme in an active form capable of forming human-mouse enzyme heterodimers. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity is increased from 1.6- to 6.0-fold in the brains of four transgenic strains and to an equal or lesser extent in several other tissues. These animals provide a unique system for studying the consequences of increased dosage of the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene in Down syndrome and the role of this enzyme in a variety of other pathological processes.

  2. Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    A search of the literature and the experiments carried out by the authors of this review show that there are a number of animal models where the effect of homeopathic dilutions or the principles of homeopathic medicine have been tested. The results relate to the immunostimulation by ultralow doses of antigens, the immunological models of the ‘simile’, the regulation of acute or chronic inflammatory processes and the use of homeopathic medicines in farming. The models utilized by different research groups are extremely etherogeneous and differ as the test medicines, the dilutions and the outcomes are concerned. Some experimental lines, particularly those utilizing mice models of immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of homeopathic complex formulations, give support to a real effect of homeopathic high dilutions in animals, but often these data are of preliminary nature and have not been independently replicated. The evidence emerging from animal models is supporting the traditional ‘simile’ rule, according to which ultralow doses of compounds, that in high doses are pathogenic, may have paradoxically a protective or curative effect. Despite a few encouraging observational studies, the effectiveness of the homeopathic prevention or therapy of infections in veterinary medicine is not sufficiently supported by randomized and controlled trials. PMID:16786046

  3. INTRODUCTION Studies of animal developmental processes have typically

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    animal experimental systems have been lacking for the study of animal/bacterial interactions experimental system for the study of the influence of bacteria on animal development. Taking advantageINTRODUCTION Studies of animal developmental processes have typically focused on defining

  4. Transgenic mice with increased Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Epstein; K. B. Avraham; M. Lovett; S. Smith; O. Elroy-Stein; G. Rotman; C. Bry; Y. Groner

    1987-01-01

    Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene

  5. Animal models of anxiety disorders in rats and mice: some conceptual issues

    PubMed Central

    Steimer, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Animal models can certainly be useful to find out more about the biological bases of anxiety disorders and develop new, more efficient pharmacological and/or behavioral treatments. However, many of the current “models of anxiety” in animals do not deal with pathology itself, but only with extreme forms of anxiety which are still in the normal, adaptive range. These models have certainly provided a lot of information on brain and behavioral mechanisms which could be involved in the etiology and physiopathology of anxiety disorders, but are usually not satisfactory when confronted directly with clinical syndromes. Further progress in this field will probably depend on the finding of endophenotypes which can be studied in both humans and animals with common methodological approaches. The emphasis should be on individual differences in vulnerability, which have to be included in animal models. Finally, progress will also depend on refining theoretical constructs from an interdisciplinary perspective, including psychiatry, psychology, behavioral sciences, genetics, and other neurosciences. PMID:22275854

  6. MOSFET assessment of radiation dose delivered to mice using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP).

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Korideck, Houari; Chin, Lee M; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I

    2011-12-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a novel isocentric irradiation system that enables state-of-the-art image-guided radiotherapy research to be performed with animal models. This paper reports the results obtained from investigations assessing the radiation dose delivered by the SARRP to different anatomical target volumes in mice. Surgically implanted metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) dosimeters were employed for the dose assessment. The results reveal differences between the calculated and measured dose of -3.5 to 0.5%, -5.2 to -0.7%, -3.9 to 0.5%, -5.9 to 2.5%, -5.5 to 0.5%, and -4.3 to 0% for the left kidney, liver, pancreas, prostate, left lung, and brain, respectively. Overall, the findings show less than 6% difference between the delivered and calculated dose, without tissue heterogeneity corrections. These results provide a useful assessment of the need for tissue heterogeneity corrections in SARRP dose calculations for clinically relevant tumor model sites. PMID:21962005

  7. A Case Study of Memory Loss in Mice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael S. Hudecki

    2001-01-01

    This discussion case explores the scientific process involved in implementing an animal model in the study of Alzheimer’s disease. Students read a short paragraph describing a study in which the brains of “trained” mice were injected with beta-amyloid fragments, which subsequently caused them to forget their tasks. The paragraph is a very short New York Times story reporting on an experimental study originally published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Based on the short description provided, students are asked to identify relevant components of the scientific method (problem, method, results, and conclusions). The case is suitable for a wide variety of science majors and non-majors courses.

  8. Animal escapology II: escape trajectory case studies

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Bacon, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Escape trajectories (ETs; measured as the angle relative to the direction of the threat) have been studied in many taxa using a variety of methodologies and definitions. Here, we provide a review of methodological issues followed by a survey of ET studies across animal taxa, including insects, crustaceans, molluscs, lizards, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. Variability in ETs is examined in terms of ecological significance and morpho-physiological constraints. The survey shows that certain escape strategies (single ETs and highly variable ETs within a limited angular sector) are found in most taxa reviewed here, suggesting that at least some of these ET distributions are the result of convergent evolution. High variability in ETs is found to be associated with multiple preferred trajectories in species from all taxa, and is suggested to provide unpredictability in the escape response. Random ETs are relatively rare and may be related to constraints in the manoeuvrability of the prey. Similarly, reports of the effect of refuges in the immediate environment are relatively uncommon, and mainly confined to lizards and mammals. This may be related to the fact that work on ETs carried out in laboratory settings has rarely provided shelters. Although there are a relatively large number of examples in the literature that suggest trends in the distribution of ETs, our understanding of animal escape strategies would benefit from a standardization of the analytical approach in the study of ETs, using circular statistics and related tests, in addition to the generation of large data sets. PMID:21753040

  9. Animal escapology II: escape trajectory case studies.

    PubMed

    Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M; Bacon, Jonathan P

    2011-08-01

    Escape trajectories (ETs; measured as the angle relative to the direction of the threat) have been studied in many taxa using a variety of methodologies and definitions. Here, we provide a review of methodological issues followed by a survey of ET studies across animal taxa, including insects, crustaceans, molluscs, lizards, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. Variability in ETs is examined in terms of ecological significance and morpho-physiological constraints. The survey shows that certain escape strategies (single ETs and highly variable ETs within a limited angular sector) are found in most taxa reviewed here, suggesting that at least some of these ET distributions are the result of convergent evolution. High variability in ETs is found to be associated with multiple preferred trajectories in species from all taxa, and is suggested to provide unpredictability in the escape response. Random ETs are relatively rare and may be related to constraints in the manoeuvrability of the prey. Similarly, reports of the effect of refuges in the immediate environment are relatively uncommon, and mainly confined to lizards and mammals. This may be related to the fact that work on ETs carried out in laboratory settings has rarely provided shelters. Although there are a relatively large number of examples in the literature that suggest trends in the distribution of ETs, our understanding of animal escape strategies would benefit from a standardization of the analytical approach in the study of ETs, using circular statistics and related tests, in addition to the generation of large data sets. PMID:21753040

  10. Why the Study of Animal Behavior Is Associated with the Animal Welfare Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold W. Gonyou

    2009-01-01

    Of the various disciplines within the modate normal behavior. The issue of behavioral animal sciences, the issue of animal welfare has been needs has been addressed and research interest in most closely associated with ethology, the study of motivation has developed. Preference tests have been animal behavior. Prior to the modern welfare move- used for their traditional role of improving

  11. Animal gaits from video: Comparative studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Favreau; Lionel Revéret; Christine Depraz; Marie-paule Cani

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for animating 3D models of animals from existing live video sequences such as wild life documentaries. Videos are first segmented into binary images on which principal component analysis (PCA) is applied. The time-varying coordinates of the images in the PCA space are then used to generate 3D animation. This is done through inter- polation with radial

  12. Toxicity of chromated copper arsenate: a study in mice.

    PubMed

    Matos, R C; Vieira, C; Morais, S; Pereira, M L; Pedrosa, J

    2010-07-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was widespread used as a chemical wood preservative with application in the construction of playground equipment, fences, jetties, and naval. Environmental protection agency (EPA) had limited the use of CCA-treated wood on 2002, due to probable implications on both human and environmental health. Although this fact, several industries pursue the use of this product within their manufactories. In addition, the durability of this wood for 60 years, makes these treated products an hazard to the public health. In the present work, studies were explored exposing mice to CCA, during 14, 24, 48, and 96 h for the assessment of acute toxicity of CCA. Kidney and liver were removed, prepared for histology and for metalloid, and copper content evaluation by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The histological results evidenced apparently normal structures for control animals and group exposed to As2O5. On the contrary, the renal sections of the animals treated with CCA revealed epithelium cells desquamation, hyaline, and granular casts in renal tubules lumen. Furthermore, high levels of arsenic were detected in the kidney of animals treated with CCA over 14 and 48 h, being significantly greater than controls. Although this approach underlines the potential hazard of CCA on some vital organs, further testing may be required to establish the impacts on other functions. PMID:20307876

  13. GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training (US Government Principles), the ASP1 GUIDELINE FOR COMPLETING THE NIH INTRAMURAL ANIMAL STUDY PROPOSAL FORM The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) Regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

  14. Alterations of myelin-specific proteins and sphingolipids characterize the brains of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, an animal model of Niemann-Pick disease type A.

    PubMed

    Buccinnà, Barbara; Piccinini, Marco; Prinetti, Alessandro; Scandroglio, Federica; Prioni, Simona; Valsecchi, Manuela; Votta, Barbara; Grifoni, Silvia; Lupino, Elisa; Ramondetti, Cristina; Schuchman, Edward H; Giordana, Maria Teresa; Sonnino, Sandro; Rinaudo, Maria Teresa

    2009-04-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation in lysosomes relying on reduced or absent acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity. NPD-A patients develop progressive neurodegeneration including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, relevant Purkinje cell and myelin deficiency with death within 3 years. ASM'knock-out' (ASMKO) mice, an animal model of NPD-A, develop a phenotype largely mimicking that of NPD-A. The mechanisms underlying myelin formation are poorly documented in ASMKO mice. In this study we determined the content of four myelin-specific proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and proteolipid protein (PLP), and that of myelin-enriched sphingolipids in the brains of ASMKO and wild-type mice in early stages of post-natal (pn) life. Protein and mRNA analysis revealed that in ASMKO mice beginning from 4 post-natal weeks (wk-pn), the expression levels of MAG, CNP, and MBP were below those observed in wild-type mice and the same applied to PLP at 10 wk-pn. Moreover, at 4 wk-pn the expression of SOX10, one of the transcription factors involved in oligodendrocyte development and maintenance was lower in ASMKO mice. Lipid analysis showed that SM and the gangliosides GM3 and GM2 accumulated in the brains of ASMKO mice, as opposed to galactocerebroside and galactosulfocerebroside that, in parallel with the mRNAs of UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 1, the two transferases involved in their synthesis, decreased. Myelin lipid analysis showed a progressive sphingomyelin accumulation in ASMKO mice; noteworthy, of the two sphingomyelin species known to be resolved by TLC, only that with the lower Rf accumulated. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the reduced expression of myelin specific proteins in ASMKO mice at 10 wk-pn was not restricted to the Purkinje layer of the cerebellar cortex but involved the cerebral cortex as well. In conclusion, reduced oligodendrocyte metabolic activity is likely to be the chief cause of myelin deficiency in ASMKO mice, thus shedding light on the molecular dysfunctions underlying neurodegeneration in NPD-A. PMID:19187445

  15. Gene Expression Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Mice Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Are Dependent on Animal Rearing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Satoshi; Hori, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Masakazu; Kubota, Natsuko; Niki, Rikio; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust. PMID:23940539

  16. Guidelines for Endpoints in Animal Study Proposals Introduction

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    in an experimental animal can be prevented, terminated, or relieved, while meeting the scientific aims and objectives1 Guidelines for Endpoints in Animal Study Proposals Introduction Endpoints appropriate to the species are a part of every Animal Study Proposal (ASP) and the ACUC must address the endpoint for every

  17. Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

  18. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  19. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: pprice@dow.com; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

  20. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. III - Effects on eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R. L.; Black, S.; Takahashi, A.; Leaffer, D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the eyes of eight pocket mice exposed to oxygen at partial pressures of 8, 10, or 12 psi over a period of 7 d. At the termination of the exposure, the animals were decompressed to sea-level O2, either immediately or over a period of 30, 60, or 90 min. No pathological changes were found in any of the eyes, except in the retina of one of the animals exposed to 12 psi O2. Here, only a single rod photoreceptor was found damaged, an observation not regarded as significant. Hence, an oxygen partial pressure as high as 12 psi in the canister in which pocket mice were expected to fly on Apollo XVII would probably have no deleterious effect on the eyes of the animals.

  1. Animal Care Studies with a Vocational Thrust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiences in establishing an animal caretaker program for New York City students. The program works with cooperation from the United Pet Dealers Association and support from the pet industry. (SA)

  2. Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies; Missing Link in Translational Research?

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Judith; Bakker, Brenda; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; de Vries, Rob B. M.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    Background The methodological quality of animal studies is an important factor hampering the translation of results from animal studies to a clinical setting. Systematic reviews of animal studies may provide a suitable method to assess and thereby improve their methodological quality. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the risk of bias assessment in animal-based systematic reviews, and 2) to study the internal validity of the primary animal studies included in these systematic reviews. Data Sources We systematically searched Pubmed and Embase for SRs of preclinical animal studies published between 2005 and 2012. Results A total of 91 systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed in 48 (52.7%) of these 91 systematic reviews. Thirty-three (36.3%) SRs provided sufficient information to evaluate the internal validity of the included studies. Of the evaluated primary studies, 24.6% was randomized, 14.6% reported blinding of the investigator/caretaker, 23.9% blinded the outcome assessment, and 23.1% reported drop-outs. Conclusions To improve the translation of animal data to clinical practice, systematic reviews of animal studies are worthwhile, but the internal validity of primary animal studies needs to be improved. Furthermore, risk of bias should be assessed by systematic reviews of animal studies to provide insight into the reliability of the available evidence. PMID:24670965

  3. Stanford study shows anxiety increases cancer severity in mice

    Cancer.gov

    In a new study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine, anxiety-prone mice developed more severe cancer then their calm counterparts. The study, published online April 25 in PLoS ONE, found that after hairless mice were dosed with ultraviolet rays, the nervous ones — with a penchant for reticence and risk aversion — developed more tumors and invasive cancer.

  4. In vivo functional studies of tumor-specific retrogene NanogP8 in transgenic animals

    PubMed Central

    Badeaux, Mark A; Jeter, Collene R; Gong, Shuai; Liu, Bigang; Suraneni, Mahipal V; Rundhaug, Joyce; Fischer, Susan M; Yang, Tao; Kusewitt, Donna; Tang, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to investigate potential oncogenic functions of NanogP8, a tumor-specific retrogene homolog of Nanog (expressed in pluripotent cells), in transgenic animal models. To this end, human primary prostate tumor-derived NanogP8 was targeted to the cytokeratin 14 (K14) cellular compartment, and two lines of K14-NanogP8 mice were derived. The line 1 animals, expressing high levels of NanogP8, experienced perinatal lethality and developmental abnormalities in multiple organs, including the skin, tongue, eye, and thymus in surviving animals. On postnatal day 5 transgenic skin, for example, there was increased c-Myc expression and Ki-67+ cells accompanied by profound abnormalities in skin development such as thickened interfollicular epidermis and dermis and lack of hypodermis and sebaceous glands. The line 3 mice, expressing low levels of NanogP8, were grossly normal except cataract development by 4–6 mo of age. Surprisingly, both lines of mice do not develop spontaneous tumors related to transgene expression. Even more unexpectedly, high levels of NanogP8 expression in L1 mice actually inhibited tumor development in a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model. Mechanistic studies revealed that constitutive NanogP8 overexpression in adult L1 mice reduced CD34+?6+ and Lrig-1+ bulge stem cells, impaired keratinocyte migration, and repressed the expression of many stem cell-associated genes, including Bmp5, Fgfr2, Jmjd1a, and Jun. Our study, for the first time, indicates that transgenically expressed human NanogP8 is biologically functional, but suggests that high levels of NanogP8 may disrupt normal developmental programs and inhibit tumor development by depleting stem cells. PMID:23839044

  5. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher's Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2011-12-01

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level. However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features when they watch only animations, mainly due to the cognitive load involved. Moreover, students seem to attribute a great deal of authority to the computer and may develop misconceptions by taking animations of abstract concepts too literally. In this study, we attempted to explore teachers' perceptions concerning the use of animations in the classroom while studying biotechnological methods, as well as the teachers' contribution to the enactment of animations in class. Thirty high-school biotechnology teachers participated in a professional development workshop, aimed at investigating how teachers plan for and support learning with animation while studying biotechnological methods in class. From that sample, two teachers agreed to participate in two case studies aimed at characterizing teachers' contribution to the enactment of animations in class while studying biotechnological methods. Our findings reveal marked teacher contribution in the following three aspects: establishing the "hands-on" point of view, helping students deal with the cognitive load that accompanies the use of animation, and implementing constructivist aspects of knowledge construction while studying using animations.

  6. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level. However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features…

  7. Guidelines for Diet Control in Behavioral Animal Studies Introduction

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    , gender, age, prior experimental manipulation, body condition, and/or hydration status of each animal that experimental animals on food or fluid control be weighed several times a week, ideally before experimental1 Guidelines for Diet Control in Behavioral Animal Studies Introduction The purpose

  8. Antipsychotic induced metabolic abnormalities: an interaction study with various PPAR modulators in mice.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, D K; Dwyer, D S; Bodhankar, S L

    2006-10-01

    Abnormalities in glucose and lipid regulation have been reported in schizophrenia during antipsychotic medications. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators viz. glimepiride, rosiglitazone and fenofibrate on chlorpromazine, clozapine and ziprasidone induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were orally treated with chlorpromazine, clozapine and ziprasidone concurrently with the antidiabetic medications for 7 days. Plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels were determined at the end of the study. Chlorpromazine and clozapine elevated the glucose and triglyceride levels in normal mice, with no effect on insulin but ziprasidone increased the basal triglyceride and insulin levels and did not have any effect on glucose. Glimepiride and rosiglitazone showed beneficial glucose and triglyceride lowering effects in chlorpromazine and clozapine animals and no effect on insulin levels. Fenofibrate significantly reduced the glucose levels only in animals treated with clozapine, and exhibited significant reduction of triglyceride levels in chlorpromazine, clozapine and ziprasidone treated animals. All three antidiabetic/hypolipidemic agents lowered triglyceride and insulin levels in ziprasidone treated animals. The results of the present studies suggest that hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia induced by various antipsychotics may involve diverse mechanisms. PMID:16828808

  9. Roles of Salivary Components in Streptococcus mutans Colonization in a New Animal Model Using NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tatsuro; Maeda, Takahide; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans plays an important role in biofilm formation on the tooth surface and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. The binding of S. mutans to the salivary pellicle is of considerable etiologic significance and is important in biofilm development. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice that show hyposalivation, lower salivary antibody, and an extended life span compared to the parent strain: NOD.e2f1?/?. In this study we used NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? 4 or 6 mice to determine the roles of several salivary components in S. mutans colonization in vivo. S. mutans colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice was significantly increased when mice were pre-treated with human saliva or commercial salivary components. Interestingly, pre-treatment with secretory IgA (sIgA) at physiological concentrations promoted significant colonization of S. mutans compared with sIgA at higher concentrations, or with human saliva or other components. Our data suggest the principal effects of specific sIgA on S. mutans occur during S. mutans colonization, where the appropriate concentration of specific sIgA may serve as an anti-microbial agent, agglutinin, or an adherence receptor to surface antigens. Further, specific sIgA supported biofilm formation when the mice were supplied 1% sucrose water and a non-sucrose diet. The data suggests that there are multiple effects exerted by sIgA in S. mutans colonization, with synergistic effects evident under the condition of sIgA and limited nutrients on colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice. This is a new animal model that can be used to assess prevention methods for dental biofilm-dependent diseases such as dental caries. PMID:22363797

  10. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher’s Role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagit YardenAnat Yarden; Anat Yarden

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines\\u000a have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level.\\u000a However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features when they watch only animations,\\u000a mainly due to the cognitive load involved.

  11. Effects of Cage Density, Sanitation Frequency, and Bedding Type on Animal Wellbeing and Health and Cage Environment in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disappearance, cage ammonia, ATP concentrations, behavior, morbidity, and mortality were assessed weekly; fecal corticosterone, microbiology, and lung histopathology (rats only) were evaluated at the culmination of the trial. In both rats and mice, parameters indicative of animal health and welfare were not significantly affected by cage density and sanitation frequency or bedding type. Occasional effects of feed disappearance and cage ammonia concentrations due to density and sanitation guidelines were noted in rat cages, and bedding type affected cage ammonia and ATP concentrations. Periodic spikes of cage ammonia and ATP concentrations were recorded in mouse cages maintained according to inhouse compared with Guide standards and in cages containing aspen compared with cellulose or aspen–cellulose mixed bedding. Ongoing studies and historical data support the finding that deviations or exceptions from the cage density and sanitation frequency standards set forth in the Guide do not negatively affect animal health, welfare, or production parameters at our institution. These parameters appear to be credible measures of animal health and wellbeing and may be useful for evaluating performance standards for animal husbandry. PMID:23294884

  12. Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington's disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Valdeolivas, Sara; Navarrete, Carmen; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Sagredo, Onintza

    2015-01-01

    Different plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids have shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) through cannabinoid receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Herein, we studied the effects of cannabigerol (CBG), a nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid, in 2 different in vivo models of HD. CBG was extremely active as neuroprotectant in mice intoxicated with 3-nitropropionate (3NP), improving motor deficits and preserving striatal neurons against 3NP toxicity. In addition, CBG attenuated the reactive microgliosis and the upregulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3NP, and improved the levels of antioxidant defenses that were also significantly reduced by 3NP. We also investigated the neuroprotective properties of CBG in R6/2 mice. Treatment with this phytocannabinoid produced a much lower, but significant, recovery in the deteriorated rotarod performance typical of R6/2 mice. Using HD array analysis, we were able to identify a series of genes linked to this disease (e.g., symplekin, Sin3a, Rcor1, histone deacetylase 2, huntingtin-associated protein 1, ? subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (GABA-A), and hippocalcin), whose expression was altered in R6/2 mice but partially normalized by CBG treatment. We also observed a modest improvement in the gene expression for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), which is altered in these mice, as well as a small, but significant, reduction in the aggregation of mutant huntingtin in the striatal parenchyma in CBG-treated animals. In conclusion, our results open new research avenues for the use of CBG, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids or therapies, for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as HD. PMID:25252936

  13. Study of interaction of tramadol with amlodipine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Hiral; Mazumdar, Bipa; Bhatt, Jagatkumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study a possible interaction between tramadol, an opioid analgesic and amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with proposed antinociceptive property. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of Haffkine strain were used for the study. The experiment was carried out using tail-flick method. Different doses of tramadol (50 mg/kg, 22.8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to select the nonanalgesic dose. The animals were treated with different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg, 3.5 mg/kg) to study its antinociceptive action. Combination of different doses of both the drugs were administered to study antinociceptive effect of the combination. Results: Tramadol, showed dose dependent antinociception which persisted for entire two hours of the study period. Antinociceptive action was seen with amlodipine at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg. Different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg) in combination with the nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) produced a significant enhancement of antinociceptive effect of tramadol. Combination of 3.5 mg/kg dose of amlodipine with nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) further enhances antinociceptive activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that combination of amlodipine, a N - type calcium channel blocker, with tramadol produce significant enhancement of antinociceptive activity of tramadol. PMID:23543914

  14. CENSHARE - Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1981 at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health, the Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) is an umbrella organization that supports groups that aim to educate about the human animal relationship and the environment they share. This mission of this education is to improve the quality of life for both, encourage scientific study of such relationships, and also serve as a resource for the community on these relationships. Visitors should check out the thorough explanation of "Animal Assisted Therapy" (AAT), and learn how it differs from, say, Animal Assisted Activities (AAA). As animal therapy can be stressful on the animal if it is not properly trained for such demanding work, the AAT link gives helpful tips to visitors on how to get an animal ready to be a therapy animal. Visitors will also learn from the AAT link that such animals have been evaluated and registered by national groups that specialize in therapy animals, but are not given the federal protections that specially-trained service dogs are, such as access to public transportation and public buildings. Finally, visitors should check out the "Companion Animals in Care Environments" link. Here they can read a bittersweet story titled "Lessons to be Learned from the Saga of Mae" which addresses the considerations that should be made when deciding whether to allow a resident animal in a care facility.

  15. Cytogenetic studies of mice chronically fed carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Director, A.E. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ramsey, M.J.; Tucker, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Over the past few years, we have carried out chronic feeding studies in C57BL/6 female mice. These experiments examined the effect of the chronic ingestion of a single chemical carcinogen on chromosomes. The carcinogens studied were PhIP,MeIQx, cyclophosphamide and urethane. These studies used traditional assays, such as SCEs and MN, as well as chromosome painting. In all four cases, the traditional assays showed an increase in the frequency of lesions, demonstrating that the chemicals, and/or their reactive metabolites, reached the target nuclei. This, however, seemed at odds with the data obtained from chromosome painting, which did not show an increase in the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations. This discrepancy between traditional assays and chromosome painting may be due to the nature of the lesions that each assay identifies. The traditional assays tend to identify lesions on the chromatid level, where as chromosome painting identifies lesions on the chromosome level requires two or more DNA double strand breaks occurring proximally in both time and space. In other words, for exposure to a chemical carcinogen to induce an increase in chromosome aberrations as measured by chromosome painting, the chemical, or its metabolites, would have to cause a large number of double strand breaks. By applying this logic to the data obtained from the four chronic feeding studies, one can infer that the chronic ingestion of chemical carcinogens does not result in the frequent formation of double strand breaks and therefore, does not result in the frequent formation of double strand breaks and therefore, does not result in increased frequencies of stable chromosome aberrations. We must, therefore, look elsewhere for the mechanism(s) underlying carcinogenesis due to chronic exposure to chemical carcinogens.

  16. Studies of human breast cancer metastasis using nude mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet E. Price; Ruo Dan Zhang

    1990-01-01

    Athymic nude mice have been used in recent years to study the biology of human tumors and to assess therapeutic responses in vivo rather than just in vitro. Some human tumors metastasize in nude mice, providing model systems for analyzing various aspects of the metastatic phenotype of human neoplasms. For breast carcinomas, however, the tumor-take rate of surgical specimens is

  17. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  18. Hydration with Saline Decreases Toxicity of Mice Injected With Calcitriol in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Amir A; Kanavi, Mozhgan R.; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati R.; Lee, Vivian; Kim, KyungMann; Potter, Heather D.; Albert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of saline injection in reducing the toxicity profile of calcitriol when coadministered in mice was evaluated. Mortality was used as an end point to study the toxic effects of calcitriol; the relative risk of mortality in mice injected with saline was evaluated from our previously published animal experiments. We discovered that coadministration with 0.25 mL normal saline solution injected intraperitoneally is associated with a lower mortality rate than calcitriol given alone. The estimated relative risk of mortality was 0.0789 (95% confidence interval, 0.0051–1.22; z = 1.82; P = 0.070) when saline is administered with calcitriol compared to calcitriol alone. There was a reduction in serum calcium levels in mice that received saline (11.4 ± 0.15 mg/dL) compared to mice that did not receive saline (12.42 ± 1.61 mg/dL). Hydration with saline seems to reduce mortality and toxicity in mice receiving calcitriol. Given the decrease in mortality rates, intraperitoneal injections of saline should be considered in studies involving mice receiving injections of calcitriol. PMID:24266410

  19. Hydration with saline decreases toxicity of mice injected with calcitriol in preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Azari, Amir A; Kanavi, Mozhgan R; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati R; Lee, Vivian; Kim, Kyungmann; Potter, Heather D; Albert, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of saline injection in reducing the toxicity profile of calcitriol when coadministered in mice was evaluated. Mortality was used as an end point to study the toxic effects of calcitriol; the relative risk of mortality in mice injected with saline was evaluated from our previously published animal experiments. We discovered that coadministration with 0.25 mL normal saline solution injected intraperitoneally is associated with a lower mortality rate than calcitriol given alone. The estimated relative risk of mortality was 0.0789 (95% confidence interval, 0.0051-1.22; z = 1.82; P = 0.070) when saline is administered with calcitriol compared to calcitriol alone. There was a reduction in serum calcium levels in mice that received saline (11.4 ± 0.15 mg/dL) compared to mice that did not receive saline (12.42 ± 1.61 mg/dL). Hydration with saline seems to reduce mortality and toxicity in mice receiving calcitriol. Given the decrease in mortality rates, intraperitoneal injections of saline should be considered in studies involving mice receiving injections of calcitriol. PMID:24266410

  20. SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessing the methodological quality of RCTs. A similar initiative is warranted in the field of animal experimentation. Methods We provide an RoB tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE’s RoB tool). This tool is based on the Cochrane RoB tool and has been adjusted for aspects of bias that play a specific role in animal intervention studies. To enhance transparency and applicability, we formulated signalling questions to facilitate judgment. Results The resulting RoB tool for animal studies contains 10 entries. These entries are related to selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other biases. Half these items are in agreement with the items in the Cochrane RoB tool. Most of the variations between the two tools are due to differences in design between RCTs and animal studies. Shortcomings in, or unfamiliarity with, specific aspects of experimental design of animal studies compared to clinical studies also play a role. Conclusions SYRCLE’s RoB tool is an adapted version of the Cochrane RoB tool. Widespread adoption and implementation of this tool will facilitate and improve critical appraisal of evidence from animal studies. This may subsequently enhance the efficiency of translating animal research into clinical practice and increase awareness of the necessity of improving the methodological quality of animal studies. PMID:24667063

  1. A Comparative Approach To Animal Dissections (A Phylogenic Study)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this biology inquiry lab, students study evolutionary relationships by making observations of preserved animal specimens, developing a question, then investigating by dissecting the specimens provided.

  2. High-throughput small animal PET imaging in cancer research: evaluation of the capability of the Inveon scanner to image four mice simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Aide, Nicolas; Desmonts, Cédric; Briand, Mélanie; Meryet-Figuiere, Mathieu; Poulain, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the capability of small animal PET (SA-PET) devices to image four mice simultaneously to improve the throughput of SA-PET experiments in cancer research. A customized bed was designed to image up to four mice simultaneously. This bed can easily replace the bed provided by the manufacturer and is connected to an anaesthesia device. A mouse-sized phantom was imaged, mimicking simultaneous imaging of four mice with computation of recovery coefficients and spillover ratios (SORs). In addition, eight mice bearing subcutaneous tumours (human embryonal carcinoma, n=22 tumours) were simultaneously imaged in groups of four on an Inveon SA-PET scanner after injection of F-fluoro-D-glucose. Tumour activity (Bq/ml), as determined by the SA-PET, was compared with ex-vivo counting. For a 5-mm rod, recovery coefficients were 1.15 and 1.05 for a phantom imaged at the central field of view or off-centred on the customized bed, respectively. SORair and SORwater were 0.05 and 0.04 for a phantom imaged alone and 0.15 and 0.06 for a phantom imaged with three additional scatter sources, respectively. Correlation between SA-PET and ex-vivo quantification was good (r=0.91, P<0.0001). The mean ratio of PET quantitative data and ex-vivo counting was equal to 0.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-1.09). New generation SA-PET may be suitable for simultaneously imaging four tumour-bearing mice, although improvement in scatter correction efficiency appears necessary. The type of customized bed developed in this study could be easily adapted to other large-bore SA-PET scanners. PMID:20683363

  3. Further studies on cyclic erythropoiesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C.M.; Gurney, C.W.; Simmons, E.L.; Gaston, E.O.

    1985-10-01

    When young adult female W/Wv mice are given 0.5 micro+Ci /sup 89/Sr/g body weight intravenously, their hematocrit values oscillate from nadirs of 26% to zeniths of 42% with a periodicity of 16 days. The response of the W/Wv mouse to an assortment of radioactive and hematologic stresses have been examined in an effort to understand better the pathophysiology of cyclic erythropoiesis. When the dose of /sup 89/Sr is increased, the amplitude of cycling increases as nadirs are lowered, but periodicity is unchanged. When the dose of /sup 89/Sr is lowered to 0.3 microCi or less, cyclic erythropoiesis of substantial amplitude is observed only after five or six microoscillations. A single hematopoietic insult of 80 rad x-irradiation coupled with phlebotomy produces a transient form of cyclic erythropoiesis, namely, a series of dampened oscillations prior to recovery. Finally, we report that Wv/Wv mice exhibit a form of cyclic erythropoiesis in response to 0.5 microCi /sup 89/Sr/g body weight, in which the hematocrit values of successive nadirs gradually increase, and stabilize at about 100 days. /sup 89/Sr does not induce cyclic erythropoiesis in the +/+, W/+, or W/v/+ mice, the Hertwig strain of anemic mice, or in normal BDF1 mice.

  4. Bioluminescence Imaging of Reporter Mice for Studies of Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging offers the opportunity to study biological processes in living animals, and the study of viral infections and host immune responses can be enhanced substantially through this imaging modality. For most studies of viral pathogenesis and effects of anti-viral therapies, investigators have used recombinant viruses engineered to express a luciferase enzyme. This strategy requires stable insertion of an imaging reporter gene into the viral genome, which is not feasible for many RNA viruses, and provides data on the viral component of pathogenesis but not the host. Genetically-engineered mice with luciferase reporters for specific viral or host genes provide opportunities to overcome these limitations and expand applications of bioluminescence imaging in viral infection and therapy. We review several different types of reporter mice for bioluminescence imaging, including animals that permit in vivo detection of viral replication, trafficking of immune cells, activation of key genes in host immunity to viral infection, and response to tissue damage. By utilizing luciferase enzymes with different emission spectra and/or substrates, it is possible to monitor two different biologic processes in the same animal, such as pathogen replication and sites of tissue injury. Combining imaging reporter viruses with genetically-engineered reporter mice is expected to substantially enhance the power of bioluminescence imaging for quantitative studies of viral and host factors that control disease outcome and effects of established and new therapeutic agents. PMID:20417377

  5. Stanford study shows a single antibody shrinks variety of human tumors transplanted into mice

    Cancer.gov

    Human tumors transplanted into laboratory mice disappeared or shrank when scientists treated the animals with a single antibody, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine. The antibody works by masking a protein flag on cancer cells that protects them from macrophages and other cells in the immune system. The scientists achieved the findings with human breast, ovarian, colon, bladder, brain, liver and prostate cancer samples.

  6. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  7. Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7–10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion. PMID:24669846

  8. NASA Animal Enclosure Module Mouse Odor Containment Study for STS-107 September 15, 1999;SJSU Odor Panel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Mele, Gary D.; Poffenroth, Mary; Young, Cliff

    2000-01-01

    Experiment #153 by Scott Brady is manifested for shuttle flight STS-107. This evaluation of space flight induced stress and its effects on neuronal plasticity will use 18 six month old C57Bl/6 male mice. A 21 day evaluation study was proposed to determine the length of time groups of 6, 9, or 12 mice could be housed in the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) without odor breakthrough. This study was performed at NASA-Ames Research Center beginning on September 15, 1999. NASA personnel, were responsible for animal care, maintenance, facilities, hardware, etc. San Jose State personnel performed the odor panel evaluations and data reduction. We used similar procedures and methods for earlier tests evaluating female mice.

  9. A video data base system for studying animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrow-Tesch, J; Dailey, J W; Jiang, H

    1998-10-01

    Classification of farm animal behavior is based on oral or written descriptions of the activity in which the animal is engaged. The quantification of animal behavior for research requires that individuals recognize and code the behavior of the animal under study. The classification of these behaviors can be subjective and may differ among observers. Illustrated guides to animal behavior do not convey the motion associated with most behaviors. Video-based guides offer a method of quantifying behaviors with real-time demonstrations of the components that make up a behavior. An animal behavior encyclopedia has been developed to allow searching and viewing of defined (video-recorded) behaviors on the Internet. This video data base is being developed to initiate a system that automatically extracts animal motion information from an input animal activity video clip using a multiobject tracking and reasoning system. Eventually, the extracted information will be analyzed and described using standard animal behavior definitions (the behavior encyclopedia). The intended applications of the behavior encyclopedia and video tracking system are 1) an accessible data base for defining and illustrating behaviors for both research and teaching and 2) to further automate the collection of animal behavior data. PMID:9814900

  10. Scaling Stride Frequency and Gait to Animal Size: Mice to Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman C. Heglund; C. Richard Taylor; Thomas A. McMahon

    1974-01-01

    The stride frequency at which animals of different size change from one gait to another (walk, trot, gallop) changes in a regular manner with body mass. The speed at the transition from trot to gallop can be used as an equivalent speed for comparing animals of different size. This transition point occurs at lower speeds and higher stride frequencies in

  11. Radioprotectors and Tumors: Molecular Studies in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gayle Woloschak, David Grdina

    2010-03-10

    This proposal investigated effects of radiation using a set of archival tissues. Main interests of this proposal were to investigate effects of irradiation alone or in the presence or radioprotectors; to investigate these effects on different tissues; and to use/develop molecular biology techniques that would be suitable for work with archived tissues. This work resulted in several manuscripts published or in preparation. Approach for evaluation of gene copy numbers by quantitative real time PCR has been developed and we are striving to establish methods to utilize Q-RT-PCR data to evaluate genomic instability caused by irradiation(s) and accompanying treatments. References: 1. Paunesku D, Paunesku T, Wahl A, Kataoka Y, Murley J, Grdina DJ, Woloschak GE. Incidence of tissue toxicities in gamma ray and fission neutron-exposed mice treated with Amifostine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008, 84(8):623-34. PMID: 18661379, http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09553000802241762?cookieSet=1 2. Wang Q, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Tissue and data archives from irradiation experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory over a period of four decades, in press in Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 3. Alcantara M, Paunesku D, Rademaker A, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TISSUE TOXICITIES IN B6CF1 MICE IRRADIATED WITH FISSION NEUTRONS OR COBALT 60 GAMMA RAYS: Gender modulates accumulation of tissue toxicities caused by low dose rate fractionated irradiation; in preparation; this document has been uploaded as STI product 4. Wang Q, Paunesku T Wanzer B and Woloschak GE. Mitochondrial gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice with lymphoid cancers; in preparation 5. Wang Q, Raha, S, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Evaluation of gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice; in preparation

  12. Hippocampus/amygdala alterations, loss of heparan sulfates, fractones and ventricle wall reduction in adult BTBR T+ tf/J mice, animal model for autism.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic; Kwon, Youngsu Cho; Douet, Vanessa

    2012-01-11

    Multiple studies converge to implicate alterations of the hippocampus and amygdala in the pathology of autism. We have previously reported anatomical alterations of the meninges, vasculature and fractones, the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) of the subventricular zone, in the forebrain of adult BTBR T+ tf/J mice, animal model for autism. Here, we used bisbenzidine cell nucleus staining and dual immunofluorescence histochemistry for laminin and N-sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans (NS-HSPG) to examine a series of brain sections containing the amygdala and hippocampus in the adult BTBR T+ tf/j mouse. We observed an excessive separation of the two hippocampi, a modified trajectory of the meninges leading to a shrunken choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle, a shorter granular layer of the dentate gyrus, and a reduced size of the amygdala nuclei. The lateral ventricle near the amygdala, and the third ventricle were shrunken. The number and size of fractones, and their immunoreactivity for NS-HSPG, were reduced throughout the third and lateral ventricles walls. Enlarged blood vessels were found at the endopiriform cortex/amygdala interface. These results show anatomical alterations of the hippocampal/amygdala that are associated with defects of the choroid plexus/ventricular system and the ECM in the BTBR T+ TF/J mouse. Similar alterations of the hippocampus/amygdala axis in humans with autism to these observed in BTBR T+ tf/J mice make this animal model highly valuable for the study of autism. Moreover, the meningo/vascular and ECM alterations in BTBR T+ Tf/J mice suggest a possible role of the brain connective tissue in autism. PMID:22100909

  13. [Experimental studies with mice on the program of the biosatellite BION-M1 mission].

    PubMed

    Andreev-Andrievsky, A A; Shenkman, B S; Popova, A S; Dolguikh, O N; Anokhin, K V; Soldatov, P E; Ilyin, E A; Sychev, V N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the BION-M1 project was laying the evidence and technological basis for addressing the medical issues of future remote space exploration missions by humans. The program of researches with the use of mice was focused on elicitation of cellular and molecular mechanisms of the muscular, cardiovascular and immune reactions to extended exposure in microgravity. The comprehensive studies combined lifetime measurements with investigations of mice tissues and cells by dint of the cutting-edge morphological, biochemical and molecular biology techniques. Males of mice C57/BL6 aged 4 to 5 months were chosen as the object of studies. They were distributed into the flight, ground control and two vivarium (laboratory control) groups and investigated immediately on return and after 7 days of readaptation. Some of the physiological functions were recorded throughout the flight. To ensure wellbeing of the animals in the experiments and to enhance data quality, prior to launch the mice were specially trained so as to accommodate to the group living, eating space food, and in-flight stress factors. Those of the mice that were designated for lifetime investigations were tested and received training pre-launch. PMID:25033610

  14. Molecular study of worldwide distribution and diversity of soil animals

    E-print Network

    Wall, Diana

    Molecular study of worldwide distribution and diversity of soil animals Tiehang Wua , Edward Ayresb,1 , Richard D. Bardgettc , Diana H. Wallb,d , and James R. Gareya,2 a Department of Cell Biology, 2011 (received for review March 8, 2011) The global distribution of soil animals and the relationship

  15. GPS ERROR IN STUDIES ADDRESSING ANIMAL MOVEMENTS AND ACTIVITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One concern in animal behavior studies employing global positioning system (GPS) collars centers on effects of GPS error on measures of animal movement. Errors may be additive over time and potentially intensify with high frequency sampling or fine scale movements. We addressed issues related to t...

  16. H2S Induces a Suspended AnimationLike State in Mice

    E-print Network

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    temperature (CBT) (1). Regulated induction of a hypo- metabolic state is hypothesized to have great medical and CBT in mammals. When mice were exposed to 80 ppm of H2S, their oxygen (O2) consumption dropped by Ã?502 consumption and CO2 output increases (8). This drop in MR was followed by a drop in CBT to Ã?2-C

  17. Safety studies of post-surgical buprenorphine therapy for mice.

    PubMed

    Traul, Karl A; Romero, Jennell B; Brayton, Cory; DeTolla, Louis; Forbes-McBean, Nadine; Halquist, Matthew S; Karnes, H Thomas; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Tomlinson, Michael J; Tyler, Betty M; Ye, Xiaobu; Zadnik, Patricia; Guarnieri, Michael

    2014-10-10

    The use of appropriate analgesia in laboratory mice may be suboptimal because of concerns about adverse events (AE). Target Animal Safety trials were conducted to determine the safety of an extended-release suspension of buprenorphine. Drug or control suspensions were injected subcutaneously in surgically-treated BALB/c mice anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine to mimic post-operative conditions in which the compound might commonly be administered. Single and repeat five-fold (5×) excesses of the 3.25?mg/kg intended dose were used to provoke potential AE. Trials included prospective measurements of weight changes, blood chemistry, hematology, and histopathology. Clinical and histopathology findings were similar in drug-treated and control mice in a four-day trial using a single 16.25?mg/kg, 5× overdose of the drug. In a 12-day trial, which used a total buprenorphine dose of 48.75?mg/kg, clinical and histopathology values were also similar in control and drug-treated female mice. In the male arm of the repeat-overdose trial, two of eight mice died on the morning of day 12, three days following the third 16.25?mg/kg overdose administration. Histopathology did not reveal a cause of death. In a 14-month trial using a single 3.25?mg/kg dose of the drug, no significant findings identified potential AE. These findings indicate a high tolerance to an extended-release buprenorphine suspension administered post-operatively in mice with appropriate husbandry. PMID:25305141

  18. Behavioral and neurochemical studies in mice pretreated with garcinielliptone FC in pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Paula dos S C L; Lopes, Joselma S L; Vieira, Priscila de S; Pinheiro, Emanuelly E A; da Silva, Mirna L de G; Silva Filho, José Carlos C L; da Costa, Joaquim S; David, Jorge M; de Freitas, Rivelilson M

    2014-09-01

    Garcinielliptone FC (GFC) isolated from hexanic fraction seed extract of species Platonia insignis Mart. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat skin diseases in both humans and animals as well as the seed decoction has been used to treat diarrheas and inflammatory diseases. However, there is no research on GFC effects in the central nervous system of rodents. The present study aimed to evaluate the GFC effects at doses of 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg on seizure parameters to determine their anticonvulsant activity and its effects on amino acid (?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine, aspartate and glutathione) levels as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice hippocampus after seizures. GFC produced an increased latency to first seizure, at doses 25mg/kg (20.12 ± 2.20 min), 50mg/kg (20.95 ± 2.21 min) or 75 mg/kg (23.43 ± 1.99 min) when compared with seized mice. In addition, GABA content of mice hippocampus treated with GFC75 plus P400 showed an increase of 46.90% when compared with seized mice. In aspartate, glutamine and glutamate levels detected a decrease of 5.21%, 13.55% and 21.80%, respectively in mice hippocampus treated with GFC75 plus P400 when compared with seized mice. Hippocampus mice treated with GFC75 plus P400 showed an increase in AChE activity (63.30%) when compared with seized mice. The results indicate that GFC can exert anticonvulsant activity and reduce the frequency of installation of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, as demonstrated by increase in latency to first seizure and decrease in mortality rate of animals. In conclusion, our data suggest that GFC may influence in epileptogenesis and promote anticonvulsant actions in pilocarpine model by modulating the GABA and glutamate contents and of AChE activity in seized mice hippocampus. This compound may be useful to produce neuronal protection and it can be considered as an anticonvulsant agent. PMID:24911645

  19. Animal Models to Study Gluten Sensitivity1

    PubMed Central

    Marietta, Eric V.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The initial development and maintenance of tolerance to dietary antigens is a complex process that, when prevented or interrupted, can lead to human disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which tolerance to specific dietary antigens is attained and maintained is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases related to intolerance of specific dietary antigens. Two diseases that are the result of intolerance to a dietary antigen are celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). Both of these diseases are dependent upon the ingestion of gluten (the protein fraction of wheat, rye, and barley) and manifest in the gastrointestinal tract and skin, respectively. These gluten-sensitive diseases are two examples of how devastating abnormal immune responses to a ubiquitous food can be. The well-recognized risk genotype for both is conferred by either of the HLA class II molecules DQ2 or DQ8. However, only a minority of individuals who carry these molecules will develop either disease. Also of interest is that the age at diagnosis can range from infancy to 70–80 years of age. This would indicate that intolerance to gluten may potentially be the result of two different phenomena. The first would be that, for various reasons, tolerance to gluten never developed in certain individuals, but that for other individuals, prior tolerance to gluten was lost at some point after childhood. Of recent interest is the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, which manifests as chronic digestive or neurologic symptoms due to gluten, but through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. This review will address how animal models of gluten-sensitive disorders have substantially contributed to a better understanding of how gluten intolerance can arise and cause disease. PMID:22572887

  20. A preliminary study on the pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis bacteria in immunodepressed mice.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, J S; Jensen, N E; Giese, S B; Jensen, H E

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 13 strains of Bacillus licheniformis was studied in immunodepressed mice. The strains had been isolated from cases of bovine abortions (n = 5), bovine feedstuffs (n = 3), soil (n = 1), and grain products (n = 2). The origin of two strains was unknown. Groups of 10 mice were inoculated intravenously with B. licheniformis bacteria at doses from < 10(6) to 10(10) colony-forming units. Following 7 days of infection, the animals were euthanized and examined bacteriologically, histologically, and immunohistochemically using a PAP technique based on primary polyclonal rabbit anti-B. licheniformis antibodies. B. licheniformis bacteria were reisolated from the liver, spleen or kidneys of mice in all groups. Inflammatory lesions were present in mice of all immunodepressed groups, but only brain and pulmonic lesions were definitely attributed to B. licheniformis infection, as strong immunostaining was found within these lesions. It is concluded that all strains of B. licheniformis examined were pathogenic for immunodepressed mice, and that spontaneous infections may be established by bacterial strains to which susceptible individuals are accidentally exposed. PMID:9063501

  1. Smoking during pregnancy: lessons learned from epidemiological studies and experimental studies using animal models.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Louise C; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H

    2012-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies in the human population clearly indicate that smoking while pregnant has deleterious effects on fetal development as well as long-term adverse consequences on postnatal development and maturation of several organ systems. Low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), behavioral disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems and conduct disorders in children have all been linked to prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke. The major pharmacologically active chemical found in tobacco smoke is nicotine, and prenatal exposure to nicotine has been shown to have significant effect on the development of multiple organ systems, including the nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. In this review, we define mainstream and sidestream smoke, summarize the major classes of compounds found in cigarette smoke, and describe how use of laboratory animal models can be used to assess mechanisms of toxicity and risk in the human population in general. We then discuss the association with smoking during pregnancy and the occurrence of reduced lung function, low birth weight, the incidence of congenital structural malformations, SIDS, ADHD, cognitive impairment, and mood disorders in children, and review pertinent experimental studies using a variety of animal models of developmental nicotine exposure, including, rats, mice, monkeys, lambs, and pigs that have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:22394313

  2. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  3. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  4. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-09-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  5. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers

    PubMed Central

    Bozzella, Michael J.; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  6. Candidate Genes for Alcohol Dependence: Animal Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunter Schumann; Rainer Spanagel; Karl Mann

    2003-01-01

    LCOHOL DEPENDENCE IS a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. Its strong heritability component has been demonstrated in family, twin, and adoption studies (Reich et al., 1999). Alcohol dependence is a polygenic disorder, and segregation anal- yses suggest that a major gene is not likely to be operative in this disorder (Enoch and Goldman, 1999; Goldman, 1993). Thus, any

  7. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be controlled by one computer. PMID:24637442

  8. Controlling airborne cues to study small animal navigation

    PubMed Central

    Gershow, Marc; Berck, Matthew; Mathew, Dennis; Luo, Linjiao; Kane, Elizabeth A.; Carlson, John R.; Samuel, Aravinthan D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Small animals like nematodes and insects analyze airborne chemical cues to infer the direction of favorable and noxious locations. In these animals, the study of navigational behavior evoked by airborne cues has been limited by the difficulty of precise stimulus control. We present a system that enables us to deliver gaseous stimuli in defined spatial and temporal patterns to freely moving small animals. We use this apparatus, in combination with machine vision algorithms, to assess and quantify navigational decision-making of Drosophila larvae in response to ethyl acetate (a volatile attractant) and carbon dioxide (a gaseous repellant). PMID:22245808

  9. Controlling airborne cues to study small animal navigation.

    PubMed

    Gershow, Marc; Berck, Matthew; Mathew, Dennis; Luo, Linjiao; Kane, Elizabeth A; Carlson, John R; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2012-03-01

    Small animals such as nematodes and insects analyze airborne chemical cues to infer the direction of favorable and noxious locations. In these animals, the study of navigational behavior evoked by airborne cues has been limited by the difficulty of precisely controlling stimuli. We present a system that can be used to deliver gaseous stimuli in defined spatial and temporal patterns to freely moving small animals. We used this apparatus, in combination with machine-vision algorithms, to assess and quantify navigational decision making of Drosophila melanogaster larvae in response to ethyl acetate (a volatile attractant) and carbon dioxide (a gaseous repellant). PMID:22245808

  10. Studies on the interaction between ethanol and two industrial solvents (methyl isobutyl ketone) in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Granvil, C.P.; Sharkawi, M.; Plaa, G.L. (Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-03-11

    Methyl n-butyl ketone (MnBK) and methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK) prolong the duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (EILRR) in mice. MnBK was almost twice as potent in this regard. To explain this difference, the metabolism of both ketones was studied in male CD-1 mice using GC. MiBK was converted to 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4MPOL) and 4-hydroxy methyl isobutyl ketone (HMP). MnBK metabolites were 2-hexanol (2HOL) and 2,5-hexanedione (2,5HD). The effects of both ketones and metabolites on EILRR and ethanol (E) elimination were studied in mice. The ketones and their metabolites were dissolved in corn oil and injected intraperitoneally 30 min before E 4g/kg for EILRR and 2g/kg for E elimination. In the following doses: MnBK, 5; MiBK, 5; 2HOL, 2.5; 4MPOL, 2.5; and HMP 2.5, significantly prolonged EILRR. Concentrations of E in blood and brain upon return of the righting reflex were similar in solvent-treated and control animals. The mean elimination rate of E was slower in groups given MnBK or 2HOL than in control animals. No change in E elimination was observed with MiBK, HMP, 4MPOL, or 2, 5HD.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, dose-range, and mutagenicity studies of methylphenidate hydrochloride in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Shelton, Sharon D; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Shaddock, Joseph G; McGarrity, Lynda G; Doerge, Daniel R; Twaddle, Nathan W; Lin, Chien-Ju; Chen, James J; Mattison, Donald R; Morris, Suzanne M

    2008-10-01

    Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) is one of the most frequently prescribed pediatric drugs for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a recent study, increased hepatic adenomas were observed in B6C3F1 mice treated with MPH in their diet. To evaluate the reactive metabolite, ritalinic acid (RA) of MPH and its mode of action in mice, we conducted extensive investigations on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and genotoxicity of the drug in B6C3F1 mice. For the PK study, male B6C3F1 mice were gavaged once with 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) of MPH and groups of mice were sacrificed at various time points (0.25-24 hr) for serum analysis of MPH and RA concentrations. Groups of male B6C3F1 mice were fed diets containing 0, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm of MPH for 28 days to determine the appropriate doses for 24-week transgenic mutation studies. Also, the micronucleus frequencies (MN-RETs and MN-NCEs), and the lymphocyte Hprt mutants were determined in peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes, respectively. Mice fed 4,000 ppm of MPH lost significant BW compared to control mice (P < 0.01). There was a significant increase in the average liver weights whereas kidneys, seminal vesicle, testes, thymus, and urinary bladder weights of mice fed higher doses of MPH were significantly lower than the control group (P < or = 0.05). There was no significant increase in either the Hprt mutant frequency or the micronucleus frequency in the treated animals. These results indicated that although MPH induced liver hypertrophy in mice, no genotoxicity was observed. PMID:18618596

  12. An Animal Model of Type A Cystinuria Due to Spontaneous Mutation in 129S2/SvPasCrl Mice

    PubMed Central

    Livrozet, Marine; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Mesnard, Laurent; Thioulouse, Elizabeth; Jaubert, Jean; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Baud, Laurent; Bazin, Dominique; Daudon, Michel; Letavernier, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the mutation of either SLC3A1 gene encoding for rBAT (type A cystinuria) or SLC7A9 gene encoding for b0,+AT (type B cystinuria). Here, we evidenced in a commonly used congenic 129S2/SvPasCrl mouse substrain a dramatically high frequency of kidney stones that were similar to those of patients with cystinuria. Most of 129S2/SvPasCrl exhibited pathognomonic cystine crystals in urine and an aminoaciduria profile similar to that of patients with cystinuria. In addition, we observed a heterogeneous inflammatory infiltrate and cystine tubular casts in the kidney of cystinuric mice. As compared to another classical mouse strain, C57BL/6J mice, 129S2/SvPasCrl mice had an increased mortality associated with bilateral obstructive hydronephrosis. In 129S2/SvPasCrl mice, the heavy subunit rBAT of the tetrameric transporter of dibasic amino acids was absent in proximal tubules and we identified a single pathogenic mutation in a highly conserved region of the Slc3a1 gene. This novel mouse model mimicking human disease would allow us further pathophysiological studies and may be useful to analyse the crystal/tissue interactions in cystinuria. PMID:25048459

  13. Narcosis studies and oxygen poisoning of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research for a mechanism by which narcotic gases alter metabolism is reported. Possible sites of action by narcotic and anesthetic gases in isolated electron transport particles were explored. Using the relative activities of the NADH-oxygen, NADH-ferricyanide, succinate-cytochrome C and succinate-NAD oxidoreductase systems as parameters, the relative potency of volatile anesthetics were tested. Testing the relative ability of human subjects to contract and repay an oxygen debt while in the narcotic versus alert state, it was found that narcosis induced by 33% nitrous oxide increased the size of the oxygen debt contracted and the amount of oxygen required to repay it during recovery. Mice acclimatized to sea level (760 mm Hg), 5000 feet (632 mm Hg) or 15,000 feet 437 mm Hg) for from one to eight weeks were found to be more susceptible to convulsion and death as a function of altitude acclimatization when tested in hyperoxic environments. There were no reasonable explanations for the connection between hypoxia and oxygen poisoning but several practical implications for persons living at altitude are discussed.

  14. Human Malaria in Immunocompromised Mice: New In Vivo Model for Chemotherapy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, A.; Badell, E.; Van Rooijen, N.; Druilhe, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently designed a new Plasmodium falciparum mouse model and documented its potential for the study of immune effector mechanisms. In order to determine its value for drug studies, we evaluated its response to existing antimalarial drugs compared to that observed in humans. Immunocompromised BXN (bg/bg xid/xid nu/nu) mice were infected with either the sensitive NF54 strain or the multiresistant T24 strain and then treated with chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, or dihydroartemisinin. A parallelism was observed between previously reported human responses and P. falciparum-parasitized human red blood cell (huRBC)–BXN mouse responses to classical antimalarial drugs, measured in terms of speed of decrease in parasitemia and of morphological alterations of the parasites. Mice infected with the sensitive strain were successfully cured after treatment with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast, mice infected with the multiresistant strain failed to be cured by chloroquine or quinine but thereafter responded to dihydroartemisinin treatment. The speed of parasite clearance and the morphological alterations induced differed for each drug and matched previously reported observations, hence stressing the relevance of the model. These data thus suggest that P. falciparum-huRBC–BXN mice can provide a valuable in vivo system and should be included in the short list of animals that can be used for the evaluation of P. falciparum responses to drugs. PMID:11353636

  15. Lack of predictability of classical animal models for hypolipidemic activity: a good time for mice?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R Krause; Hans M. G Princen

    1998-01-01

    Hypolipidemic drugs that are efficacious in man are not always active in classical animal models of dyslipidemia. Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins) do not lower plasma cholesterol in rats, but yet this species was alone in providing activity for fibrate-type drugs. Nicotinic acid possesses many desirable features with regard to clinical use, but most of these actions are lacking in

  16. Assessing skin sensitization hazard in mice and men using non-animal test methods.

    PubMed

    Urbisch, Daniel; Mehling, Annette; Guth, Katharina; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Honarvar, Naveed; Kolle, Susanne; Landsiedel, Robert; Jaworska, Joanna; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, Frank; Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Sensitization, the prerequisite event in the development of allergic contact dermatitis, is a key parameter in both hazard and risk assessments. The pathways involved have recently been formally described in the OECD adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization. One single non-animal test method will not be sufficient to fully address this AOP and in many cases the use of a battery of tests will be necessary. A number of methods are now fully developed and validated. In order to facilitate acceptance of these methods by both the regulatory and scientific communities, results of the single test methods (DPRA, KeratinoSens™, LuSens, h-CLAT, (m)MUSST) as well for a the simple '2 out of 3' ITS for 213 substances have been compiled and qualitatively compared to both animal and human data. The dataset was also used to define different mechanistic domains by probable protein-binding mechanisms. In general, the non-animal test methods exhibited good predictivities when compared to local lymph node assay (LLNA) data and even better predictivities when compared to human data. The '2 out of 3' prediction model achieved accuracies of 90% or 79% when compared to human or LLNA data, respectively and thereby even slightly exceeded that of the LLNA. PMID:25541156

  17. 412 IARC MONOGRAPHS VOLUME 90 3. Studies of Animal Papillomaviruses

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    Due to the species specificity of papillomaviruses, infection of experimental animals with human papillomavirus (HPV) is not possible. However, understanding the natural history and carcinogenic potential of HPVs is assisted by the study of several animal papillomaviruses. Whereas cancer is the end-point to assess carcinogenicity in the study of HPV, benign tumours (warts and papillomas) are often used as the end-point in the analysis of the association of papillomavirus with naturally occurring or experimentally induced neoplasia in animals. This is based on the grounds that: (a) the incidence of warts is higher than that of cancer and is therefore easier to monitor; (b) it is difficult to follow the course of disease in wild animals; (c) domestic animals, such as cattle, are usually killed before the onset of malignancy; and (d) papillomavirus-associated cancer ultimately derives from warts, and thus the presence of warts can be considered as an indication of possible incipient neoplastic progression. For each of the animal papillomaviruses discussed below, naturally occurring warts and their progression to cancer are considered primarily, followed by experimental reproduction

  18. Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Andres C.; Rubiolo, Juan A.; López-Alonso, Henar; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Alfonso, Amparo; Bermúdez, Roberto; Otero, Paz; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Vega, Félix V.; Botana, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo, after administration by gavage to mice and rats, okadaic acid has been reported to produce lesions in liver, small intestine and forestomach. Because several reports differ in the damage detected in different organs, and on okadaic acid distribution after consumption, we determined the toxicity of this compound after oral administration to mice. After 24 hours, histopathological examination showed necrotic foci and lipid vacuoles in the livers of intoxicated animals. By immunohistochemical analysis, we detected this toxin in the liver and kidneys of intoxicated animals. Okadaic acid induces oxidative stress and can be activated in vitro into reactive compounds by the post-mitochondrial S9 fraction, so we studied the okadaic effect on the gene expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes in liver. We observed a downregulation in the expression of these enzymes and a reduction of protein expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 in intoxicated animals. PMID:24217398

  19. Much of what we know about animal locomotion is derived from studies that examined animals moving within single,

    E-print Network

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    1435 Much of what we know about animal locomotion is derived from studies that examined animals of locomotion. Obviously, animals must modulate their locomotor behaviour to adjust for changes in the external locomotion. The changes in force generation are expected to be most extreme for species that move through

  20. Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock?in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

  1. Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock-in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross-talk between pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin-neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3(R451C) knock-in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin- (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3(R451C) mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV-expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo-cortical inputs the feed-forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin-positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV-expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

  2. A Small Scale Experimental Study: Using Animations to Learn Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Dag Akbas, Raside; Ozturk, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate whether a difference exists between learning vocabulary via animation and via traditional paper-based method. This small scale study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University in academic year 2009-2010. Two pre-intermediate classes were randomly selected as the experimental group (n = 17), and control group…

  3. Childhood Cruelty to Animals: A Tri-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, David; Yeow, James; Hapidzal, Noor Fizlee Mohd; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yokoyama, Akimitsu; Nobuzane, Yosuke

    2009-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is a symptom of conduct disorder that has been linked to the perpetration of violence in later life. Research has identified several factors associated with its etiology, including social factors. However, no cross-cultural studies on this phenomenon have been reported. This study investigated childhood cruelty to…

  4. Experimental study on light induced influence model to mice using support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lei; Zhao, Zhimin; Yu, Yinshan; Zhu, Xingyue

    2014-08-01

    Previous researchers have made studies on different influences created by light irradiation to animals, including retinal damage, changes of inner index and so on. However, the model of light induced damage to animals using physiological indicators as features in machine learning method is never founded. This study was designed to evaluate the changes in micro vascular diameter, the serum absorption spectrum and the blood flow influenced by light irradiation of different wavelengths, powers and exposure time with support vector machine (SVM). The micro images of the mice auricle were recorded and the vessel diameters were calculated by computer program. The serum absorption spectrums were analyzed. The result shows that training sample rate 20% and 50% have almost the same correct recognition rate. Better performance and accuracy was achieved by third-order polynomial kernel SVM quadratic optimization method and it worked suitably for predicting the light induced damage to organisms.

  5. Older people's relationships with companion animals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Lauren; Townsend, Mardie; Staiger, Petra

    2008-04-01

    When older people enter residential care facilities, disruption to social networks may occur, with detrimental effects on health and wellbeing. This article reports on a study undertaken in an aged care facility in Melbourne, Australia, that explored the potential for a visiting companion animal programme to improve the health and wellbeing of residents and to promote their capacity for building relationships. Results back assertions in the literature that companion animals foster relationships by giving people opportunities to interact with others, but further study is needed to verify the link. PMID:18500131

  6. Improving the translation of animal ischemic stroke studies to humans.

    PubMed

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2015-04-01

    Despite testing more than 1,026 therapeutic strategies in models of ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendations and statements of RIGOR from the NIH/NINDS. In this commentary we discuss additional aspects that may be important to improve the translational success of ischemic stroke therapies. These include use of tissue plasminogen activator in animal studies; modeling ischemic stroke heterogeneity in terms of infarct size and cause of human stroke; addressing the confounding effect of anesthesia; use of comparable therapeutic dosage between humans and animals based on biological effect; modeling the human immune system; and developing outcome measures in animals comparable to those used in human stroke trials. With additional study and improved animal modeling of factors involved in human ischemic stroke, we are optimistic that new stroke therapies will be developed. PMID:24526567

  7. Social fear conditioning: a novel and specific animal model to study social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D; Slattery, David A

    2012-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a major health concern with high lifetime prevalence. The current medication is rather unspecific and, despite considerable efforts, its efficacy is still unsatisfactory. However, there are no appropriate and specific animal models available to study the underlying etiology of the disorder. Therefore, we aimed to establish a model of specific social fear in mice and use this social fear conditioning (SFC) model to assess the therapeutic efficacy of the benzodiazepine diazepam and of the antidepressant paroxetine; treatments currently used for SAD patients. We show that by administering electric foot shocks (2-5, 1?s, 0.7?mA) during the investigation of a con-specific, the investigation of unfamiliar con-specifics was reduced for both the short- and long-term, indicating lasting social fear. The induced fear was specific to social stimuli and did not lead to other behavioral alterations, such as fear of novelty, general anxiety, depression, and impaired locomotion. We show that social fear was dose-dependently reversed by acute diazepam, at doses that were not anxiolytic in a non-social context, such as the elevated plus maze. Finally, we show that chronic paroxetine treatment reversed social fear. All in all, we demonstrated robust social fear after exposure to SFC in mice, which was reversed with both acute benzodiazepine and chronic antidepressant treatment. We propose the SFC model as an appropriate animal model to identify the underlying etiology of SAD and possible novel treatment approaches. PMID:22237310

  8. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1?261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  9. [Using spectra and visual modeling to study animal coloration].

    PubMed

    Yang, Can-Chao; Liang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Animal coloration has many adaptive functions and plays an important role in signal communication both among intra- and interspecies. For example, it has been widely used in mate choice, intrasexual competition, and as aposematic or cryptic coloration in predator avoidance. Many colors and pigments also function in microbial resistance, structural support, photoprotection, and thermoregulation. Differing from human vision, based on RGB system, many other animals have tetrachromatic vision system, which includes the ultraviolet (UV) range that is undetectable by human eyes. Previous studies showed that ultraviolet is important in some species' social signaling and communication. Moreover, cone inner segments of most classes of vertebrate contain an oil droplet, which acts as a cut-off filter absorbing wavelengths below a critical value, and transmitting longer wavelengths. Animal and human vision is significantly different in that the classification of color by human standards may be a misleading for measuring animal coloration. Here, we illuminate how to use fiber spectrophotometer to quantify animal coloration, and analyze it by spectra analysis and visual modeling. As an example, we obtained plumage reflectance spectra from male and female scarlet minivets (Pericrocotus flammeus). This bird species is sexually dimorphic that the males have plumage color in black and red, while the females have grey and yellow accordingly. These plumage colors are typically generated from melanin and carotenoid pigments, which have an effect on antioxidant activity. Analysis of spectra segments provides hue, chroma, brightness and relative brightness of each wave range. Visual modeling maps color patches on tetrahedral color space and Robinson projection, meanwhile, calculates color span and color space volume which describe the color contrast and color diversity, respectively. In visual modeling, ambient light irradiance and spectral sensitivity of animal retinas are included, which provides an objective evaluation of coloration of animal vision. PMID:24415688

  10. Gene Expression Profiles of Immune Mediators and Histopathological Findings in Animal Models of Leptospirosis: Comparison between Susceptible Hamsters and Resistant Mice ?

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mariko; Rouleau, Vincent; Bruyère-Ostells, Lilian; Goarant, Cyrille

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis characterized by multiple organ failure and variable host susceptibility toward pathogenic Leptospira strains. In this study, we put the role of inflammatory mediators in parallel with bacterial burdens and organ lesions by comparing a susceptible animal model, the hamster, and a resistant one, the Oncins France 1 (OF1) mouse, both infected with virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae strain Verdun. Histological observations evidenced edema, congestion, hemorrhage, and inflammatory infiltration in the organs of hamsters, in contrast to limited changes in mice. Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR techniques, we showed that the relative Leptospira burden progressively increased in hamster tissues, while a rapid clearance was observed in mouse tissues. The early regulation of the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 and the chemokines gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 kDa/CXCL10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1?/CCL3 in mouse tissues contrasted with their delayed and massive overexpression in hamster tissues. Conversely, the induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was faster in the resistant than in the susceptible animal model. The role of these cytokines in the pathophysiology of leptospirosis and the implications of their differential regulation in the development of this disease are discussed. PMID:21844232

  11. Antidepressant drugs and memory: Insights from animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago Monleón; Concepción Vinader-Caerols; M. Carmen Arenas; Andrés Parra

    2008-01-01

    This is a selective review of the literature concerning the effects of antidepressant drugs on animal memory, which was performed with the aid of the PubMed database. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors tend to either have no effect on memory or result in its improvement. Studies with cyclic antidepressants have reported no effect or, more often, memory impairments. Pre-training administration of selective

  12. Experimental Studies on Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka Juutilainen; Päivi Heikkinen; Isabelle Lagroye; Junji Miyakoshi; Eric Van Rongen; Richard Saunders; René De Seze; Thomas Tenforde; Luc Verschaeve; Bernard Veyret; Zhengping Xu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive review of animal studies on carcinogenicity of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The rapid increase in mobile telephony has resulted in concerns regarding possible heath effects from the low-level but increasingly ubiquitous exposure to RF fields. The possible carcinogenicity of RF fields has been investigated in a number of experimental models including classical

  13. Why zoology? Zoology is the study of animals how they

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Why zoology? Zoology is the study of animals ­ how they function, behave and evolve. As well as being intrinsically fascinating, zoology is also of real- world importance. Understanding zoology for zoologists than today. Courses Essentials Courses MSci (Hons) in Zoology MSci (Hons) in Zoology (research

  14. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  15. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    PubMed Central

    Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Viganò, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal–dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. PMID:24855386

  16. Quantitative in vivo analysis of small bowel motility using MRI examinations in mice--proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Bickelhaupt, S; Wurnig, M C; Lesurtel, M; Patak, M A; Boss, A

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel motility analyses using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could reduce current invasive techniques in animal studies and comply with the 'three Rs' rule for human animal experimentation. Thus we investigated the feasibility of in vivo small bowel motility analyses in mice using dynamic MRI acquisitions. All experimental procedures were approved by the institutional animal care committee. Six C57BL/6 mice underwent MRI without additional preparation after isoflurane anaesthetization in the prone position on a 4.7 T small animal imager equipped with a linear polarized hydrogen birdcage whole-body mouse coil. Motility was assessed using a true fast imaging in a steady precession sequence in the coronal orientation (acquisition time per slice 512?ms, in-plane resolution 234?×?234?µm, matrix size 128?×?128, slice thickness 1?mm) over 30?s corresponding to 60 acquisitions. Motility was manually assessed measuring the small bowel diameter change over time. The resulting motility curves were analysed for the following parameters: contraction frequency per minute (cpm), maximal contraction amplitude (maximum to minimum [mm]), luminal diameter (mm) and luminal occlusion rate. Small bowel motility quantification was found to be possible in all animals with a mean small bowel contraction frequency of 10.67?cpm (SD?±?3.84), a mean amplitude of the contractions of 1.33?mm (SD?±?0.43) and a mean luminal diameter of 1.37?mm (SD?±?0.42). The mean luminal occlusion rate was 1.044 (SD?±?0.45%/100). The mean duration needed for a single motility assessment was 185?s (SD?±?54.02). Thus our study demonstrated the feasibility of an easy and time-sparing functional assessment for in vivo small bowel motility analyses in mice. This could improve the development of small animal models of intestinal diseases and provide a method similar to clinical MR examinations that is in concordance with the 'three Rs' for humane animal experimentation. PMID:25266965

  17. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

  18. Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol in mice: Toxicological studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. McLachlan

    1977-01-01

    The effect of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the postnatal development of male and female genital tract function was studied. The placental transfer of radiolabeled (H or C) DES was studied in pregnant mice. DES?associated radioactivity in the fetal plasma approximated that in maternal plasma #fr1\\/2> hr after intravenous administration of [H]DES; H activity corresponding to DES in the

  19. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Blood compatible microfluidic system for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals.

    PubMed

    Convert, Laurence; Baril, Frédérique Girard; Boisselle, Vincent; Pratte, Jean-François; Fontaine, Réjean; Lecomte, Roger; Charette, Paul G; Aimez, Vincent

    2012-11-21

    New radiotracer developments for nuclear medicine imaging require the analysis of blood as a function of time in small animal models. A microfluidic device was developed to monitor the radioactivity concentration in the blood of rats and mice in real time. The microfluidic technology enables a large capture solid angle and a reduction in the separation distance between the sample and detector, thus increasing the detection efficiency. This in turn allows a reduction of the required detection volume without compromising sensitivity, an important advantage with rodent models having a small total blood volume (a few ml). A robust fabrication process was developed to manufacture the microchannels on top of unpackaged p-i-n photodiodes without altering detector performance. The microchannels were fabricated with KMPR, an epoxy-based photoresist similar to SU-8 but with improved resistance to stress-induced fissuring. Surface passivation of the KMPR enables non-diluted whole blood to flow through the channel for up to 20 min at low speed without clotting. The microfluidic device was embedded in a portable blood counter with dedicated electronics, pumping unit and computer control software for utilisation next to a small animal nuclear imaging scanner. Experimental measurements confirmed model predictions and showed a 4- to 19-fold improvement in detection efficiency over existing catheter-based devices, enabling a commensurate reduction in sampled blood volume. A linear dose-response relationship was demonstrated for radioactivity concentrations typical of experiments with rodents. The system was successfully used to measure the blood input function of rats in real time after radiotracer injection. PMID:23000896

  1. A Comparative Study on the Structural Features of Muscle Fibers in Intrinsic Lingual Muscles of 21 Day Old and 9 Month Old Mice Using Light and Electron Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aysel Temelli; Fatime Geyiko?lu

    2006-01-01

    Temelli, A. and Geyiko?lu, F. 2006. A comparative study on the structural features of muscle fibers in intrinsic lingual muscles of 21 day old and 9 month old mice using light and electron microscopy. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 30: 47–51.To compare structural features of muscle fibers in intrinsic lingual muscles of 21 day old and 9 month old mice, the

  2. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  3. Lung Resection Using Transumbilical Incision: An Animal Survival Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shun-Ying; Yen-Chu; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Ying; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yuan, Hsu-Chia; Ko, Po-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Transumbilical single-port surgery is a potentially less invasive approach to many types of abdominal surgeries and offers better cosmetic outcomes than conventional 3-port laparoscopic surgery. It avoids the complication of intercostal neuralgia and may reduce the risk of pulmonary complications after video-assisted thoracic surgery. This study evaluated the feasibility of transumbilical lung wedge resection. Methods: Lung resection was performed in 11 beagle dogs weighing 5.9 to 8.5 kg. A 3-cm umbilical incision and one diaphragmatic incision were made, and an endoscopic stapler was used. The diaphragmatic incisions were repaired under video guidance using a V-Loc knotless suturing device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts). Animals were monitored daily for signs of postoperative infection. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and IL-6 level were measured in all animals. Animals were euthanized 14 days after surgery and underwent necropsy evaluation. Results: Accurate lung resection was achieved in 10 of 11 animals during a median operative time of 98 minutes (range 60–165). In 1 animal, transumbilical lung resection was not possible and was converted to thoracotomy. All animals survived without major postoperative complications. At necropsy, evidence of uneventful healing of the stapled resection margin and diaphragmatic wound were found. There was no evidence of vital organ injury or intrathoracic infection. Conclusion: A transumbilical approach to thoracic cavity exploration and stapled lung resection is technically feasible. Primary suturing of the diaphragmatic incision is a simple and effective means of diaphragmatic wound closure. This may be an alternative to video-assisted thoracic surgery for the management of simple thoracic disease.

  4. Humanimalia: A journal of human/animal interface studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.

  5. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  6. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rasedee, Abdullah; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Namvar, Farideh; Abdul Samad, Nozlena; Andas, Reena Joys; Ng, Kuan Beng; How, Chee Wun

    2014-01-01

    Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200?mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200?mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration. PMID:25276798

  7. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  8. Carcinogenesis Studies of Cresols in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, J.M.; Bucher, J.R.; Peckham, J.C.; Kissling, G.E.; Hejtmancik, M.R.; Chhabra, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cresols, monomethyl derivatives of phenol, are high production chemicals with potential for human exposure. The three isomeric forms of cresol are used individually or in mixtures as disinfectants, preservatives, and solvents or as intermediates in the production of antioxidants, fragrances, herbicides, insecticides, dyes, and explosives. Carcinogenesis studies were conducted in groups of 50 male F344/N rats and 50 female B6C3F1 mice exposed to a 60:40 mixture of m and p cresols (m-/p-cresol) in feed. Rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 1500, 5000, or 15,000 ppm and 0, 1000, 3000, or 10,000 ppm, respectively. Survival of each exposed group was similar to that of their respective control group. Mean body weight gains were depressed in rats exposed to 15,000 ppm and in mice exposed to 3000 ppm and higher. A decrease of 25% over that of controls for the final mean body weight in mice exposed to 10,000 ppm appeared to be associated with lack of palatability of the feed. A marginally increased incidence of renal tubule adenoma was observed in the 15,000 ppm-exposed rats. The increased incidence was not statistically significant, but did exceed the range of historical controls. No increased incidence of hyperplasia of the renal tubules was observed; however, a significantly increased incidence of hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium associated with an increased incidence of nephropathy was observed at the high exposure concentration. The only significantly increased incidence of a neoplastic lesion related to cresol exposure observed in these studies was that of squamous cell papilloma in the forestomach of 10,000 ppm-exposed mice. A definitive association with irritation at the site-of-contact could not be made because of limited evidence of injury to the gastric mucosa at the time of necropsy. However, given the minimal chemical-related neoplastic response in these studies, it was concluded that there was no clear evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats or female mice exposed to the cresol mixture. PMID:19114085

  9. Role of papillomavirus oncogenes in human cervical cancer: Transgenic animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Griep, A.E.; Lambert, P.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses are believed to be etiologic agents for the majority of human cervical carcinoma, a common cancer that is a leading cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. In cervical carcinoma, a subset of papillomaviral genes, namely E6 and E7, are expressed. In vitro tissue culture studies indicate that HPV E6 and E7 are oncogenes, and that their oncogenicity is due in part to their capacity to inactivate cellular tumor suppressor genes. The behavior of E6 and E7 in vitro and the genetic evidence from analysis of human cancers suggest that the E6 and E7 genes play a significant role in the development of cervical cancer. This hypothesis is now being tested using animal models. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the oncogenicity of papillomavirus genes that has been generated through their study in transgenic mice. 82 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice: Model Characterization and Application for Genetically Modified Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiro Nakamura; Guohua Xi; Ya Hua; Timothy Schallert; Julian T. Hoff; Richard F. Keep

    2004-01-01

    Gene knockout or transgenic animals may assist in elucidating the mechanisms of brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, almost all commercially available transgenic or knockout animals are mice. The purpose of this study was to develop an ICH model in mice and to investigate the influence of gender and complement C5 genetic differences on outcome after ICH. Male and

  11. Let There Be Light! Bioluminescent Imaging to Study Bacterial Pathogenesis in Live Animals and Plants.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Issmat I; Splitter, Gary A; Miller, Sally; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2014-11-14

    : Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of bacteria was primarily designed to permit real-time, sensitive, and noninvasive monitoring of the progression of infection in live animals. Generally, BLI relies on the construction of bacterial strains that possess the lux operon. The lux operon is composed of a set of genes that encode the luciferase enzyme and its cognate substrate, which interact to produce light-a phenomenon that is referred to as bioluminescence. Bioluminescence emitted by the bacteria can then be detected and imaged within a living host using sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. In comparison to traditional host-pathogen studies, BLI offers the opportunity for extended monitoring of infected animals without resorting to euthanasia and extensive tissue processing at each time point. Therefore, BLI can reduce the number of animals required to generate meaningful data, while significantly contributing to the understanding of pathogenesis in the host and, subsequently, the development and evaluation of adequate vaccines and therapeutics. BLI is also useful in characterizing the interactions of pathogens with plants and the para-host environment. In this chapter, we demonstrate the broad application of BLI for studying bacterial pathogens in different niches. Furthermore, we will specifically focus on the use of BLI to characterize the following: (1) the pathogenesis of Brucella melitensis in mice (animal host), and (2) the progression of infection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomatoes (plant host). These studies will provide an overview of the wide potential of BLI and its role in enhancing the study of unique-and sometimes difficult-to-characterize-bacterial pathogens. PMID:25395174

  12. Inflammatory diarrhea due to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: evidence from clinical and mice model studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the role of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in inflammatory diarrhea among hospitalized patients in Kolkata. The inflammatory pathogenesis of EAEC was established in mice model and histopathological studies. Presence of fecal leucocytes (FLCs) can be suspected for EAEC infection solely or as a mixed with other enteric pathogens. Methods Active surveillance was conducted for 2 years on 2 random days per week with every 5th patient admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH). Diarrheal samples were processed by conventional culture, microscopy, ELISA and molecular methods. Two EAEC isolated as sole pathogens were examined in mice after induced intestinal infection. The intestinal tissue samples were processed to analyze the histological changes. Results Of the 2519 samples screened, fecal leucocytes, erythrocytes and occult blood were detected in 1629 samples. Most of the patients had acute watery diarrhea (75%) and vomiting (78%). Vibrio cholerae O1 was the main pathogen in patients of 5–10 years age group (33%). Shigellosis was more in children from 2–5 years of age (19%), whereas children <2 years appeared to be susceptible for infection caused by EAEC (16%). When tested for the pathogenicity, the EAEC strains colonized well and caused inflammatory infection in the gut mucosa of BALB/C mice. Conclusion This hospital-based surveillance revealed prevalence of large number of inflammatory diarrhea. EAEC was the suspected pathogen and <2 years children appeared to be the most susceptible age group. BALB/C mice may be a suitable animal model to study the EAEC-mediated pathogenesis. PMID:24294997

  13. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  14. Techniques necessary for multiple tracer quantitative small-animal imaging studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry L. Sharp; Carmen S. Dence; John A. Engelbach; Pilar Herrero; Robert J. Gropler; Michael J. Welch

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionAn increasing number and variety of studies on rodent models are being conducted using small-animal positron emission tomography scanners. We aimed to determine if animal handling techniques could be developed to perform routine animal imaging in a timely and efficient manner and with minimal effect on animal physiology. These techniques need to be reproducible in the same animal while maintaining

  15. A study of quantification of aortic compliance in mice using radial acquisition phase contrast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuandong

    Spatiotemporal changes in blood flow velocity measured using Phase contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to quantify Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and Wall Shear Stress (WSS), well known indices of vessel compliance. A study was conducted to measure the PWV in the aortic arch in young healthy children using conventional phase contrast MRI and a post processing algorithm that automatically track the peak velocity in phase contrast images. It is shown that the PWV calculated using peak velocity-time data has less variability compared to that using mean velocity and flow. Conventional MR data acquisition techniques lack both the spatial and temporal resolution needed to accurately calculate PWV and WSS in in vivo studies using transgenic animal models of arterial diseases. Radial k-space acquisition can improve both spatial and temporal resolution. A major part of this thesis was devoted to developing technology for Radial Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance (RPCMR) cine imaging on a 7 Tesla Animal scanner. A pulse sequence with asymmetric radial k-space acquisition was designed and implemented. Software developed to reconstruct the RPCMR images include gridding, density compensation and centering of k-Space that corrects the image ghosting introduced by hardware response time. Image processing software was developed to automatically segment the vessel lumen and correct for phase offset due to eddy currents. Finally, in vivo and ex vivo aortic compliance measurements were conducted in a well-established mouse model for atherosclerosis: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO). Using RPCMR technique, a significantly higher PWV value as well as a higher average WSS was detected among 9 months old ApoE-KO mice compare to in wild type mice. A follow up ex-vivo test of tissue elasticity confirmed the impaired distensibility of aortic arteries among ApoE-KO mice.

  16. Review of certain low-level ionizing radiation studies in mice and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    Starting in the early 1940s, Egon Lorenz and collaborators at the National Cancer Institute began an extended study of chronic low-level ionizing radiation effects in what was then the tolerance range for man. Observations on life span, body weight and radiation carcinogenesis, among others, were made in mice, guinea pigs and rabbits. At the then-permissible exposure level, 0.1 R** per 8-h day until natural death, experimental mice and guinea pigs had a slightly greater mean life span compared to control animals. In addition, there was marked weight gain during the growth phase in both species. Increased tumor incidence was also observed at the 0.1-R level in mice. The primary hypothesis for increased median life span has been rebound regenerative hyperplasia during the early part of the exposure; in the presence of continuing injury, there is physiological enhancement of defense mechanisms against intercurrent infection. The body weight gain has not been explained. 32 references.

  17. The Pleurodele, an animal model for space biology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualandris, L.; Grinfeld, S.; Foulquier, F.; Kan, P.; Duprat, A. M.

    Pleurodeles waltl, an Urodele amphibian is proposed as a model for space biology studies. Our laboratory is developing three types of experiments in space using this animal: 1) in vivo fertilization and development (``FERTILE'' project); 2) influence of microgravity and space radiation on the organization and preservation of spacialized structures in the neurons and muscle cells (in vitro; ``CELIMENE'' PROJECT); 3) influence of microgravity on tissue regeneration (muscle, bone, epidermis and spinal cord).

  18. The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

  19. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636

  20. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, K P; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, K

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

  1. Transgenic Models to Study Disorders of Respiratory Control in Newborn Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Gaultier; Boris Matrot; Jorge Gallego

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies described the in vivo respiratory phenotype of mutant newborn mice with targeted deletions of genes involved in respiratory control development. Whole-body flow barometric plethysmography is the noninvasive method of choice for studying unrestrained newborn mice. The main characteristics of the early postnatal development of respiratory control in mice are reviewed, including avail- able data on breathing patterns and

  2. An animal model for studying cone function in retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Calderone, Jack B; Sakai, Tsutomu; Lewis, Geoffrey P; Fisher, Steven K

    2002-01-01

    In people, retinal detachment often leads to a significant loss in cone-based vision. Most of the animal models commonly used for studying the consequences of retinal detachment have rod-dominated retinas. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility that the ground squirrel, a rodent with a heavily cone-dominated retina, might provide a useful model for studying cone function in retinal detachment. Corneal ERGs were recorded from ground squirrels for large-field temporal modulations presented on a computer-controlled color monitor. Modulations were chosen to selectively stimulate either of the two classes of cone found in the ground squirrel retina. Under these test conditions, large and reliable cone ERGs could be readily recorded. In animals in which the retina had been surgically detached, the loss of cone signal was directly related to the number of cones in the detachment zone relative to the total cone population and that relationship did not differ for short-wavelength sensitive (S) and middle-wavelength sensitive (M) cones. Surgical reattachment produced a progressive recovery of cone-based signals. The ground squirrel seems likely to provide a useful animal model for studying the dynamics of cone function in retinal detachment and subsequent events. PMID:11949805

  3. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.ed [David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Grimm, Jan [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Guimaraes, Alexander R. [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R. [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Perez, Bradford A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Santiago, Philip M. [David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  4. Assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity by ultrasound: a feasibility study in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faita, Francesco; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Sicari, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness and could be useful for characterizing cardiovascular disease progression even in mouse models. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for assessing arterial PWV in mice using ultrasound (US) images only and test it on the evaluation of age-associated differences in abdominal aorta PWV (aaPWV). US scans were obtained from six adult (7 months) and six old (19 months) wild type male mice (strain C57BL6) under gaseous anaesthesia. For each mouse, diameter and flow velocity instantaneous values were achieved from abdominal aorta B-mode and PW-Doppler images; all measurements were obtained using edge detection and contour tracking techniques. Single-beat mean diameter and velocity were calculated and time-aligned, providing the lnD-V loop. aaPWV values were obtained from the slope of the linear part of the loop (the early systolic phase), while relative distension (relD) measurements were calculated from the mean diameter signal. aaPWV values for young mice (3.5±0.52 m/s) were lower than those obtained for older ones (5.12±0.98 m/s) while relD measurements were higher in young (25%±7%) compared with older animals evaluations (15%±3%). All measurements were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01 both). In conclusion, the proposed image processing technique well discriminate between age groups. Since it provides PWV assessment just from US images, it could represent a simply and useful system for vascular stiffness evaluation at any arterial site in the mouse, even in preclinical small animal models.

  5. Nodes and biological processes identified on the basis of network analysis in the brain of the senescence accelerated mice as an Alzheimer's disease animal model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-rui; Cui, Xiu-liang; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Gui-rong; Li, Peng; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Yue-ying; Bo, Xiao-chen; Wang, Sheng-qi; Zhou, Wen-xia; Zhang, Yong-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Harboring the behavioral and histopathological signatures of Alzheimer's disease (AD), senescence accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice are currently considered a robust model for studying AD. However, the underlying mechanisms, prioritized pathways and genes in SAMP8 mice linked to AD remain unclear. In this study, we provide a biological interpretation of the molecular underpinnings of SAMP8 mice. Our results were derived from differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of SAMP8 mice compared to age-matched SAMR1 mice at 2, 6, and 12 months of age using cDNA microarray analysis. On the basis of PPI, MetaCore and the co-expression network, we constructed a distinct genetic sub-network in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Next, we determined that the regulation of synaptic transmission and apoptosis were disrupted in the brains of SAMP8 mice. We found abnormal gene expression of RAF1, MAPT, PTGS2, CDKN2A, CAMK2A, NTRK2, AGER, ADRBK1, MCM3AP, and STUB1, which may have initiated the dysfunction of biological processes in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Specifically, we found microRNAs, including miR-20a, miR-17, miR-34a, miR-155, miR-18a, miR-22, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-106b, and miR-125b, that might regulate the expression of nodes in the sub-network. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the biological and genetic mechanisms of SAMP8 mice and add an important dimension to our understanding of the neuro-pathogenesis in SAMP8 mice from a systems perspective. PMID:24194717

  6. A single-dose toxicity study on non-radioactive iodinated hypericin for a targeted anticancer therapy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-jie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuan-bo; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Guo-zhi; Fu, Xue-bin; Himmelreich, Uwe; Oyen, Raymond; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yi-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Hypericin (Hyp) and its radio-derivatives have been investigated in animal models with ischemic heart diseases and malignancies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before radioiodinated Hyp (123I-Hyp or 131I-Hyp) can be considered as a clinically useful drug, vigorous evaluations on its chemotoxicity are necessary. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of a single dose of non-radioactive 127I-Hyp in normal mice for 24 h and 14 d. Methods: Studies were performed on 132 normal mice. 127I -Hyp at a clinically relevant dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight and a 100-times higher dose of 10 mg/kg was intravenously injected into 40 mice. The safety aspects of clinical manifestations, serological biochemistry, and histopathology were assessed. In another 72 mice, 127I-Hyp was administered intravenously at assumed values to bracket the value of LD50. The rest 20 mice were used in the control groups. Results: At 24 h and 14 d following the injection of 127I -Hyp at either 0.1 or 10 mg/kg, all mice tolerated well without mortality or any observable treatment-related symptoms. No significant differences were found in blood biochemical parameters between the test and control groups. All organs presented normal appearances upon histopathological inspection. The value of LD50 of 127I-Hyp in mice through intravenous injection was 20.26 mg/kg, with the 95% confidence interval between 18.90 and 21.55 mg/kg. Conclusion: The current study reveals a broad safety range of 127I-Hyp, which not only supports the use of 123I-Hyp or 131I-Hyp in the necrosis targeting theragnostic strategy, but also serves as a valuable reference for exploring other possible applications for iodinated Hyp. PMID:23103619

  7. Structure and mechanical properties of Ank/Ank mutant mouse dental tissues--an animal model for studying periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fong, H; Foster, B L; Sarikaya, M; Somerman, M J

    2009-06-01

    Enamel, dentine and cementum are dental tissues with distinct functional properties associated with their unique hierarchical structures. Some potential ways to repair or regenerate lost tooth structures have been revealed in our studies focused on examining teeth obtained from mice with mutations at the mouse progressive ankylosis (ank) locus. Previous studies have shown that mice with such mutations have decreased levels of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) at local sites resulting in ectopic calcification in joint areas and in formation of a significantly thicker cementum layer when compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) tissue [Ho AM, Johnson MD, Kingsley DM. Role of the mouse ank gene in control of tissue calcification and arthritis. Science 2000;289:265-70; Nociti Jr FH, Berry JE, Foster BL, Gurley KA, Kingsley DM, Takata T, et al. Cementum: a phosphate-sensitive tissue. J Dent Res 2002;81:817-21]. As a next step, to determine the quality of the cementum tissue formed in mice with a mutation in the ank gene (ank/ank), we compared the microstructure and mechanical properties of cementum and other dental tissues in mature ank/ank vs. age-matched WT mice. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses on mineralized tissues revealed no decrease in the extent of mineralization between ank/ank cementum vs. WT controls. Atomic-force-microscopy-based nanoindentation performed on enamel, dentine or cementum of ank/ank vs. age-matched WT molars revealed no significant difference in any of the tested tissues in terms of hardness and elastic modulus. These results indicate that the tissue quality was not compromised in ank/ank mice despite faster rate of formation and more abundant cementum when compared with age-matched WT mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that this animal model can be utilized for studies focused on defining mechanisms to promote cementum formation without loss of mechanical integrity. PMID:19338977

  8. Using Computational and Mechanical Models to Study Animal Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura A.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Tytell, Eric D.; Wang, Z. Jane; Yen, Jeannette; Alben, Silas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in computational methods have made realistic large-scale simulations of animal locomotion possible. This has resulted in numerous mathematical and computational studies of animal movement through fluids and over substrates with the purpose of better understanding organisms’ performance and improving the design of vehicles moving through air and water and on land. This work has also motivated the development of improved numerical methods and modeling techniques for animal locomotion that is characterized by the interactions of fluids, substrates, and structures. Despite the large body of recent work in this area, the application of mathematical and numerical methods to improve our understanding of organisms in the context of their environment and physiology has remained relatively unexplored. Nature has evolved a wide variety of fascinating mechanisms of locomotion that exploit the properties of complex materials and fluids, but only recently are the mathematical, computational, and robotic tools available to rigorously compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods of locomotion in variable environments. Similarly, advances in computational physiology have only recently allowed investigators to explore how changes at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels might lead to changes in performance at the organismal level. In this article, we highlight recent examples of how computational, mathematical, and experimental tools can be combined to ultimately answer the questions posed in one of the grand challenges in organismal biology: “Integrating living and physical systems.” PMID:22988026

  9. Visual regulation of refractive development: insights from animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E L; Hung, L-F; Arumugam, B

    2014-01-01

    Investigations employing animal models have demonstrated that ocular growth and refractive development are regulated by visual feedback. In particular, lens compensation experiments in which treatment lenses are used to manipulate the eye's effective refractive state have shown that emmetropization is actively regulated by signals produced by optical defocus. These observations in animals are significant because they indicate that it should be possible to use optical treatment strategies to influence refractive development in children, specifically to slow the rate of myopia progression. This review highlights some of the optical performance properties of the vision-dependent mechanisms that regulate refractive error development, especially those that are likely to influence the efficacy of optical treatment strategies for myopia. In this respect, the results from animal studies have been very consistent across species; however, to facilitate extrapolation to clinical settings, results are presented primarily for nonhuman primates. In agreement with preliminary clinical trials, the experimental data show that imposed myopic defocus can slow ocular growth and that treatment strategies that influence visual signals over a large area of the retina are likely to be most effective. PMID:24336296

  10. Molecular study of worldwide distribution and diversity of soil animals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tiehang; Ayres, Edward; Bardgett, Richard D.; Wall, Diana H.; Garey, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The global distribution of soil animals and the relationship of below-ground biodiversity to above-ground biodiversity are not well understood. We examined 17,516 environmental 18S rRNA gene sequences representing 20 phyla of soil animals sampled from 11 locations covering a range of biomes and latitudes around the world. No globally cosmopolitan taxa were found and only 14 of 2,259 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found were common to four or more locations. Half of those were circumpolar and may reflect higher connectivity among circumpolar locations compared with other locations in the study. Even when OTU assembly criteria were relaxed to approximate the family taxonomic level, only 34 OTUs were common to four or more locations. A comparison of our diversity and community structure data to environmental factors suggests that below-ground animal diversity may be inversely related to above-ground biodiversity. Our data suggest that greater soil inorganic N and lower pH could explain the low below-ground biodiversity found at locations of high above-ground biodiversity. Our locations could also be characterized as being dominated by microarthropods or dominated by nematodes. Locations dominated by arthropods were primarily forests with lower soil pH, root biomass, mean annual temperature, low soil inorganic N and higher C:N, litter and moisture compared with nematode-dominated locations, which were mostly grasslands. Overall, our data indicate that small soil animals have distinct biogeographical distributions and provide unique evidence of the link between above-ground and below-ground biodiversity at a global scale. PMID:22006309

  11. Effects of Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure on Reproductive-Related Behaviors in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus): A Monogamous Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott A.; Jasarevic, Eldin; Vandas, Gregory M.; Warzak, Denise A.; Geary, David C.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Roberts, R. Michael; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), acts as a mixed agonist- antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or ethinyl estradiol (EE) (0.1 part per billion) to provide a “pure” estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a consideration in risk assessment studies. PMID:23405200

  12. Guideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    of the experimental animals, and thus need review and approval by the ACUC. To aid the ACUCs in fulfillingGuideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy) require that Animal Care and Use

  13. Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    , justification of the number of animals required and experimental refinement. #12;2 Protocols with procedures1 Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review In the NIH Animal Study Proposal (ASP) review process, Animal Care and Use

  14. Copyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    /factory farming 71 Further issues 72 Vivisection/animal experimentation 72 Zoos 74 Section 3: Attitudes to animalsCopyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Cruelty-Director: New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha/University of Canterbury

  15. Using improved serial blood sampling method of mice to study pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Watari, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Keiko; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yukari; Takai, Nozomi; Nezasa, Ken-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    In pharmacokinetic evaluation of mice, using serial sampling methods rather than a terminal blood sampling method could reduce the number of animals needed and lead to more reliable data by excluding individual differences. In addition, using serial sampling methods can be valuable for evaluation of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of drug candidates. In this study, we established an improved method for serially sampling the blood from one mouse by only one incision of the lateral tail vein, and investigated whether our method could be adapted to pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. After intravenous and oral administration of ibuprofen and fexofenadine (BCS class II and III), the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by our method and a terminal blood sampling method, with the result that both methods gave comparable results (ibuprofen: 63.8 ± 4.0% and 64.4%, fexofenadine: 6.5 ± 0.7% and 7.9%, respectively, in bioavailability). In addition, our method could be adapted to DDI study for cytochrome P450 and organic anion transporting polypeptide inhibition. These results demonstrate that our method can be useful for pharmacokinetic evaluation from the perspective of reliable data acquisition as well as easy handling and low stress to mice and improve the quality of pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:955-961, 2015. PMID:25452230

  16. Studies on Sarcocystis species II. Infection in wild and feral animals — prevalence and transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Collins; W. A. G. Charleston

    1979-01-01

    Wild and feral animals in New Zealand were examined by a muscle-digest technique, and histology. Sarcocystis spp. were found in red deer, feral goats, feral pigs, rats, mice, and rabbits, and the prevalence of infection recorded. No Sarcocystis spp. were found in 8 wallabies and 62 possums. Sarcocystis spp. in rats and rabbits were transmitted to cats, and a species

  17. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

  18. Dopamine, kidney, and hypertension: studies in dopamine receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Villar, Van Anthony M.; Armando, Ines; Eisner, Gilbert M.; Felder, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is important in the pathogenesis of hypertension because of abnormalities in receptor-mediated regulation of renal sodium transport. Dopamine receptors are classified into D1-like (D1, D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, D4) subtypes, all of which are expressed in the kidney. Mice deficient in specific dopamine receptors have been generated to provide holistic assessment on the varying physiological roles of each receptor subtype. This review examines recent studies on these mutant mouse models and evaluates the impact of individual dopamine receptor subtypes on blood pressure regulation. PMID:18615257

  19. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  20. Chronic dermal studies of petroleum streams in mice.

    PubMed

    Broddle, W D; Dennis, M W; Kitchen, D N; Vernot, E H

    1996-03-01

    During petroleum refining, a large number of products are generated which have varying chemical and physical properties. These are known in the industry as petroleum streams. In order to characterize their carcinogenic activity, a number of these commercially produced streams were administered to C3H/HeJ mice in chronic dermal bioassays. The bioassays were conducted using one of two study designs: the first set of test materials was applied for a lifetime and the second set for 24 months. In the lifetime study, the last mice in the test groups survived for periods of 31 to 32 months. Middle distillates, boiling in the range 115-390 degrees C, were found to decrease the lifespan of exposed mice compared to controls or streams of higher and lower boiling ranges. These middle distillate streams included straight run kerosine, hydrodesulfurized middle distillate, straight run middle distillate, light catalytic cracked distillate, and 90/10% and 70/30% mixtures of the last two. The middle distillate streams also proved to be active as carcinogens, with tumor incidence ranging from 16 to 67%. Light alkylate naphtha, heavy catalytic reformed naphtha, vacuum residuum, and unleaded gasoline did not demonstrate significant carcinogenic potency. Heavy thermal cracked naphtha, heavy catalytic cracked naphtha, and hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate were dermal carcinogens of low potency in this study. Administration of light catalytic cracked naphtha led to a low incidence of very late developing tumors with a mean latency of 118 weeks. Application of the 0.1% solution of catalytic cracked clarified oil in toluene did not result in a significant incidence of tumors, but the 10% solution caused almost 100% mortality and 100% tumor incidence in 12 months. There was no correlation between carcinogenic potency and the indices of irritation, alopecia, erythema, and scabbing. Only two of the streams tested, hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate and 10% catalytic cracked clarified oil, contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) and may be presumed to be complete carcinogens. The middle distillates and heavy naphthas are nonmutagenic and essentially free of PNAs. Their activity may result from promotion of already-initiated skin sites. Where comparisons could be made, reducing the exposure period from a lifetime (29-32 months) to 24 months did not change the evaluations of stream carcinogenicity except in the case of light catalytic cracked naphtha where six of the seven mice that developed tumors did so after 24 months. PMID:8812220

  1. Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures of Adult Transgenic P301S Mice—A Model for Tauopathy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mewes, Agneta; Franke, Heike; Singer, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid ? deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1) and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO2 concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. Conclusion/Significance Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study provides evidence that adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old mice independently of the transgenic modification undergo slow programmed cell death, caused by a dysfunction of the neuronal repair systems. PMID:22984603

  2. Anabolic androgenic steroids and aggression: studies using animal models.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2004-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) has escalated in teenagers and is associated with increased violence. Adolescent exposure to chronic high levels of AASs is of particular concern because puberty is a hormonally sensitive period during which neural circuitry for adult male patterns of behavior develop. Thus, teenage AAS use may have long-term repercussions on the potential for displaying aggression and violence. Animal models have contributed valuable information on the effects of AAS use. For example, studies in rodents confirmed that exposure to the AASs testosterone and nandrolone, but not stanozolol, does indeed increase aggression. A side effect of AAS use reported in humans is "'roid rage," characterized by indiscriminate and unprovoked aggression. Results of animal studies demonstrated that pubertal rats receiving AASs respond appropriately to social cues as they are more aggressive toward intact males than are castrates. Also, testosterone-treated males recognize appropriate environmental cues as they are most aggressive in their home cage. Thus, adolescent AAS exposure increases aggressive behaviors, but does not induce indiscriminate aggression. To assess whether AAS exposure increases aggression after provocation, rats were tested following a mild tail-pinch. In adolescent males, provocation increased aggression after withdrawal from testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol, an effect which persisted for many weeks. The data suggest that AASs sensitize animals to their surroundings and lower the threshold to respond to provocation with aggression. Thus, in humans, pubertal AAS exposure may not cause violent behaviors, but may increase the likelihood that aggressive acts will result in violence. This may persist into adulthood. PMID:15817752

  3. Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Mullally, Ann; Lane, Steven W.; Brumme, Kristina; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) animal models accurately re-capitulate human disease in mice and have been an important tool for the study of MPN biology and therapy. Transplantation of BCR-ABL transduced bone marrow cells into irradiated syngeneic mice established the field of MPN animal modeling and the retroviral bone marrow transplantation (BMT) assay has been used extensively since. Genetically engineered MPN animal models have enabled detailed characterization of the effects of specific MPN associated genetic abnormalities on the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartment and xenograft models have allowed the study of primary human MPN-propagating cells in vivo. All models have facilitated the pre-clinical development of MPN therapies. JAK2V617F, the most common molecular abnormality in BCR-ABL negative MPN, has been extensively studied using retroviral, transgenic, knock-in and xenograft models. MPN animal models have also been used to investigate additional genetic lesions found in human MPN and to evaluate the bone marrow microenvironment in these diseases. Finally, several genetic lesions, although not common, somatically mutated drivers of MPN in humans induce a MPN phenotype in mice. Future uses for MPN animal models will include modeling compound genetic lesions in MPN and studying myelofibrotic transformation. PMID:23009938

  4. A Gamma Ray Imaging Device for Small-Animal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Robert; Bradley, Eric; Majewski, Stan; Saha, Margaret S.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, modular nuclear imaging device for in vivo imaging of small animals is described. A segmented scintillator is coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier. This combination is used to view the living system under study with a variety of collimators employed to limit the angular acceptance. A personal computer is coupled to a CAMAC electronic system for event-by-event data acquisition and subsequent selective data analysis. The system has been designed to exploit the availability of a wide range of ligands tagged with the isotope 125I. It has most recently been employed for a study of the transport of the cocaine analog, RTI-55, to the brain of a mouse. Results of studies to date and options for future expansion of the system will be described.

  5. Local Delivery System of Immune Modulating Drug for Unresectable Adenocarcinoma: In Vitro Experimental Study and In Vivo Animal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Don Haeng [Inha University, College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Gwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: gangsg@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Jeong, Seok [Inha University, College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chang Jin; Choi, Jung-Ah [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Ju Nam [Chosun University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Back [Korea University, College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a developed drug delivery system containing OK-432 through in vitro and animal study. An OK-432-impregnated polycarbonate/polyurethane stent membrane was used to develop a drug delivery system (DDS) enabling the locoregional release of OK-432. Polyethyleneglycol was used as a detergent and porosity generator. The stability of OK-432 in solvent, releasing kinetics of drug, and cytotoxicity of the DDS were evaluated. OK-432-impregnated DDS was implanted in mice in which a human adenocarcinoma cell line was injected and grown in their back. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for quantifying the amount of drug. OK-432 exposed to phosphate-buffered saline and OK-432 exposed to N,N-dimethylacetamide showed similar results on dot graphs and histograms. However, OK-432 exposed to tetrahydrofurane showed different dot graphs and histograms, which means that the antigenicity of the drug was changed. The release rate of OK-432 was maintained at a constant level for 6 weeks. The local delivery of OK-432 was found to have an antitumor effect on a human adenocarcinoma cell line in an animal study, but no effect on this cell line in in vitro cell culture. Histologic examination showed minimal inflammatory reaction in surrounding tissue. Our study shows that local treatment using this OK-432 release system is safe and effective in reducing adenocarcinoma in a mouse model.

  6. Advances in genome studies in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Appels, R; Nystrom-Persson, J; Keeble-Gagnere, G

    2014-03-01

    The area of plant and animal genomics covers the entire suite of issues in biology because it aims to determine the structure and function of genetic material. Although specific issues define research advances at an organism level, it is evident that many of the fundamental features of genome structure and the translation of encoded information to function share common ground. The Plant and Animal Genome (PAG) conference held in San Diego (California), in January each year provides an overview across all organisms at the genome level, and often it is evident that investments in the human area provide leadership, applications, and discoveries for researchers studying other organisms. This mini-review utilizes the plenary lectures as a basis for summarizing the trends in the genome-level studies of organisms, and the lectures include presentations by Ewan Birney (EBI, UK), Eric Green (NIH, USA), John Butler (NIST, USA), Elaine Mardis (Washington, USA), Caroline Dean (John Innes Centre, UK), Trudy Mackay (NC State University, USA), Sue Wessler (UC Riverside, USA), and Patrick Wincker (Genoscope, France). The work reviewed is based on published papers. Where unpublished information is cited, permission to include the information in this manuscript was obtained from the presenters. PMID:24626952

  7. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  8. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Sperm morphology study of n-hexane in B6C3F1 mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Hackett, P.L.; Decker, J.R.; Westerberg, R.B.; Sasser, L.B.; McClanahan, B.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epididymal sperm morphology of male B6D3F1 mice 5 weeks after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Two concurrent positive control groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally with either 200 or 250 mg/kg ethyl methanesulfonate, a known mutagen, once each day for 5 consecutive days. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. During the fifth post-exposure week the animals were killed and examined for gross lesions of the reproductive tract and suspensions of the epididymal sperm were prepared for morphological evaluations. The appearance and behavior of the mice were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no deaths. No evidence of lesions in any organ was noted at sacrifice. Mean body weights of male mice exposed to n-hexane were not significantly different from those for the 0-ppM animals at any time during the study. Analyses of the sperm morphology data obtained 5 weeks post-exposure (the only time point examined) indicated that exposure of male mice to relatively high concentrations of n-hexane vapor for 5 days produced no significant effects on the morphology of sperm relative to that of the 0-ppM control group. 24 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. [A comparative study of the effect of afobazole on brain monoamine systems in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice].

    PubMed

    Kudrin, V S

    2006-01-01

    The comparative study of the effects of afobazole, a novel anxiolytic drug, on the content of brain monoamines and their metabolites in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HC), hypothalamus (HT), and striatum of BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice (with weak and strong response to emotional stress, respectively) was carried out using HPLC/ED techniques. The norepinephrine (NE) content in the HT of intact C57BL/6 mice is lower, whereas that in the FC and HC of these mice is twice higher than in BALB/C mice. The levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites (dioxyphenylacetic and homovanillic acids) in all the brain structures studied was lower in C57BL/6 than in BALB/C mice. Afobazole (1 and 5 mg/kg) increased the NE content in the FC of C57BL/6 mice, while a similar increase in the HC of these mice was observed only upon afobazole injections in a dose of 5 mg/kg. The most prominent changes in the level of DA and its metabolites were observed in the FC, where the DA content significantly decreased after afobazole administration in both doses in BALB/C as well as in C57BL/6 mice. The dose of 1 mg/kg, reduced the DA level in the FC of BALB/C mice more effectively than in animals with active reaction to stress. These results suggest that Afobazole differently modulates the parameters of cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, while not affecting substantially the serotoninergic system in the brain of animals with the different genetically determined stress reaction. PMID:17153957

  10. Mortality and translocation assay to study the protective capacity of Bifidobacterium lactis INL1 against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Zacarías, M F; Reinheimer, J; Forzani, L; Grangette, C; Vinderola, G

    2014-12-01

    The mouse has been largely used for the study of the protective capacity of probiotics against intestinal infections caused by Salmonella. In this work we aimed at comparing the mortality and translocation assay for the study of the protective capacity of the human breast milk-derived strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1 on a model of gut infection by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Different doses of S. Typhimurium FUNED and B. animalis subsp. lactis INL 1 were administered to Balb/c mice in a mortality or a translocation assay. The survival of the control group in the mortality assay resulted to be variable along experiments, and then we preferred to use a translocation assay where the preventive administration of 109 cfu of bifidobacteria/mouse for 10 consecutive days significantly reduced the number of infected animals and the levels of translocation to liver and spleen, with enhanced secretory immunoglobulin A and interleukin 10 production in the small and large intestine, respectively. Ten days of B. animalis subsp. lactis strain INL1 administration to mice significantly reduced both the incidence and the severity of Salmonella infection in a mouse model of translocation. This work provided the first evidence that a translocation assay, compared to a mortality assay, could be more useful to study the protective capacity of probiotics against Salmonella infection, as more information can be obtained from mice and less suffering is conferred to animals due to the fact that the mortality assay is shorter than the latter. These facts are in line with the guidelines of animal research recently established by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research. PMID:24902954

  11. A search filter for increasing the retrieval of animal studies in Embase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. M. de Vries; C. R. Hooijmans; A. Tillema; M. Leenaars; M. Ritskes-Hoitinga

    2011-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting a new animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing systematic reviews of animal research. In practice, finding all animal studies relevant to a specific research question turns out to be anything but simple. In order to facilitate this search process, we previously developed a search filter for retrieving animal

  12. Toward new understandings of human–animal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

    2012-01-01

    The importance of studying human–animal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

  13. A Video Data Base System for Studying Animal Behavior1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Morrow-Tesch; J. W. Dailey; H. Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Classification of farm animal be- havior is based on oral or written descriptions of the activity in which the animal is engaged. The quantifi- cation of animal behavior for research requires that individuals recognize and code the behavior of the animal under study. The classification of these be- haviors can be subjective and may differ among observers. Illustrated guides to

  14. BLT Humanized Mice as Model to Study HIV Vaginal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occur by sexual exposure, and vaginal transmission accounts for more than half of all newly acquired infections. Studies of vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus to nonhuman primates (NHPs) have suggested an important role for immune cell trafficking in the establishment of infection as well is in the process of viral dissemination. However, NHP models do not permit the study of HIV transmission and dissemination. The improvement of humanized mouse models with robust human immune cell reconstitution of the female genital tract renders these mice susceptible to intravaginal HIV infection. Thus humanized mouse models of HIV vaginal infection will allow the study of the mechanisms involved in HIV transmission and dissemination in vivo. PMID:24151319

  15. Evaluating the dose effects of a longitudinal micro-CT study on pulmonary tissue in C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detombe, Sarah A.; Dunmore-Buyze, Joy; Petrov, Ivailo E.; Drangova, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Background: Micro-computed tomography offers numerous advantages for small animal imaging, including the ability to monitor the same animals throughout a longitudinal study. However, concerns are often raised regarding the effects of x-ray dose accumulated over the course of the experiment. In this study, we scan C57BL/6 mice multiple times per week for six weeks, to determine the effect of the cumulative dose on pulmonary tissue at the end of the study. Methods/Results: C57BL/6 male mice were split into two groups (irradiated group=10, control group=10). The irradiated group was scanned (80kVp/50mA) each week for 6 weeks; the weekly scan session had three scans. This resulted in a weekly dose of 0.84 Gy, and a total study dose of 5.04 Gy. The control group was scanned on the final week. Scans from weeks 1 and 6 were reconstructed and analyzed: overall, there was no significant difference in lung volume or lung density between the control group and the irradiated group. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the week 1 and week 6 scans in the irradiated group. Histological samples taken from excised lung tissue also showed no evidence of inflammation or fibrosis in the irradiated group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that a 5 Gy x-ray dose accumulated over six weeks during a longitudinal micro-CT study has no significant effects on the pulmonary tissue of C57BL/6 mice. As a result, the many advantages of micro- CT imaging, including rapid acquisition of high-resolution, isotropic images in free-breathing mice, can be taken advantage of in longitudinal studies without concern for negative dose-related effects.

  16. Animals, Animals, Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Laz

    2006-12-16

    Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

  17. People's Study Time Allocation and its Relation to Animal Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Janet; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2010-01-01

    In this article we suggest a relation between people's metacognitively guided study time allocation strategies and animal foraging. These two domains are similar insofar as people use specific metacognitive cues to assist their study time allocation just as other species use cues, such as scent marking. People decline to study items that they know they already know, just as other species use a win-shift strategy – avoiding already visited and depleted patches – in foraging. People selectively study the easiest as-yet-unlearned items first, before turning to more difficult items just as other species take the ‘just right’ size and challenge of prey--the so-called Goldilocks principle. People use a stop rule by which they give up on one item and turn to another when the returns diminish just as others species use a stop rule that guides shifting from one patch to another. The value that each item is assigned on the criterion test, if known during study, influenced which items people choose to study and how long they study them just as knowledge of the nutritional or energy value of the food influences choices and perseverance in foraging. Finally, study time allocation strategies can differ in their effectiveness depending upon the expertise of the student just as some species forage close to optimally while others do not. PMID:20026197

  18. AnimalTFDB 2.0: a resource for expression, prediction and functional study of animal transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Liu, Teng; Liu, Chun-Jie; Song, Shuangyang; Zhang, Xiantong; Liu, Wei; Jia, Haibo; Xue, Yu; Guo, An-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators for gene expression. Here we updated the animal TF database AnimalTFDB to version 2.0 (http://bioinfo.life.hust.edu.cn/AnimalTFDB/). Using the improved prediction pipeline, we identified 72 336 TF genes, 21 053 transcription co-factor genes and 6502 chromatin remodeling factor genes from 65 species covering main animal lineages. Besides the abundant annotations (basic information, gene model, protein functional domain, gene ontology, pathway, protein interaction, ortholog and paralog, etc.) in the previous version, we made several new features and functions in the updated version. These new features are: (i) gene expression from RNA-Seq for nine model species, (ii) gene phenotype information, (iii) multiple sequence alignment of TF DNA-binding domains, and the weblogo and phylogenetic tree based on the alignment, (iv) a TF prediction server to identify new TFs from input sequences and (v) a BLAST server to search against TFs in AnimalTFDB. A new nice web interface was designed for AnimalTFDB 2.0 allowing users to browse and search all data in the database. We aim to maintain the AnimalTFDB as a solid resource for TF identification and studies of transcription regulation and comparative genomics. PMID:25262351

  19. AnimalTFDB 2.0: a resource for expression, prediction and functional study of animal transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Liu, Teng; Liu, Chun-Jie; Song, Shuangyang; Zhang, Xiantong; Liu, Wei; Jia, Haibo; Xue, Yu; Guo, An-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators for gene expression. Here we updated the animal TF database AnimalTFDB to version 2.0 (http://bioinfo.life.hust.edu.cn/AnimalTFDB/). Using the improved prediction pipeline, we identified 72 336 TF genes, 21 053 transcription co-factor genes and 6502 chromatin remodeling factor genes from 65 species covering main animal lineages. Besides the abundant annotations (basic information, gene model, protein functional domain, gene ontology, pathway, protein interaction, ortholog and paralog, etc.) in the previous version, we made several new features and functions in the updated version. These new features are: (i) gene expression from RNA-Seq for nine model species, (ii) gene phenotype information, (iii) multiple sequence alignment of TF DNA-binding domains, and the weblogo and phylogenetic tree based on the alignment, (iv) a TF prediction server to identify new TFs from input sequences and (v) a BLAST server to search against TFs in AnimalTFDB. A new nice web interface was designed for AnimalTFDB 2.0 allowing users to browse and search all data in the database. We aim to maintain the AnimalTFDB as a solid resource for TF identification and studies of transcription regulation and comparative genomics. PMID:25262351

  20. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found ... translatable to humans. Multiple studies on resveratrol in animal models, however, have presented ample evidence to support ...

  1. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of) EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse). Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls), using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p??1.4) and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio?mice induced muscle hypoxia, oxidative stress and proteolysis associated with energy pathway disruptions in glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail. PMID:22748015

  2. Molecular Heterogeneities of Adipose Depots - Potential Effects on Adipose-Muscle Cross-Talk in Humans, Mice and Farm Animals

    PubMed Central

    Komolka, Katrin; Albrecht, Elke; Wimmers, Klaus; Michal, Jennifer J.; Maak, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat. PMID:25057322

  3. Histopathological Study of the Lungs of Mice Receiving Human Secretory IgA and Challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    ALVAREZ, Nadine; INFANTE, Juan Francisco; BORRERO, Reinier; MATA, Dulce; PAYAN, JORGE BARRIOS-; HOSSAIN, Md. Murad; MOHD NOR, Norazmi; SARMIENTO, María Elena; HERNANDEZ-PANDO, Rogelio; ACOSTA, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Background: Humoral and cellular immune responses are associated with protection against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of receiving human secretory immunoglobulin A (hsIgA) on the histopathology of the lungs of mice challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: The hsIgA was purified from human colostrum and administered to Balb/c mice by the intranasal route prior to infection with M. tuberculosis or in a pre-incubated formulation with mycobacteria, with the principal aim to study its effect on qualitative pulmonary histopathology. Results: The intranasal administration of hsIgA and the pre-incubation of mycobacteria with this preparation was associated with the presence of organised granulomas with signs of immune activation and histological features related to efficient disease control. This effect was highly evident during the late stage of infection (60 days), as demonstrated by numerous organised granulomas with numerous activated macrophages in the lungs of treated mice. Conclusion: The administration of hsIgA to mice before intratracheal infection with M. tuberculosis or the pre-incubation of the bacteria with the antibody formulation induced the formation of well-organised granulomas and inflammatory lesions in lungs compared with non-treated animals which correlates with the protective effect already demonstrated by these antibody formulations. PMID:25246833

  4. PILOT STUDY FOR ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS IN P53 HETEROZYGOTE DEFICIENT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    40 p53 heterozygous knockout mice and 40 p53 wild-type controls were exposed to 4 arsenicals in drinking water at a single dose, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), in a chronic lifetime tumor bioassay, and animals were subjected to necropsy and limited pathologic examination of th...

  5. Development of an Animal Holding Facility for Space Shuttle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Bowman, G. H.; Jagow, R. B.; Olcott, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The modular Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) developed by NASA is described. Besides providing general housing for various animal species, the RAHF is designed to minimize disturbance of the specimens caused by vehicle and mission operations. The RAHF system offers life-sustaining capabilities, such as food, water, and waste removal, as well as environmental control. Modularity of construction to accommodate a variety of small animals and associated instrumentation ensures continued use of RAHF as the sophistication of experiments increases on subsequent missions.

  6. Use of Large Animal Models for Cardiac Electrophysiology Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason L. Quill; Michael D. Eggen; Eric S. Richardson

    \\u000a Large animal models can be utilized to recreate many cardiac electrophysiological disease states and procedures and to test\\u000a new devices and imaging techniques. In this chapter, a brief summary of regulatory principles regarding animal models is presented.\\u000a Factors for choosing an animal model, such as growth rate, ease of handling, and comparative cardiac anatomy, are detailed,\\u000a with the cardiac anatomy

  7. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. II - Effects on lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.; Corbett, R. L.; Klein, G.

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscope examination was carried out on the lungs of 11 pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that breathed oxygen at 10 psi or 12 psi partial pressure over a period of 7 d, at the end of which time they were decompressed to sea-level O2 pressure, either suddenly or in 30, 60, or 90 min. Vesiculation was noted in the endothelium of the alveolar-capillary wall in most of the animals and, occasionally, blebbing. Some mitochrondria were swollen in a few of the animals. Alveolar exudate was, in general, sparse. Compared with the lungs of other rodents, the lungs of pocket mice appeared relatively resistant to the toxic effects of oxygen. This conclusion needs, however, to be tempered by the fact that 5% N2 was used in the tests reported here. Nonetheless, the results suggest that the oxygen pressures anticipated on the flight of Apollo XVII should be well tolerated by the pocket mice.

  8. Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BENNETT G. GALEF JR. and KEVIN N. LALAND (; )

    2005-06-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about social learning in animals. The last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.

  9. A histopathological and histochemical study of the ovaries of mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Abaza, H.; Asser, L.; Abdel Reheim, S. M.; Shaaban, N.; Marei, S. K.; Hagras, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-two female mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 16 non-infected control mice were studied. They were killed by cervical dislocation, dissected and their ovaries examined histopathologically and histochemically. Ovaries of infected mice showed definite structural damage. No ova, worms or specific granulomata were detected. The study points to a possible immunological mechanism producing such changes simulating those occurring in schistosomal nephropathy. Detection of immune complexes in such organs is recommended. PMID:6838760

  10. Cigarette smoke impairs granulosa cell proliferation and oocyte growth after exposure cessation in young Swiss mice: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke is associated with decreased female fertility, causing damage to ovarian function and disturbing follicle development. However, the effects of cigarette toxicants on ovarian function depend on duration and intensity of exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of brief, intense exposure to tobacco smoke on granulosa cell number, oocyte growth, and follicle size during puberty in female Swiss mice. Methods Ten female Swiss mice aged 35 days were exposed to tobacco smoke from 3R4F reference research cigarettes. They were exposed to an automatic smoking machine 8 h/day, 7 days/week for 15 days. Ten age-matched controls were kept in a different room and exposed to ambient air. At the end of 15 days, five mice in each group were euthanized and the ovaries were analyzed for follicular morphometry and granulosa cell count. The remaining animals were kept for an additional 30 days for further analysis as an ex-smoker group and control group. Comparison between the two groups was evaluated by the Student’s t-test or a two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-test was applied for multiple comparisons. Results We found that cigarette smoke impaired antral follicular growth even after exposure cessation (p < 0.001). Both smoking and ex-smoking groups exhibited similar follicle diameter. However, at the same follicular stage, the number of granulosa cells was smaller in the ex-smoking group compared to smoking animals (p < 0.001). This was associated with increased oocyte diameter in ex-smoking animals compared to smoking animals (p < 0.01). Conclusions The negative effects of cigarette smoking seem to last even after exposure has been interrupted. Moreover, brief exposure during puberty may induce silent oocyte disruption, which could in turn lead to decreased fecundity rates. PMID:22995067

  11. Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cake made from chlorinated flour. 2. Studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Ginocchio, A V; Fisher, N; Hutchinson, J B; Berry, R; Hardy, J

    1983-08-01

    Male and female Theiller's Original strain mice were fed for 16 and 17 months respectively on diets in which cake, prepared from flours treated with 0, 1250 or 2500 ppm chlorine, formed 79% by weight on a 12.6% moisture basis. Body weights and food intakes were unaffected by flour treatment but all of the animals on cake diets showed significant increases in body weight compared with controls on a standard diet and became obese. Mortalities in the males were not related to treatment, but in the females there was excess mortality in the treated groups compared with the cake control group, after 13 months in the 1250 group and after 15 months in the 2500 group. No consistent treatment-related effects were observed in the haematological, biochemical and renal-function studies. Dose-related increases in heart and kidney weights and a dose-related decrease in ovary weight were seen in females. No evidence of carcinogenicity resulting from flour treatment was obtained but the early ending of the study, necessitated by high mortalities, greatly diminished the value of this finding. Concentrations of covalently bound chlorine in the perirenal fat were positively correlated with treatment level, but were considerably below those present in the lipid content of the diets on which the mice were fed. PMID:6684625

  12. Why study the use of animal products in traditional medicines?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rômulo RN Alves; Ierecê L Rosa

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that as many as 80% of the world's more than six billion people rely primarily on animal and plant-based medicines. The healing of human ailments by using therapeutics based on medicines obtained from animals or ultimately derived from them is known as zootherapy. The phenomenon of zootherapy is marked both by a broad geographical

  13. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  14. Bridging human and animal research: A comparative approach to studies of personality and health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranjal H. Mehta; Samuel D. Gosling

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates a comparative approach to personality and health research. We (1) review evidence showing that personality exists and can be measured in animals, (2) illustrate the benefits of animal studies for human personality research, (3) illustrate the benefits of human studies for animal personality research, and (4) provide guidelines for making cross-species comparisons. We conclude that a comparative

  15. Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Ultrastructural study of the effects of trichlorotrifluoroethane on the liver of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    McKnight, J E; McGraw, J L

    1983-04-01

    Fluorocarbon 113 was applied to the backs of male hairless mice for 10 days, 20 days and 40 days. After each exposure period, the mice were anesthetized and the liver biopsied. The tissue was prepared for light and electron microscopy. The resultant micrographs were stereologically analyzed. N differences in mitochondrial structure were observed between the controls and the animals exposed for 10 days and 40 days. In the animals exposed for 20 days, the mitochondria appeared swollen with a loss of matrix and cristae and a breakdown of one of the mitochondrial membranes. Stereological analysis demonstrated a significant increase in mitochondrial volume in the 20 day exposure group. The relative volume of the endoplasmic reticulum increased significantly over the controls in the animals exposed for 10 days, 20 days and 40 days based on stereological analysis. PMID:6854691

  17. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. IV - Observations on the brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, O. T.; Ordy, J. M.; Haymaker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments designed to ascertain the effects of oxygen at 8, 10, and 12 psi partial pressure on the brains of pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were carried out at room temperature (24 C, 75 F) and at 32 C (90 F). The animals exposed to 8-12 psi at 32 C had been in earlier KO2 oxygen tests. Five animals exposed either to 10 or 12 psi (517 mm or 620 mm Hg) O2 partial pressure at 32 C died during the course of the tests, possibly as a consequence of injury sustained by the earlier O2 partial pressure testing. Autopsy was not carried out. In the other 36 exposed animals, no pathological changes were observed in the brain. It is thus highly probable that oxygen pressures at the hyperbaric levels to which the pocket mice would be exposed during the Apollo XVII mission would not result in any lesions in the brain.

  18. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

  19. Electrochemotherapy for localized lymphoma: a preliminary study in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, E P; Citro, G; Mellone, P; Dotsinsky, I; Mudrov, N; Baldi, A

    2007-09-01

    Non Hogdkin's lymphoma is the commonest malignant neoplasm in humans and in pets. Treatments include systemic chemotherapy eventually combined with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is also used as single agent for the treatment of localized lymphoma (LSA). Albeit efficacious, this modality is potentially associated with side effects. Purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of electrochemotherapy (ECT) in companion animals with localized lymphoma. Six patients entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/mg and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 micros each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper electrodes or for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients achieved complete responses (lasting 1 week through 3 years), one cat with nasal LSA had local recurrence and two others experienced spinal and intestinal relapse. Side effects were not noted with the exception of focal alopecia in a cat with retrobulbar LSA. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of localized lymphoma and warrants further investigations. PMID:17987793

  20. Morphofunctional Studies of the Glomerular Wall in Mice Lacking Entactin-1

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Simon-Philippe; Chen, Yong; Gingras, Diane; Chung, Albert E.; Bendayan, Moise

    2003-01-01

    The architecture of the basement membranes is essential for proper function. This architecture is based on interactions among its components, which assemble in a complex network. Entactin-1 appears to be the mastermind of this assembling. In entactin-1-null transgenic mice, immunocytochemistry established the absence of entactin-1 in the glomerular basement membrane, and morphological thickening of this membrane was demonstrated. This prompted us to investigate the organization of other components of the glomerular basement membrane in the transgenic animals. The distribution of type IV collagen and laminin remained unchanged, whereas that of anionic charges was significantly altered. We also evaluated the impact of the absence of entactin-1 on cell relays by studying the ?3- and the ?v-integrins along the endothelial and epithelial glomerular cell plasma membranes. Only the density of ?v was found to be increased. Finally, the filtration properties of the glomerular wall were evaluated by revealing endogenous albumin distribution across the basement membrane. This was altered in transgenic animals, suggesting changes in permselectivity properties. Entactin-1 appears to be an essential component in basement membranes because its absence appears to modify the molecular organization leading to alterations in functional properties. PMID:14566019

  1. Pneumonia-induced sepsis in mice: temporal study of inflammatory and cardiovascular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sordi, Regina; Menezes-de-Lima, Octávio; Della-Justina, Ana M; Rezende, Edir; Assreuy, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to provide a better comprehension of the pneumonia-induced sepsis model through temporal evaluation of several parameters, and thus identify the main factors that determine mortality in this model. Klebsiella pneumoniae was inoculated intratracheally in anesthetized Swiss male mice. Inflammatory and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated 6, 24 and 48 h after the insult. The results show that severity of infection and the mortality correlated with the amount of bacteria. Six, 24 and 48 h after inoculation, animals presented pathological changes in lungs, increase in cell number in the bronchoalveolar lavage, leukopenia, increase in TNF-? and IL-1? levels, hypotension and hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors, the two latter characteristics of severe sepsis and septic shock. Significant numbers of bacteria in spleen and heart homogenates indicated infection spreading. Interestingly, NOS-2 expression appeared late after bacteria inoculation, whereas levels of NOS-1 and NOS-3 were unchanged. The high NOS-2 expression coincided with an exacerbated NO production in the infection focus and in plasma, as judging by nitrate + nitrite levels. This study shows that K. pneumoniae inoculation induces a systemic inflammatory response and cardiovascular alterations, which endures at least until 48 h. K. pneumoniae-induced lung infection is a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis and a better understanding of this model may help to increase the knowledge about sepsis pathophysiology. PMID:23441627

  2. Haemolysis and Perturbations in the Systemic Iron Metabolism of Suckling, Copper-Deficient Mosaic Mutant Mice – An Animal Model of Menkes Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Ma?gorzata; Starzy?ski, Rafa? R.; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Grzmil, Pawe?; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Ogórek, Mateusz; Pierzcha?a, Olga; Staro?, Robert; Gajowiak, Anna; Lipi?ski, Pawe?

    2014-01-01

    The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism. PMID:25247420

  3. Contribution of genetics to the study of animal personalities: a review of case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. J. van Oers; Gerdien de Jong; Arie J. van Noordwijk; B. Kempenaers; Pieter J. Drent

    2005-01-01

    The need for evolutionary studies on quantitative traits that integrate genetics is increasing. Studies on consistent individual differences in behavioural traits provide a good opportunity to do controlled experiments on the genetic mechanisms underlying the variation and covariation in complex behavioural traits. In this review we will highlight the contribution of genetic studies in animal personality research. We will start

  4. The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Emma; Angeloni, Lisa; Fristrup, Kurt; Joyce, Damon; Wittemyer, George

    2013-07-01

    Audio recordings made from free-ranging animals can be used to investigate aspects of physiology, behavior, and ecology through acoustic signal processing. On-animal acoustical monitoring applications allow continuous remote data collection, and can serve to address questions across temporal and spatial scales. We report on the design of an inexpensive collar-mounted recording device and present data on the activity budget of wild mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) derived from these devices applied for a 2-week period. Over 3300 h of acoustical recordings were collected from 10 deer on their winter range in a natural gas extraction field in northwestern Colorado. Analysis of a subset of the data indicated deer spent approximately 33.5% of their time browsing, 20.8% of their time processing food through mastication, and nearly 38.3% of their time digesting through rumination, with marked differences in diel patterning of these activities. Systematic auditory vigilance was a salient activity when masticating, and these data offer options for quantifying wildlife responses to varying listening conditions and predation risk. These results (validated using direct observation) demonstrate that acoustical monitoring is a viable and accurate method for characterizing individual time budgets and behaviors of ungulates, and may provide new insight into the ways external forces affect wildlife behavior. PMID:23919149

  5. The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Emma; Angeloni, Lisa; Fristrup, Kurt; Joyce, Damon; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Audio recordings made from free-ranging animals can be used to investigate aspects of physiology, behavior, and ecology through acoustic signal processing. On-animal acoustical monitoring applications allow continuous remote data collection, and can serve to address questions across temporal and spatial scales. We report on the design of an inexpensive collar-mounted recording device and present data on the activity budget of wild mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) derived from these devices applied for a 2-week period. Over 3300 h of acoustical recordings were collected from 10 deer on their winter range in a natural gas extraction field in northwestern Colorado. Analysis of a subset of the data indicated deer spent approximately 33.5% of their time browsing, 20.8% of their time processing food through mastication, and nearly 38.3% of their time digesting through rumination, with marked differences in diel patterning of these activities. Systematic auditory vigilance was a salient activity when masticating, and these data offer options for quantifying wildlife responses to varying listening conditions and predation risk. These results (validated using direct observation) demonstrate that acoustical monitoring is a viable and accurate method for characterizing individual time budgets and behaviors of ungulates, and may provide new insight into the ways external forces affect wildlife behavior. PMID:23919149

  6. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Mukundam; Sarma, Phulen; Das, Swarnamoni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g) were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.). Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.). Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity) and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS. PMID:25276064

  7. Creating Automated Interactive Video Playback for Studies of Animal Communications

    E-print Network

    Butkowski, Trisha

    2010-01-16

    -time animations with video tracking software. This method may be used to conduct interactive playback experiments. To demonstrate this method, a prototype was created and used to conduct automated mating choice trials on female swordtail fish. The results...

  8. Experimental CO2 laser myringotomy: a preliminary animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, Hannu J.; Poe, Dennis S.; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; Lombardo, Igino; Pankratov, Michail M.; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1995-05-01

    Myringotomy--a procedure in which a perforation is made in the tympanic membrane (TM) is performed to gain access to the middle ear for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. Some medical conditions, especially middle ear infections require an opening that remains patent for weeks or even months. A conventional myringotomy usually closes in a few days which is insufficient time for an underlying disease to resolve. There have been studies reporting modest closure delays of myringotomies done by CO2 laser from the beginning of 1980's and the procedure has not gained popularity in clinical practice. Many of the mechanisms affecting TM healing delays remain unknown. In an animal model we investigated the closure rates of TM perforations after different types of myringotomies. The animals formed three experimental groups: (1) both ears had a semicircular myringotomy produced either with a knife or with a CO2 laser; (2) both ears had a round laser myringotomy (1.2 mm in diameter) produced either in a single shot or by a series of small overlapping shots; (3) both ears had laser myringotomy either kidney shaped (1.2 X 2 mm) or round (1.2 mm in diameter) produced by a series of small shots. All myringotomies closed within 42 days without complications. The mean patency of knife myringotomies was significantly shorter (9.8 days) than that of similar laser myringotomies (19.5 days). The mode of laser delivery did not have an effect on the closure rate. Kidney shaped CO2 laser myringotomies stayed patent significantly longer (mean 25.8 days) than circular (mean 11.4 days). The patency of smaller semicircular laser myringotomies was significantly longer than that of larger circular. The results indicate that certain geometries as well as use of the CO2 laser delays the closure of myringotomy. When myringotomy is performed for therapeutic reasons not only the size but also the shape should be considered as a factor for extending its length of patency. In the future CO2 laser may become an instrument for creating reliable myringotomies of different shapes and sizes.

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Meningeal/vascular alterations and loss of extracellular matrix in the neurogenic zone of adult BTBR T+ tf/J mice, animal model for autism.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic; Cho Kwon, Youngsu; Kodama, Rich

    2011-07-12

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired social and communication skills and seem to result from altered neural development. We sought to determine whether the anatomy of the meninges and extracellular matrix (ECM) is altered in an animal model of autism, the BTBR T+ tf/J mouse. This mouse displays white matter tract anatomical defects and exhibits several symptoms of autism. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry for laminin, a major ECM marker, was performed on series of coronal sections of the adult BTBR T+ tf/J brain and the anatomy was analyzed in comparison to B6 wild type mice. Laminin immunoreactivity visualized meninges, blood vessels and the subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell-associated ECM structures, which I have named fractones. All BTBR T+ tf/J mice observed showed the same forebrain defects. The lateral ventricle volume was severely reduced, the falx cerebri elongated, the arteries enlarged and the choroid plexus atrophied. Compared to B6 mice, fractone numbers in BTBR T+ tf/J mice were reduced by a factor three in the SVZ of the anterior portion of the lateral ventricle. This represents the primary neurogenic zone during adulthood. Fractones were reduced by a factor 1.5 in posterior portions of the lateral ventricle. Moreover, fractone size was reduced throughout the lateral ventricle SVZ. These results show hitherto unsuspected alterations in connective tissue/vasculature and associated ECM in the adult BTBR T+ tf/J mouse. The drastic changes of the connective tissue and ECM in the neurogenic zone of the lateral ventricle may contribute to incorrect neurogenesis during developmental and adult stages. PMID:21600960

  11. Delay in the Recovery of Normal Sleep-Wake Cycle after Disruption of the Light-Dark Cycle in Mice: A Bipolar Disorder-Prone Animal Model?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sun Hwa; Moon, Eunsoo; Chung, Young In; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Jeong, Hee Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disruption of the circadian rhythm is known as a provoking factor for manic episodes. Individual differences exist in the recovery rate from disruption in the general population. To develop a screening method to detect individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder, the authors observed the relationship between the recovery of the normal sleep-wake cycle after switching the light-dark (LD) cycle and quinpirole-induced hyperactivity in mice. Methods Sixteen male mice (age of 5 weeks, weight 28-29 gm) were subjected to a circadian rhythm disruption protocol. Sleep-wake behaviors were checked every 5 min for a total duration of 15 days, i.e., 2 days of baseline observations, 3 days of LD cycle changes, and 10 days of recovery. During the dark cycle on the 16th experimental day, their general locomotor activities were measured in an open field for 120 minutes after an injection of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Results The individual differences in the recovery rate of the baseline sleep-wake cycle were noted after 3 days of switching the LD cycle. Fifty percent (n=8) of the mice returned to the baseline cycle within 6 days after normalizing the LD cycle (early recovery group). The locomotor activities of mice that failed to recover within 6 days (delayed recovery group) were significantly higher (mean rank=12.25) than those of the early recovery group (mean rank=4.75, u=62.0, p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion Given that the quinpirole-induced hyperactivity is an animal model of bipolar disorder, our results suggest individuals who have difficulties in recovery from circadian rhythm disruption may be vulnerable to bipolar disorder. PMID:25395982

  12. Toxicology studies of a chemical mixture of 25 groundwater contaminants. II. Immunosuppression in B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Germolec, D.R.; Yang, R.S.; Ackermann, M.F.; Rosenthal, G.J.; Boorman, G.A.; Blair, P.; Luster, M.I. (National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Concern over the potential adverse health effects of chemically contaminated groundwater has existed for many years. In general, these studies have focused on retrospective epidemiological studies for cancer risk. In the present studies, immune function was monitored in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to a chemical mixture in drinking water for either 14 or 90 days. The mixture consisted of 25 common groundwater contaminants frequently found near toxic waste dumps, as determined by EPA surveys. None of the animals developed overt signs of toxicity such as body or liver weight changes. Mice exposed to the highest dose of this mixture for 14 or 90 days showed immune function changes which could be related to rapidly proliferating cells, including suppression of hematopoietic stem cells and of antigen-induced antibody-forming cells. Some of these responses, e.g., granulocyte-macrophage colony formation, were also suppressed at lower concentrations of the chemical mixture. There were no effects on T cell function or T and B cell numbers in any of the treatment groups. Altered resistance to challenge with an infectious agent also occurred in mice given the highest concentration, which correlated with the immune function changes. Paired-water studies indicated that the immune effects were related to chemical exposure and not to decreased water intake. These results suggest that long-term exposure to contaminated groundwater may represent a risk to the immune system in humans.

  13. 3D visualization and quantification of bone and teeth mineralization for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis in mice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.; Young, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2011-03-01

    Research on bone and teeth mineralization in animal models is critical for understanding human pathologies. Genetically modified mice represent highly valuable models for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis defects and osteoporosis. Current investigations on mice dental and skeletal phenotype use destructive and time consuming methods such as histology and scanning microscopy. Micro-CT imaging is quicker and provides high resolution qualitative phenotypic description. However reliable quantification of mineralization processes in mouse bone and teeth are still lacking. We have established novel CT imaging-based software for accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of mouse mandibular bone and molars. Data were obtained from mandibles of mice lacking the Fibromodulin gene which is involved in mineralization processes. Mandibles were imaged with a micro-CT originally devoted to industrial applications (Viscom, X8060 NDT). 3D advanced visualization was performed using the VoxBox software (UsefulProgress) with ray casting algorithms. Comparison between control and defective mice mandibles was made by applying the same transfer function for each 3D data, thus allowing to detect shape, colour and density discrepencies. The 2D images of transverse slices of mandible and teeth were similar and even more accurate than those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. Image processing of the molars allowed the 3D reconstruction of the pulp chamber, providing a unique tool for the quantitative evaluation of dentinogenesis. This new method is highly powerful for the study of oro-facial mineralizations defects in mice models, complementary and even competitive to current histological and scanning microscopy appoaches.

  14. Attitudes towards wild animal conservation: a comparative study of the Yi and Mosuo in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naiyi Yang; Endi Zhang; Min Chen

    2010-01-01

    Global wild animal resources are declining due to various pressures, which will greatly affect local biodiversity and ecosystem services. Understanding local people's attitudes towards wild animal conservation in high biodiversity areas is of major importance for conservation efforts. Sampling and questionnaire survey methods were employed to examine people's attitudes toward wild animal conservation in a comparative case study of two

  15. Policy on the Study and Care of Animals Senate May 18, 2011 Minute IIB.2

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    Policy on the Study and Care of Animals Approved: Senate May 18, 2011 Minute IIB.2 Executive for the care of animals involved in research, teaching or testing at McGill University and affiliated institutions1 (henceforth McGill University). McGill University recognizes the importance of animal research

  16. Patel, Iversen, Bregman & Schulz 1 Studying synchronization to a musical beat in nonhuman animals

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Patel, Iversen, Bregman & Schulz 1 Studying synchronization to a musical beat in nonhuman animals animals, birds, primates, music In press in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences October 8, 2008 #12 to music in a nonhuman animal (the sulphur-crested cockatoo Cacatua galerita eleanora) raises several

  17. Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Implicit Representations in Computer Animation: a Compared Study Marie-Paule Cani i://www-imagis.imag.fr/Membres/Marie-Paule.Cani/ Abstract How can Implicit Surfaces be used in the context of high-end Com- puter Animation ? This paper approach. Their respective advantages and limitations for the definition of animation and morphing

  18. Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal studies

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    animal bones. Parallel experimental studies on wild-type rat and mouse femurs are used to evaluateReview Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal 2008 Edited by: David Burr Keywords: Bone Small animal models Strength Fracture toughness Crack

  19. Use of transgenic and mutant animal models in the study of heterocyclic amine-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dashwood, Roderick H

    2003-01-31

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are potent mutagens generated during the cooking of meat and fish, and several of these compounds produce tumors in conventional experimental animals. During the past 5 years or so, HCAs have been tested in a number of novel in vivo murine models, including the following: lacZ, lacI, cII, c-myc/lacZ, rpsL, and gptDelta. transgenics, XPA-/-, XPC-/-, Msh2+/-, Msh2-/- and p53+/- knock-outs, Apc mutant mice (ApcDelta716, Apc1638N, Apcmin), and A33DeltaNbeta-cat knock-in mice. Several of these models have provided insights into the mutation spectra induced in vivo by HCAs in target and non-target organs for tumorigenesis, as well as demonstrating enhanced susceptibility to HCA-induced tumors and preneoplastic lesions. This review describes several of the more recent reports in which novel animal models were used to examine HCA-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo, including a number of studies which assessed the inhibitory activities of chemopreventive agents such as 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, conjugated linoleic acids, tea, curcumin, chlorophyllin-chitosan, and sulindac. PMID:12542973

  20. Attenuation correction for freely moving small animal brain PET studies based on a virtual scanner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, G. I.; Kyme, A. Z.; Ryder, W. J.; Fulton, R. R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2014-10-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals is a very challenging problem since the torso of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible attenuating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. In the context of unrestrained small animal imaging, estimation of the attenuation correction factors without the need for a transmission scan is highly desirable. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the hull of the animal’s head based on the reconstructed motion corrected emission images. However, this approach ignores the attenuation introduced by the animal’s torso. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry which moves in synchrony with the animal’s head and discriminates between those events that traversed only the animal’s head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal’s torso. For each recorded pose of the animal’s head a new virtual scanner geometry is defined and therefore a new system matrix must be calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made phantom and step-wise motion. Results showed that when the animal’s torso is within the FOV and not appropriately accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10% . Attenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias < 2%), without the need to account for the attenuation introduced by the extraneous compartment. Although the proposed method requires increased computational resources, it can provide a reliable approach towards quantitatively accurate attenuation correction for freely moving animal studies.

  1. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-products Authors & affiliations: Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  2. Statistical Issues in the Design and Analysis of Gene Expression Microarray Studies of Animal Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. McShane; Joanna H. Shih; Aleksandra M. Michalowska

    2003-01-01

    Appropriate statistical design and analysis of gene expression microarray studies is critical in order to draw valid and useful conclusions from expression profiling studies of animal models. In this paper, several aspects of study design are discussed, including the number of animals that need to be studied to ensure sufficiently powered studies, usefulness of replication and pooling, and allocation of

  3. Automated interactive video playback for studies of animal communication.

    PubMed

    Butkowski, Trisha; Yan, Wei; Gray, Aaron M; Cui, Rongfeng; Verzijden, Machteld N; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2011-01-01

    Video playback is a widely-used technique for the controlled manipulation and presentation of visual signals in animal communication. In particular, parameter-based computer animation offers the opportunity to independently manipulate any number of behavioral, morphological, or spectral characteristics in the context of realistic, moving images of animals on screen. A major limitation of conventional playback, however, is that the visual stimulus lacks the ability to interact with the live animal. Borrowing from video-game technology, we have created an automated, interactive system for video playback that controls animations in response to real-time signals from a video tracking system. We demonstrated this method by conducting mate-choice trials on female swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni. Females were given a simultaneous choice between a courting male conspecific and a courting male heterospecific (X. malinche) on opposite sides of an aquarium. The virtual male stimulus was programmed to track the horizontal position of the female, as courting males do in the wild. Mate-choice trials on wild-caught X. birchmanni females were used to validate the prototype's ability to effectively generate a realistic visual stimulus. PMID:21339726

  4. Electron Microscopic Study on Cell Differentiation in Anagen Hair Follicles in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Ito

    1988-01-01

    The dorsal and sinus hair follicles from 7-day-old mice of several strains were ultrastructurally examined to study their cell differentiation. The findings were compared with those in human anagen hair follicles. The keratinized cells in the Henle's and Huxley's layers gradually lost their cell volume and finally became thin and lamellar in mice. The outer root sheath (ORS) was composed

  5. Study on the Mechanical Instability of MICE Coupling Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Gou, Xing Long; Wu, Hong; Zheng, Shi Xian; Green, Michael A

    2011-05-04

    The superconducting coupling solenoid magnet is one of the key equipment in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The coil has an inner radius of 750 mm, length of 281 mm and thickness of 104 mm at room temperature. The peak induction in the coil is about 7.3 T with a full current of 210 A. The mechanical disturbances which might cause the instability of the impregnated superconducting magnet involve the frictional motion between conductors and the cracking of impregnated materials. In this paper, the mechanical instability of the superconducting coupling magnet was studied. This paper presents the numerical calculation results of the minimum quench energy (MQE) of the coupling magnet, as well as the dissipated strain energy in the stress concentration region when the epoxy cracks and the frictional energy caused by 'stick-slip' of the conductor based on the bending theory of beam happens. Slip planes are used in the coupling coil and the frictional energy due to 'slow slip' at the interface of the slip planes was also investigated. The dissipated energy was compared with MQE, and the results show that the cracking of epoxy resin in the region of shear stress concentration is the main factor for premature quench of the coil.

  6. Individual differences in novelty-seeking and behavioral responses to nicotine: a review of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Redolat, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Asunción; Carrasco, M Carmen; Mesa, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in the behavioral responses to a novel environment have been proposed as a research tool to predict responsiveness to other behavioral tasks, response to certain events and individual vulnerability to nicotine addiction. In rats and mice, novelty seeking (defined as enhanced specific exploration of novel situations) is a complex behavior confirmed by a large body of neurochemical, endocrinological and behavioral data. We review the main standardized procedures employed to measure the novelty seeking trait in rodents and the ontogeny of this behavior throughout the life-span taking into account that novelty seeking can be permanently modified as a consequence of particular early experiences, maternal care, and environmental enrichment. Studies in animal models suggest that individual differences in the sensitivity to nicotine depend on different variables such as basal locomotor activity of the experimental subjects, their response to novel environments (open-field, hole-board) and level of impulsivity. It is concluded that these basic findings contribute to a better understanding of smoking behavior and to the establishment of improved pharmacological treatments if individual differences are borne in mind. PMID:20443770

  7. Animal Models of Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R. Young; C. Jane Welsh

    To determine whether an immunological or pharmaceutical product has potential for therapy in treating multiple sclerosis (MS),\\u000a detailed animal models are required. To date many animal models for human MS have been described in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea\\u000a pigs, marmosets, and rhesus monkeys. The most comprehensive studies have involved murine experimental allergic (or autoimmune)\\u000a encephalomyelitis (EAE), Semliki Forest virus (SFV),

  8. Vascular targets for cannabinoids: animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2014-01-01

    Application of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids to perfused vascular beds or individual isolated arteries results in changes in vascular resistance. In most cases, the result is vasorelaxation, although vasoconstrictor responses are also observed. Cannabinoids also modulate the actions of vasoactive compounds including acetylcholine, methoxamine, angiotensin II and U46619 (thromboxane mimetic). Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed including receptor activation, potassium channel activation, calcium channel inhibition and the production of vasoactive mediators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, prostanoids, NO, endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor and hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the range of receptors now known to be activated by cannabinoids. Direct activation by cannabinoids of CB1, CBe, TRPV1 (and potentially other TRP channels) and PPARs in the vasculature has been observed. A potential role for CB2, GPR55 and 5-HT1A has also been identified in some studies. Indirectly, activation of prostanoid receptors (TP, IP, EP1 and EP4) and the CGRP receptor is involved in the vascular responses to cannabinoids. The majority of this evidence has been obtained through animal research, but recent work has confirmed some of these targets in human arteries. Vascular responses to cannabinoids are enhanced in hypertension and cirrhosis, but are reduced in obesity and diabetes, both due to changes in the target sites of action. Much further work is required to establish the extent of vascular actions of cannabinoids and the application of this research in physiological and pathophysiological situations. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24329566

  9. Animal models to study neonatal nutrition in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of neonatal nutrition on the health status of the newborn and incidence of disease in later life is a topic of intense interest. Animal models are an invaluable tool to identify mechanisms that mediate the effect of nutrition on neonatal development and metabolic function. This review hig...

  10. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, William Irvin; Hirasaki, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective. PMID:24972869

  11. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  12. Inhibiting the Na+/H+ exchanger reduces reperfusion injury: a small animal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzano, Peter; Shi, Yejie; Manhas, Namratta; Wang, Yanping; Hutchinson, Beth; Chen, Xinzhi; Chanana, Vishal; Gerdts, Josiah; Meyerand, Mary Elizabeth; Sun, Dandan

    2010-01-01

    We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the efficacy of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) inhibition following cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in wild-type controls (NHE-1+/+), NHE-1 genetic knockdown mice (NHE-1+/?), and NHE-1+/+ mice treated with the selective NHE-1 inhibitor HOE642. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) revealed a brain lesion as early as 1 hour following reperfusion and illustrated significant protection in NHE-1+/? mice (16.2 +/? 7.9 mm3 in NHE-1+/? mice vs. 47.5 +/? 16.6 mm3 in NHE-1+/+ mice). Knockdown of NHE-1 showed significantly smaller infarct at 72 hours on T2 imaging (21.2 +/? 12.6 mm3 in NHE-1+/? mice vs. 64.6 +/? 2.5 mm3 in NHE-1+/+ mice). Administration of HOE642 prior to reperfusion or during early reperfusion reduced ischemic damage. Thus, high resolution T2 images can be used for consistent and precise calculation of lesion volumes, while changes of DWI are a sensitive early marker of ischemic injury. The results of this study demonstrate the therapeutic potential for inhibition of NHE-1 in treating cerebral ischemia. PMID:21196287

  13. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension in Wild Type Mice and Animals with Genetic Deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu; Nielsen, Gorm; Hedegaard, Elise Røge; Mogensen, Susie; Köhler, Ralf; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Objective In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Approach and Result Male wild type and KCa3.1?/?/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX) mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1?/?/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX) mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype. Conclusion Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of KCa2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a novel mechanism to counteract pulmonary hypertension and to a potential therapeutic utility of KCa2.3/KCa3.1 activators for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24858807

  16. Study of the Protective Effect of Teucrium polium L. Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forouzandeh, Hossein; Azemi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Rashidi, Iran; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Kalantari, Heibatullah

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, protective effect of Teucrium polium L. (Labiatae) extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in mice. Animals were divided into six groups, each group consist of 8 mice. Group one as the negative control group received normal saline, while group two received only crude extract of T. polium L. (500 mg/Kg) for five days and group three as the positive group received acetaminophen (500 mg/Kg). Groups four, five and six received crude extract in doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/Kg, respectively, and on the fifth day, one hour after the last administration, acetaminophen was given orally (500 mg/Kg). Then on the 6th day, animals were sacrificed, their blood was collected to determine serum enzyme activities of ALT, AST and ALP to measure the serum levels of directed and total bilirubin. The livers were removed for histological examination. The results of this study showed the protective effect in all doses but the most significant protection was observed in doses of 250 and 500 mg/Kg (p < 0.05). Also these findings were supported and confirmed by histological examination. PMID:24250580

  17. Animal models of pancreatitis: Can it be translated to human pain study?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Dong-Hua; Nissen, Thomas Dahl

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis affects many individuals around the world, and the study of the underlying mechanisms leading to better treatment possibilities are important tasks. Therefore, animal models are needed to illustrate the basic study of pancreatitis. Recently, animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been thoroughly reviewed, but few reviews address the important aspect on the translation of animal studies to human studies. It is well known that pancreatitis is associated with epigastric pain, but the understanding regarding to mechanisms and appropriate treatment of this pain is still unclear. Using animal models to study pancreatitis associated visceral pain is difficult, however, these types of models are a unique way to reveal the mechanisms behind pancreatitis associated visceral pain. In this review, the animal models of acute, chronic and un-common pancreatitis are briefly outlined and animal models related to pancreatitis associated visceral pain are also addressed. PMID:24259952

  18. Impact of gestational bisphenol a on oxidative stress and free Fatty acids: human association and interspecies animal testing studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zeng, Lixia; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health. PMID:25603046

  19. The methodological quality of systematic reviews of animal studies in dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Faggion; S. Listl; N. N. Giannakopoulos

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies are important for improving estimates of the effects of treatment and for guiding future clinical studies on humans. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies in dentistry through using a validated checklist. A literature search was conducted independently and in

  20. House musk shrew ( Suncus murinus, order: Insectivora) as a new model animal for motilin study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chihiro Tsutsui; Kie Kajihara; Takatsugu Yanaka; Ichiro Sakata; Zen Itoh; Sen-ichi Oda; Takafumi Sakai

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the action of motilin on migrating motor complex by using human subjects and relatively large animals, the precise physiological mechanisms of motilin remain obscure. One reason for the lack of progress in this research field is that large animals are generally not suitable for molecular-level study. To overcome this problem, in this study, we focused

  1. A study on radiation sterilization of SPF animal feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinglong; Ha, Yiming; Chen, Zhijun

    2000-03-01

    SPF animal feed could be infected with various microorganisms in the crushing or granulating process. Fumigation with chemicals is generally employed for sterilization of feeds, but owing to low permeability of the chemicals, this sterilization method is not very good, and there may be residual chemicals in the feed. Research results of sterilization by radiation show that irradiation by 60Co gamma rays will reduce infections for SPF animals. 8 kGy can kill microoganisms in the feed with satisfactory efficiency. After the irradiation treatment with different doses, the changes of nutrient components in the feeds, such as crude fats, coarse fibres, calcium, phosphorus, salts and amino acids, were not found to change in our tests.

  2. The utility of the new generation of humanized mice to study HIV-1 infection: transmission, prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in recent years in the ability to engraft human cells and tissues into immunodeficient mice. The use of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) leads to multi-lineage human hematopoiesis accompanied by production of a variety of human immune cell types. Population of murine primary and secondary lymphoid organs with human cells occurs, and long-term engraftment has been achieved. Engrafted cells are capable of producing human innate and adaptive immune responses, making these models the most physiologically relevant humanized animal models to date. New models have been successfully infected by a variety of strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), accompanied by virus replication in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the male and female reproductive tracts, and the brain. Multiple forms of virus-induced pathogenesis are present, and human T cell and antibody responses to HIV-1 are detected. These humanized mice are susceptible to a high rate of rectal and vaginal transmission of HIV-1 across an intact epithelium, indicating the potential to study vaccines and microbicides. Antiviral drugs, siRNAs, and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy strategies have all been shown to be effective at reducing viral load and preventing or reversing helper T cell loss in humanized mice, indicating that they will serve as an important preclinical model to study new therapeutic modalities. HIV-1 has also been shown to evolve in response to selective pressures in humanized mice, thus showing that the model will be useful to study and/or predict viral evolution in response to drug or immune pressures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings reported to date on all new humanized mouse models (those transplanted with human HSCs) in regards to HIV-1 sexual transmission, pathogenesis, anti-HIV-1 immune responses, viral evolution, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and gene therapeutic strategies. PMID:21835012

  3. Collective behavior in animal groups: theoretical models and empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431

  4. Study on the Mechanical Instability of MICE Coupling Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wang; Heng Pan; X. L. Guo; Hong Wu; Shi Xian Zheng; Michael A Green

    2011-01-01

    The superconducting coupling solenoid magnet is one of the key equipment in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The coil has an inner radius of 750 mm, length of 281 mm and thickness of 104 mm at room temperature. The peak in- duction in the coil is about 7.3 T with a full current of 210 A. The mechanical disturbances

  5. Animal models for the study of liver fibrosis: new insights from knockout mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Fibrosis arises as part of a would-healing response that maintains organ structure and integrity following tissue damage but also contributes to a variety of human pathologies such as liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is an abnormal response of the liver to persistent injury with the excessive accumulation of collagenous extracellular matrices. Currently there is no effective treatment, and many patients end up with a progressive form of the disease, eventually requiring a liver transplant. The clarification of mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and the development of effective therapy are of clinical importance. Experimental animal models, in particular targeted gene knockouts (loss of function) in mice, have become a powerful resource to address the molecular mechanisms or significance of the targeted gene in hepatic functions and diseases. This review will focus on the recent advances in knowledge obtained from genetically engineered mice that provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. PMID:21350186

  6. Modality comparison for small animal radiotherapy: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Bazalova, Magdalena, E-mail: bazalova@stanford.edu; Nelson, Geoff; Noll, John M.; Graves, Edward E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Small animal radiation therapy has advanced significantly in recent years. Whereas in the past dose was delivered using a single beam and a lead shield for sparing of healthy tissue, conformal doses can be now delivered using more complex dedicated small animal radiotherapy systems with image guidance. The goal of this paper is to investigate dose distributions for three small animal radiation treatment modalities. Methods: This paper presents a comparison of dose distributions generated by the three approaches—a single-field irradiator with a 200?kV beam and no image guidance, a small animal image-guided conformal system based on a modified microCT scanner with a 120 kV beam developed at Stanford University, and a dedicated conformal system, SARRP, using a 220 kV beam developed at Johns Hopkins University. The authors present a comparison of treatment plans for the three modalities using two cases: a mouse with a subcutaneous tumor and a mouse with a spontaneous lung tumor. A 5 Gy target dose was calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. Results: All treatment modalities generated similar dose distributions for the subcutaneous tumor case, with the highest mean dose to the ipsilateral lung and bones in the single-field plan (0.4 and 0.4 Gy) compared to the microCT (0.1 and 0.2 Gy) and SARRP (0.1 and 0.3 Gy) plans. The lung case demonstrated that due to the nine-beam arrangements in the conformal plans, the mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, spinal cord, and bones were significantly lower in the microCT plan (2.0, 0.4, and 1.9 Gy) and the SARRP plan (1.5, 0.5, and 1.8 Gy) than in single-field irradiator plan (4.5, 3.8, and 3.3 Gy). Similarly, the mean doses to the contralateral lung and the heart were lowest in the microCT plan (1.5 and 2.0 Gy), followed by the SARRP plan (1.7 and 2.2 Gy), and they were highest in the single-field plan (2.5 and 2.4?Gy). For both cases, dose uniformity was greatest in the single-field irradiator plan followed by the SARRP plan due to the sensitivity of the lower energy microCT beam to target heterogeneities and image noise. Conclusions: The two treatment planning examples demonstrate that modern small animal radiotherapy techniques employing image guidance, variable collimation, and multiple beam angles deliver superior dose distributions to small animal tumors as compared to conventional treatments using a single-field irradiator. For deep-seated mouse tumors, however, higher-energy conformal radiotherapy could result in higher doses to critical organs compared to lower-energy conformal radiotherapy. Treatment planning optimization for small animal radiotherapy should therefore be developed to take full advantage of the novel conformal systems.

  7. Modality comparison for small animal radiotherapy: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Bazalova, Magdalena; Nelson, Geoff; Noll, John M.; Graves, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Small animal radiation therapy has advanced significantly in recent years. Whereas in the past dose was delivered using a single beam and a lead shield for sparing of healthy tissue, conformal doses can be now delivered using more complex dedicated small animal radiotherapy systems with image guidance. The goal of this paper is to investigate dose distributions for three small animal radiation treatment modalities. Methods: This paper presents a comparison of dose distributions generated by the three approaches—a single-field irradiator with a 200?kV beam and no image guidance, a small animal image-guided conformal system based on a modified microCT scanner with a 120 kV beam developed at Stanford University, and a dedicated conformal system, SARRP, using a 220 kV beam developed at Johns Hopkins University. The authors present a comparison of treatment plans for the three modalities using two cases: a mouse with a subcutaneous tumor and a mouse with a spontaneous lung tumor. A 5 Gy target dose was calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. Results: All treatment modalities generated similar dose distributions for the subcutaneous tumor case, with the highest mean dose to the ipsilateral lung and bones in the single-field plan (0.4 and 0.4 Gy) compared to the microCT (0.1 and 0.2 Gy) and SARRP (0.1 and 0.3 Gy) plans. The lung case demonstrated that due to the nine-beam arrangements in the conformal plans, the mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, spinal cord, and bones were significantly lower in the microCT plan (2.0, 0.4, and 1.9 Gy) and the SARRP plan (1.5, 0.5, and 1.8 Gy) than in single-field irradiator plan (4.5, 3.8, and 3.3 Gy). Similarly, the mean doses to the contralateral lung and the heart were lowest in the microCT plan (1.5 and 2.0 Gy), followed by the SARRP plan (1.7 and 2.2 Gy), and they were highest in the single-field plan (2.5 and 2.4?Gy). For both cases, dose uniformity was greatest in the single-field irradiator plan followed by the SARRP plan due to the sensitivity of the lower energy microCT beam to target heterogeneities and image noise. Conclusions: The two treatment planning examples demonstrate that modern small animal radiotherapy techniques employing image guidance, variable collimation, and multiple beam angles deliver superior dose distributions to small animal tumors as compared to conventional treatments using a single-field irradiator. For deep-seated mouse tumors, however, higher-energy conformal radiotherapy could result in higher doses to critical organs compared to lower-energy conformal radiotherapy. Treatment planning optimization for small animal radiotherapy should therefore be developed to take full advantage of the novel conformal systems. PMID:24387502

  8. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mutian; Huang, Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S; Martin, Kyle; Ling, C Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A; Humm, John L

    2009-01-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, ‘gold standard’ multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2?0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ?0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ?0.8 mm could be obtained. PMID:18827321

  9. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mutian; Huang, Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S.; Martin, Kyle; Ling, C. Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A.; Humm, John L.

    2008-10-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ~0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ~0.8 mm could be obtained.

  10. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  11. Study in Mice Links Key Signaling Molecule to Underlying Cause of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    MedlinePLUS

    ... August 2014 Study in Mice Links Key Signaling Molecule to Underlying Cause of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Research funded ... a connection between excessive activity of a signaling molecule and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a genetic disease characterized ...

  12. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2004-02-05

    This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

  13. The Value of Animations in Biology Teaching: A Study of Long-Term Memory Retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danton H. O'Day

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a primary and critical issue in studies of teaching

  14. SOURCES OF VARIATION IN BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS FROM TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY CONTROL ANIMALS ACROSS MULTIPLE LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in study design are typical for toxicogenomic studies, but their impact on gene expression in control animals has not been well characterized. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Scienc...

  15. Animals in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to encourage people to keep animals of all kinds in the classroom and to use them in teaching language arts, mathematics, and social studies, as well as science and nature study. The booklet is divided into four sections. The first section contains an account of a year with desert animals in an ungraded classroom of six- to…

  16. Study of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity of hepatocytes and its relation to angiogenesis in hepatectomised tumour bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Andrini, Laura B; García, Marcela N; Inda, Ana María; Errecalde, Ana Lía

    2013-11-01

    Partial hepatectomy (PH) alters serum concentrations of substances involved in cellular proliferation, leading to the compensatory liver hyperplasia. Furthermore, angiogenesis is mainly stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is a fundamental requirement either in liver regeneration or in tumours growth. This study looks at the expression of VEGF, DNA synthesis (DNAs) and mitotic activity (MA) in hepatectomised (H) and hepatectomised-tumour bearing (HTB) mice throughout a 24?h period. Adult male mice were sacrificed every 4?h from 26 to 50?h post-hepatectomy. H mice show a circadian rhythm in VEGF expression with a maximum value of 2.6?±?0.1 at 08/46?h of day/hours posthepatectomy (HD/HPH); in DNAs, the maximum value was 3.4?±?0.3 at 16/30 (HD/HPH) and in MA it was 2.3?±?0.01 at 12/50 (HD/HPH). In HTB animals the peak of VEGF expression appears at 16/30 (HD/HPH) with a maximum value of 3.7?±?0.1, the peak of DNAs was at 00/38 (HD/HPH) with a value of 4.6?±?0.3 and the maximum value of MA of 08/46 (HD/HPH) with a value of 3.01?±?0.3. We can conclude that the presence of the tumour induces modifications in the intensity and the temporal distribution of the circadian curves of VEGF expression, DNAs and MA of hepatectomised animals. PMID:23881839

  17. Further studies of post-partum ovulation timing in mice.

    PubMed

    Bingel, A S

    1982-07-01

    The times at which post-partum ovulation occurred relative to the times of parturition, were similar for CD-1 mice exposed either to 18L:6D of 10L:14D and comparable to the times reported previously for mice of the same strain kept under 14L:10D. When parturition took place close to 'lights off', ovulation tended to occur 13--14 h after littering (i.e. during the last part of the same dark period and the early part of the next light period). Conversely, when parturition took place closer to 'lights on', ovulation tended to be delayed by the equivalent number of hours so that it occurred during the last part of the next dark period and early part of the subsequent light period. This confirmation and extension of earlier work suggests that mice of this strain would be useful for investigating hormonal events associated with the timing of post-partum ovulation in the mouse. PMID:7201517

  18. Safety assessment of the fermented Phylloporia ribis (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) mycelia by oral acute toxicity study in mice and 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianhua; Fan, Yiou; Yao, Wenhuan; Xie, Wei; Guo, Jie; Yan, Yan; Yang, Fei; Xu, Lingchuan

    2014-07-01

    Phylloporia ribis is an edible fungus in China. Its fermented mycelia have been approved by the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of PR China for use as a novel food material, but little information on its safety is available. The present research was the first to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity in experimental animals of fermented Phylloporia ribis mycelia (FPM) following standard procedures. In acute toxicity study, FPM was orally administered to male and female mice twice a day at single dose of 10 g/kg bw. The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of FPM for mice of both sexes was over 10 g/kg bw. No death and abnormal behaviors occurred during 14 days study except for an increased locomotor activity in three animals. In 90-day feeding study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10.0%, 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.25% and 0% (control) FPM for 90 days. The treatment caused no effects on mortality, gross pathology, histology, hematology, and blood chemistry, no dose-dependent changes in food consumption, but caused effect on body weight gain compared with control group. The No Observed Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of FPM was greater than 8.7 g/kg bw/day in both sexes of rats. PMID:24713262

  19. Alkali burn versus suture-induced corneal neovascularization in C57BL/6 mice: an overview of two common animal models of corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Chiara; Ferrari, Giulio; Bignami, Fabio; Rama, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify and compare corneal hem- and lymphangiogenesis between alkali burn and suture-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV) in two commonly used mouse strains. A retrospective analysis was performed on C57BL/6 and FVB neovascularized corneas. CNV was induced by surface caustication with NaOH or intrastromal placement of three 10.0 nylon sutures. Hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis extent was calculated on whole mounted corneas by CD31 and LYVE1 immunofluorescence analysis. Blood vessel growth was similar between alkali burn and suture-induced CNV in C57BL/6 mice, and between C57BL/6 and FVB sutured strains. On the contrary, corneal lymphangiogenesis was more pronounced in the C57BL/6 sutured mice versus the alkali burn group, and in the FVB strain versus both C57BL/6 models. These results indicate that significant differences occur in lymphangiogenesis, but not hemangiogenesis, in the alkali burn and suture-induced models in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, lymphangiogenesis is more pronounced in the albino (FVB) strain after suture placement. We suggest that the suture model has a number of advantages and may be preferentially used to study corneal lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24560796

  20. Viability of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts and dose titration in gamma-interferon knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cheadle; S. M. Tanhauser; T. J. Scase; J. B. Dame; R. J. Mackay; P. E. Ginn; E. C. Greiner

    2001-01-01

    Gamma-interferon knockout mice have become the model animal used for studies on Sarcocystis neurona. In order to determine the viability of S. neurona sporocysts and to evaluate the course of the disease in these mice, sporocysts were collected from opossums (Didelphis virginiana), processed, and stored for varying periods of time. Gamma-interferon knockout mice were then inoculated orally with different isolates

  1. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Further studies on trypanosomers in game animals in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Morton, J K; Kingston, N

    1976-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive and free-ranging elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer, (Odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), moose (Alces alces), and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for cultural evidence of Trypanosoma sp. infection. Eleven of 188 (12%) hunter-killed elk, 22 of 37 (59%) free-ranging elk, and 79 of 119 (66%) captive elk were culture positive in 1973-74. Parasitemia in adult captive elk showed seasonal variation. Other captive or live-trapped animals found positive included 16 mule deer, two white-tailed deer, and one black-tailed deer. No pronghorn, moose, or bighorn sheep were positive. A 0.25 ml inoculum of elk blood was sufficient to give positive culture results. Small sample size may have contributed to negative results from elk trapped in March 1973. PMID:933315

  3. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  4. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior. PMID:25280983

  5. Studies of hereditary-obese mice (obob) after implantation of pancreatic islets in Millipore filter capsules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Strautz

    1970-01-01

    Summary  Obese mice were implanted with Millipore diffusion chambers containing islets isolated from pancreas of normal littermates. Controls in this study were either obese implanted with encapsulated obese islets and empty chambers or non-obese implanted with encapsulated obese islets, non-obese islets and empty chambers. — Regular checks were made on all mice for weight gains and glucose levels. In addition, samples

  6. The Value of Animations in Biology Teaching: A Study of Long-Term Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a…

  7. Using Physical Models to Study the Gliding Performance of Extinct Animals

    E-print Network

    Koehl, Mimi

    SYMPOSIUM Using Physical Models to Study the Gliding Performance of Extinct Animals M. A. R. Koehl of extinct animals using examples from our research on the theropod dinosaur, Microraptor gui, which had hypotheses about the function of extinct organisms that are not physically plausible and to determine

  8. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAMERON S. GILLIES; MARK HEBBLEWHITE; SCOTT E. NIELSEN; MEG A. KRAWCHUK; CAMERON L. ALDRIDGE; JACQUELINE L. FRAIR; D. JOANNE SAHER; CAMERON E. STEVENS; CHRISTOPHER L. JERDE

    Summary 1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population- level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is

  9. Lagrangian studies of animal swimming and aquatic predator-prey interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dabiri

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies of animal swimming have been traditionally based on an Eulerian perspective in which the time-dependent flow field surrounding the animal is measured at fixed locations in space. The measured velocity field and its derivatives (e.g. vorticity) can, in principle, be used to deduce the forces, energetics, and fluid transport associated with locomotion in real fluids. However, achieving a

  10. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  11. An Experimental Study of Animation, Mathematics Achievement, and Attitude toward Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Michael; Poohkay, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Describes a cognitive study of undergraduate elementary education majors that was conducted to understand the effects of computer animation on student learning and student reactions. A mathematics lesson was developed and tested in three instructional formats: text only, text plus static graphics, and text plus computer animation. (Author/LRW)

  12. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  13. The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: integration of animal and human model studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia J. Lupien; Bruce S. McEwen

    1997-01-01

    Cognitive deficits following acute administration of corticosteroids have been described in experimental animals and humans. In both populations, an inverted-U shape relationship has been reported between the dose of corticosteroids administered and the nature and extent of the cognitive deficits induced by corticosteroids. Further studies in animals have revealed a two-level recognition system for adrenal steroids, which was later more

  14. Early-life risk factors for panic and separation anxiety disorder: insights and outstanding questions arising from human and animal studies of CO2 sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marco; Ogliari, Anna; D'Amato, Francesca; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Genetically informative studies showed that genetic and environmental risk factors act and interact to influence liability to (a) panic disorder, (b) its childhood precursor separation anxiety disorder, and (c) heightened sensitivity to CO2, an endophenotype common to both disorders. Childhood adversities including parental loss influence both panic disorder and CO2 hypersensitivity. However, childhood parental loss and separation anxiety disorder are weakly correlated in humans, suggesting the presence of alternative pathways of risk. The transferability of tests that assess CO2 sensitivity - an interspecific quantitative trait common to all mammals - to the animal laboratory setting allowed for environmentally controlled studies of early parental separation. Animal findings paralleled those of human studies, in that different forms of early maternal separation in mice and rats evoked heightened CO2 sensitivity; in mice, this could be explained by gene-by-environment interactional mechanisms. While several questions and issues (including obvious divergences between humans and rodents) remain open, parallel investigations by contemporary molecular genetic tools of (1) human longitudinal cohorts and (2) animals in controlled laboratory settings, can help elucidate the mechanisms beyond these phenomena. PMID:24793177

  15. Col6a1 Null Mice as a Model to Study Skin Phenotypes in Patients with Collagen VI Related Myopathies: Expression of Classical and Novel Collagen VI Variants during Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lettmann, Sandra; Bloch, Wilhelm; Maaß, Tobias; Niehoff, Anja; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Eckes, Beate; Eming, Sabine A.; Bonaldo, Paolo; Paulsson, Mats; Wagener, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from collagen VI related myopathies caused by mutations in COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 often also display skin abnormalities, like formation of keloids or “cigarette paper” scars, dry skin, striae rubrae and keratosis pilaris (follicular keratosis). Here we evaluated if Col6a1 null mice, an established animal model for the muscle changes in collagen VI related myopathies, are also suitable for the study of mechanisms leading to the skin pathology. We performed a comprehensive study of the expression of all six collagen VI chains in unwounded and challenged skin of wild type and Col6a1 null mice. Expression of collagen VI chains is regulated in both skin wounds and bleomycin-induced fibrosis and the collagen VI ?3 chain is proteolytically processed in both wild type and Col6a1 null mice. Interestingly, we detected a decreased tensile strength of the skin and an altered collagen fibril and basement membrane architecture in Col6a1 null mice, the latter being features that are also found in collagen VI myopathy patients. Although Col6a1 null mice do not display an overt wound healing defect, these mice are a relevant animal model to study the skin pathology in collagen VI related disease. PMID:25158062

  16. Carcinogenicity study of cochineal in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Iwata, H; Tanaka, T; Morishita, Y; Mori, Y; Kojima, T; Okumura, A

    1991-09-01

    The carcinogenicity of cochineal, a red colouring used in food and other products, was studied in a 2-yr bioassay in B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50-55 mice of each sex were given 0, 3 or 6% cochineal in the diet for 2 yr. Mice of all groups developed tumours including hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas, pulmonary adenomas or adenocarcinomas and lymphomas or lymphatic leukaemias, and the incidences of these tumours were not significantly different in treated and control groups. The results indicate that cochineal lacks carcinogenicity in mice and are consistent with those of in vitro short-term assays of cochineal and of carminic acid, an active principle of cochineal. PMID:1937288

  17. Benchmark dose and the three Rs. Part II. Consequences for study design and animal use.

    PubMed

    Slob, Wout

    2014-08-01

    OECD test guidelines for standard toxicity studies prescribe (minimal) numbers of animals, but these are not substantiated by a quantitative analysis of the relationship between number of animals and the required performance of the associated study design. This paper provides a general approach of how this relationship may be established and discusses the approach in more detail by focusing on the three typical repeated-dose studies (subacute, subchronic, and chronic). Quantitative results derived from simulation studies, including some new results, are summarized and their consequences for study guidelines are discussed. The currently prescribed study designs for repeated-dose studies do not appear to be sufficient when the NOAEL is used for evaluating the data--the probability of not detecting toxicologically significant effects is high. The ensuing need for increasing the number of animals may be avoided by replacing the NOAEL approach by the BMD approach as it increases the probability of detecting the same effects without increasing the number of animals. Hence, applying the BMD approach will result in a virtual reduction in the number of animals. Further, the BMD approach allows for a real reduction in the number of animals on various grounds. It allows for analyzing combined similar datasets, resulting in an increase in precision, which can be translated in animal reduction while keeping the same precision. In addition, applying the BMD approach may be expected to result in animal reduction in the long run, as it allows for distributing the same number of animals over more doses without loss of precision. The latter will reduce the need to repeat studies due to unfortunate dose location. PMID:25000331

  18. Population pharmacokinetic model of fluvoxamine in rats: Utility for application in animal behavioral studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Geldof; Jan Freijer; Ludy van Beijsterveldt; Philip Timmerman; Abdellah Ahnaou; Wilhelmus H. I. M. Drinkenburg; Meindert Danhof

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of blood sampling in pharmacokinetic (PK)\\/pharmacodynamic (PD) studies in behavioral animal models could in part be overcome by a mixed effects modeling approach. This analysis characterizes and evaluates the population PK of fluvoxamine in rat plasma using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. The model is assessed for its utility in animal behavioral PK\\/PD studies.In six studies with a different

  19. Animal models of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Chen, Li; Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, however each of current animal models have some limitations. Among these animal models, the apolipoprotein (apo) E-knockout (KO) mice have been used extensively because they develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerotic lesions developed in this model depending on experimental design may resemble humans’ stable and unstable atherosclerotic lesions. This mouse model of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis has been also used to investigate the impact of oxidative stress and inflammation on atherogenesis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-r-KO mice are a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. However, unlike apo E-KO mice, the LDL-r-KO mice do not develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both apo E-KO and LDL-r-KO mice have been employed to generate other relevant mouse models of cardiovascular disease through breeding strategies. In addition to mice, rabbits have been used extensively particularly to understand the mechanisms of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The present review paper details the characteristics of animal models that are used in atherosclerosis research. PMID:24868511

  20. Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical trials include the inability of animal models to recapitulate the human disease, variations in breeding and colony maintenance, lack of standards in design, conduct and analysis of animal trials, and publication bias due to under-reporting of negative results in the scientific literature. The quality of animal model research on novel therapeutics can be improved by bringing the rigor of human clinical trials to animal studies. Research communities in several disease areas have developed recommendations for the conduct and reporting of preclinical studies in order to increase their validity, reproducibility, and predictive value. To address these issues in the AD community, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation partnered with Charles River Discovery Services (Morrisville, NC, USA) and Cerebricon Ltd. (Kuopio, Finland) to convene an expert advisory panel of academic, industry, and government scientists to make recommendations on best practices for animal studies testing investigational AD therapies. The panel produced recommendations regarding the measurement, analysis, and reporting of relevant AD targets, th choice of animal model, quality control measures for breeding and colony maintenance, and preclinical animal study design. Major considerations to incorporate into preclinical study design include a priori hypotheses, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics studies prior to proof-of-concept testing, biomarker measurements, sample size determination, and power analysis. The panel also recommended distinguishing between pilot 'exploratory' animal studies and more extensive 'therapeutic' studies to guide interpretation. Finally, the panel proposed infrastructure and resource development, such as the establishment of a public data repository in which both positive animal studies and negative ones could be reported. By promoting best practices, these recommendations can improve the methodological quality and predictive value of AD animal studies and make the translation to human clinical trials more efficient and reliable. PMID:21943025

  1. Humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Macchiarini, Francesca; Manz, Markus G.; Palucka, A. Karolina; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been instrumental in increasing the understanding of human physiology, particularly immunity. However, these animal models have been limited by practical considerations and genetic diversity. The creation of humanized mice that carry partial or complete human physiological systems may help overcome these obstacles. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on humanized mouse models for immunity in Bethesda, MD, on June 13–14, 2005, during which researchers discussed the benefits and limitations of existing animal models and offered insights into the development of future humanized mouse models. PMID:16301740

  2. Use of score sheets for welfare assessment of transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. van der Meer; A. Rolls; V. Baumans; B. Olivier; L. F. M. van Zutphen

    2001-01-01

    Summary The use of transgenic mice has increased dramatically in recent years and continues to increase further. However, because transgenesis may alter a balanced genotype and produce unpredictable effects, careful monitoring of health and welfare of the transgenic animal is advised. The present study assessed the feasibility of the use of score sheets for monitoring transgenic mice, as part of

  3. Case Study: An Unusual Case of Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joann B Powell (Clark Atlanta University Biological Sciences)

    2011-12-08

    This is a case study for undergraduate and graduate students in biology and can be adapted for anatomy, physiology, and/or anatomy and physiology courses. In particular this case study explores anatomy and physiology associated with reproductive biology. Users of the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, case study, teaching notes and answer key.

  4. Liposomes-in-Hydrogel Delivery System with Mupirocin: In Vitro Antibiofilm Studies and In Vivo Evaluation in Mice Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Hurler, Julia; Sørensen, Karen K.; Vuorela, Pia; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have proposed mupirocin-in-liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system as advanced delivery system with the potential in treatment of burns. In the current studies, we evaluated the system for its cytotoxicity, ability to prevent biofilm formation, act on the mature biofilms, and finally determined its potential as wound treatment in in vivo mice burn model. The system was found to be nontoxic against HaCaT cells, that is, keratinocytes. It was safe for use and exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus biofilms, although the activity was more significant against planktonic bacteria and prior to biofilm formation than against mature biofilms as shown in the resazurin and the crystal violet assays. An in vivo mice burn model was used to evaluate the biological potential of the system and the healing of burns observed over 28 days. The in vivo data suggest that the delivery system enhances wound healing and is equally potent as the marketed product of mupirocin. Histological examination showed no difference in the quality of the healed scar tissue, whereas the healing time for the new delivery system was shorter as compared to the marketed product. Further animal studies and development of more sophisticated in vivo model are needed for complete evaluation. PMID:24369533

  5. Attenuation correction for freely moving small animal brain PET studies based on a virtual scanner geometry.

    PubMed

    Angelis, G I; Kyme, A Z; Ryder, W J; Fulton, R R; Meikle, S R

    2014-10-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals is a very challenging problem since the torso of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible attenuating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. In the context of unrestrained small animal imaging, estimation of the attenuation correction factors without the need for a transmission scan is highly desirable. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the hull of the animal's head based on the reconstructed motion corrected emission images. However, this approach ignores the attenuation introduced by the animal's torso. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry which moves in synchrony with the animal's head and discriminates between those events that traversed only the animal's head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal's torso. For each recorded pose of the animal's head a new virtual scanner geometry is defined and therefore a new system matrix must be calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made phantom and step-wise motion. Results showed that when the animal's torso is within the FOV and not appropriately accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10% . Attenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias < 2%), without the need to account for the attenuation introduced by the extraneous compartment. Although the proposed method requires increased computational resources, it can provide a reliable approach towards quantitatively accurate attenuation correction for freely moving animal studies. PMID:25190511

  6. Contribution of animal studies to evaluate the similarity of biosimilars to reference products.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Peter J K; Ebbers, Hans C; Kooijman, Marlous; Wied, Christine C Gispen-de; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Moors, Ellen H M; Schellekens, Huub

    2014-11-20

    The European Union (EU) was the first region to establish a regulatory framework for biosimilars, in which animal studies are required to confirm similarity to a reference product. However, animal studies described in European public assessment reports (EPARs) or marketing authorisation applications (MAAs) did not identify clinically or toxicologically relevant differences despite differences in quality, suggesting that animal studies lack the sensitivity to confirm biosimilarity. Scientific advice provided learning opportunities to evolve existing guidance. Altogether, the data support a step-wise approach to develop biosimilars that focuses on quality and clinical efficacy of biosimilar. This approach might be more effective and does not necessarily require animal studies, which is also reflected in new EU draft guidance. PMID:25463036

  7. DIESEL PARTICLE GENERATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DIRECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of diesel exhaust is associated with the development of asthma as well as other adverse health effects. Studies have also demonstrated that diesel exhaust induces pulmonary changes that worsen asthmatic responses to respiratory allergens. This paper describes the des...

  8. Use of a Safe, Reproducible, and Rapid Aerosol Delivery Method to Study Infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lafontaine, Eric R.; Zimmerman, Shawn M.; Shaffer, Teresa L.; Michel, Frank; Gao, Xiudan; Hogan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium readily isolated from wet soils of countries bordering the equator. Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted clone of B. pseudomallei that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir and causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by these organisms typically occurs via percutaneous inoculation or inhalation of aerosols, and the most common manifestation is severe pneumonia leading to fatal bacteremia. Glanders and melioidosis are difficult to diagnose and require prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There are no vaccines available to protect against either Burkholderia species, and there is concern regarding their use as biological warfare agents given that B. mallei has previously been utilized in this manner. Hence, experiments were performed to establish a mouse model of aerosol infection to study the organisms and develop countermeasures. Using a hand-held aerosolizer, BALB/c mice were inoculated intratracheally with strains B. pseudomallei 1026b and B. mallei ATCC23344 and growth of the agents in the lungs, as well as dissemination to the spleen, were examined. Mice infected with 102, 103 and 104 organisms were unable to control growth of B. mallei in the lungs and bacteria rapidly disseminated to the spleen. Though similar results were observed in mice inoculated with 103 and 104 B. pseudomallei cells, animals infected with 102 organisms controlled bacterial replication in the lungs, dissemination to the spleen, and the extent of bacteremia. Analysis of sera from mice surviving acute infection revealed that animals produced antibodies against antigens known to be targets of the immune response in humans. Taken together, these data show that small volume aerosol inoculation of mice results in acute disease, dose-dependent chronic infection, and immune responses that correlate with those seen in human infections. PMID:24098563

  9. Efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy in  -mannosidosis mice: a preclinical animal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Prieto Roces; Renate Lullmann-Rauch; Jianhe Peng; Chiara Balducci; Claes Andersson; Ole Tollersrud; Jens Fogh; Aldo Orlacchio; Tommaso Beccari; Paul Saftig; Kurt von Figura

    2004-01-01

    a-Mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder which manifests itself in the excessive storage of mannose- containing oligosaccharides in the lysosomes of multiple peripheral tissues and in the brain. Here we report on the correction of storage in a mouse model of a-mannosidosis after intravenous administration of lyso- somal acid a-mannosidase (LAMAN) from bovine kidney, and human and mouse recombinant LAMAN.

  10. Fluorescent transgenic mice suitable for multi-color aggregation chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    We recently reported a novel method of mouse transgenesis called Pronuclear Injection-based Targeted Transgenisis (PITT) using which a series of fluorescent transgenic (Tg) mice lines were generated. These lines, unlike those generated using conventional random integration methods, express the transgenes faithfully and reproducibly generation after generation. Because of this superior nature, these lines are ideal for the generation of multi-colored aggregation chimeras that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and lineage analyses in living embryos/organs, where the transgenes can be detected and the clonal origin of a given cell population easily traced by its distinct fluorescence. In this study, to verify if Tg fluorescent mice generated through PITT were suitable for such applications, we sought to generate chimeric blastocysts and chimeric-Tg mice by aggregating two- or three-colored 8-cell embryos. Our analyses using these models led to the following observations. First, we noticed that cell mixing was infrequent during the stages of morula to early blastocyst. Second, chimeric fetuses obtained after aggregation of the two-colored 8-cell embryos exhibited uniform cell mixing. And third, in the organs of adult chimeric mice, the mode of cell distribution could be either clonal or polyclonal, as previously pointed out by others. Implications of our novel and improved Tg-chimeric mice approach for clonal cell lineage and developmental studies are discussed. PMID:22868913

  11. FURTHER STUDIES ON TRYPANOSOMES IN GAME ANIMALS IN WYOMING 1100

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEWTON KINGSTON; E. TOM; GEORGE M. THOMAS; B LINDA McHOLLANDand; MALCOLM S. TRUEBLOOD

    Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American bison (Bison bison) being brought

  12. Apoptosis imaging studies in various animal models using radio-iodinated peptide.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Wonjung; Ha, Yeong Su; Soni, Nisarg; Lee, Woonghee; Park, Se-Il; Ahn, Heesu; An, Gwang Il; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has a role in many medical disorders and treatments; hence, its non-invasive evaluation is one of the most riveting research topics. Currently annexin V is used as gold standard for imaging apoptosis. However, several drawbacks, including high background, slow body clearance, make it a suboptimum marker for apoptosis imaging. In this study, we radiolabeled the recently identified histone H1 targeting peptide (ApoPep-1) and evaluated its potential as a new apoptosis imaging agent in various animal models. ApoPep-1 (CQRPPR) was synthesized, and an extra tyrosine residue was added to its N-terminal end for radiolabeling. This peptide was radiolabeled with (124)I and (131)I and was tested for its serum stability. Surgery- and drug-induced apoptotic rat models were prepared for apoptosis evaluation, and PET imaging was performed. Doxorubicin was used for xenograft tumor treatment in mice, and the induced apoptosis was studied. Tumor metabolism and proliferation were assessed by [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET imaging and compared with ApoPep-1 after doxorubicin treatment. The peptide was radiolabeled at high purity, and it showed reasonably good stability in serum. Cell death was easily imaged by radiolabeled ApoPep-1 in an ischemia surgery model. And, liver apoptosis was more clearly identified by ApoPep-1 rather than [(124)I]annexin V in cycloheximide-treated models. Three doxorubicin doses inhibited tumor growth, which was evaluated by 30-40% decreases of [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET uptake in the tumor area. However, ApoPep-1 demonstrated more than 200% increase in tumor uptake after chemotherapy, while annexin V did not show any meaningful uptake in the tumor compared with the background. Biodistribution data were also in good agreement with the microPET imaging results. All of the experimental data clearly demonstrated high potential of the radiolabeled ApoPep-1 for in vivo apoptosis imaging. PMID:25430587

  13. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  14. Advancing animal models of human type 1 diabetes by engraftment of functional human tissues in immunodeficient mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A Brehm; Alvin C Powers; Leonard D Shultz; Dale L Greiner

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of studying rodent models of type 1 diabetes (T1D), no therapy capable of preventing or curing T1D has successfully been translated from rodents to humans. This inability to translate otherwise promising therapies to clinical settings likely resides, to a major degree, from significant species-specific differences between rodent and human immune systems as well as species-related variances in islets

  15. Osteoarthritis pain mechanisms: Basic studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Xin; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex and painful disease of the whole joint. At present there are no satisfying agents for treating OA. The current standard of care mainly involves managing and alleviating its symptoms. Mechanisms of OA pain have been studied in rodent knee OA models produced by intra-knee injection of the chondrocyte glycolytic inhibitor mono-iodoacetate, surgery, or spontaneous development in some species. These models are clinically relevant in terms of histological damage and functional changes, and are used to study mechanisms underlying mechanical, thermal, ambulatory, body weight supporting-evoked, and ongoing OA pain. Recent peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal biochemical and electrophysiological studies in these models suggest that peripheral pro-inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides sensitize knee nociceptors. Spinal cytokines and neuropeptides promote OA-associated pain, and peripheral and spinal cannabinoids inhibit OA pain respectively through cannabinoid-1 (CB1) and CB1/CB2 receptors. TRPV1 and metalloproteinases contribute and supraspinal descending facilitation of 5-HT/5-HT 3 receptors may also contribute to OA pain. Conditioned place preference tests demonstrate that OA pain induces aversive behaviors suggesting brain involvement in OA pain. During OA, brain functional connectivity is enhanced, but at present it is unclear how this change is related to OA pain. PMID:23973145

  16. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF DOPAMINE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFANO PUGLISI-ALLEGRA; SIMONA CABIB

    1997-01-01

    Comparative studies of behavioral responses to centrally acting drugs in inbred strains of mice which show differences in brain neurotransmitter activity represent a major strategy in the investigation of the neurochemical bases underlying behavioral expression. Moreover, these studies represent a preliminary stage in behavioral genetic research since they allow quantitative scales to be established and suggest correlations to be tested

  17. Assessment of Myocardial Metabolism in Diabetic Rats Using Small-Animal PET: A Feasibility Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Welch; Jason S. Lewis; Joonyoung Kim; Terry L. Sharp; Carmen S. Dence; Robert J. Gropler; Pilar Herrero

    This feasibility study was undertaken to determine whether kinetic modeling in conjunction with small-animal PET could noninvasively quantify alterations in myocardial perfusion and substrate metabolism in rats. Methods: All small-animal PET was performed on either of 2 tomographs. Myocardial blood flow and substrate metabolism were measured in 10 male Zucker diabeticfattyrats(ZDF,fa\\/fa)and10leanlittermates(Lean,Fa\\/1) using 15O-water, 1-11C-glucose, 1-11C-acetate, and 1-11C- palmitate. Animals were

  18. Immunological studies on mice exposed subacutely to methyl isocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, A.N.; Bucher, J.R.; Germolec, D.R.; Silver, M.T.; Vore, S.J.; Luster, M.I.

    1987-06-01

    The immunotoxicity of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice exposed via inhalation to 0, 1, or 3 ppm for 6 hr per day on 4 consecutive days. The antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and natural killer cell activity were found to be unaffected by MIC exposure. Although lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens were moderately suppressed by MIC, the differences were not statistically significant. The response of splenic lymphocytes to allogeneic leukocytes in a mixed leukocyte response (MLR) was suppressed in a dose-related fashion and was significantly different from the control response at the 3 ppm level. This effect was thought to be secondary and a result of general toxicity rather than a direct effect of MIC on the immune system. Furthermore, resistance to the infectious agents Listeria monocytogenes, mouse malaria parasite, and influenza virus, or to transplantable tumor cells was not compromised by MIC exposure. Thus, the immune system does not appear to be a primary target for MIC toxicity.

  19. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Ofusori, David A; Adejuwon, Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas. PMID:23569755

  20. Sample Size Considerations for One-to-One Animal Transmission Studies of the Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yen, Hui-Ling; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal transmission studies can provide important insights into host, viral and environmental factors affecting transmission of viruses including influenza A. The basic unit of analysis in typical animal transmission experiments is the presence or absence of transmission from an infectious animal to a susceptible animal. In studies comparing two groups (e.g. two host genetic variants, two virus strains, or two arrangements of animal cages), differences between groups are evaluated by comparing the proportion of pairs with successful transmission in each group. The present study aimed to discuss the significance and power to estimate transmissibility and identify differences in the transmissibility based on one-to-one trials. The analyses are illustrated on transmission studies of influenza A viruses in the ferret model. Methodology/Principal Findings Employing the stochastic general epidemic model, the basic reproduction number, R0, is derived from the final state of an epidemic and is related to the probability of successful transmission during each one-to-one trial. In studies to estimate transmissibility, we show that 3 pairs of infectious/susceptible animals cannot demonstrate a significantly higher transmissibility than R0?=?1, even if infection occurs in all three pairs. In comparisons between two groups, at least 4 pairs of infectious/susceptible animals are required in each group to ensure high power to identify significant differences in transmissibility between the groups. Conclusions These results inform the appropriate sample sizes for animal transmission experiments, while relating the observed proportion of infected pairs to R0, an interpretable epidemiological measure of transmissibility. In addition to the hypothesis testing results, the wide confidence intervals of R0 with small sample sizes also imply that the objective demonstration of difference or similarity should rest on firmly calculated sample size. PMID:23383167

  1. Current Studies of Acupuncture in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hee Kyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Park, Yeon-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe and harmless treatment option for alleviating pain. To explore the pain mechanism, numerous animal models have been developed to simulate specific human pain conditions, including cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we analyzed the current research methodology of acupuncture for the treatment of CIBP. We electronically searched the PubMed database for animal studies published from 2000 onward using these search terms: (bone cancer OR cancer) AND (pain OR analgesia) AND (acupuncture OR pharmacopuncture OR bee venom). We selected articles that described cancer pain in animal models. We analyzed the methods used to induce cancer pain and the outcome measures used to assess the effects of acupuncture on CIBP in animal models. We reviewed articles that met our inclusion criteria. Injection of mammary cancer cells into the cavity of the tibia was the most frequently used method for inducing CIBP in the animal models. Among the eight selected studies, five studies demonstrated the effects of electroacupuncture on CIBP. The effects of acupuncture were assessed by measuring pain-related behavior. Future researches will be needed to ascertain the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating CIBP and to explore the specific mechanism of CIBP in animal models. PMID:25383081

  2. Behavioral effects of oral subacute exposure to BDE-209 in young adult mice: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, María T; Domingo, José L

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of an oral subacute exposure to 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on young adult inbred wild type Tg2576 mice. BDE-209 was administered by gavage at doses of 0 and 20 mg/kg/day dissolved in sunflower oil for 15 days. Two behavioral endpoints were examined: anxiety-activity in a light/dark test and a zero maze test, and learning and spatial memory in a water maze test. Young adult mice exposed to BDE-209 showed a reduction in anxiety levels and a delayed learning in a spatial memory task. Although the results indicated that behavioral effects were present in a young adult exposed population of wild type Tg2576 mice, further studies on chronic exposure to BDE-209 are clearly necessary in order to corroborate these effects. PMID:22178224

  3. USC animal study finds fasting makes brain tumors more vulnerable to radiation therapy

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from USC researchers is the first to show that controlled fasting improves the effectiveness of radiation therapy in cancer treatments, extending life expectancy in mice with aggressive brain tumors. The latest study, published in PLOS One, is the first to show that periods of fasting appear to have an augmenting effect on radiation therapy in treating gliomas, the most commonly diagnosed brain tumor.

  4. [Acute toxicity studies of taltirelin tetrahydrate in mice, rats, and dogs].

    PubMed

    Hishida, N; Kuse, H; Yamamura, T; Noguchi, M; Kawai, Y; Hori, M

    1997-11-01

    The acute toxicity studies of taltirelin tetrahydrate (TA-0910), a new thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, were performed in Slc:ddY mice, Slc:Wistar rats and beagle dogs of both sexes. The drug was administered to mice and rats by oral (p.o.), intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, and to dogs by the p.o. and i.v. routes. LD50 values were more than 5,000 mg/kg in mice and rats of both sexes by the p.o. and s.c. routes. Some mice and rats died immediately after i.v. injection, the LD50 values were more than 2,000 mg/kg in mice of both sexes and calculated as 799 and 946 mg/kg in male and female rats, respectively. The minimum lethal doses were more than 2000 mg/kg in dogs of both sexes by the p.o. route. Though all dogs treated intravenously with 1000 mg/kg could survive during the observation period, a female dog with 500 mg/kg died on the day after administration. In general condition, hyperactivity, tremor and straub tail, that reflected central stimulatory effects of TA-0910, were observed in mice and rats, and also wet dog shaking in only rats. Vomiting and hyperactivity were seen in dogs by the p.o. route, and exaltation (during the dosing) and sedation by the i.v. route. In addition, salivation and transient tachycardia were observed in the both routes. In blood chemical examination, the transient changes of glucose, protein, lipid and/or serum enzyme were shown. In autopsy, no notable changes were seen in mice, rats and dogs. PMID:9430092

  5. Primacy, recency, and the variability of data in studies of animals’ working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Gaffan

    1992-01-01

    The performance measures in many experiments on animal memory are expected to have an underlying binomial distribution, with\\u000a additional variance contributed, for example, by between- subject differences. This paper examines whether the data from published\\u000a studies of serial position effects (primacy and recency) in animals’ working memory conform to that expectation. In most cases,\\u000a the variance, when it can be

  6. [A study of blood albumin of various animal species by the spectral luminescent method].

    PubMed

    Ismailov, Z F; Kurtaliev, E N; Nizomov, N; Kha?darova, F; Khodzhaev, G; Iashchuk, V M

    2007-01-01

    The functional differences of blood serum albumin of some animal species have been studied using the spectral luminescent method by comparing the binding constants K and the concentration of binding sites N of rhodamine B and rhodanmine S to albumin. It was shown that K and N depend on both the concentration of blood serum albumin and animal species and the dye used. PMID:18225650

  7. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying the function of animal viral proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Omel’yanchuk; O. S. Yudina

    2011-01-01

    Studies in which Drosophila melanogaster individuals carrying transgenes of animal viruses were used to analyze the action of animal viral proteins on the cell are\\u000a reviewed. The data presented suggest that host specificity of viruses is determined by their proteins responsible for the\\u000a penetration of the virus into the cell, while viral proteins responsible for interactions with the host cell

  8. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P.; Kim, Kang

    2014-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ˜3 s and ˜9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (-0.124 ± 0.037%). Using histology as a gold standard to classify mouse livers, US-TSI had a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 90%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.775. This ex vivo study demonstrates the feasibility of using US-TSI to detect fatty livers and warrants further investigation of US-TSI as a diagnostic tool for hepatic steatosis.

  9. Are Covered Stents Really Effective at Closing Esophagotracheal Fistulas? Results of an Animal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Hans-Joachim [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Stinner, Benno [Department of General Surgery, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Barth, Peter [Department of Pathology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Klose, Klaus-Jochen [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany)

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether covered self-expanding metal stents successfully exclude experimentally created esophagotracheal fistulas.Methods: Esophagotracheal fistulas were surgically created in the upper third of the esophagus in 12 minipigs and immediately sealed by implantation of a covered self-expanding metal stent (20 mm expanded diameter) in the esophagus. Before the animals were killed, after 3, 7, 14, 28, 30, and 36 days, the position of the stent and the sealing of the fistula were monitored fluoroscopically. The esophagus, trachea, and both lungs were examined histologically.Results: Creation of an esophagotracheal fistula was successful in all cases. All fistulas were widely patent at autopsy. The technical success rate for stent deployment and initial sealing of the fistula was 100%. During follow-up, five stents migrated distally, but none into the stomach. Therefore, the fistula was no longer excluded in five animals. In seven animals the stent sealed the fistula until the death of the animal. Tracheal narrowing necessitated additional tracheal stenting in three animals. Two minipigs died due to aspiration of food. Histologic examination showed signs of aspiration in all animals with stents in place for longer than 2 weeks.Conclusion: This experimental animal study revealed worse results for sealing of esophagotracheal fistulas with covered self-expanding metal stents than have been reported for the clinical use of these devices.

  10. Skin and bone integrated prosthetic pylon: a pilot animal study.

    PubMed

    Pitkin, Mark; Raykhtsaum, Grigory; Galibin, Oleg V; Protasov, Mikhail V; Chihovskaya, Julie V; Belyaeva, Irina G

    2006-01-01

    Direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses is a viable alternative to traditional techniques that are based on a socket-residuum interface. Direct skeletal attachment may be a better or even the only method for patients with a very short residuum and high soft-tissue volume. The problem of integrating the prosthetic pylon with residual skin during direct skeletal attachment of a limb prosthesis has not been solved, and the use of a completely porous prosthetic pylon has not been the subject of focused, systematic research. In this in vivo study, we investigated cell (osteocyte, fibroblast, and keratinocyte) adhesion and penetration into the pores of a titanium pylon implanted in Wistar rats. The porous titanium pylon was implanted in the bone of the thigh residua of four rats. Electronic scanning and morphological analysis demonstrated integration of the pylon with the surrounding skin. These findings support the possibility of developing a natural barrier against the infection associated with direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses. PMID:17123195

  11. Further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in Wyoming II.

    PubMed

    Kingston, N; Thorne, E T; Thomas, G M; McHolland, L; Trueblood, M S

    1981-10-01

    Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American Bison (Bison bison) being brought into Wyoming from Nebraska. Nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. Identification of species was not possible due to the failure to obtain bloodstream trypomastigotes from this host. Trypanosomes were recovered from 8 of 57 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). This is the first report of Trypanosoma sp. from bison and from pronghorn; the trypanosome from moose was identified as Trypanosoma cervi from bloodstream trypomastigotes. In 1978, natural transplacental transmission of trypanosomes was found to occur in 1 of 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fetuses, examined near term by blood culture. No trypanosomes were found in 18 male deer fetuses examined in 1979. Of 100 free-ranging elk from western Wyoming examined by blood culture in 1979, 71 were infected. These data are compared with data from 1973-74. PMID:7338978

  12. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well. Though they may be cute and cuddly, wild animals may carry germs, viruses, and parasites. Deer and ... mice carry ticks that cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. ...

  13. Pharmacological stabilization of intracranial aneurysms in mice— a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Hiroshi; Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Liang, Elena I; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kurihara, Chie; Palova, Emma; Kanematsu, Miyuki; Kitazato, Keiko; Hashimoto, Tomoki

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose An increasing number of unruptured intracranial aneurysms are being detected, partly due to the increased use of brain imaging techniques. Pharmacological stabilization of aneurysms for the prevention of aneurysmal rupture could potentially be an attractive alternative approach to clipping or coiling in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We have developed a mouse model of intracranial aneurysm that recapitulates key features of intracranial aneurysms. In this model, subarachnoid hemorrhage from aneurysmal rupture causes neurological symptoms that can be easily detected by a simple neurological examination. Using this model, we tested whether anti-inflammatory agents such as tetracycline derivatives, or a selective inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (SB-3CT) can prevent the rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Aneurysms were induced by a combination of induced hypertension and a single injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid in mice. Treatment with minocycline, doxycycline, or SB-3CT was started six days after aneurysm induction. Aneurysmal rupture was detected by neurological symptoms and confirmed by the presence of intracranial aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results Minocycline and doxycycline significantly reduced rupture rates (vehicle vs. doxycycline = 80 vs. 35%, P < 0.05; vehicle vs. minocycline = 73 vs. 24%, P < 0.05) without affecting the overall incidence of aneurysms. However, SB-3CT did not affect the rupture rate (62 vs. 55%, P = 0.53). Conclusions Our data established the feasibility of using a mouse model of intracranial aneurysm to test pharmacological stabilization of aneurysms. Tetracycline derivatives could be potentially effective in preventing aneurysmal rupture. PMID:22798328

  14. Development of a K-edge micro CT for the study of tumor angiogenesis in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldazzi, G.; Bollini, D.; Gambaccini, M.; Golfieri, R.; Lollini, P. L.; Margotti, A.; Masetti, S.; Nicoletti, G.; Pancaldi, G.; Roma, L.; Rossi, P. L.; Zuffa, M.

    2006-03-01

    A new micro scanner CT for small animals - based on a couple of parallel quasi-monochromatic X-ray beams with different energies selectable - is under development. The aim of the study is the in vivo imaging of the tumor neo-angiogenesis pattern in an earlier diagnostic phase and the analysis of cancer growth and metastasis development in different tumor types on mice. As previously demonstrated1, the imaging system based on dual energy quasi- monochromatic X-ray beams provides higher sensitivity in detecting low concentrations of iodine contrast medium if compared to traditional polychromatic X-ray equipment. The K-edge dual energy radiology is a realistic candidate to recognize tumor neo- angiogenesis process in a very earlier stage, in which conventional systems are very poor in sensitivity. Moreover, the capability to select the energy of quasi-monochromatic beams enables the use of the Multi-Energy Quasi-Monochromatic technique. Tuning properly the energies allows maximizing the difference between linear absorption coefficients of healthy and pathological tissues increasing the contrast of pathologies. In order to optimize the contrast with this technique, one should know the X-ray energy regions where the absorption of healthy and pathological tissues eventually differs and that for each type of tumor under study. For this reason, the systematic X-ray characterization of many types of healthy and neoplastic human and mice tissues is in progress. The goal of this work is to obtain a catalog of liner attenuation coefficients of a variety of pathological tissues for respect to the healthy ones, finding any energy windows of radiological differentiation. In this paper, the theoretical methods are presented with development works and preliminary results.

  15. Establishment of the Mouse as a Model Animal for the Study of Diabetic Cataracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Hegde; M. G. Henein; S. D. Varma

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the suitability of using the mouse, a species known to have a low lens aldose reductase activity, as a model animal for studying the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract. Earlier studies with diabetic rats whose cataract development is much faster can only partially explain the etiology of cataracts in humans where lens

  16. CFTR involvement in nasal potential differences in mice and pigs studied using a thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Danieli B; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Finkbeiner, Walter F; Nielson, Dennis W; Verkman, A S

    2004-11-01

    Nasal potential difference (PD) measurements have been used to demonstrate defective CFTR function in cystic fibrosis (CF) and to evaluate potential CF therapies. We used the selective thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172 to define the involvement of CFTR in nasal PD changes in mice and pigs. In normal mice infused intranasally with a physiological saline solution containing amiloride, nasal PD was -4.7 +/- 0.7 mV, hyperpolarizing by 15 +/- 1 mV after a low-Cl- solution, and a further 3.9 +/- 0.5 mV after forskolin. CFTR(inh)-172 produced 1.1 +/- 0.9- and 4.3 +/- 0.7-mV depolarizations when added after low Cl- and forskolin, respectively. Systemically administered CFTR(inh)-172 reduced the forskolin-induced hyperpolarization from 4.7 +/- 0.4 to 0.9 +/- 0.1 mV but did not reduce the low Cl(-)-induced hyperpolarization. Nasal PD was -12 +/- 1 mV in CF mice after amiloride, changing by <0.5 mV after low Cl- or forskolin. In pigs, nasal PD was -14 +/- 3 mV after amiloride, hyperpolarizing by 13 +/- 2 mV after low Cl- and a further 9 +/- 1 mV after forskolin. CFTR(inh)-172 and glibenclamide did not affect nasal PD in pigs. Our results suggest that cAMP-dependent nasal PDs in mice primarily involve CFTR-mediated Cl- conductance, whereas cAMP-independent PDs are produced by a different, but CFTR-dependent, Cl- channel. In pigs, CFTR may not be responsible for Cl- channel-dependent nasal PDs. These results have important implications for interpreting nasal PDs in terms of CFTR function in animal models of CFTR activation and inhibition. PMID:15246976

  17. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Acetaminophen (CAS No. 103-90-2) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a widely consumed analgesic found in several nonprescription pharmaceuticals. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering acetaminophen (purity >99%) in feed to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 14 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary cells. 14-DAY STUDIES: Rats were fed diets containing 0, 800, 1,600, 3,100, 6,200, or 12,500 ppm acetaminophen, and mice were fed diets containing 0, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm acetaminophen. There were no deaths among any groups during the study; the final mean body weight of male rats that received 12,500 ppm was significantly lower than that of the controls. Final mean body weights of male and female mice and female rats that received acetaminophen were similar to those of the controls. Feed consumption by male and female rats that received 12,500 ppm acetaminophen was lower than that of the controls; feed consumption by all other exposed groups was higher than that of the controls. 13-WEEK STUDIES: Rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 800, 1,600, 3,200, 6,200, 12,500, or 25,000 ppm acetaminophen. Two male and two female rats, and one male and one female mouse that received 25,000 ppm, and two male mice that received 12,500 ppm died from acetaminophen-related toxicity before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of male and female rats and mice that received 12,500 or 25,000 ppm were lower than those of the controls. The patterns of feed consumption and reduced body weights that occurred among rats and mice that received diets containing 12,500 or 25,000 ppm were indicative of poor feed palatability. Acetaminophen-related lesions were observed in the liver (necrosis, chronic active inflammation, hepatocytomegaly), kidney (tubule cast, tubule necrosis, tubule regeneration), reproductive organs (atrophy of testis, ovary, and uterus), thymus and lymph nodes (lymphoid depletion) of rats that received 25,000 ppm, and of the live (chronic active inflammation, hepatocytomegaly) and testis (atrophy) of male rats receiving 12,500 ppm. Compound-related lesions in mice were found in the liver (hepatocytomegaly, focal calcification, pigmentation, necrosis) of males that received 6,200, 12,500, or 25,000 ppm and females that received 12,000 or 25,000 ppm. Dose selection for the 2-year studies was based on reduced body weights and the liver lesions observed in rats and mice at 12,500 and 25,000 ppm. 2-YEAR STUDIES: Diets containing 0, 600, 3,000, or 6,000 ppm acetaminophen were given continuously to groups of 60 rats and mice of each sex for up to 104 weeks. After 65 weeks of exposure, 10 animals from each group were evaluated for histopathology and for hematology, urinalysis, and clinical chemistry parameters. Survival and mean body weights of rats that received acetaminophen were similar to those of the controls throughout the study. The average severity of nephropathy was increased in exposed male and female rats. In males this was associated with an increased incidence of parathyroid hyperplasia (renal hyperparathyroidism). The incidence of focal renal tubule hyperplasia was also increased in exposed male rats. The incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia was increased in exposed female rats and was significantly increased in the 6,000 ppm group (9/50; 17/50; 15/50; 24/50). Survival of exposed and control mice was similar throughout the study. Mean body weights of mice that received acetaminophen were generally lower than those of the controls throughout the study. Although the incidence of thyroid follicular cell hyperplasia increased with dose among groups of exposed male and female mice, there was no increase in the incidence of follicular cell neoplasms. Renal tubule hyperplasia occurred in one low-dose and two high-dose males and a renal tubule adenoma was present in one low-dose and one high-dose male. GENETIC TOXICOLOGY: Acetaminophen was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA1537, or TA98 w

  18. NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Trichloroethylene (Without Epichlorohydrin) (CAS No. 79-01-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    PubMed

    1990-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent used for vapor degreasing and cold cleaning of fabricated metal parts. TCE has also been used as a carrier solvent for the active ingredients of insecticides and fungicides, as a solvent for waxes, fats, resins, and oils, as an anesthetic for medical and dental use, and as an extractant for spice oleoresins and for caffeine from coffee. Trichloroethylene may be found in printing inks, varnishes, adhesives, paints, lacquers, spot removers, rug cleaners, disinfectants, and cosmetic cleansing fluids. TCE may also be used as a chain terminator in polyvinyl chloride production and as an intermediate in the production of pentachloroethane. Trichloroethylene is no longer used with food, drugs, or cosmetics. NTP Carcinogenesis studies of epichlorohydrin-free trichloroethylene were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Dosage levels were 500 and 1,000 mg/kg for rats and 1,000 mg/kg for mice. Trichloroethylene was administered five times per week for 103 weeks, and surviving animals were killed between weeks 103 and 107. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same schedule and served as vehicle controls. Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were used as untreated controls. The dosage levels selected for the 2-year study were based on the results of the 13-week studies. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats received TCE by gavage at doses of 125 to 2,000 mg/kg (males) and 62.5 to 1,000 mg/kg (females) for 13 weeks. Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice received gavage doses of 375 to 6,000 mg/kg of TCE for 13 weeks. Survival, body weight gains, and previous experience with TCE were used to select doses for the 2-year study. All rats survived the 13-week study, but males receiving 2,000 mg/kg exhibited a 24% difference in final body weight. At the 1,000 mg/kg dose, final body weights for males (-3%) and for females (-2%) were similar to those of controls. The doses selected for the 2-year study in rats were 500 and 1,000 mg/kg for both sexes. The initial doses used in the earlier bioassay in Osborne-Mendel rats were 549 and 1,097 mg/kg for both sexes. A total of 8/10 male mice and 10/10 female mice receiving doses of TCE as high as 1,500 mg/kg survived the 13-week experimental period. The single dosage level selected for the 2-year study in mice was 1,000 mg/kg for both sexes. This dose was less than the high dose used in the earlier bioassay in B6C3F1 mice (2,339 mg/kg for males and 1,739 for females) and was similar to the previous low doses (1,169 mg/kg for males and 869 for females). In the 2-year study, the survival of both low and high dose male rats and dosed male mice was less (Pmice was lower than that of the vehicle controls throughout the study, while those of the dosed and vehicle control female mice were comparable. Cytomegaly (toxic nephrosis) of the kidney was observed in 96/98 male and in 97/97 female rats given TCE, with none being found in male or female vehicle control rats. This lesion was more severe in males, particularly in the high dose group. Cytomegaly was observed in 45/50 male mice and in 48/49 female mice administered TCE, and in none of the vehicle controls. Renal tubular cell adenocarcinomas were found in the three high dose male rats; these neoplasms were observed in those male rats killed at the end of the study (0/33, 0/20, and 3/16, 19%). The incidence in the high dose male rats at the end of the study was greater (P<0.05) than that in the controls. Renal tubular cell adenocarcinomas are considered uncommon occurrences in F344/N rats, with 3/748 (0.4%) being observed in historical vehicle gavage controls. Additional renal tumors in dosed male rats included one transitional cell

  19. Immune functional impacts of oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF) on mice: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Bingna; Pan, Jianyu; Wu, Yuantao; Wan, Peng; Sun, Huili

    2013-07-01

    Oyster peptides were produced from Crassostrea hongkongensis and used as a new protein source for the preparation of an oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF). Reserpineinduced malabsorption mice and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression mice were used in this study. OPENF powder is light yellow green and has a protein-fat-carbohydrate ratio of 16:9:75 with good solubility in water. A pilot study investigating immune functional impacts of the OPENF on mice show that the OPENF enhanced spleen lymphocyte proliferation and the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, OPENF can improve intestinal absorption, increase food utilization ratio, and maintain the normal physiological function of mice. These results suggest that oyster peptides could serve as a new protein source for use in enteral nutrition formula, but more importantly, also indicate that OPENF has an immunostimulating effect in mice.

  20. Harmonization of Animal Clinical Pathology Testing in Toxicity and Safety Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Weingand; Geoff Brown; Robert Hall; Dai Davies; Kent Gossett; Doug Neptun; Trevor Waner; Toshiaki Matsuzawa; Paul Salemink; Wilhelm Froelke; Jean-Pierre Provost; Gianni Dal Negro; John Batchelor; Mamoru Nomura; Horst Groetsch; Alphons Boink; Jon Kimball; David Woodman; Malcolm York; Eva Fabianson-Johnson; Michel Lupart; Elsa Melloni

    1996-01-01

    Ten scientific organizations formed a joint international committee to provide expert recommendations for clinical pathology testing of laboratory animal species used in regulated toxicity and safety studies. For repeated-dose studies in rodent species, clinical pathology testing is necessary at study termination. Interim study testing may not be necessary in long-duration studies provided that it has been done in short-duration studies

  1. Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them. PMID:22142960

  2. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of dl-Amphetamine Sulfate (CAS No. 60-13-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    dl-Amphetamine sulfate is used for the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and behavioral syndromes in children. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering dl-amphetamine sulfate (USP grade) in feed to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 14 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. 14-Day Studies: The chemical was administered at dietary concentrations of 0, 47, 94, 188, 375, or 750 ppm for rats and 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 ppm for mice. Decreased body weight gain was seen at the higher concentrations, but no chemical-related deaths or toxic lesions were observed. 13-Week Studies: The chemical was administered at dietary concentrations of 0, 47, 94, 188, 375, or 750 ppm for rats and 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 ppm for mice. None of the rats died, but 6/10 male mice and 7/10 female mice that received 2,000 ppm, 3/10 male mice that received 1,000 ppm, and 8/10 male mice that received 500 ppm died before the end of the studies. Decreased body weight gain and hyperactivity were seen in dosed rats and mice. Final body weights of rats receiving 188 ppm or more were 62% to 89% those of controls, and final body weights of mice receiving 250 ppm or more were 70% to 86% those of controls. There were no lesions that were considered to be a primary effect of the chemical. Based on decreased body weight gain and hyperactivity in the 13-week studies, 2-year studies were conducted by feeding diets containing 0, 20 or 100 ppm dl-amphetamine sulfate to groups of 50 rats or 50 mice of each sex. Body Weights and Survival in the 2-Year Studies: No significant differences in survival were observed between any groups of rats or mice (male rats: control, 30/50; low dose, 31/50; high dose, 33/50; female rats: 33/50; 42/50; 37/50; male mice: 48/50; 48/50; 49/50; female mice: 35/50; 36/50; 44/50). Final body weights of dosed rats and mice were decreased relative to those of controls. Final body weights were 92% and 86% those of controls for low- and high-dose male rats, 89% and 70% those of controls for low- and high-dose female rats, 85% and 72% those of controls for low- and high-dose male mice, and 81% and 66% those of controls for low- and high-dose female mice. Hyperactivity was observed in all dosed groups. Feed consumption was similar among control and exposed groups with the exception of high-dose female rats (84% of controls) and high-dose male mice, for which hyperactivity resulted in scattering of feed and overestimation of feed consumption. The average amount of dl-amphetamine sulfate consumed per day was estimated to be 1 or 5 mg/kg for low- and high-dose rats, 4 or 30 mg/kg for low- or high-dose male mice, and 3 or 19 mg/kg for low- or high-dose female mice. Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Effects in the 2-Year Studies: Myelofibrosis, cataracts, and retinal atrophy in female rats, and ovarian atrophy in female mice occurred in a larger proportion of high-dose animals than in controls. Dose-related increases in neoplasms did not occur in rats or mice receiving amphetamine. The administration of dl-amphetamine sulfate was associated with decreases in the incidence of total neoplasms and in the incidences of certain site-specific neoplasms, including pheochromocytomas of the adrenal gland in male rats (23/49, 15/44, 7/50), fibroadenomas of the mammary gland in female rats (21/50, 11/50, 2/50), adenomas of the anterior pituitary gland in male and female rats and female mice (male rats: 15/49, 15/48, 9/49; female rats: 31/50, 24/48, 19/50; female mice: 12/49, 6/49, 1/46), endometrial stromal polyps of the uterus of female rats (10/50, 6/50, 3/50), adenomas or carcinomas (combined) of the liver in male and female mice (male: 14/50, 12/50, 2/50; female: 5/50, 1/50, 1/47), adenomas of the harderian gland in male and female mice (male: 4/50, 2/50, 0/50; female: 5/50, 2/50, 0/47), and adenomas or carcinomas (combined) of the lung in male and female mice (male: 8/50, 3/50, 4/50; female: 8/50, 6/50

  3. Mayo Clinic study finds nutritional supplement works against some pancreatic cancer cells in mice

    Cancer.gov

    The dietary supplement gamma-linolenic acid can inhibit the growth of a subset of pancreatic cancer cells and selectively promote cancer cell death in mice, a Mayo Clinic study has found. The supplement, a fatty acid also known as GLA, worked particularly well when combined with the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine, the researchers say.

  4. Studies on the constituents of the leaves of Nerium oleander on behavior pattern in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atiya Zia; Bina S. Siddiqui; Sabira Begum; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Amin Suria

    1995-01-01

    Fresh, undried and uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander were subjected to methanol extraction and bioassay directed fractionation. This led to the isolation of two purified fractions namely, B-1 and B-3. Fractions B-1 and B-3 were studied with respect to their actions on the central nervous system and behavior pattern in mice. Both fractions were found to produce reduction in locomotor

  5. Studies on the oxygen toxicity after administration of chelate-forming agents in mice.

    PubMed

    Renner, G; Kramer, H J

    1983-03-01

    The influence of the chelating agents CaNa2-EDTA, penicillamine, dimercaprol, unithiol, dithiocarb, aurin tricarboxylic acid, salicylic acid, and acetylsalicylic acid on the toxicity of oxygen at elevated tension was studied in mice. With the possible exception of dimercaprol, no increase in toxic effects of oxygen was observed after administering these chelate-forming agents in the doses used. PMID:6406371

  6. Normal and Psoriatic Human Skin Grafts on “Nude” Mice: Morphological and Immunochemical Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Haftek; Jean-Paul Ortonne; Marie-Jeanne Staquet; Jacqueline Viac; Jean Thivolet

    1981-01-01

    124 normal and psoriatic human skin grafts were performed on congenitally athymic nude mice. 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 days after grafting, histological and immunochemical studies (using bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris and anti 67 K keratin polypeptide immune sera) were performed. The preservation of certain immunological identities of grafted skin, at least with regard to intercellular substance and basement

  7. Evaluation of Excess Significance Bias in Animal Studies of Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Emily S.; Aretouli, Eleni; Evangelou, Evangelos; Howells, David W.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies generate valuable hypotheses that lead to the conduct of preventive or therapeutic clinical trials. We assessed whether there is evidence for excess statistical significance in results of animal studies on neurological disorders, suggesting biases. We used data from meta-analyses of interventions deposited in Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies (CAMARADES). The number of observed studies with statistically significant results (O) was compared with the expected number (E), based on the statistical power of each study under different assumptions for the plausible effect size. We assessed 4,445 datasets synthesized in 160 meta-analyses on Alzheimer disease (n?=?2), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n?=?34), focal ischemia (n?=?16), intracerebral hemorrhage (n?=?61), Parkinson disease (n?=?45), and spinal cord injury (n?=?2). 112 meta-analyses (70%) found nominally (p?0.05) statistically significant summary fixed effects. Assuming the effect size in the most precise study to be a plausible effect, 919 out of 4,445 nominally significant results were expected versus 1,719 observed (p<10?9). Excess significance was present across all neurological disorders, in all subgroups defined by methodological characteristics, and also according to alternative plausible effects. Asymmetry tests also showed evidence of small-study effects in 74 (46%) meta-analyses. Significantly effective interventions with more than 500 animals, and no hints of bias were seen in eight (5%) meta-analyses. Overall, there are too many animal studies with statistically significant results in the literature of neurological disorders. This observation suggests strong biases, with selective analysis and outcome reporting biases being plausible explanations, and provides novel evidence on how these biases might influence the whole research domain of neurological animal literature. PMID:23874156

  8. Intra-Abdominal Use of Taurolidine or Heparin as Alternative Products to an Antiadhesive Barrier (Seprafilm®) in Adhesion Prevention: An Experimental Study on Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isamettin Bahadir; Mustafa Oncel; Metin Kement; Yusuf Sahip

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  Seprafilm® (Genzyme Biosurgery, Cambridge, MA) remains a widely used product in postoperative adhesion prevention. This study\\u000a was designed to compare the antiadhesive effects of taurolidine, heparin, and Seprafilm® in a murine cecal abrasion model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixty male Balb\\/c mice underwent a cecal abrasion procedure and were randomized into four groups (n?=?15 in each). Groups\\u000a T, H, and S animals intraperitoneally received

  9. 410 | VOL.9 NO.4 | APRIL2012 | nAture methods the study of social interactions in mice is used as a model for

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    , depression, impulsive and personality disorders1,2. Mice that show dysfunctional choices can constitute,4 During social interactions, mice make multiple and fast behavioral changes and exhibit a rich behavioral by applying computer-vision methods that automati- cally track multiple animals9­11 (ants and fruit flies

  10. Comprehensive behavioral study of mGluR3 knockout mice: implication in schizophrenia related endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously performed systematic association studies of glutamate receptor gene family members with schizophrenia, and found positive associations of polymorphisms in the GRM3 (a gene of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3: mGluR3) with the disorder. Physiological roles of GRM3 in brain functions and its functional roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remain to be resolved. Results We generated mGluR3 knockout (KO) mice and conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses. KO mice showed hyperactivity in the open field, light/dark transition, and 24-hour home cage monitoring tests, impaired reference memory for stressful events in the Porsolt forced swim test, impaired contextual memory in cued and contextual fear conditioning test, and impaired working memory in the T-Maze forced alternation task test. Hyperactivity and impaired working memory are known as endophenotypes of schizophrenia. We examined long-term synaptic plasticity by assessing long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region in the hippocampi of KO and wild-type (WT) mice. We observed no differences in the amplitude of LTP between the two genotypes, suggesting that mGluR3 is not essential for LTP in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. As hyperactivity is typically associated with increased dopaminergic transmission, we performed in vivo microdialysis measurements of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of KO and WT mice. We observed enhancements in the methamphetamine (MAP)-induced release of dopamine in KO mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a disturbance in the glutamate-dopamine interaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-like behavior, such as hyperactivity in mGluR3 KO mice. PMID:24758191

  11. Monitoring for environmental mutagenesis in wild animals - lessons from human studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Janet Tawn

    1999-01-01

    The increasing realisation that environmental monitoring practices need to demonstrate radiological protection of the whole ecosystem has led to suggestions that genotoxic techniques derived from human monitoring of radiation exposure could be applied to other animal species. Human studies have highlighted the need to establish the relationship between exposure, genetic effect and biological consequence so that different study objectives, e.g.

  12. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE LEAD EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN AND ANIMAL MODELS. PART 1: CLINICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review is organized into two major sections: Part I, a clinical review which will examine only those studies relevant to the issue of behavioral effects resulting from relatively low-level chronic exposure, and Part II, a review of animal studies which will focus on behaviora...

  13. Animal-assisted therapy for persons with aphasia: A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth L. Macauley

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the effects and effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for persons with aphasia. Three men with aphasia from left-hemisphere strokes participated in this study. The men received one semester of traditional ther- apy followed by one semester of AAT. While both therapies were effective, in that each participant met his goals, no significant differences existed between test results

  14. COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    . Additionally, mice should be tested for Helicobacter as outlined in SOP 2.D.6, "Animal Health Monitoring health concerns: i. Additional testing of the sentinels or quarantine animals may be required2.D.9 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES for ANIMAL

  15. Animal models of Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Cabanes, Didier; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2008-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, an infection characterized by gastroenteritis, meningitis, encephalitis, and maternofetal infections in humans. L. monocytogenes enters the host via contaminated foods, invades the small intestine, translocates to mesenteric lymph nodes, and spreads to the liver, spleen, brain and, in pregnant women, the fetoplacental unit. Many pathogenicity tests for studying L. monocytogenes have been developed, including tests using laboratory animals. A number of small animal species can be experimentally infected with Listeria. Mice and guinea pigs can be infected either intragastrically or intravenously, and virulence evaluated either by enumerating bacteria within infected target organs or by evaluating the 50% lethal dose (LD50). Although mice and guinea pigs can be infected with Listeria by a variety of routes, the intragastric route is the most relevant to the human foodborne listeriosis. PMID:18729060

  16. In Vivo Monitoring of the Antiangiogenic Effect of Neurotensin Receptor-Mediated Radiotherapy by Small-Animal Positron Emission Tomography: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maschauer, Simone; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Tripal, Philipp; Haubner, Roland; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Kuwert, Torsten; Prante, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor (NTS1) has emerged as an interesting target for molecular imaging and radiotherapy of NTS-positive tumors due to the overexpression in a range of tumors. The aim of this study was to develop a 177Lu-labeled NTS1 radioligand, its application for radiotherapy in a preclinical model and the imaging of therapy success by small-animal positron emission tomography (µPET) using [68Ga]DOTA-RGD as a specific tracer for imaging angiogenesis. The 177Lu-labeled peptide was subjected to studies on HT29-tumor-bearing nude mice in vivo, defining four groups of animals (single dose, two fractionated doses, four fractionated doses and sham-treated animals). Body weight and tumor diameters were determined three times per week. Up to day 28 after treatment, µPET studies were performed with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD. At days 7–10 after treatment with four fractionated doses of 11–14 MBq (each at days 0, 3, 6 and 10), the tumor growth was slightly decreased in comparison with untreated animals. Using a single high dose of 51 MBq, a significantly decreased tumor diameter of about 50% was observed with the beginning of treatment. Our preliminary PET imaging data suggested decreased tumor uptake values of [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in treated animals compared to controls at day 7 after treatment. This pilot study suggests that early PET imaging with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in radiotherapy studies to monitor integrin expression could be a promising tool to predict therapy success in vivo. Further successive PET experiments are needed to confirm the significance and predictive value of RGD-PET for NTS-mediated radiotherapy. PMID:24743103

  17. Prolonged diet induced obesity has minimal effects towards brain pathology in mouse model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy: implications for studying obesity-brain interactions in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Freeman, Linnea R; Pepping, Jennifer K; Beckett, Tina L; Murphy, M Paul; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) occurs in nearly every individual with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome, and is the second largest cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mouse models of CAA have demonstrated evidence for increased gliosis contributing to CAA pathology. Nearly two thirds of Americans are overweight or obese, with little known about the effects of obesity on the brain, although increasingly the vasculature appears to be a principle target of obesity effects on the brain. In the current study we describe for the first time whether diet induced obesity (DIO) modulates glial reactivity, amyloid levels, and inflammatory signaling in a mouse model of CAA. In these studies we identify surprisingly that DIO does not significantly increase A? levels, astrocyte (GFAP) or microglial (IBA-1) gliosis in the CAA mice. However, within the hippocampal gyri a localized increase in reactive microglia were increased in the CA1 and stratum oriens relative to CAA mice on a control diet. DIO was observed to selectively increase IL-6 in CAA mice, with IL-1? and TNF-? not increased in CAA mice in response to DIO. Taken together, these data show that prolonged DIO has only modest effects towards A? in a mouse model of CAA, but appears to elevate some localized microglial reactivity within the hippocampal gyri and selective markers of inflammatory signaling. These data are consistent with the majority of the existing literature in other models of A? pathology, which surprisingly show a mixed profile of DIO effects towards pathological processes in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease. The importance for considering the potential impact of ceiling effects in pathology within mouse models of A? pathogenesis, and the current experimental limitations for DIO in mice to fully replicate metabolic dysfunction present in human obesity, are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Animal Models of Disease. PMID:23313575

  18. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    next class #12;Traditional Cel Animation · Film runs at 24 frames per second (fps) ­ That's 1440 stand - Transfer onto film by taking a photograph of the stack #12;Principles of Traditional AnimationAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  19. What animal models teach humans about tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S; Nardell, Edward A

    2008-11-01

    Animal models have become standard tools for the study of a wide array of human infectious diseases. Although there are no true animal reservoirs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, many different animal species are susceptible to infection with this organism and have served as valuable tools for the study of tuberculosis (TB). The most commonly used experimental animal models of TB are the mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig. Although substantial differences in TB susceptibility and disease manifestations exist between these species, they have contributed significantly to the understanding of TB immunopathogenesis, host genetic influence on infection, efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, and host/pathogen interactions that determine the outcome or severity of infection. Among the three species, mice are relatively resistant to TB infection, followed by rabbits and then guinea pigs, which are extremely vulnerable to infection. Mice are most often used in experiments on immune responses to TB infection and drug regimens against TB. Rabbits, unlike the other two animal models, develop cavitary TB and offer a means to study the factors leading to this form of the disease. Guinea pigs, due to their high susceptibility to infection, have been ideal for studies on airborne transmission and vaccine efficacy. In addition to these three species, TB research has occasionally involved nonhuman primates and cattle models. Current concepts in TB pathogenesis have also been derived from animal studies involving experimentally induced infections with related mycobacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium bovis) whose manifestations in select animal hosts mimic human TB. PMID:18556589

  20. THE HISTORY AND ENDURING CONTRIBUTIONS OF PLANARIANS TO THE STUDY OF ANIMAL REGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah A.; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Having an almost unlimited capacity to regenerate tissues lost to age and injury, planarians have long fascinated naturalists. In the Western hemisphere alone, their documented history spans more than 200 years. Planarians were described in the early 19th century as being “immortal under the edge of the knife,” and initial investigation of these remarkable animals was significantly influenced by studies of regeneration in other organisms and from the flourishing field of experimental embryology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This review strives to place the study of planarian regeneration into a broader historical context by focusing on the significance and evolution of knowledge in this field. It also synthesizes our current molecular understanding of the mechanisms of planarian regeneration uncovered since this animal’s relatively recent entrance into the molecular-genetic age. PMID:23799578

  1. Heterotopic Bone Formation Around Vessels: Pilot Study of a New Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei-Xin; Zheng, Li-Wu; Weber, Franz E.; Li, Chun-Lei; Ma, Li; Ehrbar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To achieve an easily established, safe, and reproducible animal model for the study of heterotopic bone formation around vessels, a small animal series using New Zealand White rabbits was performed. Three different dosages of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) carried by fibrin matrix were tested. A guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane sheet was formed into a tube and allowed to harden; it served both to maintain the space around the vessel bundle and to separate the fibrin matrix with rhBMP-2 from skeletal muscle. Wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle and fixed in place, the tube was filled with the fibrin matrix containing rhBMP-2. The surgical site was closed in layers, and the postoperative healing was uneventful. All animals resumed their full preoperative daily activities 3–4 days after the operation. No adverse events such as wound dehiscence or infection occurred, and all animals could be sacrified at the scheduled date. Micro–computed tomography and histological investigations showed heterotopic bone formation around the vessel bundle in the medium- and high-dosage rhBMP-2 groups. An easy, safe, and reproducible animal model that allows the study of heterotopic bone formation around vessels was successfully established. PMID:23914333

  2. The comparison of sensitivity of motion sickness between retinal degeneration fast mice and normal mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Shi, Zhao-Hui; Bian, Ka; Zhang, Lei; Xue, Jun-Hui; Yang, Guo-Qing; Ge, Xue-Song; Zhang, Zuo-Ming

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies report that a conflict between information from the visual system and vestibular system is one of the main reasons for induction of motion sickness (MS). We may be able to clarify the integration mechanism of visual and vestibular information using an animal model with a visual defect, the retinal degeneration fast (rdf) mouse, and the role of vestibular information in the pathogenesis of MS. The rdf mice and wild-type Kunming mice were subjected to rotary stimulation to induce MS. Conditioned taste anorexia to saccharin solution and behavior score were used to observe the differences in MS sensitivity between two types of mice. The decrease in intake of saccharin solution and the behavior score in rdf mice were greater than those in normal mice. After rotatory stimulation, the reduction of intake mass and the behavior score were greater in rdf mice compared to those of normal mice. The rdf mice were more sensitive to rotation than normal mice. We conclude that visual information plays a role in the pathogenesis of MS. Visual information and vestibular information impact each other and integrate through certain channels in the central nervous system in mice. PMID:24553916

  3. Large animal models for the study of ovarian follicular dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Adams, G P; Singh, J; Baerwald, A R

    2012-11-01

    Initial studies of the ovaries were based on postmortem anatomic descriptions, followed by histologic and endocrine approaches. The introduction of high-resolution ultrasonography provided a long-awaited tool to image the reproductive tissues in situ in both animals and humans. Critical studies of the characteristics and control of ovarian follicular and luteal dynamics in nonhuman primates, rodents, and domestic farm animals have involved frequent (i.e., daily or multiple times a day) blood sampling and ultrasonography. Studies of this nature in women are difficult, and often unethical to conduct. Differences in antral folliculogenesis between humans and animals appear to be more in detail rather than in essence, and may reflect differences in intrinsic physiology or merely differences in our ability to detect changes in a given species. In women, the presence of endometrial shedding and symmetric luteal and follicular phases are different from that observed during the estrous cycles of domestic farm animals but despite these differences, general similarities in antral follicular dynamics exist. A continuous pattern of antral follicle development was originally proposed in domestic livestock species; however, the use of frequent serial ultrasonography and simultaneous endocrine profiling in these animal species has resulted in a broad understanding of follicular wave dynamics. Follicular waves have now been described in every species in which this approach has been used, including humans. The relatively large diameters of antral follicles in cows and mares, compared with monkeys, sheep, and rodents provide greater feasibility for characterizing antral follicular dynamics ultrasonographically. While the use of large animal models has increased our understanding of ovarian function and provides the hypothetical basis for studies in women, differences in vocabulary, culture, and research methodologies has hampered knowledge translation. These differences represent a systemic impediment to a broad understanding of ovarian function and limits progress and innovation in the development of safer and more efficacious treatments for infertility and contraception. PMID:22626769

  4. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  5. Acetaminophen-induced Acute Liver Injury in HCV Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 hrs after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. PMID:23200774

  6. Preliminary study of metabolic radiotherapy with 188Re via small animal imaging

    E-print Network

    Baldazzi, G; Muciaccio, A; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Pancaldi, G; Perrotta, A; Zuffa, M; Boccaccio, P; Uzunov, N; Bello, M; Bernardini, D; Mazzi, U; Moschini, G; Riondato, M; Rosato, A; Garibaldi, F; Pani, R; Antoccia, A; De Notaristefani, F; Hull, G; Cencelli, V O; Sgura, A; Tanzarella, C

    2006-01-01

    188Re is a beta- (Emax = 2.12 MeV) and gamma (155 keV) emitter. Since its chemistry is similar to that of the largely employed tracer, 99mTc, molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been labelled with 188Re to produce a target specific radiopharmaceutical. The radiolabeled compound, i.v. injected in healthy mice, is able to accumulate into the liver after a few minutes. To study the effect of metabolic radiotherapy in mice, we have built a small gamma camera based on a matrix of YAP:Ce crystals, with 0.6x0.6x10 mm**3 pixels, read out by a R2486 Hamamatsu PSPMT. A high-sensitivity 20 mm thick lead parallel-hole collimator, with hole diameter 1.5 mm and septa of 0.18 mm, is placed in front of the YAP matrix. Preliminary results obtained with various phantoms containing a solution of 188Re and with C57 black mice injected with the 188Re-HA solution are presented. To increase the space resolution and to obtain two orthogonal projections simultaneously we are building in parallel two new cameras to be positioned at...

  7. Preliminary study of metabolic radiotherapy with 188Re via small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoccia, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Bello, M.; Bernardini, D.; Boccaccio, P.; Bollini, D.; de Notaristefani, F.; Garibaldi, F.; Hull, G.; Mazzi, U.; Moschini, G.; Muciaccio, A.; Navarria, F.-L.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Pancaldi, G.; Pani, R.; Perrotta, A.; Riondato, M.; Rosato, A.; Sgura, A.; Tanzarella, C.; Uzunov, N.; Zuffa, M.

    2006-01-01

    188Re is a ? ( Emax=2.12 MeV) and ? (155 keV) emitter. Since its chemistry is similar to that of the largely employed tracer, 99 mTc, molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been labelled with 188Re to produce a target specific radiopharmaceutical. The radiolabeled compound, i.v. injected in healthy mice, is able to accumulate into the liver after a few minutes. To study the effect of metabolic radiotherapy in mice, we have built a small gamma camera based on a matrix of YAP:Ce crystals, with 0.6×0.6×10 mm pixels, read out by a R2486 Hamamatsu PSPMT. A high-sensitivity 20 mm thick lead parallel-hole collimator, with hole diameter 1.5 mm and septa of 0.18 mm, is placed in front of the YAP matrix. Preliminary results obtained with various phantoms containing a solution of 188Re and with C57 black mice injected with the 188Re-HA solution are presented. To increase the space resolution and to obtain two orthogonal projections simultaneously we are building in parallel two new cameras to be positioned at 90 degrees. They use a CsI(Tl) matrix with 1×1×5 mm pixels read out by H8500 Hamamatsu Flat panel PMT.

  8. Animal Cell Mitosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

  9. Use of Fenbendazole-Containing Therapeutic Diets for Mice in Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

  10. Studies on the correlation with olfactory dysfunction in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Ameer; Lee, Ji Hye; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Moon, Cheil

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of proteinaceous deposits in the brain. AD often results in olfactory dysfunction and impaired olfactory perceptual acuity may be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Until recently, there is no Alzheimer's nanoscope or any other high-end microscope developed to be capable of seeing buried feature of AD clearly. Modern neuroimaging techniques are more effective only after the occurrence of cognitive impairment. Therefore, early detection of Alzheimer's disease is critical in developing effective treatment of AD. H and E (Haematoxyline and Eosin) staining is performed for examining gross morphological changes, while TUNEL (transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) staining for monitoring neuronal death in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and western blot are performed to examine ?-amyloid protein expression. AD model animals were Tg2576 (transgenic mice that overexpress a mutated form of the A? precursor protein), and 6 month (before onset of AD symptoms) and 14 month (after onset of AD symptoms) old WT (wild type) and transgenic mice were compared in their olfactory system. We found that in OE of Tg2576 mice, thickness and total number of cells were decreased, while the numbers of TUNEL-positive neurons, caspase-3 activation were significantly increased compared with age-matched WT. Our results demonstrate that the olfactory system may get deteriorated before onset of AD symptoms. Our findings imply that an olfactory biopsy could be served as an early and relatively simple diagnostic tool for potential AD patients.

  11. Morphine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: Autoradiographic study of mu-opioid receptors in prepubertal male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina L; Barros, Virginia G; Antonelli, Marta C; Rubio, Modesto C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2006-08-01

    Although the expression of the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome is more marked in male mice than in females, we have demonstrated that the GABAB agonist baclofen (BAC) is able to attenuate MOR withdrawal signs in either sex. In order to extend these previous observations, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the mu-opioid receptor labeling in various brain areas in mice of either sex, during MOR withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Prepubertal Swiss-Webster mice were rendered dependent by intraperitonial (i.p.) injection of MOR (2 mg/kg) twice daily for 9 days. On the 10th day, dependent animals received naloxone (NAL; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min after MOR, and another pool of dependent mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) previous to NAL. Thirty minutes after NAL, mice were sacrificed and autoradiography with [3H]-[D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, -glycol5] enkephalin (DAMGO) was carried out on mice brains at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of mu-opioid receptor labeling during MOR withdrawal in nucleus accumbens core (NAcC), caudate putamen (CPu), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTh), basolateral and basomedial amygdala, and ventral tegmental area vs. respective control groups in male mice. In contrast, opiate receptor labeling was not significantly modified in any of the brain areas studied in withdrawn females. BAC reestablished mu-opioid receptor binding sites during MOR withdrawal only in NAcC of males, and a similar tendency was observed in CPu and MDTh, even when it was not statistically significant. The sexual dimorphism observed in the present study confirms previous reports indicating a greater sensitivity of males in response to MOR pharmacological properties. The present results suggest that the effect of BAC in preventing the expression of MOR withdrawal signs could be related with the ability of BAC to reestablish the mu-opioid receptor labeling in certain brain areas. PMID:16715492

  12. Carotid Calcification in Mice: A New Model to Study the Effects of Arterial Stiffness on the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sadekova, Nataliya; Vallerand, Diane; Guevara, Edgar; Lesage, Frédéric; Girouard, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness has been identified as an important risk factor for cognitive decline. However, its effects on the brain's health are unknown, and there is no animal model available to study the precise impact of arterial stiffness on the brain. Therefore, the objective of the study was to develop and characterize a new model specific to arterial stiffness in order to study its effects on the brain. Methods and Results Calcium chloride (CaCl2) was applied to carotid arteries of mice, inducing an increase in collagen distribution and intima–media thickness, a fragmentation of elastin, a decrease in arterial compliance and distensibility, and an increase in cerebral blood flow pulsatility (n=3 to 11). Calcium deposits were only present at the site of CaCl2 application, and there was no increase in systemic blood pressure or change in vessel radius making this model specific for arterial stiffness. The effects of carotid stiffness were then assessed in the brain. Carotid calcification induced an increase in the production of cerebral superoxide anion and neurodegeneration, detected with Fluoro?Jade B staining, in the hippocampus (n=3 to 5), a key region for memory and cognition. Conclusions A new model of arterial stiffness based on carotid calcification was developed and characterized. This new model meets all the characteristics of arterial stiffness, and its specificity allows the study of the effects of arterial stiffness on the brain. PMID:23782921

  13. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Andrographis paniculata: A combined and comparative study with anti-scorpion serum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Ranjana S.; Bahekar, Satish E.; Nagpure, Shailesh R.; Salwe, Kartik J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-scorpion venom (ASV) property of Andrographis paniculata in comparison with anti-redscorpion venom serum and this study aimed to determine its combined effect with anti-redscorpion venom serum. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant AP was obtained using soxhlet apparatus. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus and Lyophilized monovalent enzyme refined immunoglobulin anti-scorpion venom serum (ASV) was used. Using lethal dose of scorpion venom (25.12?g/g), the venom neutralizing ability of plant extract (1 g/kg) and ASV individually as well as in combination was studied using in vivo and in vitro methods. Mean survival time, protection fold and percentage survival of animals over the period of 24 h were the parameters used. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: Ethanolic extract of AP (1 g/kg) showed some protective effect against scorpion venom. ASV was found more effective than plant extract. But, when plant extract and ASV were used in combination, potency of ASV was found to be increased both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions: Present study demonstrates that, both plant extract and ASV have their own scorpion venom neutralising ability in vivo and in vitro, but their combination is most effective in venom neutralizing ability. PMID:24501444

  14. Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color diffuse optical tomography imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Christoph H.; Graber, Harry L.; Pei, Yaling; Farber, Mark; Stewart, Mark; Levina, Rita D.; Levin, Mikhail B.; Xu, Yong; Barbour, Randall L.

    2005-09-01

    We present newly developed instrumentation for full-tomographic four-wavelength, continuous wave, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging on small animals. A small-animal imaging stage was constructed, from materials compatible with in-magnet studies, which offers stereotaxic fixation of the animal and precise, stable probe positioning. Instrument performance, based on calibration and phantom studies, demonstrates excellent long-term signal stability. DOT measurements of the functional rat brain response to electric paw stimulation are presented, and these demonstrate high data quality and excellent sensitivity to hemodynamic changes. A general linear model analysis on individual trials is used to localize and quantify the occurrence of functional behavior associated with the different hemoglobin state responses. Statistical evaluation of outcomes of individual trials is employed to identify significant regional response variations for different stimulation sites. Image results reveal a diffuse cortical response and a strong reaction of the thalamus, both indicative of activation of pain pathways by the stimulation. In addition, a weaker lateralized functional component is observed in the brain response, suggesting presence of motor activation. An important outcome of the experiment is that it shows that reactions to individual provocations can be monitored, without having to resort to signal averaging. Thus the described technology may be useful for studies of long-term trends in hemodynamic response, as would occur, for example, in behavioral studies involving freely moving animals.

  15. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  16. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  17. Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland R. Griffiths; Phillip P. Woodson

    1988-01-01

    Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety

  18. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study

    MedlinePLUS

    NIH researchers find resveratrol helps protect against diabetes in animal study August 8, 2013 Resveratrol, a compound in nuts, grapes, and wine, has ... of non-human primates, researchers have found that resveratrol counters some of the negative effects of a ...

  19. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  20. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  1. The role of animal behaviour in the study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    E-print Network

    Clotfelter, Ethan

    The role of animal behaviour in the study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals ETHAN D. CLOTFELTER), ALISON M. BELL & KATE R. LEVERING *Department of Biology, Amherst College yEnvironmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Glasgow zDepartment of Biology, Texas Tech University (Received 9 June 2003

  2. Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Zaniewska

    Nicotine dependence is a disease of constantly growing importance. This mini-review describes the effects of nicotine in humans and focuses on the various laboratory animal models developed to study the dependence-related behavioral effects of nicotine. In ad- dition, we outline the current therapeutic approaches designed to substitute nicotine from cigarette smoke with safer compounds or to relieve symptoms of nicotine

  3. Autoethnographic Poems and Narrative Reflections: A Qualitative Study on the Death of a Companion Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Rich

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the meaning of the death of a companion animal through autoethnographic poetry in conjunction with narrative reflections. This method expands the depth and scope of poetry in qualitative research by transforming expressive works into both the subject and product of inquiry.

  4. Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

  5. My Brother's Keeper A Case Study in Evolutionary Biology and Animal Behavior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kari E. Benson

    2004-01-01

    In this interrupted case study, students work in teams to interpret behavioral data with respect to evolutionary biology.  Specifically, the case examines the behavior of alarm calling in a certain type of squirrel, Belding's ground squirrel, which was first reported by Paul Sherman in Science magazine in 1977. The case is appropriate for use in animal behavior, ecology, evolutionary biology, or introductory biology courses.

  6. Studies on the Use of Animals of Economic Importance in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of keeping animals in schools and problems encountered in their maintenance are summarized. Two curriculum units, one on fruit flies and one on honey bees are described. Reasons for a widespread negative image of rural studies are discussed and positive outcomes of an environmental science course are presented. (Author/EB)

  7. INHALATION STUDIES OF MT. ST. HELENS VOLCANIC ASH IN ANIMALS. 1. INTRODUCTION AND EXPOSURE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the lack of information on the effects of inhaled Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash and its potential interaction with sulfur dioxide (SO2), animal studies were performed to determine the acute and chronic health effects of a short-term exposure. This paper describes the inhalat...

  8. Tools for studying animal behaviour: validation of dive profiles relayed via the Argos satellite system

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    Tools for studying animal behaviour: validation of dive profiles relayed via the Argos satellite satellite system (http://www.argosinc.com). Behavioural data relayed remotely via the Argos satellite system of their time submerged, further limiting the time available for communication with satel- lites. The problem

  9. Predicting the active doses in humans from animal studies: A novel approach in oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rocchetti; M. Simeoni; E. Pesenti; G. De Nicolao; I. Poggesi

    2007-01-01

    The success rate of clinical drug development is significantly lower in oncology than in other therapeutic areas. Predicting the activity of new compounds in humans from preclinical data could substantially reduce the number of failures. A novel approach for predicting the expected active doses in humans from the first animal studies is presented here. The method relies upon a PK\\/PD

  10. Evaluation of Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative animal for studying the neurotoxicity of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Akins; Joyce A. Schroeder; Danny L. Browert; H. Vasken Aposhian

    1992-01-01

    Heavy metals cause irreversible neurobehavioral damage in many developing mammals, but the mechanisms of this damage are unknown. The influence of three heavy metal compounds, triethyllead chloride, lead acetate and cadmium chloride, on lethality, development, behavior and learning was studied using the fruit fly,Drosophila melanogaster. This animal was used because it allows hundreds of subjects to be assayed very easily

  11. International radiobiology archives of long-term animal studies: structure, possible uses and potential extension.

    PubMed

    Gerber, G B; Wick, R R; Watson, C R; Gössner, W; Kellerer, A M

    1999-07-01

    Animal experiments have contributed a great deal to our information on effects and risks arising from exposure to radionuclides. This applies, in particular, to alpha-emitting radionuclides where information from man is limited to thorotrast, 224Ra and 226Ra. The late C.W. Mays was the first to suggest that animal data in conjunction with epidemiological data could allow estimates of human risks for radionuclides - predominantly from actinides - where information in man is scarce. The 'International Radiobiology Archives of Long-term Animal Studies' were created through the combined efforts of European, American and Japanese scientists and aim to safeguard the large amount of existing data on long-term animal experiments and make them available for, among others, an improved assessment of risks from alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper summarizes the structure of the archives and reviews their present status and future plans. It also demonstrates the extensive information available in these archives on alpha-emitting radionuclides which is suitable for further analysis. Also, the structure of the animal archives could - in a slightly modified form - accommodate the epidemiological data available on 224Ra and thorotrast and, thus, facilitate a direct comparison of data from man, dogs and rodents. PMID:10461752

  12. The auditory cortex and tinnitus - a review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Jos J

    2015-03-01

    Tinnitus is the sound heard in the absence of physical sound sources external or internal to the body. Tinnitus never occurs in isolation; it typically develops after hearing loss, and not infrequently for losses at the higher frequencies not tested in clinical audiology. Furthermore, tinnitus is often accompanied by hyperacusis, i.e. increased loudness sensitivity, which may reflect the central gain change in the auditory system that occurs after hearing loss. I will first review the electrophysiological findings in the thalamus and cortex pertaining to animal research into tinnitus. This will comprise the changes in tonotopic maps, spontaneous firing rates and changes in pairwise neural cross-correlation induced by tinnitus-inducing agents that are commonly used in animal experiments. These are systemic application of sodium salicylate, and noise exposure at levels ranging from those that do not cause a hearing loss, to those that only cause a temporary threshold shift, to those that cause a permanent hearing loss. Following this, I will review neuroimaging and electrophysiological findings in the auditory cortex in humans with tinnitus. The neural substrates of tinnitus derived from animal data do not apply universally, as neither hearing loss nor hyperacusis appear to be necessary conditions for tinnitus to occur in humans. Finally, I will relate the findings in humans to the predictions from animal models of tinnitus. These comparisons indicate that neural correlates of tinnitus can be studied successfully both at the level of animal models and in humans. PMID:25728183

  13. Re-Evaluate the Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Cancer - A Preclinical Therapeutic Small Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Sneha; Sengupta, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag; Gude, Rajiv P.; Ingle, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a known driver of angiogenesis that also facilitates tumor growth. Moreover, poorly oxygenated central tumor area remains relatively radio or chemo resistant. HBO therapy is known to elevate the levels of dissolved oxygen and eliminates tumor hypoxia. It has been one of the modalities in cancer treatment; therefore its optimization is important. In this experimental study, no cancer enhancing effect was seen during the course of HBO therapy; however, post therapy there was an accelerated growth and progression of tumor. HBO treated mice lived shorter and the response to therapy was dose & tumor volume dependent. HBO therapy probably exert its effect on the cancer proliferating cells through multiple pathways such as increased DNA damage, apoptosis & geno-toxicity leading to slow cancer progression while post therapy tumorigenic effect could be due to impaired DNA repair mechanism, mutagenic effect & aneuploidy as well as altered blood supply & nutrients. Tumor growth reached plateau with time and this finding validated theoretical model predicting tumor reaching an asymptotic limit. While, marked asymmetry observed in tumor volume progression or cancer cell proliferation rate in each of the experimental C3H mouse suggested a need for an alternate small animal pre-clinical cancer therapeutic model. PMID:23144880

  14. Development of implant loading device for animal study about various loading protocol: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Joon-Ho; Park, Young-Bum; Cho, Yuna; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Moon, Hong-Seok; Lee, Keun-Woo

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aims of this pilot study were to introduce implant loading devices designed for animal study and to evaluate the validity of the load transmission ability of the loading devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant loading devices were specially designed and fabricated with two implant abutments and cast metal bars, and orthodontic expansion screw. In six Beagles, all premolars were extracted and two implants were placed in each side of the mandibles. The loading device was inserted two weeks after the implant placement. According to the loading protocol, the load was applied to the implants with different time and method,simulating early, progressive, and delayed loading. The implants were clinically evaluated and the loading devices were removed and replaced to the master cast, followed by stress-strain analysis. Descriptive statistics of remained strain (µ?) was evaluated after repeating three cycles of the loading device activation. Statistic analysis was performed using nonparametric, independent t-test with 5% significance level and Friedman's test was also used for verification. RESULTS The loading devices were in good action. However, four implants in three Beagles showed loss of osseointegration. In stress-strain analysis, loading devices showed similar amount of increase in the remained strain after applying 1-unit load for three times. CONCLUSION Specialized design of the implant loading device was introduced. The loading device applied similar amount of loads near the implant after each 1-unit loading. However, the direction of the loads was not parallel to the long axis of the implants as predicted before the study. PMID:23236575

  15. The effect of continuous infusion of human parathyroid hormone on bone architecture in female mice

    E-print Network

    Eisenberg, Rahel E. (Rahel Esther)

    2009-01-01

    This research sought to create an animal model of secondary hyperparathyroidism through continuous infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in adult female mice, and to subsequently study the catabolic effects of PTH. Osmotic ...

  16. U of Pittsburgh researchers find stem cells in mice in the esophagus

    Cancer.gov

    In an animal study published online today in Cell Reports, researchers report findings from mice that could lead to new insights into the development and treatment of esophageal cancer and the precancerous condition known as Barrett's esophagus.

  17. Mitochondrial dna evolution in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN D. FERRIS; RICHARD D. SAGE; ELLEN M. PRAGER; U Ritte; A C Wilson

    1983-01-01

    This study extends knowledge of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in mice to include 208 animals belonging to eight species in the subgenus Mus. Highly purified mtDNA from each has been subjected to high-resolution re- striction mapping with respect to the known sequence of one mouse mtDNA. Variation attributed to base substitutions was encountered at about 200 of the 300 cleavage

  18. Airway responsiveness in CD38-deficient mice in allergic airway disease: studies with bone marrow chimeras.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Alonso G P; Jude, Joseph A; Paulin, Jaime; Rivero-Nava, Laura; Kita, Hirohito; Lund, Frances E; Kannan, Mathur S

    2015-03-01

    CD38 is a cell-surface protein involved in calcium signaling and contractility of airway smooth muscle. It has a role in normal airway responsiveness and in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) developed following airway exposure to IL-13 and TNF-? but appears not to be critical to airway inflammation in response to the cytokines. CD38 is also involved in T cell-mediated immune response to protein antigens. In this study, we assessed the contribution of CD38 to AHR and inflammation to two distinct allergens, ovalbumin and the epidemiologically relevant environmental fungus Alternaria. We also generated bone marrow chimeras to assess whether Cd38(+/+) inflammatory cells would restore AHR in the CD38-deficient (Cd38(-/-)) hosts following ovalbumin challenge. Results show that wild-type (WT) mice develop greater AHR to inhaled methacholine than Cd38(-/-) mice following challenge with either allergen, with comparable airway inflammation. Reciprocal bone marrow transfers did not change the native airway phenotypic differences between WT and Cd38(-/-) mice, indicating that the lower airway reactivity of Cd38(-/-) mice stems from Cd38(-/-) lung parenchymal cells. Following bone marrow transfer from either source and ovalbumin challenge, the phenotype of Cd38(-/-) hosts was partially reversed, whereas the airway phenotype of the WT hosts was preserved. Airway inflammation was similar in Cd38(-/-) and WT chimeras. These results indicate that loss of CD38 on hematopoietic cells is not sufficient to prevent AHR and that the magnitude of airway inflammation is not the predominant underlying determinant of AHR in mice. PMID:25575514

  19. The importance of appropriate controls, animal feed, and animal models in interpreting results from low-dose studies of bisphenol A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick S. vom Saal; Catherine A. Richter; Rachel R. Ruhlen; Susan C. Nagel; Barry G. Timms; Wade V. Welshons

    2005-01-01

    Interpreting results of studies that report only negative effects is problematic. A number of published studies to determine whether chemicals with estrogenic activity can cause effects at low doses have not taken into account the possibility that the commercial animal feed being used can mask effects of even potent estrogenic drugs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES). In addition, the sensitivity of

  20. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of l-Epinephrine Hydrochloride (CAS No. 55-31-2) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    l-Epinephrine, an endogenous neurotransmitter hormone, is widely used for the treatment of allergic and respiratory disorders. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis studies of epinephrine hydrochloride were conducted by exposing groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex to an aerosol containing epinephrine hydrochloride for 14 days, 13 weeks, 15 months, or 2 years. During the 14-day and 13-week studies, control animals were exposed to dilute aerosols of hydrochloric acid (pH 2.8), whereas during the 15-month and 2-year studies, controls were exposed to aerosols of water. Genetic toxicology studies of epinephrine were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Fourteen-Day Studies: Rats and mice were exposed to 0 or 12.5-200 mg/m3 epinephrine hydrochloride. Deaths occurred in male rats exposed to 12.5 mg/m3 or more and in females exposed to 25 mg/m3 or more. Deaths of mice occurred at concentrations of 50 mg/m3 or higher. Compound-related clinical signs included an increased respiratory rate in all groups of epinephrine-exposed rats and mice. At higher concentrations (100 and 200 mg/m3), excessive lacrimation and dyspnea in rats and exaggerated visual and auditory reflexes in mice were observed. Thirteen-Week Studies: Rats and mice were exposed to 0 or 2.5-40 mg/m3 epinephrine hydrochloride. Deaths in rats and mice were not concentration related. Final mean body weights of chemically exposed and hydrochloric acid aerosol control rats and mice were generally similar. Increased respiratory rates were noted in rats and mice exposed to 40 mg/m3. Heart and adrenal gland weights of rats and mice and liver weights of mice exposed to 40 mg/m3 were greater than those of aerosol controls. Squamous metaplasia occurred in the respiratory epithelium of the nasal mucosa of rats and mice exposed to 40 mg/m3. Degenerative lesions of the laryngeal muscle were seen in male and female rats exposed to 20 or 40 mg/m3. Inflammation in the glandular stomach was seen in male and female mice exposed to 10, 20, and 40 mg/m3, and uterine atrophy was seen in 7/10 female mice exposed to 40 mg/m3. Two-year studies were conducted by exposing groups of 60 rats or each sex to 0, 1.5, or 5 mg/m3 epinephrine hydrochloride, 5 days per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 60 mice of each sex were exposed to 0, 1.5, or 3 mg/m3 epinephrine hydrochloride, 5 days per week for 104 weeks. Use of these exposure concentrations represented a departure from the usual practice of utilizing doses equivalent to one-half the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the MTD for 2-year carcinogenicity studies. Thus, although the dose levels exceeded maximum human therapeutic use levels (normalized to body weight and surface area), they were less than one-half the MTD. Fifteen-Month Studies: Results of hematologic analyses did not show compound-related changes. Absolute liver weights for exposed mice (3 mg/m3) and rats (5 mg/m3) and relative liver weights for exposed rats (5 mg/m3) were significantly lower than those for controls. The absolute kidney weights for mice exposed to 3 mg/m3 and the kidney weight to body weight ratio for male mice exposed to 3 mg/m3 were significantly lower than those for controls. No compound-related lesions were seen in rats or mice. Body Weights and Survival in the Two-Year Studies: Mean body weights and survival of exposed and control rats and mice were similar (survival, rats--male: control, 33/50; 1.5 mg/m3, 27/50; 5 mg/m3, 32/50; female: 32/50; 29/50; 30/50; mice--male: control, 33/50; 1.5 mg/m3, 34/50; 3 mg/m3, 36/50; female: 32/50; 35/50; 34/50). Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Effects in the Two-Year Studies: Suppurative inflammation of the nasal mucosa, dilatation of the nasal glands (Bowman's and septal), and hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium were seen at increased incidences in male rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 and in female rats exposed to 1.5 or 5 mg/m3. Hyaline degeneration of the olfactory epithelium in male mice and suppurative inflammation of the nasal passage and hyaline degeneration of the respiratory epit

  1. Exenatide in type 2 diabetes: treatment effects in clinical studies and animal study data.

    PubMed

    Gallwitz, B

    2006-12-01

    The therapeutic options for treating type 2 diabetes have been widened by the introduction of exenatide as the first incretin mimetic. Incretins are gut hormones that contribute to the stimulation of insulin secretion after a carbohydrate rich meal. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) not only stimulates insulin secretion under hyperglycaemic conditions, but also suppresses glucagon secretion, slows gastric emptying, induces satiety and improves beta cell function in type 2 diabetes. These beneficial effects have awakened the interest to use GLP-1 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Because of its short biological half-life, GLP-1 itself is not practical for type 2 diabetes therapy. Exenatide is a peptide found in the lizard Heloderma suspectum and has a high similarity to GLP-1. Exenatide belongs to the novel class of incretin mimetics because of its incretin-like action. It has a much longer biological half life than GLP-1 and is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that can be used for therapeutic purposes by twice daily injection. Clinical studies and clinical experience with exenatide have shown a significant reduction in HbA1c, fasting- and postprandial glucose and a marked reduction in body weight in type 2 diabetic patients. Animal studies reveal an improvement of beta cell function and an increase in beta cell mass after exenatide treatment. This review gives an overview on exenatide, its pharmacological profile and its role and potential in the therapeutic setting of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, future developments concerning exenatide application are highlighted. PMID:17109672

  2. Morris Animal Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ... Research VetNews Canine Lifetime Health Project Researchers Small Animal Studies Large Animal Studies Wildlife Studies Vet Students ...

  3. Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: Studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara K. Swanston-Flatt; Caroline Day; Clifford J. Bailey; Peter R. Flatt

    1989-01-01

    Summary  Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice.\\u000a The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes,

  4. Two-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A (BPA) in CD1® (Swiss) Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rochelle W. Tyl; Christina B. Myers; Melissa C. Marr; Carol S. Sloan; Nora P. Castillo; M. Michael Veselica; John C. SeelyH; Stephen S. DimondI; John P. Van Miller; Dieter Beyer; Steven G. Hentges; John M. Waechter

    2008-01-01

    Dietary bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated in a mouse two- generation study at 0, 0.018, 0.18, 1.8, 30, 300, or 3500 ppm (0, 0.003, 0.03, 0.3, 5, 50, or 600 mg BPA\\/kg\\/day, 28 per sex per group). A concurrent positive control group of dietary 17b- estradiol (0.5 ppm; 28 per sex) confirmed the sensitivity of CD-1 mice to an endogenous

  5. Is trisomy cause or consequence of murine T cell leukemia development? Studies on Robertsonian translocation mice.

    PubMed Central

    Spira, J; Wiener, F; Ohno, S; Klein, G

    1979-01-01

    Trypsin-Giemsa banding studies on T cell leukemias induced in Robertsonian translocation mice by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and Moloney leukemia virus show a trisomy of chromosome 15 even in cases in which chromosome 15 has undergone centromeric fusion with chromosomes 1, 5, or 6. These results suggest that the duplication of gene(s) located on chromosome 15 is of critical importance for murine T cell leukemia development. Images PMID:316545

  6. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Male reproductive toxicity of lead in animals and humans. ASCLEPIOS Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P.; Kiss, P.; Porru, S.; Bonde, J. P.; Vanhoorne, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature on male reproductive toxicity of lead in animals and humans. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified a total of 32 experimental studies in animals and 22 epidemiological studies, one case report on humans and five review articles or documents. The studies were evaluated by paying attention mainly to sample size, study design, exposure, and dose characterisation, analytical method standardisation, and quality assurance. RESULTS: Several studies on rats and other rodents indicated that blood lead concentrations > 30-40 micrograms/dl were associated with impairment of spermatogenesis and reduced concentrations of androgens. However, other animal studies, mainly about histopathological, spermatozoal, and hormonal end points, indicated that certain species and strains were quite resistant to the reproductive toxicity of lead and that different testicular lead concentrations could account for these differences. The human studies focused mainly on semen quality, endocrine function, and birth rates in occupationally exposed subjects, and showed that exposure to concentrations of inorganic lead > 40 micrograms/dl in blood impaired male reproductive function by reducing sperm count, volume, and density, or changing sperm motility and morphology. No relevant effects were detected on endocrine profile. CONCLUSION: Several factors make it difficult to extrapolate the animal data to the human situation. The difficulties are mainly due to differences between species in reproductive end points and to the level of exposure. Concentrations of blood lead > 40 micrograms/dl seemed to be associated with a decrease in sperm count, volume, motility, and morphological alterations and a possible modest effect on endocrine profile. Dose-response relation, in particular at a threshold level, is poorly understood, and site, mode, or mechanism of action are unknown. Also, the effects were not always the same or associated in the same on sperm count and concentration. Some methodological issues and indications for future studies are discussed.   PMID:9764095

  8. A Longitudinal Low Dose ?CT Analysis of Bone Healing in Mice: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Di, Lu-Zhao; Leblanc, Élisabeth; Alinejad, Yasaman; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Lecomte, Roger; Berthod, François; Faucheux, Nathalie; Balg, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Low dose microcomputed tomography (?CT) is a recently matured technique that enables the study of longitudinal bone healing and the testing of experimental treatments for bone repair. This imaging technique has been used for studying craniofacial repair in mice but not in an orthopedic context. This is mainly due to the size of the defects (approximately 1.0?mm) in long bone, which heal rapidly and may thus negatively impact the assessment of the effectiveness of experimental treatments. We developed a longitudinal low dose ?CT scan analysis method combined with a new image segmentation and extraction software using Hounsfield unit (HU) scores to quantitatively monitor bone healing in small femoral cortical defects in live mice. We were able to reproducibly quantify bone healing longitudinally over time with three observers. We used high speed intramedullary reaming to prolong healing in order to circumvent the rapid healing typical of small defects. Bone healing prolongation combined with ?CT imaging to study small bone defects in live mice thus shows potential as a promising tool for future preclinical research on bone healing. PMID:25431676

  9. Development of an animal model to study the potential neurotoxic effects associated with welding fume inhalation.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; O'Callaghan, James P; Miller, Diane B

    2006-09-01

    Serious questions have been raised regarding a possible causal association between neurological effects in welders and the presence of manganese in welding fume. An experimental model is needed that could examine the potential neurotoxic effect of manganese after pulmonary exposure to welding fume. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recently finished construction of a completely automated, computer controlled welding fume generation and inhalation exposure system for laboratory animals. The system is comprised of a programmable six-axis robotic welding arm and a water-cooled arc welding torch. A flexible trunk has been attached to the robotic arm of the welder and is used to collect and transport fume from the vicinity of the arc to the animal exposure chamber. Preliminary fume characterization studies have indicated that particle morphology, size, and chemical composition were comparable to welding fume generated in the workplace. Animal inhalation studies are currently underway. With the development of this novel system, an animal model has been established using controlled welding exposures to investigate the possible mechanisms by which welding fume may affect the central nervous system. PMID:16546258

  10. Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AM; Rudd, JA; Tattersall, FD; Aziz, Q; Andrews, PLR

    2009-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms encountered in medicine as either symptoms of disease or side effects of treatments. Developing novel anti-emetics and identifying emetic liability in novel chemical entities rely on models that can recreate the complexity of these multi-system reflexes. Animal models (especially the ferret and dog) are the current gold standard; however, the selection of appropriate models is still a matter of debate, especially when studying the subjective human sensation of nausea. Furthermore, these studies are associated with animal suffering. Here, following a recent workshop held to review the utility of animal models in nausea and vomiting research, we discuss the limitations of some of the current models in the context of basic research, anti-emetic development and emetic liability detection. We provide suggestions for how these limitations may be overcome using non-animal alternatives, including greater use of human volunteers, in silico and in vitro techniques and lower organisms. PMID:19371333

  11. Selection of an appropriate animal model for study of bone loss in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, I.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged weightlessness in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. A number of preventative measures have been suggested, i.e., exercise during flight, dietary calcium supplements, use of specific prophylactic drugs. In order to facilitate research in these areas it is necessary to develop appropriate ground-based animal models that simulate the human condition of osteoporsis. An appropriate animal model would permit bone density studies, calcium balance studies, biochemical analyses, ground-based simulation models of weightlessness (bed rest, restraint, immobilization) and the planning of inflight experiments. Several animal models have been proposed in the biomedical research literature, but have inherent deficiencies. The purpose of this project was to evaluate models in the literature and determine which of these most closely simulates the phenomenon of bone loss in humans with regard to growth, bone remodeling, structural, chemical and mineralization similarities to human. This was accomplished by a comprehensive computer assisted literature search and report. Three animal models were examined closely for their relative suitability: the albino rat, monkey, and Beagle.

  12. Performance evaluation of a mouse-sized camera for dynamic studies in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randy; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakellios, Nicolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Varvarigou, Alexandra

    2007-02-01

    A mouse sized camera has been built in terms of collaboration between the presenting institutions. The system is used for the performance of dynamic studies in small animals, in order to evaluate novel radiopharmaceuticals. The active area of the detector is approximately 48×96 mm allowing depiction of the entire mouse in a single view. The system is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator. In this work, the evaluation results of the system are presented, using phantoms and small animals injected with conventional radiophrmaceuticals. Average resolution was ˜1.6 mm on the collimator surface and increased to ˜4.1 mm in 12 cm distance from the detector. The average energy resolution was measured and found to be ˜15.6% for Tc 99m. Results from imaging thin capillaries demonstrated system's high resolution and sensitivity in activity variations was shown. Initial dynamic studies have been carried out in small animals injected with Tc 99m-DTPA and Tc 99m-MDP. The results show system's ability to perform kinetic imaging in small animals.

  13. Mast cells in renal inflammation and fibrosis: lessons learnt from animal studies.

    PubMed

    Madjene, Lydia Celia; Pons, Maguelonne; Danelli, Luca; Claver, Julien; Ali, Liza; Madera-Salcedo, Iris K; Kassas, Asma; Pellefigues, Christophe; Marquet, Florian; Dadah, Albert; Attout, Tarik; El-Ghoneimi, Alaa; Gautier, Gregory; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Daugas, Eric; Launay, Pierre; Blank, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are hematopoietic cells involved in inflammation and immunity and have been recognized also as important effector cells in kidney inflammation. In humans, only a few mast cells reside in kidneys constitutively but in progressive renal diseases their numbers increase substantially representing an essential part of the interstitial infiltrate of inflammatory cells. Recent data obtained in experimental animal models have emphasized a complex role of these cells and the mediators they release as they have been shown both to promote, but also to protect from disease and fibrosis development. Sometimes conflicting results have been reported in similar models suggesting a very narrow window between these activities depending on the pathophysiological context. Interestingly in mice, mast cell or mast cell mediator specific actions became also apparent in the absence of significant mast cell kidney infiltration supporting systemic or regional actions via draining lymph nodes or kidney capsules. Many of their activities rely on the capacity of mast cells to release, in a timely controlled manner, a wide range of inflammatory mediators, which can promote anti-inflammatory actions and repair activities that contribute to healing, but in some circumstances or in case of inappropriate regulation may also promote kidney disease. PMID:24793464

  14. Assessment of GE food safety using '-omics' techniques and long-term animal feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E

    2013-05-25

    Despite the fact that a thorough, lengthy and costly evaluation of genetically engineered (GE) crop plants (including compositional analysis and toxicological tests) is imposed before marketing some European citizens remain sceptical of the safety of GE food and feed. In this context, are additional tests necessary? If so, what can we learn from them? To address these questions, we examined data from 60 recent high-throughput '-omics' comparisons between GE and non-GE crop lines and 17 recent long-term animal feeding studies (longer than the classical 90-day subchronic toxicological tests), as well as 16 multigenerational studies on animals. The '-omics' comparisons revealed that the genetic modification has less impact on plant gene expression and composition than that of conventional plant breeding. Moreover, environmental factors (such as field location, sampling time, or agricultural practices) have a greater impact than transgenesis. None of these '-omics' profiling studies has raised new safety concerns about GE varieties; neither did the long-term and multigenerational studies on animals. Therefore, there is no need to perform such long-term studies in a case-by-case approach, unless reasonable doubt still exists after conducting a 90-day feeding test. In addition, plant compositional analysis and '-omics' profiling do not indicate that toxicological tests should be mandatory. We discuss what complementary fundamental studies should be performed and how to choose the most efficient experimental design to assess risks associated with new GE traits. The possible need to update the current regulatory framework is discussed. PMID:23253614

  15. Development of a high-sensitivity BGO well counter for small animal PET studies.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Tadashi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-01-01

    In quantitative measurements of small animal PET studies, blood sampling is limited due to the small amounts of blood such animals can provide. In addition, injection doses are quite limited. In this situation, a high-sensitivity well counter would be useful for reducing the amount of the blood sample needed from small animals. Bismuth germinate (BGO) has a high stopping power for high-energy gamma rays compared to NaI(Tl), which is commonly used for conventional well counters. We have developed a BGO well counter and have tested it for blood-sampling measurements in small animals. The BGO well counter uses a square BGO block (59 × 59 × 50 mm) with a square open space (27 × 27 × 34 mm) in the center of the block. The BGO block was optically coupled to a 59-mm square-shaped photomultiplier tube (PMT). Signals from the PMT were digitally processed for the integration and energy window setting. The results showed that the energy spectrum of the BGO well counter measured with a Na-22 point source provided counts that were about 6 times higher for a 1022-keV (511 keV × 2) gamma peak than the spectrum of a 2-in. NaI(Tl) well counter. The relative sensitivity of the developed BGO well counter was 3.4 times higher than that of a NaI(Tl) well counter. The time activity curve of arterial blood was obtained successfully with the BGO well counter for a F-18-FDG study on rat. The BGO well counter will contribute to reducing the amount of sampled blood and to improving the throughput of quantitative measurements in small animal PET studies. PMID:21987349

  16. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Mrinalini; Singh, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metronidazole (MTZ) is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activity and sperm indices. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ on the structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organs have been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally with MTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive days to study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility. Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessation of the treatment. Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day) neither altered the weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices. The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day) caused significant reductions in the weights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at the high dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remained unaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count of epididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminal vesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes were noticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treated mice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leading to an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease was noticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinduced changes in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 days after cessation of the treatment. Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproduction and fertility. PMID:24520490

  17. Etoposide encapsulated in positively charged liposomes: pharmacokinetic studies in mice and formulation stability studies.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S; Tyagi, P; Velpandian, T; Gupta, Y K; Gupta, S K

    2000-11-01

    Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent which acts by forming a ternary complex with topoisomerase II and DNA, causing DNA breaks and cell death. In recent studies we have demonstrated that encapsulation in liposomes increases the antitumour efficacy and reduces the adverse effects associated with etoposide. The present study was thus conducted to evaluate whether encapsulation in cationic liposomes altered the pharmacokinetics of etoposide and to study the effect of cholesterol incorporation on the stability of the liposomes. Etoposide-encapsulated unilammellar liposomes were synthesized by thin film hydration followed by extrusion. The drug was administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). The concentration of the drug in plasma was analysed at different time points till 360 min after injection, using a h.p.l.c. method. The terbium chloride-dipicolinic acid interaction method was applied to study the stability of the formulation in mouse serum and also following storage at 0( composite function)C over a period of time. The effect of the free and liposomal drug on myelosuppression was evaluated at 10 mg m(-2)and 40 mg m(-2)dose levels by quantifying blood cell counts on day 15 and day 21 following a 5 day course of therapy. Encapsulation in cationic liposomes increased the area under the concentration vs time curve to 42.98 microghml(-1)from 24.18 microghml(-1)in the case of the free drug. Half-life (beta) was 58. 62 and 186 min in the case of free and liposomal etoposide, respectively. In the stability studies, incorporation of cholesterol progressively stabilized the formulation in serum. The use of sucrose at increasing concentrations as a cryoprotectant also increased the shelf stability of the formulation at 0( composite function)C. Toxicity studies using a dose of pure drug revealed that though myelosuppression was evident in both liposomal- and free drug-treated groups on day 15 it was reversed by day 21 following initiation of therapy. The present findings suggest that liposomes could serve as an alternative mode of delivery for etoposide. PMID:11023708

  18. Two-hour methyl isocyanate inhalation and 90-day recovery study in B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Boorman, G.A.; Uraih, L.C.; Gupta, B.N.; Bucher, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3, 10, and 30 ppm methyl isocyanate for 2 hr followed by a 90-day recovery period. Sixteen of eight (20%) male mice in the 30 ppm group died following exposure. There were no other unscheduled deaths in the mice. Five mice/sex/group were examined at 2 hr or at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 49, or 91 days following exposure. Chemical-related changes were restricted to the respiratory system. At 30 ppm there were extensive necrosis and erosion of the respiratory and olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. Severe necrosis and epithelial erosion were also found in the trachea and main bronchi. Regeneration of the mucosal epithelium occurred rapidly in the nasal cavity and airways. In the turbinates, mild incomplete olfactory epithelial regeneration persisted to day 91 in the male mice. Intraluminal fibrotic projections covered by respiratory epithelium and bronchial fibrosis were found in the major airways of the 30 ppm male and female mice by day 7. The intraluminal fibrosis persisted to day 91. In males with severe bronchial fibrosis, chronic alveolitis and atelectasis were found. In mice exposed to 3 or 10 ppm, persistent pulmonary changes were not found. These studies indicate that methyl isocyanate inhalation at or near lethal concentrations can cause persistent fibrosis of the major bronchi in mice.

  19. Managing the inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary bypass: review of the studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Gabriel Romero; Kanas, Alexandre Fligelman; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review studies performed in animal models that evaluated therapeutic interventions to inflammatory response and microcirculatory changes after cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods It was used the search strategy ("Cardiopulmonary Bypass" (MeSH)) and ("Microcirculation" (MeSH) or "Inflammation" (MeSH) or "Inflammation Mediators" (MeSH)). Repeated results, human studies, non-English language articles, reviews and studies without control were excluded. Results Blood filters, system miniaturization, specific primers regional perfusion, adequate flow and temperature and pharmacological therapies with anticoagulants, vasoactive drugs and anti-inflammatories reduced changes in microcirculation and inflammatory response. Conclusion Demonstrated efficacy in animal models establishes a perspective for evaluating these interventions in clinical practice. PMID:24896169

  20. Studies on the immune reconstitution of sublethally irradiated mice by peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Harriet; Feldman, Michael

    1968-01-01

    Studies were performed on the reconstitution of the immune response to Shigella paradysenteriae and sheep erythrocytes in sublethally irradiated mice by the injection of normal peritoneal macrophages with and without pre-incubation with antigen. The response to Shigella was found to be less radiosensitive than the anti-SRBC response. Sublethally irradiated mice (550 r) injected with peritoneal macrophages from normal donors pre-incubated with Shigella antigen or injected simultaneously with macrophages and Shigella evinced a strong anti-Shigella response. No such reconstitution of the immune response against SRBC was observed, even when lower irradiation doses and phagocytosis-enhancing incubation media were used. Possible reasons for the different response to Shigella and SRBC are discussed. PMID:4884963

  1. Sperm-head morphology study in B6C3F1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.L.; McClanahan, B.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The present report describes the results of a study of the morphology of epididymal sperm heads of B6C3F1 mice that were exposed to varying concentrations of 1,3-butadiene. During the fifth post-exposure week, the animals were killed and examined for gross lesions of the reproductive tract; suspensions of the epididymal sperm were prepared for morphologic evaluations. No mortality was observed in any of the inhalation exposure groups. Transient toxic signs, including piloerection and dyspnea, were evident during a 20- to 30-minute period following exposure to 5000 ppM. Mean values for body weights and weight gains of the mice exposed to 1,3-butadiene were not significantly different from control values. A concentration-related increase in the incidence of sperm-head abnormalities was evident and the percentage of sperm heads that were morphologically abnormal was significantly higher in mice exposed to 1000 and 5000 ppM than in the controls. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Gisele Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake), intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding), and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer's disease—with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function. PMID:24900924

  3. Effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal and human studies: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tytus; Dias, Gisele Pereira; Thuret, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake), intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding), and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer's disease-with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function. PMID:24900924

  4. Oral toxicological studies of pueraria flower extract: acute toxicity study in mice and subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akira; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kinjo, Junei

    2013-11-01

    Kudzu has been widely used as an herbal medicine in China. The root of the kudzu is also well known as an antipyretic and analgesic in treatment of the common cold, while its flower has been used to treat alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse, and dysentery. Pueraria flower extract (PFE) is a hot water extract derived from the flower of the kudzu, Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae), oral intake of which exhibits anti-obesity properties in mice and humans. In this study, we conducted acute and subchronic toxicity studies for an evaluation of safety. In the acute study, PFE (5 g/kg body weight) was orally administered to ddY mice. For 14 d after administration, no deaths or abnormal changes were observed in general signs, body weight (BW), or food consumption, and no abnormal findings were observed in the major organs and tissues of either males or females at necropsy. The oral LD50 of PFE was therefore estimated to be higher than 5 g/kg BW. In the subchronic study, PFE was mixed into the diet in place of powdered CRF-1 and administered at concentrations of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.5%, and 5.0% to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 d. No mortality or toxicological changes were observed during the experimental period. Blood biochemical, hematological, and urinary parameters revealed no toxicologically significant changes. Furthermore, no anatomical or histopathological changes due to PFE were observed. The no-observed adverse-effect-level of PFE was thus estimated to be 5.0% in the diet (male: 3.0 g/kg BW/d; female: 3.5 g/kg BW/d). PMID:24245900

  5. Animal Models of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subjects are used widely in the study of sleep and sleep disorders, the study of animals has been invaluable in developing our understanding about the physiology of sleep and the underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Historically, the use of animals for the study of sleep disorders has arguably been most fruitful for the condition of narcolepsy, in which studies of dogs and mice revealed previously unsuspected mechanisms for this condition. The current overview considers animal models that have been used to study 4 of the most common human sleep disorders—insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea—and summarizes considerations relevant to the use of animals for the study of sleep and sleep disorders. Animal-based research has been vital to the elucidation of mechanisms that underlie sleep, its regulation, and its disorders and undoubtedly will remain crucial for discovering and validating sleep mechanisms and testing interventions for sleep disorders. PMID:23582416

  6. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for study of human-specific drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay G B; Kakuni, Masakazu; Morikawa, Yoshio; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-06-01

    Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction susceptibility. These risks can be effectively assessed and/or mitigated if human metabolic profile of the drug candidate could reliably be determined in early development. However, currently available in vitro human models (e.g., liver microsomes, hepatocytes) are often inadequate in this regard. Furthermore, the conduct of definitive radiolabeled human ADME studies is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that is more suited for later in development when the risk of failure has been reduced. We evaluated a recently developed chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on uPA/SCID background for its ability to predict human disposition of four model drugs (lamotrigine, diclofenac, MRK-A, and propafenone) that are known to exhibit human-specific metabolism. The results from these studies demonstrate that chimeric mice were able to reproduce the human-specific metabolite profile for lamotrigine, diclofenac, and MRK-A. In the case of propafenone, however, the human-specific metabolism was not detected as a predominant pathway, and the metabolite profiles in native and humanized mice were similar; this was attributed to the presence of residual highly active propafenone-metabolizing mouse enzymes in chimeric mice. Overall, the data indicate that the chimeric mice with humanized liver have the potential to be a useful tool for the prediction of human-specific metabolism of xenobiotics and warrant further investigation. PMID:24700822

  7. Evaluation of Different Formulations of Biological Surgical Adhesives on Hemorrhagic Aorta: An In vitro and Animal, Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Amirghofran; Sh. Rayatpisheh; N. Tanideh; A. A. Owji; A. Vasei; D. Mehrabani

    2005-01-01

    Amirghofran, A.A., Rayatpisheh, Sh., Tanideh, N., Owji, A.A., Vasei, A. and Mehrabani, D. 2005. Ealuation of different formulations of biological surgical adhesives on hemorrhagic aorta: An in vitro and animal study. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 28: 121–124.This in vitro and animal model study was performed to find a safe, effective, inexpensive and easy-to-use surgical glue on hemorrhagic aorta. Bioglue was

  8. Animal and in silico models for the study of sarcomeric cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Duncker, Dirk J; Bakkers, Jeroen; Brundel, Bianca J; Robbins, Jeff; Tardiff, Jil C; Carrier, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of cardiomyopathies has improved dramatically, due to improvements in screening and detection of gene defects in the human genome as well as a variety of novel animal models (mouse, zebrafish, and drosophila) and in silico computational models. These novel experimental tools have created a platform that is highly complementary to the naturally occurring cardiomyopathies in cats and dogs that had been available for some time. A fully integrative approach, which incorporates all these modalities, is likely required for significant steps forward in understanding the molecular underpinnings and pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies. Finally, novel technologies, including CRISPR/Cas9, which have already been proved to work in zebrafish, are currently being employed to engineer sarcomeric cardiomyopathy in larger animals, including pigs and non-human primates. In the mouse, the increased speed with which these techniques can be employed to engineer precise 'knock-in' models that previously took years to make via multiple rounds of homologous recombination-based gene targeting promises multiple and precise models of human cardiac disease for future study. Such novel genetically engineered animal models recapitulating human sarcomeric protein defects will help bridging the gap to translate therapeutic targets from small animal and in silico models to the human patient with sarcomeric cardiomyopathy. PMID:25600962

  9. Animal production and wheeze in the Agricultural Health Study: interactions with atopy, asthma, and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, J; Umbach, D; London, S; Alavanja, M; Sandler, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role of animal exposures and wheeze, and to assess whether their impact differs among susceptible subgroups, including atopics, asthmatics, and smokers. Methods: Using the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in 1994–97, wheeze associated with animal production was evaluated and interactions among susceptible subgroups assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine risk factors for wheeze in the past year among 20 468 farmers. Results: Individuals raising animals requiring direct contact had the highest odds ratios (OR) for wheeze (ORdairy = 1.26; OReggs = 1.70). A significant dose response was observed for both the number of poultry and the number of livestock on the farm. Farmers who performed veterinary procedures on a daily basis had an OR of 1.51. The odds of wheeze associated with poultry production was greater among atopic than non-atopic individuals. Milking cows daily increased the odds of wheeze in all individuals, with the largest association observed among atopic asthmatic individuals. The impact of dairy, poultry, and egg production varied among smoking groups. Past smokers had the highest odds ratios, followed by never smokers, and then current smokers. The OReggs was 2.88 among past smokers but only 1.46 for never smokers. The OReggs for current smokers of 0.80 might reflect self selection of exposure among smokers. Conclusions: Results are consistent with animal production and respiratory symptoms, and suggest that subgroups may respond differently to exposure. PMID:12883030

  10. [Possibilities and limitations of fibroblast cultures in the study of animal aging].

    PubMed

    Van Gansen, P; Van Lerberghe, N

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Aging--the effect of time--occurs in every living organism. Senescence is the last period of the lifespan, leading to death. It happens in all animals, with the exception of a few didermic species (Hydras) having a stock of embryonic cells and being immortal. The causes of animal senescence are badly known. They depend both on genetic characters (maximal lifespan of a species) and on medium factors (mean expectation of life of the animals of a species). Animal senescence could depend on cell aging: 1) by senescence and death of the differentiated cells, 2) by modified proliferation and differentiation of the stem cells of differentiated tissues, 3) by alterations in the extracellular matrices, 4) by interactions between factors 1) 2) and 3) in each tissue, 5) by interactions between the several tissues of an organism. This complexity badly impedes the experimental study of animal senescence. Normal mammal cells are aging when they are cultivated (in vitro ageing): their phenotype varies and depends on the cell generation (in vitro differentiation); the last cell-generation doesn't divide anymore and declines until death of the culture (in vitro senescence). Analysis of these artificial but well controlled systems allows an experimental approach of the proliferation, differentiation, senescence and death of the cells and of the extracellular matrix functions. Present literature upon in vitro aging of cultivated human cells is essentially made of papers where proliferation and differentiation characteristics are compared between early ("young") and late ("old") cell-generations of the cultures. FIBROBLASTIC CELLS OF THE MOUSE SKIN. This cell type has been studied in our laboratory, using different systems: 1) Primary cultures isolated from peeled skins of 19 day old mouse embryos, 2) Mouse dermis analyzed in the animals, 3) Cultivated explants of skins, 4) Serial sub-cultures of fibroblasts isolated from these explants, 5) Cells cultivated comparably on plane substrates (glass, plastic, collagen films) and on tridimensional matrices (collagen fibres). Systems 2), 3), 4) and 5) have been obtained either from 19 day old embryos or from 6 groups of animals of different ages (from 1/2 till 25 month). In primary cultures (system 1) all the cell generations have been analyzed, including the last one until death of the culture. We have shown that many characters are varying with cell-generation: cell form and cell mass, rate of DNA replication and cell division, rate of RNA transcription, nature of the accumulated and of the synthetized proteins, organization of the cytoskeletal elements, organization of the extracellular matrix, type of cell death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3079271

  11. Animal Algorithm Animation Tool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Guido Rö�ling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

  12. Impairment of mice spermatogenesis by sodium arsenite.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mónica; Matos, Rita Cerejeira; Oliveira, Helena; Nunes, Bruno; Pereira, Maria de Lourdes

    2012-03-01

    In order to assess the effect of arsenic on the male reproductive impairment in mice, 7-week-old animals were exposed to 7.5 mg sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2))/kg body weight, during 35 days (one spermatogenic cycle). One group of animals was sacrificed after exposure, while another group received distilled water for an additional period of 35 days, in order to study the spermatoxic effect and the recovery of spermatogenesis. In mice sacrificed after NaAsO(2) exposure, a decrease in testis/body weight ratio and reduction of tubular diameter were observed. Both groups of NaAsO(2)-exposed animals showed remarkable histopathological changes, such as sloughing of immature germ cells. Animals sacrificed after NaAsO(2) exposure showed decreased sperm motility, increased abnormal sperm morphology and decreased sperm viability. The effects of NaAsO(2) on sperm motility recovered to normal values after one spermatogenic cycle, while increased sperm abnormality was maintained. However, at this period, a decrease in acrosome integrity was detected. Concerning oxidative stress parameters, animals sacrificed after NaAsO(2) exposure showed a decreased selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, which was not detected after the recovery. Conversely, at this period, total glutathione peroxidase activity increased in exposed animals. These results demonstrate the toxic effects of NaAsO(2) on mice spermatogenesis and show the lack of recovery after one spermatogenic cycle. PMID:21490070

  13. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  14. Data base on animal mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A data base on animal mortality has been compiled. The literature on LD/sub 50/ and the dose-response function for radiation-induced lethality, reflect several inconsistencies - primarily due to dose assignments and to analytical methods and/or mathematical models used. Thus, in order to make the individual experiments which were included in the data base as consistent as possible, an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment group was made so that the interspecies differences are minimized. The LD/sub 50/ was recalculated using a single estimation procedure for all studies for which sufficient experimental data are available. For small animals such as mice, the dose to the hematopoietic system is approximately equal to the treatment dose, but for large animals the marrow dose may be about half of the treatment dose.

  15. MICE: a mouse imaging collaboration environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Flask, Chris; Wilson, David; Johnson, David; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2006-03-01

    With the ever-increasing complexity of science and engineering, many important research problems are being addressed by collaborative, multidisciplinary teams. We present a web-based collaborative environment for small animal imaging research, called the Mouse Imaging Collaboration Environment (MICE). MICE provides an effective and user-friendly tool for managing and sharing of the terabytes of high-resolution and high-dimension image data generated at small animal imaging core facilities. We describe the design of MICE and our experience in the implementation and deployment of a beta-version baseline-MICE. The baseline-MICE provides an integrated solution from image data acquisition to end-user access and long-term data storage at our UH/Case Small Animal Imaging Resource Center. As image data is acquired from scanners, it is pushed to the MICE server which automatically stores it in a directory structure according to its DICOM metadata. The directory structure reflects imaging modality, principle investigators, animal models, scanning dates and study details. Registered end-users access this imaging data through an authenticated web-interface. Thumbnail images are created by custom scripts running on the MICE server while data down-loading is achieved through standard web-browser ftp. MICE provides a security infrastructure that manages user roles, their access privileges such as read/write, and the right to modify the access privileges. Additional data security measures include a two server paradigm with the Web access server residing outside a network firewall to provide access through the Internet, and the imaging data server - a large RAID storage system supporting flexible backup policies - residing behind the protected firewall with a dedicated link to the Web access server. Direct network link to the RAID storage system outside the firewall other than this dedicated link is not permitted. Establishing the initial image directory structure and letting the project leader manage data access through a web-interface represent Phase I implementation. In Phase II, features for uploading image analysis scripts and results back to the MICE server will be implemented, as well as mechanisms facilitating asynchronous and synchronous discussion, annotation, and analysis. Most of MICE features are being implemented in the Plone 5 object-oriented database environment which greatly shortens developmental time and effort by the reuse of a variety of Plone's open-source modules for Content Management Systems. 7, 8 The open-source modules are well suited as an implementation basis of MICE and provide data integration as a built-in primitive.

  16. Mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: an autoradiographic study of ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Antonelli, Marta C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2013-07-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) was able to prevent the behavioral expression of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying this effect, we conducted this study, with the aims of analyzing ?4?2 nicotinic receptor density during NIC withdrawal and, in case we found any changes, of determining whether they could be prevented by pretreatment with BAC. Swiss Webster albino mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and brain autoradiography with [(3)H]epibatidine was carried out at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling during NIC withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), medial habenular nucleus (HbM), thalamic nuclei, dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus (fr), ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus and superior colliculus. BAC pretreatment prevented the increased ?4?2 nicotinic receptor binding sites in the AcbSh, MHb, thalamic nuclei, DLG nucleus and fr. The present results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling, evidenced in specific brain areas in NIC withdrawn animals. PMID:23500668

  17. Decreased benzodiazepine receptor binding in epileptic El mice: A quantitative autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasaka, Y.; Ito, M.; Tsuda, H.; Shiraishi, H.; Oguro, K.; Mutoh, K.; Mikawa, H. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors and subtypes were examined in El mice and normal ddY mice with a quantitative autoradiographic technique. Specific (3H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice, which had experienced repeated convulsions, was significantly lower in the cortex and hippocampus than in ddY mice and unstimulated El mice. In the amygdala, specific ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice was lower than in ddY mice. There was a tendency for the ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in these regions in unstimulated El mice to be intermediate between that in stimulated El mice and that in ddY mice, but there was no significant difference between unstimulated El mice and ddY mice. ({sup 3}H)Flunitrazepam binding displaced by CL218,872 was significantly lower in the cortex of stimulated El mice than in that of the other two groups, and in the hippocampus of stimulated than of unstimulated El mice. These data suggest that the decrease in ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding in stimulated El mice may be due mainly to that of type 1 receptor and may be the result of repeated convulsions.

  18. Membrane Potential Dye Imaging of Ventromedial Hypothalamus Neurons From Adult Mice to Study Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Vazirani, Reema P.; Fioramonti, Xavier; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of neuronal activity are often performed using neurons from rodents less than 2 months of age due to the technical difficulties associated with increasing connective tissue and decreased neuronal viability that occur with age. Here, we describe a methodology for the dissociation of healthy hypothalamic neurons from adult-aged mice. The ability to study neurons from adult-aged mice allows the use of disease models that manifest at a later age and might be more developmentally accurate for certain studies. Fluorescence imaging of dissociated neurons can be used to study the activity of a population of neurons, as opposed to using electrophysiology to study a single neuron. This is particularly useful when studying a heterogeneous neuronal population in which the desired neuronal type is rare such as for hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons. We utilized membrane potential dye imaging of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons to study their responses to changes in extracellular glucose. Glucose sensing neurons are believed to play a role in central regulation of energy balance. The ability to study glucose sensing in adult rodents is particularly useful since the predominance of diseases related to dysfunctional energy balance (e.g. obesity) increase with age. PMID:24326343

  19. Visually induced gamma-band responses in human electroencephalographic activity — a link to animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias M Miiller; Jorge Bosch; Thomas Elbert; Andreas Kreiter; Mitchel Valdes Sosa; Pedro Valdes Sosa; Brigitte Rockstroh

    1996-01-01

    Visual presentation of an object produces firing patterns in cell assemblies representing the features of the object. Based on theoretical considerations and animal experiments, it has been suggested that the binding of neuronal representations of the various features is achieved through synchronization of the oscillatory firing patterns. The present study demonstrates that stimulus-induced gamma-band responses can be recorded non-invasively from

  20. The Pig as a Model Animal for Studying Cognition and Neurobehavioral Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise T. Gieling; Teun Schuurman; Rebecca E. Nordquist; F. Josef van der Staay

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a In experimental animal research, a short phylogenetic distance, i.e., high resemblance between the model species and the species\\u000a to be modeled is expected to increase the relevance and generalizability of results obtained in the model species. The (mini)pig\\u000a shows multiple advantageous characteristics that have led to an increase in the use of this species in studies modeling human\\u000a medical issues,

  1. Recent progress on SPECT imaging with near-field coded aperture collimation: A small animal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiping Mu; Wawrzyniec L. Dobrucki; Xiaoyue Hu; Yi-Hwa Liu

    2010-01-01

    A small animal study of three-dimensional (3-D) single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging with near-field coded aperture collimation is reported. In our early effort to develop high-sensitivity and high-resolution SPECT technology, we introduced an imaging protocol and a reconstruction method for 3-D near-field coded aperture SPECT, and obtained good SPECT reconstructions of 3-D objects, including a micro hot-rod phantom

  2. Animal Origin Foods and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Report From the Shanghai Women's Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Ah Lee; Xiao Ou Shu; Gong Yang; Honglan Li; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The association of animal-origin food consumption and cooking patterns with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was evaluated in a cohort of 73,224 participants of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. After a mean follow-up time of 7.4 yr, 394 incident cases of CRC (colon = 236; rectal = 158) were diagnosed. Overall, no association was found between the risk of CRC and

  3. George Orwell's Animal Farm: a case study in leadership/management for undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, James A

    2005-07-01

    Many BSN curricula require a "leadership and management" course. At George Mason University, that course is Leadership and Management in Nursing and Health Science. This article describes how George Orwell's classic novel Animal Farm was used as a case study in leadership and management. This exercise complemented the traditional course material, united the class in a common intellectual exercise, and fostered creative thinking. A nursing student, Anne Lord, offers reaction to the assignment as a signed "In-Box" exemplar. PMID:19038207

  4. GABA in regulation of communicative activity and sexual motivation of male mice with different psychoemotional status.

    PubMed

    Amikishieva, A V

    2007-02-01

    We studied the effects of drugs modulating GABA content in the brain on communicative activity and sexual motivation of male mice. The effects of the drug depended on animal genotype and initial psychoemotional status. Aminooxyacetic acid elevating GABA content did not modulate communicative activity of intact males, reduced it in aggressive animals, restored in anxious animals, and promoted exhaustion of sexual motivation in anxious animals. Thiosemicarbazide reducing GABA level produced an anxiogenic effect and destabilized sexual motivation in intact males. PMID:17970208

  5. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research. PMID:21571908

  6. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Bem, Reinout A; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2011-08-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research. PMID:21571908

  7. Protective immunity of blood plasma fraction containing Babesia rodhaini exoantigens in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiho Kamiya; Noriyuki Takabatake; Kei Fujii; Masashi Okamura; Hiroshi Iseki; Naoaki Yokoyama; Ikuo Igarashi

    2005-01-01

    Babesia spp. are major hemoprotozoan parasites in animals. Exoantigens, which are soluble antigens released by the parasites during their asexual development, have been successfully applied for the development of a vaccine against babesiosis. In this study, we examined the ability of exoantigens to induce protective immunity in mice against a rodent Babesia parasite, Babesia rodhaini. The BALB\\/c mice immunized with

  8. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND AGGRESSION IN MALE MICE: INVOLVEMENT OF THE VOMERONASAL SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREW N. CLANCY; ARTHUR COQUELIN; FOTEOS MACRIDES; ROGER A. GORSKI; ERNEST P. NOBLES

    Recent observations have implicated the vomeronasal (accessory olfactory) system in the chemosensory control of rodent social behaviors. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of peripheral vomeronasal organ extirpation on sexual behavior, aggression, and urine marking in male mice. Relative to sham-operated control animals, mice lacking vomeronasal organs displayed significantly reduced levels of copulatory behavior and intermale

  9. ApoE-Deficient Mice Develop Lesions of All Phases of Atherosclerosis Throughout the Arterial Tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Nakashima; Andrew S. Plump; Elaine W. Raines; Jan L. Breslow; Russell Ross

    2010-01-01

    Initial description of apolipoprotein (apo) E-de- ficient transgenic mice demonstrated the development of severe hypercholesterolemia due to probable delayed clear- ance of large atherogenic particles from the circulation. Ex- amination of these mice demonstrated foam cell accumulation in the aortic root and pulmonary arteries by 10 weeks of age. In the present study, the animals were fed either chow or

  10. FMR1 Knockout mice: A model to study fragile X mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Oostra, B.A.; Bakker, C.E.; Reyniers, E. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation in humans with an incidence of 1 in 1250 males and 1 in 2500 females. The clinical syndrome includes moderate to severe mental retardation, autistic behavior, macroorchidism, and facial features, such as long face with mandibular prognathism and large, everted ears. The molecular basis for this disease is a large expansion of a triplet repeat (CGG){sub n} in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Due to this large expansion of the CGG repeat, the promoter region becomes methylated and the FMR1 gene is subsequently silenced. Hardly anything is known about the physiologic function of FMR1 and the pathologic mechanisms leading to these symptoms. Since the FMR1 gene is highly conserved in the mouse, we used the mouse to design a knockout model for the fragile X syndrome. These knockout mice lacking Fmrp have normal litter size suggesting that FMR1 is not essential in human gametogenesis and embryonic development. The knockout mice show the abnormalities also seen in the affected organs of human patients. Mutant mice show a gradual development through time of macroorchidism. In the knockout mice we observed cognitive defects in the form of deficits in learning (as shown by the hidden platform Morris water maze task) and behavioral abnormalities such as increased exploratory behavior and hyperactivity. Therefore this knockout mouse may serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of FMR1 in the fragile X syndrome and may serve as a model to elucidate the mechanisms involved in macroorchidism, abnormal behavior, and mental retardation.

  11. [The study of tool use as the way for general estimation of cognitive abilities in animals].

    PubMed

    Reznikova, Zh I

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of tool use is an effective way to determine cognitive abilities of animals. This approach raises hypotheses, which delineate limits of animal's competence in understanding of objects properties and interrelations and the influence of individual and social experience on their behaviour. On the basis of brief review of different models of manipulation with objects and tools manufacturing (detaching, subtracting and reshaping) by various animals (from elephants to ants) in natural conditions the experimental data concerning tool usage was considered. Tool behaviour of anumals could be observed rarely and its distribution among different taxons is rather odd. Recent studies have revealed that some species (for instance, bonobos and tamarins) which didn't manipulate tools in wild life appears to be an advanced tool users and even manufacturers in laboratory. Experimental studies of animals tool use include investigation of their ability to use objects physical properties, to categorize objects involved in tool activity by its functional properties, to take forces affecting objects into account, as well as their capacity of planning their actions. The crucial question is whether animals can abstract general principles of relations between objects regardless of the exact circumstances, or they develop specific associations between concerete things and situations. Effectiveness of laboratory methods is estimated in the review basing on comparative studies of tool behaviour, such as "support problem", "stick problem", "tube- and tube-trap problem", and "reserve tube problem". Levels of social learning, the role of imprinting, and species-specific predisposition to formation of specific domains are discussed. Experimental investigation of tool use allows estimation of the individuals' intelligence in populations. A hypothesis suggesting that strong predisposition to formation of specific associations can serve as a driving force and at the same time as obstacle to animals' activity is discussed. In several "technically gifted" species (such as woodpecker finches, New Caledonian crows, and chimpanzees) tool use seems to be guided by a rapid process of trial and error learning. Individuals that are predisposed to learn specific connections do this too quickly and thus become enslaved by stereotypic solutions of raising problems. PMID:16521567

  12. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the virulence of bacterial lung pathogens. Because non-mammalian models have less ethical and cost constraints as a subjects for experimentation, in some cases would be appropriated to include these models as valuable tools to explore host–pathogen interactions. Numerous scientific data have been argued to the more extensive use of several kinds of alternative models, such as, the vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio), and non-vertebrate insects and nematodes (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) in the study of diverse infectious agents that affect humans. Here, we review the use of these vertebrate and non-vertebrate models in the study of bacterial agents, which are considered the principal causes of lung injury. Curiously none of these animals have a respiratory system as in air-breathing vertebrates, where respiration takes place in lungs. Despite this fact, with the present review we sought to provide elements in favor of the use of these alternative animal models of infection to reveal the molecular signatures of host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25699030

  13. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the virulence of bacterial lung pathogens. Because non-mammalian models have less ethical and cost constraints as a subjects for experimentation, in some cases would be appropriated to include these models as valuable tools to explore host-pathogen interactions. Numerous scientific data have been argued to the more extensive use of several kinds of alternative models, such as, the vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio), and non-vertebrate insects and nematodes (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) in the study of diverse infectious agents that affect humans. Here, we review the use of these vertebrate and non-vertebrate models in the study of bacterial agents, which are considered the principal causes of lung injury. Curiously none of these animals have a respiratory system as in air-breathing vertebrates, where respiration takes place in lungs. Despite this fact, with the present review we sought to provide elements in favor of the use of these alternative animal models of infection to reveal the molecular signatures of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25699030

  14. A conceptual framework for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Diego P; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Urbani, Pasquinell; Valdovinos, Fernanda S

    2015-04-01

    The strength of species interactions influences strongly the structure and dynamics of ecological systems. Thus, quantifying such strength is crucial to understand how species interactions shape communities and ecosystems. Although the concepts and measurement of interaction strength in food webs have received much attention, there has been comparatively little progress in the context of mutualism. We propose a conceptual scheme for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions. We first review the interaction strength concepts developed for food webs, and explore how these concepts have been applied to mutualistic interactions. We then outline and explain a conceptual framework for defining ecological effects in plant-animal mutualisms. We give recommendations for measuring interaction strength from data collected in field studies based on a proposed approach for the assessment of interaction strength in plant-animal mutualisms. This approach is conceptually integrative and methodologically feasible, as it focuses on two key variables usually measured in field studies: the frequency of interactions and the fitness components influenced by the interactions. PMID:25735791

  15. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  16. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective and tiered approaches in animal testing are discussed. PMID:23777200

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury Reduces Soluble Extracellular Amyloid-? in Mice: A Methodologically Novel Combined Microdialysis- Controlled Cortical Impact Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwetye, Katherine E.; Cirrito, John R.; Esparza, Thomas J.; Mac Donald, Christine L.; Holtzman, David M.; Brody, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute amyloid-? peptide (A?) deposition has been observed in young traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, leading to the hypothesis that elevated extracellular A? levels could underlie the increased risk of dementia following TBI. However, a recent microdialysis-based study in human brain injury patients found that extracellular A? dynamics correlate with changes in neurological status. Because neurological status is generally diminished following injury, this correlation suggested the alternative hypothesis that soluble extracellular A? levels may instead be reduced after TBI relative to baseline. We have developed a methodologically novel mouse model that combines experimental controlled cortical impact TBI with intracerebral microdialysis. In this model, we found that A? levels in microdialysates were immediately decreased by 25–50% in the ipsilateral hippocampus following TBI. This result was found in PDAPP, Tg2576, and Tg2576-ApoE2 transgenic mice producing human A? plus wild-type animals. Changes were not due to altered probe function, edema, changes in APP levels, or A? deposition. Similar decreases in A? were observed in phosphate buffered saline-soluble tissue extracts. Hippocampal electroencephalographic activity was also decreased up to 40% following TBI, and correlated with reduced microdialysate A? levels. These results support the alternative hypothesis that post-injury extracellular soluble A? levels are acutely decreased relative to baseline. Reduced neuronal activity may contribute, though the underlying mechanisms have not been definitively determined. Further work will be needed to assess the dynamics of insoluble and oligomeric A? after TBI. PMID:20682338

  18. Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Risk assessment requires dose-response data for the evaluation of the relationship between exposure to an environmental stressor and the probability of developing an adverse health effect. Information from human studies is usually limited and additional results from animal studies are often needed for the assessment of risks in humans. Combination of risk estimates requires an assessment and correction of the important biases in the two types of studies. In this paper we aim to illustrate a quantitative approach to combining data from human and animal studies after adjusting for bias in human studies. For our purpose we use the example of the association between exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Methods Firstly, we identify and adjust for the main sources of systematic error in selected human studies of the association between occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Evidence from selected animal studies is also accounted for by extrapolating to average ambient, occupational exposure concentrations of diesel exhaust. In a second stage, the bias adjusted effect estimates are combined in a common effect measure through meta-analysis. Results The random-effects pooled estimate (RR) for exposure to diesel exhaust vs. non-exposure was found 1.37 (95% C.I.: 1.08-1.65) in animal studies and 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.09-2.10) in human studies, whilst the overall was found equal to 1.49 (95% C.I.: 1.21-1.78) with a greater contribution from human studies. Without bias adjustment in human studies, the pooled effect estimate was 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.28-1.89). Conclusions Adjustment for the main sources of uncertainty produced lower risk estimates showing that ignoring bias leads to risk estimates potentially biased upwards. PMID:21481231

  19. Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements, or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration, and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the comparative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link between experiments and studies of human cases. However, in order for mathematical simulations to be completely useful, the predictions will most likely have to be validated by detailed data from animal experiments. Some aspects of BINT can conceivably be studied in vitro. However, factors such as systemic response, brain edema, inflammation, vasospasm, or changes in synaptic transmission and behavior must be evaluated in experimental animals. Against this background, it is necessary that such animal experiments are carefully developed imitations of actual components in the blast injury. This paper describes and discusses examples of different designs of experimental models relevant to BINT. PMID:22485104

  20. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. PMID:24863044

  1. Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

  2. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Jeff; Hoddy, Kristin K; Jambazian, Pera; Varady, Krista A

    2014-05-01

    Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a key component of intermittent fasting regimens, has gained considerable attention in recent years. TRF allows ad libitum energy intake within controlled time frames, generally a 3-12 hour range each day. The impact of various TRF regimens on indicators of metabolic disease risk has yet to be investigated. Accordingly, the objective of this review was to summarize the current literature on the effects of TRF on body weight and markers of metabolic disease risk (i.e., lipid, glucoregulatory, and inflammatory factors) in animals and humans. Results from animal studies show TRF to be associated with reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, and concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-? as well as with improvements in insulin sensitivity. Human data support the findings of animal studies and demonstrate decreased body weight (though not consistently), lower concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These preliminary findings show promise for the use of TRF in modulating a variety of metabolic disease risk factors. PMID:24739093

  3. Antinociceptive effects of gabapentin & its mechanism of action in experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Fatma Sultan; Sirmagul, Basar; Yildirim, Engin; Oner, Setenay; Erol, Kevser

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several studies have shown the possible analgesic effects of gabapentin, widely used as an antiepileptic. Thus, clinical studies have been carried out especially for neuropathic syndroms. This study was undertaken to investigate experimentally whether gabapentin has analgesic effects in mice and rats. Methods: The mice were divided into 10 groups (n=7) with various treatments to assess central and peripheral antinociceptive activity of gabapentin. Hot plate, tail clip and tail flick tests were applied for the investigation of central antinociceptive activity and the writhing test was applied for the investigation of peripheral antinociceptive activity. In addition, we also evaluated the levels of PGE2 and nNOS on perfused hippocampus slices of rats. Results: Gabapentin showed a peripheral antinociceptive effect at all doses and a central antinociceptive effect at 30mg/kg dose. While the L-NAME and cyproheptadine changed the central and peripheral effects of gabapentin, naloxone did not change these effects. In vitro studies showed that gabapentin significantly increased nNOS level. PGE2 and nNOS were found to have an important role in the antinociceptive effects of gabapentin at all doses and its combinations with L-NAME, cyproheptadine, indomethacine, and naloxone. As expected, PGE2 levels decreased in all groups, while nNOS levels increased, which is believed to be an adaptation mechanism. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that arachidonate, nitrergic and serotonergic systems play an important role in the antinociceptive activity of gabapentin except for the opioidergic system. Additionally, this effect occured centrally and peripherally. These effects were also mediated by nNOS and PGE2. PMID:22771591

  4. Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man.

    PubMed

    Gothard, D; Smith, E L; Kanczler, J M; Rashidi, H; Qutachi, O; Henstock, J; Rotherham, M; El Haj, A; Shakesheff, K M; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-?3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including 'growth factor name', 'in vivo', 'model/animal', 'human', and 'bone tissue engineering'. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area. PMID:25284140

  5. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long­standing and difficult challenge

  6. NITROBENZENE CARCINOGENICITY IN ANIMALS AND HUMAN HAZARD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with ...

  7. Sub-acute toxicity study in female ICR mice following repetitive intramuscular injection of cervical cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Seol-Hee; Kim, Du-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Hye-Yeong; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jaesung; Jung, Jiwon; Kim, Min-ju; Choi, Kyoung-Baek; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Bong; Kim, Sujeong; Oh, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The sub-acute toxic effects following repetitive intramuscular injection of two cervical cancer vaccines newly developed against human papillomaviruse (HPV)16/58/18 and HPV16 were investigated in female ICR (CrljOri: CD1) mice, and the no-observedadverse- effect-level (NOAEL) of the cervical cancer vaccines was estimated. Methods Female ICR mice (n=15 in each group) were exposed to a 1:1 mixture of two cervical cancer vaccines by repetitive intramuscular injection (once a week, 5 times) for 5 weeks. Mortality, body weight, organ weight, hematological/biochemical parameters, and histopathological effects were examined at different concentrations (0, 1×108, 5×108, and 2.5×109 copies/animal) of the cervical cancer vaccines. Results The cervical cancer vaccines did not show toxic responses for body weight, absolute/ relative organ weight, hematological/biochemical parameters, or histopathological parameters. Conclusions Female ICR mice exposed to vaccines for cervical cancer did not show any toxic response. We suggest that a NOAEL of the vaccine following repetitive intramuscular injection for 5 weeks is >2.5×109 copies/animal. PMID:25622643

  8. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J.; Raja, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278 ± 3.121 to 189.872 ± 2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749 ± 2.052 to 21.170 ± 1.311 and 13.167 ± 1.441 to 8.953 ± 0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicdbnd CH stretching band and Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  9. Ultrastructural study of mitochondria in the spinal cord of transgenic mice with a G93A mutant SOD1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoichi Sasaki; Hitoshi Warita; Tetsuro Murakami; Koji Abe; Makoto Iwata

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mitochondrial changes in the spinal cord of transgenic mice of a relatively low transgenic copy number (gene copy 10) expressing a G93A mutant human Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) that were generated in our own laboratories by electron and immunoelectron microscopy from presymptomatic to symptomatic stages. Age-matched non-transgenic mice served as controls at

  10. Targeted Deletion of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Giorgini, Flaviano; Huang, Shao-Yi; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Thomas, Marian A. R.; Tararina, Margarita; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a pivotal enzyme in the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, has been suggested to play a major role in physiological and pathological events involving bioactive KP metabolites. To explore this role in greater detail, we generated mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Kmo and present here the first biochemical and neurochemical characterization of these mutant animals. Kmo?/? mice lacked KMO activity but showed no obvious abnormalities in the activity of four additional KP enzymes tested. As expected, Kmo?/? mice showed substantial reductions in the levels of its enzymatic product, 3-hydroxykynurenine, in liver, brain, and plasma. Compared with wild-type animals, the levels of the downstream metabolite quinolinic acid were also greatly decreased in liver and plasma of the mutant mice but surprisingly were only slightly reduced (by ?20%) in the brain. The levels of three other KP metabolites: kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and anthranilic acid, were substantially, but differentially, elevated in the liver, brain, and plasma of Kmo?/? mice, whereas the liver and brain content of the major end product of the enzymatic cascade, NAD+, did not differ between Kmo?/? and wild-type animals. When assessed by in vivo microdialysis, extracellular kynurenic acid levels were found to be significantly elevated in the brains of Kmo?/? mice. Taken together, these results provide further evidence that KMO plays a key regulatory role in the KP and indicate that Kmo?/? mice will be useful for studying tissue-specific functions of individual KP metabolites in health and disease. PMID:24189070

  11. Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…

  12. Use of the elevated T-maze to study anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Netto, E F; Nunes-de-Souza, R L

    2004-01-01

    We have recently suggested that the elevated T-maze (ETM) is not a useful test to study different types of anxiety in mice if a procedure similar to that originally validated for rats is employed. The present study investigated whether procedural (five exposures in the enclosed arm instead of three as originally described for rats) and structural (transparent walls instead of opaque walls) changes to the ETM leads to consistent inhibitory avoidance acquisition (IAA) and low escape latencies in mice. Results showed that five exposures to the ETM provoked consistent IAA, an effect that was independent of the ETM used. However, the ETM with transparent walls (ETMt) seemed to be more suitable for the study of conditioned anxiety (i.e. IAA) and unconditioned fear (escape) in mice, since IAA (low baseline latency with a gradual increase over subsequent exposures) and escape (low latency) profiles rendered it sensitive to the effects of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. In addition to evaluation of drug effects on IAA and escape, the number of line crossings in the apparatus were used to control for locomotor changes. Results showed that whereas diazepam (1.0-2.0 mg/kg) and flumazenil (10-30 mg/kg) impaired IAA, FG 7142 (10-30 mg/kg) did not provoke any behavioral change. Significantly, none of these benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor ligands modified escape latencies. The 5-HT1A partial receptor agonist buspirone (1.0-2.0 mg/kg) and the 5-HT releaser fenfluramine (0.15-0.30 mg/kg) impaired IAA and facilitated escape, while the full 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.05-0.1 mg/kg) and the 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist, SER 082 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) failed to modify either response. mCPP (0.5-2.0 mg/kg), a 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor agonist, facilitated IAA but did not alter escape latency. Neither antidepressant utilized in the current study, imipramine (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) and moclobemide (3.0-10 mg/kg) affected IAA or escape performance in mice. The well-known anxiogenic drugs yohimbine (2.0-8.0 mg/kg) and caffeine (10-30 mg/kg) did not selectively affect IAA, although caffeine did impair escape latencies. Present results suggest the ETMt is useful for the study of conditioned anxiety in mice. However, upon proximal threats (e.g. open arm exposure), mice do not exhibit escape behavior as an immediate defensive strategy, suggesting that latency to leave open arm is not a useful parameter to evaluate unconditioned fear in this species. PMID:14684253

  13. Studies on anemia in F1 hybrid mice injected with parental strain lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    HARRISS, E; CURRIE, C; KRISS, J P; KAPLAN, H S

    1961-06-01

    The survival of (51)Cr-labeled erythrocytes has been studied in F(1) hybrid mice in which wasting disease was produced by injection of parental lymphoid cells taken either from lymph nodes and thymus or from the spleen. Coincident with the development of the disease syndrome, there occurred a severe anemia accompanied by a sudden loss of circulating labeled erythrocytes, whether host or parental. This finding suggests that the anemia is not due solely to specific immunologic reaction of donor tissue against host erythrocytes. PMID:13711856

  14. Temporary arterial shunts to maintain limb perfusion after arterial injury: an animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, D. L.; Putnam, A. T.; Light, J. T.; Ihnat, D. M.; Kissinger, D. P.; Rasmussen, T. E.; Bradley, D. V. Jr

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary shunt placement can quickly restore perfusion after extremity arterial injury. This study examined the adequacy of limb blood flow with shunt use, non-heparin-bonded shunt patency over prolonged periods, and the safety of this technique. METHODS: Common iliac arteries were divided and 4.0-mm Silastic Sundt shunts placed in 16 anesthetized pigs. Eight (group I) had shunts placed immediately; eight others (group II) were shunted after an hour of limb ischemia and hemorrhagic shock. Physiologic parameters and femoral artery blood flow in both hindlimbs were continuously monitored. Limb lactic acid generation, oxygen utilization, and hematologic and metabolic effects were serially evaluated for 24 hours. RESULTS: Shunts remained patent in 13 of 16 pigs. Shunts thrombosed in two group I animals because of technical errors, but functioned well after thrombectomy and repositioning. Patency could not be maintained in one animal that died from shock. Flow in group I shunted limbs was 57 (+/-11 SD) % of control. For group II animals in shock, shunted limb flow initially averaged 46 +/- 15% of control, but 4 hours after shunt placement, the mean limb blood flow was the same as in group I. Increased oxygen extraction compensated for the lower flow. Lactic acid production was not increased in comparison to control limbs. CONCLUSION: Shunts provided adequate flow in this model of extremity trauma. Correctly placed shunts stayed patent for 24 hours, without anticoagulation, if shunt placement followed resuscitation.

  15. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  16. Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lucy M

    2004-09-01

    Perinatal carcinogenesis as a cross-disciplinary concern is the subject of this special issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, which consists of a total of eight reviews or commentaries in the areas of epidemiology, risk assessment, and animal models. Some of the conclusions from these articles, and the Questions and Answers section that follows most of them, are summarized here. There is adequate reason to suspect that perinatal exposures contribute to human cancer risk, both childhood cancers, and those appearing later in life. The latter type of risk may actually be quantitatively the more important, and involve a wide range of types of effects, but has received only limited attention. With regard to childhood cancers, fetal irradiation and diethylstilbestrol exposure are known etiological agents, and it is likely, but not yet certain, there are additional external causes of a portion of these. Some current focal points of interest here include nitroso compounds, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, viruses, anti-AIDS drugs, and endocrine disruptors. Regulatory agencies must rely heavily on animal data for estimation of human risk due to perinatal exposures to chemicals, and the quantity and quality of these data presently available for this purpose are greatly limiting. Correctly designed conventional animal studies with suspect chemicals are still needed. Furthermore, genetically engineered mouse models for childhood cancers, especially medulloblastoma, have become available, and could be used for screening of candidate causative agents for this cancer type, and for better understanding of gene-environment interactions. PMID:15313581

  17. In situ Raman study of the instant spectral changes observed in a pancreatic tumor tissue in living and dead model mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Hattori, Y.; Katagiri, Takashi; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Kanno, Atsushi; Satoh, Kennichi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2008-02-01

    Living pancreatic cancer tissues grown subcutaneously in nude mice are studied by in vivo microscope Raman spectroscopy. Comparing the spectra of living pancreatic cancer tissue to that of the dead same tissue, it is found that they are different each other. In the subtraction spectrum, Raman bands observed at 937, 1251, 1447 and 1671 cm -1 are appeared in negative direction and those observed at 966 and 1045 cm -1 are appeared in positive direction. The results strongly suggest that the spectral changes reflect the protein conformational changes in the tumor tissue with death of the host animal. The present result demonstrates the importance of in vivo, real time studies of biomedical tissues using Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Tumor Spectrum in ARF-deficient Mice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Kamijo; Sara Bodner; Esther van de Kamp; David H. Randle; Charles J. Sherr

    1999-01-01

    The p19ARF product of the INK4a\\/ARF locus is induced in response to potentially oncogenic hyperproliferative signals and activates p53 by in- terfering with its negative regulator, Mdm2. Mice lacking ARF are highly prone to tumor development, and in this study, 80% of these animals spontaneously developed tumors and died within their first year of life. Mice that were heterozygous for

  19. The use of planarians as in vivo animal model to study laser biomodulation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, Egberto; Garcia, Neila Maria Rocha; Braz, Allison Gustavo; de Souza, Sandra Cristina; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Pilla, Viviane

    2007-02-01

    A variety of effects is attributed to the photo stimulation of tissues, such as improved healing of ulcers, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulation of the proliferation of cells of different origins and stimulation of bone repair. Some investigations that make qualitative evaluations, like wound healing and evaluation of pain and edema, can be conducted in human subjects. However, deeper investigations on the mechanisms of action of the light stimulus and other quantitative works that requires biopsies or destructive analysis has to be carried out in animal models or in cell cultures. In this work, we propose the use of planarians as a model to study laser-tissue interaction. Contrasting with cell cultures and unicellular organisms, planarians are among the simplest organism having tissue layers, central nerve system, digestive and excretory system that might have been platforms for the evolution of the complex and highly organized tissues and organs found in higher organisms. For the present study, 685 nm laser radiation was employed. Planarians were cut transversally, in a plane posterior to the auricles. The body fragments were left to regenerate and the proliferation dynamics of stem cells was studied by using histological analysis. Maximum cell count was obtained for the laser treated group at the 4 th experimental day. At that experimental time, we also had the largest difference between the irradiated and the non-irradiated control group. We concluded that the studied flatworm could be an interesting animal model for in vivo studies of laser-tissue interactions.

  20. An intravital microscopic study of the hepatic microcirculation in cirrhotic mice models: relationship between fibrosis and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vanheule, Eline; Geerts, Anja M; Van Huysse, Jacques; Schelfhout, Daphné; Praet, Marleen; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; De Vos, Martine; Colle, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    This intravital fluorescence microscopy (IVFM) study validates cirrhotic mice models and describes the different intrahepatic alterations and the role of angiogenesis in the liver during genesis of cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and by common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in mice. Diameters of sinusoids, portal venules (PV), central venules (CV) and shunts were measured at different time points by IVFM. Thereafter, liver samples were taken for sirius red, CD31, Ki67, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) evaluation by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In parallel with fibrogenesis, hepatic microcirculation was markedly disturbed in CCl4 and CBDL mice with a significant decrease in sinusoidal diameter compared to control mice. In CCl4 mice, CV were enlarged, with marked sinusoidal-free spaces around CV. In contrast, PV were enlarged in CBDL mice and bile lakes were observed. In both mice models, intrahepatic shunts developed gradually after induction. During genesis of cirrhosis using CD31 IHC we observed a progressive increase in the number of blood vessels within the fibrotic septa area and a progressively increase in staining by Ki67, VEGF and ?-SMA of endothelial cells, hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells respectively. In vivo study of the hepatic microcirculation demonstrated a totally disturbed intrahepatic architecture, with narrowing of sinusoids in both cirrhotic mice models. The diameters of CV and PV increased and large shunts, bypassing the sinusoids, were seen after both CCl4 and CBDL induction. Thus present study shows that there is angiogenesis in the liver during cirrhogenesis, and this is probably due partially to an increased production of VEGF. PMID:19134051

  1. Cerebral metabonomics study on Parkinson's disease mice treated with extract of Acanthopanax senticosus harms.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-zhao; Zhang, Shuai-nan; Lu, Fang; Liu, Chang-feng; Wang, Yu; Bai, Yu; Wang, Na; Liu, Shu-min

    2013-10-15

    Extract of Acanthopanax senticosus harms (EAS) has neuroprotective effect on Parkinson's disease (PD) mice against dopaminergic neuronal damage. However, studies of its anti-PD mechanism are challenging, owing to the complex pathophysiology of PD, and complexity of EAS with multiple constituents acting on different metabolic pathways. Here, we have investigated the metabolic profiles and potential biomarkers in a mice model of MPTP-induced PD after treatment of EAS. Metabonomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to profile the metabolic fingerprints of mesencephalon obtained from 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine Hydrochloride (MPTP-HCl)-induced PD mice model with and without EAS treatment. Through partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), it was observed that metabolic perturbations induced by MPTP were restored after treatment with EAS. Metabolites with significant changes induced by MPTP, including L-dopa, 5'-methylthioadenosine, tetradecanoylcarnitine, phytosphingosine-1-P, Cer(d18:0/18:0), LysoPC(20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)), L-palmitoyl -carnitine, tetracosanoylglycine, morphiceptin and stearoylcarnitine, were characterized as potential biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of PD. The derivations of all those biomarkers can be regulated by EAS treatment except Cer(d18:0/18:0), LysoPC(20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)), morphiceptin. The therapeutic effect of EAS on PD may involve in regulating the tyrosine metabolism, mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long chain saturated fatty acids, fatty acid metabolism, methionine metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. This study indicated that changed metabolites can be certainly recovered by EAS, and the treatment of EAS can be connected with the regulation of related metabolic pathways. PMID:23830815

  2. Pulmonary Toxicity Study of Lunar and Martian Dust Simulants Intratracheally Instilled in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Latch, John A.; Holian, A.; McCluskey, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and the Moon for further exploration. The properties of Hawaiian and Californian volcanic ashes allow them to be used to simulate Martian and lunar dusts, respectively. NASA laboratories use these dust simulants to test performance of hardware destined for Martian or lunar environments. Workers in these test facilities are exposed to low levels of these dusts. The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of these dust simulants. Particles of respirable-size ranges of lunar simulant (LS), Martian simulant (MS), TiO2 (negative control) and quartz (positive control) were each intratracheally instilled (saline as vehicle) to groups of 4 mice (C57BL, male, 2-3 month old) at a single treatment of 1 (Hi dose) or 0.1 (Lo dose) mg/mouse. The lungs were harvested at the end of 7 days or 90 days for histopathological examination. Lungs of the LS-Lo groups had no evidence of inflammation, edema or fibrosis. The LS-Hi-7d group had mild to moderate acute inflammation, and neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration; the LS-Hi-90d group showed signs of chronic inflammation and some fibrosis. Lungs of the MS-Lo-7d group revealed mild inflammation and neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration; the MS-Lo-90d group showed mild fibrosis and particle-laden macrophages (PLM). Lungs of the MS-Hi-7d group demonstrated mild to moderate inflammation and large foci of PLM; the MS-Hi-90d group showed chronic mild to moderate inflammation and fibrosis. To mimic the effects of the oxidative and reactive properties of Martian soil surface, groups of mice were exposed to ozone (3 hour at 0.5 ppm) prior to MS dust instillation. Lung lesions in the MS group were more severe with the pretreatment. The results for the negative and positive controls were consistent with the known pulmonary toxicity of these compounds. The overall severity of toxic insults to the lungs were TiO2mice in the 90-d study, blood samples were taken for immunotoxicity study. Antinuclear antibodies (such as those against Golgi, kinetichore, and centromere) were detected in serum in a greater extent in mice treated with LS than those with quartz, suggesting that LS, like quartz, has the potential of inducing antoimmune disease.

  3. Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 is strongly upregulated in cochlear inner hair cells and spiral ganglion cells of developing circling mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngeun; Kim, Hak Rim; Ahn, Seung Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) plays a major role in hearing, and mice lacking the VGLUT3 are congenitally deaf due to absence of glutamate release at the inner hair cell afferent synapses. However, whether VGLUT3 is expressed normally in the cochleae of developing circling mice (homozygous (cir/cir) mice), the animal model for human deafness type DFNB6, has not been established. In this study, we investigated the developmental expression of VGLUT3 in cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) of homozygous (cir/cir) mice from postnatal day (P)1 to P14 using immunofluorescence (IF) staining and Western blot. VGLUT3 immunoreactivity (IR) and protein expression increased progressively with age in homozygous (cir/cir) and control mice (heterozygous (+/cir) mice and ICR mice). The rank order of VGLUT3 IR in IHCs and SGCs in P14 mice was homozygous (cir/cir) mice = heterozygous (+/cir) mice > ICR mice. The rank order of total protein expression was homozygous (cir/cir) mice > heterozygous (+/cir) mice = ICR mice at P14. IF staining and Western blot analysis indicated that developmental VGLUT3 expression in cochleae was most prominent in homozygous (cir/cir) mice. The possible contribution of VGLUT3 upregulation in the cochlear degeneration is discussed. PMID:25450145

  4. Minireview: Animal studies on the role of 50/60-Hertz magnetic fields in carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, W.; Mevissen, M. (School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to 50/60-Hz magnetic fields (MF) from power lines and electrical equipment may be associated with a modestly increased incidence of various type of cancer. Laboratory studies have indicated that nonionizing radiation has no mutagenic effect, i.e. does not initiate cancer. Thus, if 50/60-Hz MF are truly associated with an increased risk of cancer, then these fields must act as a promoter or co-promoter of cancer in cells that have already been initiated. This paper reviews the evidence produced by animal studies. As shown in this review, the available animal data on 50/60-Hz MF exposures seem to indicate that intermediate MF exposure exerts co-promoting effects in different tumor models, particularly cocarcinogenesis models of breast cancer while chronic (up to life-time) exposure may exert promoting effects on [open quotes]spontaneous[close quotes] development of certain tumors. The tumor promoting or co-promoting effects of 50/60-Hz MF exposure found in several animal studies could relate to actions of MF on gene expression, immune surveillance, and Ca[sup 2+] homeostasis as demonstrated by in vitro experiments in cell cultures. However, the most plausible evidence of an in vivo effect of MF exposure which could be related to tumor promotion is reduction of circulating levels of melatonin, i.e. a hormone which is inhibitory to the growth of a wide range of cancers, particularly breast cancer. Animal studies have shown that 50-Hz MF exposure at fluxes as low as 0.3-1 [mu]Tesla significantly reduces nocturnal melatonin levels in plasma. While decrease of melatonin levels alone could explain tumor promoting or copromoting effects of MF exposure, recent data indicate that MF exposure also impairs the effects of melatonin at the cellular level. The oncostatic effect of melatonin on proliferation of a human breast cancer cell line was antagonized by 60-Hz MF exposure at a flux density of 1 [mu]Tesla.

  5. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?

    PubMed

    McEwen, Fiona S; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-03-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (?2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR=3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  6. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children??

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Fiona S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (?2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR = 3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  7. Coupler for surgery on small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Minicoupler simplifies exchange of fluids with organs of laboratory animals enabling one person to perform surgery on experimental animals such as rats and mice. Innovation eliminates obstructing hands and instruments from areas of surgery.

  8. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used. Inductive coupling plasma atom emission spectral analysis technology is also adopted in the experiment. This method has several advantages: the rapidity of the examination, the scope width of the examination, low consumption of test specimens and low limitation of picking out. This method is able to simultaneously examine the aluminum, the iron, the calcium, the magnesium, the boron, the barium, the cadmium, the cobalt, the copper, the chromium, the manganese, the molybdenum, the nickel, the phosphorus, the lead, the strontium, the zinc, the titanium, 18 kind of constants and trace element existed in the animal fur. There kinds of animal furs were examined. Basically, the constants of calcium were close. The content of magnesium and strontium in the furs of the herbivorous were higher than the omnivorous and the carnivorous, while the content of phosphorus in the furs of the herbivorous was lower than the other tow, so did the trace element, namely aluminum, iron, copper, zinc. It was obvious that only in the fur of the carnivorous was the content trace element titanium included. Based on the examination result, we could draw the conclusion that contain connection, which may explain the intrinsic and the external relationship concerning the animal, exists between the animal habit and the element content in their body. This method sends the standard material GBW07601 confirmation after the national person, obtains the method relative error in between 0.83%-9.59%, the relatively standard deviation between 0.81%-5.20%. The limitation of picking out, the accuracy and the accuracy each examination target is obtained in the animal fur by the actual sample analysis in the confirmation, which can satisfy the biological sample examination request. PMID:18975837

  9. Studies of hypokinesia in animals to solve urgent problems of space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranski, S.; Bodya, K.; Reklevska, V.; Tomashevska, L.; Gayevskaya, M. S.; Ilina-Kakuyeva, Y. I.; Katsyuba-Ustiko, G.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Kurkina, L. M.; Mailyan, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of hypokinesia on animals were studied by observing: (1) hormonal and mediator balance of the body; (2) gas exchange and tissue respiration; (3) protein content in skeletal muscles; (4) structure of skeletal muscles; and (5) function of skeletal muscles. Sharp limitation of motor activity causes interconnected processes of a dystropic and pathological character expressed as a reduction in the force of various muscle group with disturbance of velocity properties and motor coordination due to disturbances in the control link of the neuromuscular system.

  10. Animal intrusion studies for protective barriers: Status report for FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Simmons, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the Biointrusion Control Task is to provide technical support to Westinghouse Hanford Company's Protective Barrier Development Program for evaluating and predicting potential impacts of animal burrowing on long-term barrier performance. This document reviews the major accomplishments for FY 1988, which is the initial year of the work. The scope of work includes a literature review, field studies, and modeling to assess burrowing impacts as they may contribute to increased infiltration of surface water through barriers, increased quantities of soil available for erosion because of surface soil disturbance, and direct physical transport of contaminants to the surface. 68 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Traditional plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Bailey, C J; Flatt, P R

    1990-08-01

    The effects on glucose homeostasis of eleven plants used as traditional treatments for diabetes mellitus were evaluated in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Dried leaves of agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), blackberry (Rubus fructicosus), celandine (Chelidonium majus), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), and lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis); seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum); dried berries of juniper (Juniperus communis); bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and roots of liquorice (Glycyrhizza glabra) were studied. Each plant material was supplied in the diet (6.25% by weight) and some plants were additionally supplied as decoctions or infusions (1 g/400 ml) in place of drinking water to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Food and fluid intake, body weight gain, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in normal mice were not altered by 12 days of treatment with any of the plants. After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg i.p.) on day 12 the development of hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia were not affected by blackberry, celandine, lady's mantle or lily of the valley. Garlic and liquorice reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia but did not significantly alter the hyperglycaemia or hypoinsulinaemia. Treatment with agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper reduced the level of hyperglycaemia during the development of streptozotocin diabetes. This was associated with reduced polydipsia (except coriander) and a reduced rate of body weight loss (except agrimony). Alfalfa initially countered the hypoinsulinaemic effect of streptozotocin, but the other treatments did not affect the fall in plasma insulin. The results suggest that certain traditional plant treatments for diabetes, namely agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper, can retard the development of streptozotocin diabetes in mice. PMID:2210118

  12. Sedative-hypnotic Effect of Ash of Silver in Mice: A Reverse Pharmacological Study.

    PubMed

    Inder, Deep; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-10-01

    Ash of silver is used in traditional systems of medicine for various neurological conditions like insomnias, neuralgias, anxiety disorders, and convulsions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the sedative-hypnotic activity of ash of silver in comparison to pentobarbitone (standard drug) in albino mice. The mice were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (control): Gum acacia [GA; 1% per os (p.o.)], group 2 (standard): Pentobarbitone [50 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)], group 3 (test): Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.), and group 4: Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.) given 30 min prior to administration of pentobarbitone (50 mg/kg i.p.). Time of onset, recovery, and total duration of loss of righting reflex were studied. Ash of silver (test) produced significant sedation (P < 0.01) compared to control (GA 1%), but the effect was significantly less compared to that of standard pentobarbitone at the doses used. Also, significant potentiation (P < 0.001) of the sedative-hypnotic effect of pentobarbitone was observed with the test drug. PMID:25379470

  13. Electro-acupuncture on functional peripheral nerve regeneration in mice: a behavioural study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The improvement of axonal regeneration is a major objective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of electro-acupuncture on the functional recovery of sensorimotor responses following left sciatic nerve crush in mice. Methods Sciatic nerve crush was performed on seven week old female mice. Following the injury, the control group was untreated while the experimental group received an electro-acupuncture application to the injured limb under isoflurane anesthesia at acupoints GB 30 and GB 34. Mechanical and heat sensitivity tests were performed to evaluate sensory recovery. Gait analysis was performed to assess sensorimotor recovery. Results Our results show that normal sensory recovery is achieved within five to six weeks with a two-week period of pain preceding the recovery to normal sensitivity levels. While electro-acupuncture did not accelerate sensory recovery, it did alleviate pain-related behaviour but only when applied during this period. Application before the development of painful symptoms did not prevent their occurrence. The analysis of gait in relation to the sensory tests suggests that the electro-acupuncture specifically improved motor recovery. Conclusions This study demonstrates that electro-acupuncture exerts a positive influence on motor recovery and is efficient in the treatment of pain symptoms that develop during target re-innervation. PMID:22937957

  14. Sedative-hypnotic Effect of Ash of Silver in Mice: A Reverse Pharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Inder, Deep; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Ash of silver is used in traditional systems of medicine for various neurological conditions like insomnias, neuralgias, anxiety disorders, and convulsions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the sedative-hypnotic activity of ash of silver in comparison to pentobarbitone (standard drug) in albino mice. The mice were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (control): Gum acacia [GA; 1% per os (p.o.)], group 2 (standard): Pentobarbitone [50 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)], group 3 (test): Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.), and group 4: Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.) given 30 min prior to administration of pentobarbitone (50 mg/kg i.p.). Time of onset, recovery, and total duration of loss of righting reflex were studied. Ash of silver (test) produced significant sedation (P < 0.01) compared to control (GA 1%), but the effect was significantly less compared to that of standard pentobarbitone at the doses used. Also, significant potentiation (P < 0.001) of the sedative-hypnotic effect of pentobarbitone was observed with the test drug. PMID:25379470

  15. A study of the distribution of schistosomicidal drug H-3-7505 in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, T.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have studied the distribution of H-3 labelled schistosomicidal drug in mice by autoradiography. The H-3-labelled substances were found in liver and kidney and in successfully decreasing amounts in brain, lung, heart, fat, testis, pancreas and spleen. In various cells the silver granules were present mainly in the cytoplasms but a few in the nucleus. After administration of this labelled schistosomicidal drug, the mice were killed and studied in groups successively at 4, 8, 24 hrs. No difference in the distribution of silver granules were observed. This fact indicated that, this drug was rapidly absorbed and highly concentrated with a long duration of reservation in liver. All of these favours the schistosomicidal effect of the drug. As this drug was highly concentrated in the cytoplasm of liver cells, that might provide a pathophysiologic basis for the explanation of jaundice in the clinical practice. Moreover, the appearance of toxic reaction in nervous system may be related to the relatively high concentration of the drug distributed in the brain.

  16. Environmental factors acting during development to influence MS risk: insights from animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Dimitry N.; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an increasing incidence in females. Epidemiological data strongly implicate environmental factors acting at the population level during gestation, childhood, and adulthood in the increasing incidence of MS. Several such factors have been implicated in disease risk, but their causality remains unproven, while other factors remain unknown. The understanding of risk factors acting during development is particularly limited. Animal studies could potentially bridge the gap between observational epidemiology and clinical intervention, providing not only direct evidence of causality for a given environmental agent, but also an opportunity to dissect the underlying molecular mechanisms. Given the short gestational and developmental period in rodents, effects of developmental exposure can also be readily addressed. Nonetheless, studies in this area have so far been few. In this review, we summarize the insights gleaned from studies that test environmental influences in animal models of MS, with a particular focus on gestational and early life exposures. PMID:24077054

  17. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured portland cement: An animal study

    PubMed Central

    Erten, Hülya; Baris, Emre; Türk, Serkan; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of MTA and the experimentally manufactured portland cement (EMPC). Study design: Twenty one Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were allocated to testing of three groups. Group I and Group II included ProRoot MTA and the EMPC. The materials were mixed with distilled water and placed in polyethylene tubes. The tubes were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of the animals. Group III served as control; the implanted polyethylene tubes remained empty. At 7, 14, and 28 days after the implantation, the animals were sacrificed and the implants were removed with the surrounding tissues. The specimens were prepared for histological examination to evaluate the inflammatory response. Results: No significant difference was found between tissue reactions against the tested materials (p>0.05). Also, control group showed similar results (p>0.05). Conclusions: Results suggest that the EMPC has the potential to be used in clinical conditions in which ProRoot MTA is indicated. MTA and the EMPC show comparable biocompatibility when evaluated in vivo. Although the results are supportive for the EMPC, more studies are required before the safe clinical use of the EMPC. Key words:Mineral trioxide aggregate, portland cement, subcutanous implantation. PMID:24596630

  18. Toward forward-looking OCT needle tip vision of the spinal neuroforamen: animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; Yang, Changhuei; Tresser, Nancy; Wu, Jigang; Zhang, Yaoping; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Rever, Linda

    2007-02-01

    Neurologic complications have been reported with spinal transforaminal injections. Causes include intraneural injection, plus embolization occlusion of the radicular artery with subsequent spinal cord infarction. 1 Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality, which is used to image tissue microstructure with very high resolution (less than 20 microns) in real-time. With a view toward needle tip OCT visualization of the spinal neuroforamen, we conducted animal studies to explore OCT imaging of paraspinal neurovascular structures. With institutional animal care committee approval, we performed ex-vivo and in situ OCT studies in a euthanized dog, pig, and rabbit. Image data was gathered on spinal nerve roots, dura, and brachial plexus. Two systems were used: frequency domain OCT imaging system developed at California Institute of Technology, and time domain Imalux NIRIS system with a 2.7 mm diameter probe. In a euthanized pig, excised dura was punctured with a 17-gauge Tuohy needle. FDOCT dural images of the puncture showed a subsurface cone-shaped defect. In a rabbit in situ study, puncture of the dura with a 26-gauge needle is imaged as a discontinuity. FDOCT imaging of both small artery and large arteries will be presented, along with H&E and OCT images of the brachial plexus.

  19. Can zebrafish be used as animal model to study Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Soraya; Rico, Eduardo P; Burgos, Javier S

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish is rapidly emerging as a promising model organism to study various central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is the main cause of dementia in the human population and there is an urgency to understand the causes of this neurodegenerative disease. In this respect, the development of new animal models to study the underlying neurodegenerative mechanisms of AD is an urgent need. In this review we analyze the current situation in the use of zebrafish as a model for AD, discussing the reasons to use this experimental paradigm in CNS investigation and analyzing the several strategies adopted to induce an AD-like pathology in zebrafish. We discuss the strategies of performing interventions to cause damage in the zebrafish brain by altering the major neurotransmitter systems (such as cholinergic, glutamatergic or GABAergic circuits). We also analyze the several transgenic zebrafish constructed for the AD study, discussing both the familial-AD models based on APP processing pathway (APP and presenilins) and in the TAU hyperphosphorylation, together with the genes involved in sporadic-AD, as apolipoprotein E. We conclude that zebrafish is in a preliminary stage of development in the AD field, and that the transgenic animals must be improved to use this fish as an optimal model for AD research. Furthermore, a deeper knowledge of the zebrafish brain and a better characterization of the injury caused by alterations in the major neurotransmitter systems are needed. PMID:23383380

  20. Mice Drawer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancedda, Ranieri

    2008-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions (from 100 to 150-days) by living space, food, water, ventilation and lighting. Mice can be accommodated either individually (maximum 6) or in groups (4 pairs). MDS is integrated in the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation (uploading and downloading) to the ISS and in an EXPRESS Rack in Destiny, the US Laboratory during experiment execution. Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton. This bone loss experienced by astronauts is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population. MDS will help investigate the effects of unloading on transgenic (foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome to exhibit a particular trait) mice with the Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1, OSF-1, a growth and differentiation factor, and to study the genetic mechanisms underlying the bone mass pathophysiology. MDS will test the hypothesis that mice with an increased bone density are likely to be more protected from osteoporosis, when the increased bone mass is a direct effect of a gene involved in skeletogenesis (skeleton formation). Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton, a loss that is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population on Earth. Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1 (OSF-1), also known as pleiotrophin (PTN) or Heparin-Binding Growth- Associated Molecule (HB-GAM) belongs to a family of secreted heparin binding proteins..OSF-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated growth and differentiation factor that is normally expressed in cartilage; it can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells (cell that differentiate into an osteoblast) in vitro. The Mice Drawer System will study the effects of microgravity on transgenic mouse bones in order to identify genetic mechanisms playing a role in the reduction of the bone mass observed in humans and animals as a consequence of long-duration (greater than 100 days) microgravity exposure. Onboard the ISS, MDS is relatively self-sufficient; a crewmember will check the health status of the rodents on a daily basis, by assessing them through the viewing window. Water levels will be assessed by the crew daily and refilled as needed. Replacement of the food bars and replacement of the waste filters will be conducted inflight by crewmembers every 20-days.