Science.gov

Sample records for animales tipo bos

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. BosFinder: a novel pre-microRNA gene prediction algorithm in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, B; Ahmadi, H; Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, S; Nassiri, M R; Masoudi-Nejad, A

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression transcriptionally (transcriptional activation or inactivation) and/or post-transcriptionally (translation inhibition or degradation of their target mRNAs). This phenomenon has significant roles in growth and developmental processes in plants and animals. Bos taurus is one of the most important livestock animals, having great importance in food and economical sciences and industries. However, limited information is available on Bos taurus constituent miRNAs because its whole genome assembly has been only recently published. Therefore, computational methods have been essential tools in miRNA gene prediction and discovery. Among these, machine-learning-based approaches are used to characterize genome scale pre-miRNAs from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In this study, a support vector machine model was used to classify 33 structural and thermodynamic features of pre-miRNA genes. Public bovine EST data were obtained from different tissues in various developmental stages. A new algorithm, called BosFinder, was developed to identify and annotate the whole genome's derived pre-miRNAs. We found 18 776 highly potential pre-miRNA sequences. This is the first genome survey report of Bos taurus based on a machine-learning method for pre-miRNA gene finding. The bosfinder program is freely available at http://lbb.ut.ac.ir/Download/LBBsoft/BosFinder/. PMID:24835488

  3. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Bos taurus percentage had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among three production systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated in a pregnancy and lactation feeding trial for 2 groups of...

  4. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Frequency Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    Frequency data are reported from a research project aimed at developing the Behavior Observation Scale (BOS), an objective assessment tool for establishing the diagnosis of autism. The goals of the BOS are to differentiate autistic, normal, and mentally retarded children (ages 30 to 60 months) along objective symptom axes involving 67 behaviors.…

  5. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  6. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  7. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses.

    PubMed

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percentage Bos taurus (0 or 50%) of the cow had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among 3 mating systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated during a feeding trial that encompassed a gestation and lactation feeding trial for each of 2 groups of cows. Cows were 0 or 50% Bos taurus (100 or 50% Nellore) breed type: Nellore cows (NL; n = 10) mated to Nellore bulls, NL cows (n = 9) mated to Angus bulls, Angus x Nellore (ANL; n = 10) and Simmental x Nellore (SNL; n = 10) cows mated to Canchim (5/8 Charolais 3/8 Zebu) bulls. Cows were individually fed a total mixed diet that contained 11.3% CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. At 14-d intervals, cows and calves were weighed and the amount of DM was adjusted to keep shrunk BW and BCS of cows constant. Beginning at 38 d of age, corn silage was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was measured using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At 190 d of age, calves were slaughtered and body composition estimated using 9-10-11th-rib section to obtain energy deposition. Regression of BW change on daily ME intake (MEI) was used to estimate MEI at zero BW change. Increase in percentage Bos taurus had a significant effect on daily ME requirements (Mcal/d) during pregnancy (P < 0.01) and lactation (P < 0.01). Percentage Bos taurus had a positive linear effect on maintenance requirements of pregnant (P = 0.07) and lactating (P < 0.01) cows; during pregnancy, the ME requirements were 91 and 86% of those in lactation (131 +/- 3.5 vs. 145 +/- 3.4 Mcal x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)) for the 0 and 50% B. taurus groups, respectively. The 50% B. taurus cows, ANL and SNL, suckling crossbred calves had greater total MEI (4,319 +/- 61 Mcal; P < 0.01) than 0% B. taurus cows suckling NL (3,484 +/- 86 Mcal) or ANL calves (3,600 +/- 91 Mcal). The 0% B. taurus cows suckling ANL calves were more efficient (45

  8. Identical marker alleles in Podolic cattle (Bos taurus) and Indian zebu (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, E; Scaloni, A; Rullo, R; Di Luccia, A

    2000-09-01

    In the context of biochemical marker research and in order to add new information on native breeds, the present work focuses on a local Southern Italy cattle, namely Italian Podolic. We provide the complete structural characterisation of alpha-lactalbumins and beta-globin chains isolated from Podolic cattle (Bos taurus). Given the unavailability of the complete sequence for alpha-lactalbumin A of taurine cattle in the literature, we intended to check its structure in order to ascertain the absence of any possible silent mutation. Screening the Podolic cattle, we found a new beta-globin variant not detectable by conventional methods. The presence of such a new variant might be helpful in the study of the Podolic population genetic structure and for a better knowledge of the gene pool per se, and in comparison with the other breeds. Structural analyses showed that the new beta-globin Podolic variant exhibited the same sequence as beta-globin Azebu. The alpha-lactalbumin A was the same as that isolated from zebu cattle (Bos indicus). The results are discussed in relation to the possible involvement of the two markers in the debate on the origin of the Podolic breed. PMID:11126744

  9. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  10. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  11. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    PubMed

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  12. The search for new odorants: synthesis of animalic fragrant and musky/ambery compounds.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    An overview of the recent research which allowed us to discover novel animalic odorants is presented. The new derivatives were prepared from readily available starting materials via easy reaction steps in good yields. They possess very different structures, such as bicyclic pentanols, glycolates, or tricyclic ketones, and all show interesting notes in the animalic fragrant family: from costus, leathery to ambery and musky scents, making them all attractive for different purposes. PMID:25329782

  13. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  14. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

  15. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems, and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to its improvement. The first results of the application of genomic selection in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population are presented in this paper...

  16. Evidence that BosR (BB0647) Is a Positive Autoregulator in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi survives in nature through a complex tick-mammalian life cycle. During its transit between ticks and mammalian hosts, B. burgdorferi must dramatically alter its outer surface profile in order to interact with and adapt to these two diverse niches. It has been established that the regulator BosR (BB0647) in B. burgdorferi plays important roles in modulating borrelial host adaptation. However, to date, how bosR expression itself is controlled in B. burgdorferi remains largely unknown. Previously, it has been shown that DNA sequences upstream of BosR harbor multiple sites for the binding of recombinant BosR, suggesting that BosR may influence its own expression in B. burgdorferi However, direct experimental evidence supporting this putative autoregulation of BosR has been lacking. Here, we investigated the expression of bosR throughout the tick-mammal life cycle of B. burgdorferi via quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses. Our data indicated that bosR is expressed not only during mouse infection, but also during the tick acquisition, intermolt, and transmission phases. Further investigation revealed that bosR expression in B. burgdorferi is influenced by environmental stimuli, such as temperature shift and pH change. By employing luciferase reporter assays, we also identified two promoters potentially driving bosR transcription. Our study offers strong support for the long-postulated function of BosR as an autoregulator in B. burgdorferi. PMID:27324485

  17. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus) × Holstein (Bos taurus) cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy) different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle. PMID:20433753

  18. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  19. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The apparent effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on phenotype depends on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, the phase of LD between a SNP and a QTL may differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus because they diverged at least one hundred thousand years ago. Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent effect of a SNP on a quantitative trait depends on whether the SNP allele is inherited from a Bos taurus or Bos indicus ancestor. Methods Phenotype data on one or more traits and SNP genotype data for 10 181 cattle from Bos taurus, Bos indicus and composite breeds were used. All animals had genotypes for 729 068 SNPs (real or imputed). Chromosome segments were classified as originating from B. indicus or B. taurus on the basis of the haplotype of SNP alleles they contained. Consequently, SNP alleles were classified according to their sub-species origin. Three models were used for the association study: (1) conventional GWAS (genome-wide association study), fitting a single SNP effect regardless of subspecies origin, (2) interaction GWAS, fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies-origin, and (3) best variable GWAS, fitting the most significant combination of SNP and sub-species origin. Results Fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies origin resulted in more significant SNPs (i.e. more power) than a conventional GWAS. Thus, the effect of a SNP depends on the subspecies that the allele originates from. Also, most QTL segregated in only one subspecies, suggesting that many mutations that affect the traits studied occurred after divergence of the subspecies or the mutation became fixed or was lost in one of the subspecies. Conclusions The results imply that GWAS and genomic selection could gain power by distinguishing SNP alleles based on their subspecies origin, and that only few QTL segregate in both B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. Thus, the QTL that segregate in

  20. Calibration of a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, David; Echeverría, Carlos; Cardoso, Hiroki; Aguayo, Alejandro; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We use two materials with different known indexes of refraction to calibrate a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) experimental set-up, and to validate the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. BOS is used in our experiments to determine local changes of density in the shock pattern of an axisymmetric supersonic air jet. It is important to validate, in particular, the Gladstone Dale approximation (index of refraction close to one) in our experimental conditions and determine the uncertainty of our density measurements. In some cases, the index of refraction of the material is well known, but in others the density is measured and related to the displacement field. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  1. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  2. BosR Functions as a Repressor of the ospAB Operon in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanlin; Dadhwal, Poonam; Li, Xin; Liang, Fang Ting

    2014-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, must abundantly produce outer surface lipoprotein A (OspA) in the tick vector but downregulate OspA in mammals in order to evade the immune system and maintain its natural enzootic cycle. Here, we show that BosR binds two regulatory elements of the ospAB operon and that increasing BosR expression leads to downregulation of OspA. Both regulatory sequences, cisI and cisII, showed strong BosR-binding and cisII bound much tighter than cisI. A promoterless bosR gene fused with an inducible promoter was introduced into an rpoS mutant and a wild-type strain to assess RpoS-independent and -dependent downregulation of OspA by BosR. With the induction of BosR expression, OspA expression was reduced more significantly in the RpoS-deficient than wild-type background, but not completely repressed. In the presence of constitutive expression of OspC, DbpA and DbpB, increasing BosR production resulted in complete repression of OspA in the RpoS mutant. Taken together, the study clearly demonstrated BosR serves as a repressor that binds both regulatory elements of the ospAB operon and shuts off expression. PMID:25271631

  3. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Relationship of Frequency of Behavior to IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    The Behavior Observation Scale (BOS) was administered to 53 autistic children, 35 mentally retarded children matched for MA, and 33 normal children (all 2 to 5 years old) in an attempt to quantify autistic behavior. Ss were observed 3 days for 3 minutes through a one way mirror in a playroom setting where occurrence of 67 behaviors on the BOS was…

  4. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  5. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  6. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

    PubMed

    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P < 0.05) estrous response (55.2 vs 41.9%), conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P < 0.05) conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P < 0.05), irrespective of synchronization treatment. In conclusion, the 7-11+TAI treatment yielded greater synchronized pregnancy rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. PMID:21356555

  7. Who is the BosR around here anyway?

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, D. Scott; Radolf, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi encodes a novel DNA-binding protein in the Fur/PerR family of transcriptional regulators termed BosR (BB0647). This issue of Molecular Microbiology contains two molecular genetic studies that help to clarify the function of BB0647 and resolve longstanding controversies. Loss of BB0647 appears to have a pronounced effect on borrelial gene expression and, in one study, caused significant in vitro growth defects. BB0647 also was found to be essential for infection of the mammalian host but not the tick vector. Both Ouyang et al. and Hyde et al. also demonstrate, quite unexpectedly, that BB0647 is required for induction of RpoS, an alternative sigma factor that controls a cadre of B. burgdorferi genes, most notably ospC, that enable the spirochetes to establish mammalian infection following tick inoculation. There are still many unanswered questions regarding the precise physiological role of BB0647, the most important of which relate to its Fur/PerR namesakes: to what extent does it regulate either the response to oxidative stress and/or transition metal uptake? The mechanism(s) whereby BB0647 interfaces with the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway also remains to be discerned. However, these two seminal papers establish BB0647 (aka BosR) as a central player in the molecular biology and physiology of B. burgdorferi as well as the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. PMID:19943896

  8. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  9. Diversity and evolution of 11 innate immune genes in Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Seabury, Paul M.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics. PMID:20018671

  10. Isolation and cDNA characteristics of MHC-DRA genes from gayal (Bos frontalis) and gaytle (Bos frontalis × Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Huanli; Du, Min; Gu, Zhaobing; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Yuai

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and disease resistance. In the present study, the coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of MHC class II DR alpha chain (the DRA gene) from rare gayal and gaytle were cloned and analyzed to dissect structural and functional variations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the DRA genes in gayal (Bofr-DRA) and gaytle (Bofr × BoLA-DRA) were almost identical to those for cattle and yak (99%). Compared to yak, two amino acids substitutions in the signal peptide (SP) domain for gayal were found within all Bos animals. Except for only one replacement in the amino acid within the α2 domain of the DRA protein in gayal, the additional residues were highly conserved across the species investigated. The 20 peptide-binding sites (PBS) of Bofr-DRA and Bofr × BoLA-DRA were essentially reserved in the α1 domain among all species investigated. The lesser degree of substitution in Bofr-DRA is concordant with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammals. The very high degree of conservativity of the DRA gene among ruminants, including gayal, suggests its recent evolutionary separation. PMID:26019649

  11. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  12. Visual discrimination by heifers (Bos taurus) of their own species.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L; Heyman, Yvan; Delatouce, Laurent; Richard, Christophe; Baudoin, Claude

    2007-05-01

    Species discrimination has been described in several taxa but rarely in domestic animals. In contrast to wild species, domestic species present a great phenotypic variety. This study investigated whether 10 Prim'Holstein heifers (Bos taurus) could discriminate images of cows from images of other domestic animals. The experiment was based on simultaneous discrimination. Responses were obtained through instrumental conditioning using a food reward. In Experiment 1, the reward was associated with a cow face and, in the reversal learning task, with faces of other domestic species. The results showed that in both tasks, cows were able to reach the criterion in few sessions. Therefore, despite great phenotypic variety (a cognitive challenge) cows were able to visually discriminate their own species from other domestic species. PMID:17516798

  13. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m2/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m2/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m2/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m2/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion

  14. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m(2)/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m(2)/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m(2)/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m(2)/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In

  15. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and

  16. Metabolic and endocrine differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus females that impact the interaction of nutrition with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Baruselli, Pietro S; Bastos, Michele R

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, researchers have studied the differences in the reproductive physiology between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. This manuscript focuses on the main aspects of ovarian function and circulating hormones of B. taurus and B. indicus cows and heifers. In general, there is no difference in the number of follicle waves during the estrous cycle, however B. indicus have greater antral follicle count, circulating insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) than B. taurus. Moreover, despite of B. taurus having larger ovulatory follicle diameter and maximum CL volume, they have lesser peak circulating estradiol concentrations and lesser circulating progesterone concentrations than B. indicus. We may speculate that there are two main factors related to lesser circulating concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in B. taurus when compared with B. indicus: increased liver metabolism of steroid hormones and lesser production by follicles and CL. Differences between the two genetic groups are also observed with respect to in vitro embryo production because in addition to B. indicus having greater numbers of retrieved oocytes, due to greater antral follicle count, they also have greater percentages of viable oocytes, number of blastocysts, and blastocyst rates when compared with B. taurus. Effects of dietary intake on embryo quality may differ between B. taurus and B. indicus due to different concentrations of circulating insulin and IGF1. For in vivo and in vitro embryo production, an increase in circulating insulin concentrations is negatively associated with oocyte/embryo quality and conception rates. However, this seems to be more pronounced in B. taurus breeds. Differences in ovarian function related or not to nutrition between these two genetic groups are very consistent and may be related to the influence of metabolic hormones such as insulin and IGF1. PMID:27156680

  17. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    PubMed

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  18. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcass traits, gestation length, scrotal circumference and two selection indices. 685 samples and 320 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used in the analyses. A forward-prediction scheme was adopted to predict the genomic breeding values (DGV). In the training step, the estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls were deregressed (dEBV) and used as pseudo-phenotypes to estimate marker effects using four methods: genomic BLUP with or without a residual polygenic effect (GBLUP20 and GBLUP0, respectively), a mixture model (Bayes C) and Bayesian LASSO (BLASSO). Empirical accuracies of the resulting genomic predictions were assessed based on the correlation between DGV and dEBV for the testing group. Results Accuracies of genomic predictions ranged from 0.17 (navel at weaning) to 0.74 (finishing precocity). Across traits, Bayesian regression models (Bayes C and BLASSO) were more accurate than GBLUP. The average empirical accuracies were 0.39 (GBLUP0), 0.40 (GBLUP20) and 0.44 (Bayes C and BLASSO). Bayes C and BLASSO tended to produce deflated predictions (i.e. slope of the regression of dEBV on DGV greater than 1). Further analyses suggested that higher-than-expected accuracies were observed for traits for which EBV means differed significantly between two breeding subgroups that were identified in a principal component analysis based on genomic relationships. Conclusions Bayesian regression models are of interest for future applications of genomic selection in this population

  19. Cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M

    2008-10-01

    A new species, Cryptosporidium ryanae, is described from cattle. Oocysts of C. ryanae, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ871345), are similar to those of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis but smaller. This genotype has been reported to be prevalent in cattle worldwide. Oocysts obtained from a calf for the present study are the smallest Cryptosporidium oocysts reported in mammals, measuring 2.94-4.41micromx2.94-3.68microm (mean=3.16micromx3.73microm) with a length/width shape index of 1.18 (n=40). The pre-patent period for two Cryptosporidium-naïve calves fed C. ryanae oocysts was 11 days and the patent period was 15-17 days. Oocysts were not infectious for BALB/c mice or lambs. Fragments of the SSU-rDNA, HSP-70, and actin genes amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. Multi-locus analysis of the three unlinked loci demonstrated the new species to be distinct from all other species and also demonstrated a lack of recombination, providing further evidence of species status. Based on morphological, molecular and biological data, this geographically widespread parasite found only in Bos taurus calves is recognized as a new species and is named C. ryanae. PMID:18583057

  20. Genome wide association study on early puberty in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A V; Matos, M C; Seno, L O; Romero, A R S; Garcia, J F; Grisolia, A B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fertility traits (early puberty) in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus). Fifty-five Nellore cows were selected from a herd monitored for early puberty onset (positive pregnancy at 18 months of age). Extremes of this phenotype were selected; 30 and 25 individuals were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively, at that age. DNA samples were genotyped using a high-density SNP chip (>777.000 SNP). GWAS using a case-control strategy highlighted a number of significant markers based on their proximity with the Bonferroni correction line. Results indicated that chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 10, and 22 were associated with the traits of interest. The most significant SNPs on these chromosomes were rs133039577, rs110013280, rs134702839, rs109551605, and rs41639155. Candidate genes, as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously reported in the Ensembl and Cattle QTLdb databases, were further investigated. Analysis of the regions close to the SNP on chromosomes 9 and 10 revealed that four QTL had been previously classified under the reproduction category. In conclusion, we have identified SNPs in close proximity to genes associated with reproductive traits. Moreover, U6 spliceosomal RNA was present on three different chromosomes, which is possibly associated with age at first calving, suggesting that it might be a strong candidate for future studies. PMID:26909970

  1. A male linkage map of the cattle (Bos taurus) genome.

    PubMed

    Ma, R Z; Beever, J E; Da, Y; Green, C A; Russ, I; Park, C; Heyen, D W; Everts, R E; Fisher, S R; Overton, K M; Teale, A J; Kemp, S J; Hines, H C; Guérin, G; Lewin, H A

    1996-01-01

    A male linkage map of the cattle (Bos taurus) genome was constructed using nine large half-sib families. The map consists of 269 loci, of which 249 are microsatellites and 20 are structural genes. Among the 249 microsatellites, 140 are markers selected from other maps and 98 are new assignments. Chromosome assignment were established for 35 new markers by somatic cell hybrid analysis, of which 26 were confirmed by linkage analysis. Genome coverage is 1975 cM contained within terminal markers on all 29 autosomes. The average distance between adjacent loci is 9.7 cM, with 72.1% of the map intervals < or = 15 cM and 4.9% of the intervals > or = 25 cM. The inclusion of mapped markers permitted integration and comparisons with other maps, facilitating the identification of discrepancies in chromosome assignment, gene order, and map distance. The inclusion of Type I and blood group markers in the map was useful for comparative mapping, revealing possible blood group orthologies between humans and cattle. The map generated will serve as a useful tool for comparative mapping, mapping of quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection. PMID:8776874

  2. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    PubMed

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P < .001) colostrum at 1 and 12 h than A cows. Total Ig concentrations were obtained by summing IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA concentrations. Total Ig (P < .02), IgG (P < .005), and IgA (P < .01) concentrations in colostrum were greater in cows producing crossbred calves. Total Ig (P < .006), IgG (P < .02), IgG1 (P < .004), and IgG2 (P < .02) available in colostrum were affected by B x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle

  3. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  4. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  5. A high dynamic radiation measurement instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2015-05-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of the BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short-term variation of total solar irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time suggests that the BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor for monitoring electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  6. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2014-12-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  7. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P < 0.01), 14 (P = 0.015), and 21 (P < 0.001) in this population, demonstrating that genetic variation important for tenderness segregates in Bos indicus cattle at or near CAPN1. Marker 4751 also was associated with shear force (P < 0.01) in the same large, multisire population of cattle of strictly Bos taurus descent that was used to develop the previously reported SNP (referred to as the Germplasm Evaluation [GPE] Cycle 7 population), indicating the possibility that one marker could have wide applicability in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. To test this hypothesis, Marker 4751 was tested in a third large, multisire cattle population of crossbred subspecies descent (including sire breeds of Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be

  8. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  9. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  10. Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Fozia; Malik, Naveed A; Qureshi, Javed A; Raadsma, Herman W; Tammen, Imke

    2012-12-01

    Two clinically healthy mature Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle were genotyped as homozygous affected for the lethal immunodeficiency disorder bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) using previously described PCR-RFLP based DNA tests which was confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing of Bos taurus and B. indicus × B. taurus genomic DNA surrounding the disease causing mutation (c.383A > G) in the ITGB2 gene identified numerous variations in exonic and intronic regions within and between species, including substantial variation in primer annealing sites for three PCR-RFLP tests for one of the B. indicus allelic variants. These variations in the primer annealing sites resulted in a null allele in the DNA tests causing the misdiagnosis of some heterozygous B. taurus × B. indicus cattle to be classified as homozygous affected. New primers were designed and a modified test was developed which simultaneously identified the disease mutation and the Pakistani B. indicus allelic variant associated with the null allele in the previous test. PMID:22374219

  11. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  12. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from cattle (Bos taurus) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based ...

  13. DNA-based authentication method for detection of yak (Bos grunniens) in meat products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Yue; Yang, Hairong; Han, Jiangxun; Zhao, Yongsheng; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A TaqMan probe real-time PCR method was developed for rapid detection of yak component in raw and cooked meat products. Specific primers and TaqMan probes of yak (Bos grunniens) were designed in the cytochrome b gene. The specificity of the method was evaluated using pure meat of eight yak breeds (Jiulong, Qinghai plateau, Maiwa, Gannan, Bazhou, Sibu, Zhongdian, and Jiali) samples and nine non-Bos grunniens animals (sheep, goat, pig, chicken, cattle, water buffalo, donkey, horse, and rabbit). DNA showed no cross-reaction with non-Bos grunniens animal DNA. This method proved to be sensitive in detecting the presence of low levels of target DNA obtained from 0.001% (w/w) component in a mixed meat sample. The method also successfully identified commercial yak meat products. The results showed that some yak meat might be involved in business fraud by using cattle meat (in this paper, cattle meat means meat of Bos taurus) instead of yak meat. In conclusion, real-time PCR assay used in this study was shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for detection of yak DNA in fresh meat and cooked meat products. PMID:23513969

  14. Massive screening of copy number population-scale variation in Bos taurus genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant source of genomic structural variation. Their length ranges from approximately one hundred to millions of base pair. Genome-wide screenings have clarified that CNVs are a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting essentially the whole genome. Although Bos taurus is one of the most important domestic animal species worldwide and one of the most studied ruminant models for metabolism, reproduction, and disease, relatively few studies have investigated CNVs in cattle and little is known about how CNVs contribute to normal phenotypic variation and to disease susceptibility in this species, compared to humans and other model organisms. Results Here we characterize and compare CNV profiles in 2654 animals from five dairy and beef Bos taurus breeds, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 genotyping array (54001 SNP probes). In this study we applied the two most commonly used algorithms for CNV discovery (QuantiSNP and PennCNV) and identified 4830 unique candidate CNVs belonging to 326 regions. These regions overlap with 5789 known genes, 76.7% of which are significantly co-localized with segmental duplications (SD). Conclusions This large scale screening significantly contributes to the enrichment of the Bos taurus CNV map, demonstrates the ubiquity, great diversity and complexity of this type of genomic variation and sets the basis for testing the influence of CNVs on Bos taurus complex functional and production traits. PMID:23442185

  15. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": Education Research as a Distributed Activity across Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe

    2008-01-01

    In response to Bulterman-Bos (2008), this article discusses three kinds of research needed in education: problem-finding research, which helps frame good research questions; problem-solving research, which helps illuminate educational problems; and translational work, which transforms the findings of research into tools that practitioners and…

  16. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  17. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of relatively low number of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, conservation of genetic resources and maintenance of the sustainability of the breed...

  18. Sequence analysis for a de novo genome assembly of Bos indicus (Nelore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A second draft sequence assembly of the bovine genome based on the sub-species, Bos indicus, is essential to better evaluate the genetic variation underlying the prototypical beef and dairy cattle in tropical and sub-tropical production environments. A linebred bull (Futuro), two generations remove...

  19. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": What Should Education Research Do, and How Should It Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, three theoretical perspectives are used to extend Bulterman-Bos's (2008) argument regarding a clinical approach to education research. First, three intellectual virtues identified by Aristotle--"episteme," "techne," and "phronesis"--are related to the requirements of the "pure" education researcher, the skilled practitioner, and…

  20. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": Research Relevancy or Research for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noffke, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Three issues emanating from the Bulterman-Bos article (2008) form the core of this commentary. First, the issue of relevancy is addressed from the standpoint of action research and other forms of practitioner inquiry. From this perspective, the divisions between the cultures of university and school are addressed both ways: Each can potentially be…

  1. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": The Dysfunctional Pursuit of Relevance in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F.

    2008-01-01

    Responding to Bulterman-Bos (2008), the author argues that the effort to make education research more relevant is counterproductive. Teachers and researchers have different orientations toward education that arise from different institutional settings, occupational constraints, daily work demands, and professional incentives. These are not…

  2. An Interview with Candace Bos: Informed, Flexible Teaching--A Key to Successful Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Mary T.; Walther-Thomas, Chriss

    1999-01-01

    This interview with Dr. Candace Bos, a professor of special education at the University of Arizona, discusses the need for informed, flexible teaching when working with students with learning disabilities, and the importance of addressing phonological awareness, decoding and fluency, comprehension, and content area reading. (CR)

  3. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  4. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  5. The preliminary measurements from the Bolometer Oscillation System (BOS) on board PICARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. V.; Meftah, M.; Clette, F.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; van Ruymbeke, F.; Noel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The PICARD is a French CNES micro-satellite mission which was successfully launched on June 15, 2010 by the Russian DNEPR launcher. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the relations between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The duration of the mission is about two years with possibility to extend to three or more years. SOVAP/BOS (SOlar Variability for Picard - Bolometer Oscillation System) is one of the key instruments in the PICARD payload. The main goal of SOVAP/BOS consists in measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) with very high precision. SOVAP is a new improved version of the DIARAD absolute solar radiometer, which has been successfully installed and operated on several previous missions designed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. BOS is a pioneering experiment or to say, a complementary part of SOVAP. It consists of a solar bolometer that measures the incident electromagnetic radiation power by converting this radiation energy in a thermal signal. The radiation is measured using a differential thermometer placed in a thermal shunt. By design, this bolometer is able to measure radiation integrated over all wavelengths and provide a broad dynamic range, with high precision and combined with a fast measuring cadence of 10s, instead of typ. 2-3 minutes in earlier TSI (total solar irradiance) measurements. We will show the preliminary results of measurements made by BOS. For instance, the solar eclipse records during 11, July 2010.

  6. The Fur homologue BosR requires Arg39 to activate rpoS transcription in Borrelia burgdorferi and thereby direct spirochaete infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Katona, Laura I

    2015-11-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease. In B. burgdorferi, RpoS controls the expression of virulence genes needed for mammalian infection. The Fur homologue BosR regulates the transcription of rpoS and therefore BosR determines, albeit indirectly, the infection status of the spirochaete. Transcription of rpoS in B. burgdorferi is complex: rpoS can be transcribed either from an RpoD-dependent promoter to yield a long transcript or from an RpoN-dependent promoter to yield a short transcript. This study shows that BosR repressed synthesis of the long transcript while at the same time activating synthesis of the short transcript. How BosR does this is unclear. To address this, spirochaetes were engineered to express either BosR or the naturally occurring variant BosRR39K. Mice became infected by the spirochaetes expressing BosR but not by the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K. Furthermore, the spirochaetes expressing BosR activated rpoS transcription during growth in culture whereas the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K did not. Thus, BosR's activation of rpoS transcription somehow involves Arg39. This arginine is highly conserved in other FUR proteins and therefore other FUR proteins may also require this arginine to function. PMID:26318670

  7. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V

    2016-03-15

    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P < 0.05) existed for synchronized AI pregnancy rates, there were no significant interactions of group with any variable analyzed; hence, groups were pooled for further evaluation. Within the SSC treatment, the 72-hour estrous response was 50.6% (168 of 332). Conception rate of cows in estrus was 66.1% (111 of 168), and timed-AI pregnancy rate for nonresponders was 32.3% (53 of 164). Overall synchronized AI pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P

  8. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N

    2013-01-01

    The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies. PMID:23667052

  9. Measurement of density in axisymmetric jets using a novel background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dominic James; Edgington-Mitchell, Daniel; Honnery, Damon

    2015-11-01

    A novel application of the adaptive Fourier-Hankel (AFH) Abel algorithm to reconstruct the radial density distribution of axisymmetric jets is presented. The fluid is imaged using the non-intrusive path-integrated background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique. BOS images are cross-correlated to obtain background displacements that are proportional to the first derivative of the refractive index. The critical step is deconvolving the projected displacements. The AFH method is applied to simulated displacement data to validate the use of averaged turbulent fluctuations that approximate an axisymmetric field. The influence of experimental noise and variations in the flow on the accuracy of the method is discussed. The limitations of the system are demonstrated by applying it to low- and high-Reynolds ( Re) number jets. The high- Re jets are produced from a high-pressure fuel injector operating at nozzle pressure ratios of 2, 3, and 4.

  10. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  11. Highly Ordered Structure Formation in RAFT-Synthesized PtBOS-b-P4VP Diblock Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Faber, Martin; Hofman, Anton H; Loos, Katja; Brinke, Gerrit Ten

    2016-06-01

    Linear poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PtBOS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The self-assembly of four different PtBOS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers is studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy and a number of interesting observations are made. A tBOS62 -b-4VP28 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.21 shows a disordered morphology of P4VP spheres with liquid-like short-range order despite an estimated value of χN of the order of 50. Increasing the length of the 4VP block to tBOS62 -b-4VP199 results in a diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.66. It forms a remarkably well-ordered lamellar structure. Likewise, a tBOS146 -b-4VP120 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.33 forms an extremely well-ordered hexagonal structure of P4VP cylinders. Increasing the P4VP block of this block copolymer to tBOS146 -b-4VP190 with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.44 results in a bicontinuous gyroid morphology despite the estimated strong segregation of χN≅150. These results are discussed in terms of the architectural dissimilarity of the two monomers, characterized by the presence of the large side group of PtBOS, and the previously reported value of the interaction parameter, χ≅0.39, for this polymer pair. PMID:27079547

  12. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  13. Trace Element Distribution in Selected Edible Tissues of Zebu (Bos indicus) Cattle Slaughtered at Jimma, SW Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dermauw, Veronique; Lopéz Alonso, Marta; Duchateau, Luc; Du Laing, Gijs; Tolosa, Tadele; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Clauss, Marcus; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2014-01-01

    The amount of trace elements present in edible bovine tissues is of importance for both animal health and human nutrition. This study presents data on trace element concentrations in semitendinosus and cardiac muscles, livers and kidneys of 60 zebu (Bos indicus) bulls, sampled at Jimma, Ethiopia. From 28 of these bulls, blood samples were also obtained. Deficient levels of copper were found in plasma, livers, kidneys and semitendinosus muscles. Suboptimal selenium concentrations were found in plasma and semitendinosus muscles. Semitendinosus muscles contained high iron concentrations. Trace elements were mainly stored in the liver, except for iron and selenium. Cardiac muscles generally contained higher concentrations of trace elements than semitendinous muscles except for zinc. A strong association was found between liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. Liver storage was well correlated with storage in semitendinosus muscle for selenium and with cardiac muscle for cobalt and selenium. Plasma concentrations of copper, selenium, cobalt were well related with their respective liver concentrations and for cobalt and selenium, also with cardiac muscle concentrations. The data suggest multiple trace element deficiencies in zebu cattle in South-West Ethiopia, with lowered tissue concentrations as a consequence. Based on the comparison of our data with other literature, trace element concentrations in selected edible tissues of Bos indicus seem quite similar to those in Bos taurus. However, tissue threshold values for deficiency in Bos taurus cattle need to be refined and their applicability for Bos indicus cattle needs to be evaluated. PMID:24465529

  14. [DNA fingerprinting of individual species and intergeneric and interspecific hybrids of genera Bos and Bison, subfamily Bovinae].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, V A; Steklenev, E P; Morozova, E V; Semenova, S K

    2002-04-01

    Genome fingerprinting with a hypervariable minisatellite sequence of phage M13 DNA was used to study the genetic variation in individual species of the genera Bos and Bison (subfamily Bovinae) and in their interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. DNA fingerprints were obtained for domestic cow Bos taurus primigenius, vatussy Bos taurus macroceros, banteng Bos javanicus, gaur Bos gaurus, wisent Bison bonasus, bison Bison bison, and for the interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Compared with the original species, most hybrids showed a greater variation in number and size of hybridization fragments. An association was revealed between the number of hybridization fragments and blood composition of interspecific hybrids resulting from unique crossing of domestic cow and banteng. Pairwise similarity coefficients were calculated to construct a dendrogram of genetic similarity, which reflected the relationships between the parental species and hybrids varying in blood composition. The applicability of the method for identifying interspecific and intergeneric hybrids and for studying the consequences of distant hybridization in the subfamily Bovinae is discussed. PMID:12018169

  15. The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi Oxidative Stress Regulator BosR Directly Represses Lipoproteins Primarily Expressed in the Tick during Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Dadhwal, Poonam; Cheng, Zhihui; Zianni, Michael R.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Liang, Fang Ting; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Differential gene expression is a key strategy adopted by the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, for adaptation and survival in the mammalian host and the tick vector. Many B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins fall into two distinct groups according to their expression patterns: one group primarily expressed in the tick and the other group primarily expressed in the mammal. Here, we show that the Fur homologue in this bacterium, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), is required for repression of outer surface protein A (OspA) and OspD in the mammal. Furthermore, BosR binds directly to sequences upstream of the ospAB operon and the ospD gene through recognition of palindromic motifs similar to those recognized by other Fur homologues but with a 1-bp variation in the spacer length. Putative BosR-binding sites have been identified upstream of 156 B. burgdorferi genes. Some of these genes share the same expression pattern as ospA and ospD. Most notably, 12 (67%) of the 18 genes previously identified in a genome-wide microarray study to be most significantly repressed in the mammal are among the putative BosR regulon. These data indicate that BosR may directly repress transcription of many genes that are down-regulated in the mammal. PMID:23869590

  17. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  18. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  19. Cryosurvival and pregnancy rates after exposure of IVF-derived Bos indicus embryos to forskolin before vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Marinho, L S R; Filho, B D O; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Meirinhos, M L G; Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Seneda, M M

    2013-09-01

    In vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates. PMID:23746692

  20. Susceptibility to trypanosomosis of three Bos indicus cattle breeds in areas of differing tsetse fly challenge.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Gettinby, G; Reid, S W; Murray, M

    1998-09-01

    Studies to assess the differences in susceptibility to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds (Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran and Galana Boran) were conducted under conditions of varying tsetse fly challenge at the Nguruman escarpment in south-western Kenya, for a period of 1 year. It was found that under tsetse challenge quantified as high, Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were less susceptible than Galana Boran to trypanosome infections, as judged by the significantly lower incidence of infection, development of less severe anaemia, fewer requirements for trypanocidal drug treatments, higher growth rates and fewer mortalities. In the area where tsetse challenge was considered low as a result of a tsetse fly control operation using odour-baited traps, only the Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were compared. No significant differences in the incidence of infection, degree of anaemia or growth rates were observed between the two breeds, but all were significantly different from their counterparts in the high tsetse challenge area. These results suggest that there is variation in resistance to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds that could be exploited as part of the integrated trypanosomosis control programmes in East Africa. PMID:9777722

  1. Isolation and characteristics of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in the Chinese yakow (Bos grunniens×Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongmei; Wu, Min; Fan, Yueyuan; Huo, Yinqiang; Leng, Jing; Gou, Xiao; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2012-05-01

    The Chinese yakow is the offspring of yak (Bos grunniens) and Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The melanocortin 1receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in determining coat colour of mammals. To investigate the relationship of polymorphism of the MC1R with coat colour in the Chinese yakow, the coding sequence (CDS) and the flanking region of MC1R were sequenced from 84 Chinese yakow samples and compared with the sequences of the MC1R from other bovid species. A fragment of 1134 base pair (bp) sequences including the full CDS (954bp) and parts of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (162 and 18bp, respectively) of the Chineseyakow MC1R were obtained. A total of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 4 SNPs (T-129C, A-127C, C-106T, G-1A) in the 5'-untranslated region and 9 SNPs (C201T, T206C, C340A, C375T, T663C, G714C, C870T, G871A and T890C) in the CDS were identified, revealing high genetic variability. Four novel SNPs including T206C, G714C, C870T and T890C, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. Within 9 coding SNPs, C201T, C375T, T663C and C870T were silent mutations, while T206C, C340A, G714C, G871A and T890C were mis-sense mutations, corresponding to amino acid changes p.L69P, p.Q114K, p.K238N, p.A291N and p.I297T, respectively. Amino acid sequences alignment showed a more than 96% similarity with other ruminates. However, three classical bovine MC1R loci the E(D), E(+) and e were not retrieved in the Chinese yakow, indicating other genes or factors could be involved in affecting coat colour in this species. PMID:22391095

  2. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference (gr...

  3. Evaluation of physiological differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle during controlled heat challenge.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was performed to evaluate differences in thermoregulatory ability of two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine Romosinuano steers (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW; RO) were housed in the Brody Environmental Center at the University of Missouri. S...

  4. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  5. The Major Cow Milk Allergen Bos d 5 Manipulates T-Helper Cells Depending on Its Load with Siderophore-Bound Iron

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Walter, Franziska; Pacios, Luis F.; Gomez-Casado, Cristina; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Roth, Georg A.; Singer, Josef; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin) that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form) is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive. PMID:25117976

  6. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  7. [Different threshold concentrations for sensitization by cattle hair allergen Bos d 2 in atopic and non-atopic farmers].

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1996-02-01

    Several threshold values for indoor allergens leading to IgE sensitization were proposed. Currently such values exists for allergens of house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach and cattle. A high sensitization is known as an important risk factor in the development of asthma. This study was undertaken to examine threshold values of major cow hair allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust of atopic and nonatopic cow hair asthmatic farmers. 45 patients with cow hair asthma were visited at their homes. House dust samples were taken from corridor, living room, and bedroom. The concentration of Bos d 2 was determined by means of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Additionally, samples of venous blood were taken to demonstrate specific IgE towards cow epithelia by CAP-RAST. Five patients were excluded from further investigations because they have given up their cattle for less than 6 months. In 21 patients occurred typical atopic stigmata like infantil history of atopic eczema, hay fever or milk crust, while the other 19 subjects did not show an atopic diathesis. High sensitization towards cow epithelia (specific IgE > 0.7 kU/l in CAP-RAST) occurred significantly more often in atopics than in nonatopics. In atopic subjects the allergen concentrations leading to IgE sensitization amounted to 1-20 micrograms Bos d 2/g dust, whereas in nonatopics were found higher Bos d 2 threshold values (25-50 micrograms/g dust). The present study suggests that in nonatopic cow hair asthmatics high indoor Bos d 2 levels lead to IgE sensitization as well as the close contact to cattle. PMID:8868592

  8. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the tooth of a poached Bornean banteng (Bos javanicus lowi; Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Ishige, Taichiro; Gakuhari, Takashi; Hanzawa, Kei; Kono, Tomohiro; Sunjoto, Indra; Sukor, Jum Rafiah Abdul; Ahmad, Abdul Hamid; Matsubayashi, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae), which was determined using next-generation sequencing. The mitochondrial genome is 16,344 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. It shows the typical pattern of bovine mitochondrial arrangement. Phylogenetic tree analysis of complete mtDNA sequences showed that Bornean banteng is more closely related to gaur than to other banteng subspecies. Divergence dating indicated that Bornean banteng and gaur diverged from their common ancestor approximately 5.03 million years ago. These results suggest that Bornean banteng might be a distinct species in need of conservation. PMID:26075477

  9. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in yaks (Bos grunniens) and their public health potential.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Cai, Jinzhong; Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in a wide range of animals. To date, few data are available on E. bieneusi in yaks (Bos grunniens). In this study, we examined the occurrence and genotype identity of E. bieneusi in yaks in four counties in Qinghai Province of China. Of 327 fecal specimens examined by nested PCR analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, 23 (7.0%) were E. bieneusi-positive. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the presence of five distinct genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (BEB4, I and J) and two novel genotypes (CHN11 and CHN12) belonging to the large zoonotic group (Group 1). Data of the study suggest that these animals could be potential reservoirs for human E. bieneusi infection. PMID:25040451

  10. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (d N = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens. PMID:26019566

  11. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian; Pei, Jie; Bao, Pengjia; Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Ding, Xuezhi; Yan, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae) is an important primitive local breed in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions. In this study, its complete mitochondrial genome sequence has been assembled and characterized from high-throughput Illumina sequencing data. This genome is 16 322 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding D-loop or control region. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (33.73% A, 25.79% C, 13.19% G, and 27.29% T) with an overall A + T content of 61.02%. The gene arrangement and the composition are similar to most other vertebrates. These data would contribute to our better understanding its population genetics and evolutionary history. PMID:26478258

  13. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  14. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Guerreiro, B M; Freitas, B G; Silva, J C B; Vieira, L M; Ferreira, R M; Rezende, R G; Basso, A C; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 ± 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 ± 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 ± 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 ± 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 ± 1.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.78, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.82, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), COCs cultured (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.79, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), and blastocysts produced (r = 0.62, P = 0.0003 in Nelore; r = 0.58, P = 0.009 in Holstein), and these results were independent of pFSH treatment. In conclusion, calves had greater plasma AMH concentrations than cycling heifers. In addition

  15. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  16. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    PubMed Central

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  17. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  18. Whole-genome sequencing of the endangered bovine species Gayal (Bos frontalis) provides new insights into its genetic features.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chugang; Wang, Hongcheng; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Gong; Qu, Kaixing; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Anning; Zhao, Chunping; Yang, Wucai; Wang, Chongzhi; Xin, Yaping; Zan, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    Gayal (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild and endangered bovine species that differs from domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus), and its genetic background remains unclear. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of one Gayal for the first time, with one Red Angus cattle and one Japanese Black cattle as controls. In total, 97.8 Gb of sequencing reads were generated with an average 11.78-fold depth and >98.44% coverage of the reference sequence (UMD3.1). Numerous different variations were identified, 62.24% of the total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in Gayal were novel, and 16,901 breed-specific nonsynonymous SNPs (BS-nsSNPs) that might be associated with traits of interest in Gayal were further investigated. Moreover, the demographic history of bovine species was first analyzed, and two population expansions and two population bottlenecks were identified. The obvious differences among their population sizes supported that Gayal was not B. taurus. The phylogenic analysis suggested that Gayal was a hybrid descendant from crossing of male wild gaur and female domestic cattle. These discoveries will provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds and may assist relevant departments with future conservation and utilization of Gayal. PMID:26806430

  19. A direct approach for instantaneous 3D density field reconstruction from background-oriented schlieren (BOS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, F.; Todoroff, V.; Plyer, A.; Le Besnerais, G.; Donjat, D.; Micheli, F.; Champagnat, F.; Cornic, P.; Le Sant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for reconstruction of instantaneous density volume from 3D background-oriented schlieren (3DBOS) measurements, with a validation on a dedicated flexible experimental BOS bench. In contrast to previous works, we use a direct formulation where density is estimated from measured deviation fields without the intermediate step of density gradient reconstruction. Regularization techniques are implemented to deal with the ill-posed problem encountered. The resulting high-dimensional optimization is conducted by conjugate gradient techniques. A parallel algorithm, implemented on graphics processing unit, helps to speed up the calculation. The resulting software is validated on synthetic BOS images of a 3D density field issued from a numerical simulation. Then, we describe a dedicated 3DBOS experimental facility which has been built to study various BOS settings and to assess the performance of the proposed numerical reconstruction process. Results on various datasets illustrate the potential of the method for flow characterization and measurement in real-world conditions.

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of the endangered bovine species Gayal (Bos frontalis) provides new insights into its genetic features

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Chugang; Wang, Hongcheng; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Gong; Qu, Kaixing; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Anning; Zhao, Chunping; Yang, Wucai; Wang, Chongzhi; Xin, Yaping; Zan, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    Gayal (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild and endangered bovine species that differs from domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus), and its genetic background remains unclear. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of one Gayal for the first time, with one Red Angus cattle and one Japanese Black cattle as controls. In total, 97.8 Gb of sequencing reads were generated with an average 11.78-fold depth and >98.44% coverage of the reference sequence (UMD3.1). Numerous different variations were identified, 62.24% of the total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in Gayal were novel, and 16,901 breed-specific nonsynonymous SNPs (BS-nsSNPs) that might be associated with traits of interest in Gayal were further investigated. Moreover, the demographic history of bovine species was first analyzed, and two population expansions and two population bottlenecks were identified. The obvious differences among their population sizes supported that Gayal was not B. taurus. The phylogenic analysis suggested that Gayal was a hybrid descendant from crossing of male wild gaur and female domestic cattle. These discoveries will provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds and may assist relevant departments with future conservation and utilization of Gayal. PMID:26806430

  1. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  2. A Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Mesolithic Wild Aurochs (Bos primigenius)

    PubMed Central

    McGettigan, Paul A.; Lohan, Amanda J.; Murphy, Alison; Finlay, Emma K.; Shapiro, Beth; Chamberlain, Andrew T.; Richards, Martin B.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Loftus, Brendan J.; MacHugh, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. Methodology DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738±68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified aurochsen

  3. Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Ndung'U, J M; Stear, M J; Reid, S W; Gettinby, G; Murray, M

    1998-06-29

    Recent epidemiological studies carried out in East Africa have indicated that some Bos indicus cattle breeds such as the Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu have a degree of trypanotolerance worth exploitation by their introduction into trypanosomosis endemic areas where other cattle breeds cannot survive. However, in most areas of East Africa, trypanosomosis, ticks, and tick-borne diseases occur together. It is therefore important to obtain information on the susceptibility of these breeds to tick infestation and tick-borne diseases. This study was therefore designed to determine the susceptibility of these cattle breeds to tick infestations. They were compared with the Galana Boran (trypanosusceptible) and the Friesian (susceptible to tick infestations, tick-borne diseases, and trypanosomosis). The four breeds of cattle were exposed to natural tick challenge for a period of seven months and whole body weekly tick counts were done on each animal. Significant differences to tick infestations among the four breeds were observed. For both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus decoloratus, susceptibility to infestation increased in the order, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Galana Boran and Friesian. The results generated by this pilot study so far suggest that variation in susceptibility to tick infestations exists among the four breeds. The Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu showed greater resistance to tick-infestations than the Galana Boran and Friesian. This suggests that utilization of these trypanotolerant cattle breeds could be feasible even in the face of tick challenge and should therefore be considered when planning integrated trypanosomosis and tick control strategies. PMID:9668465

  4. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; da Silva, Marcos V G B; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  5. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  6. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain).

    PubMed

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980's and 2000's are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  7. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  8. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. PMID:26481361

  9. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Unni, Deepak R.; Diesh, Colin M.; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. PMID:26481361

  10. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling of squamous cell carcinoma of horn in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Koringa, P G; Jakhesara, S J; Bhatt, V D; Meshram, C P; Patel, A K; Fefar, D T; Joshi, C G

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of horn is frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting 1% of cattle population and accounting 83.34% of total tumours found. The transcriptome profile of horn cancer (HC) tissue and the matched normal (HN) tissue were analysed by RNA-seq using Roche 454 sequencing. A total of 1 504 900 reads comprising of 612 MB data were used to identify differentially expressed genes using CLC Genomic Workbench. These include up-regulation of KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT14, SFN, KRT84, PI3, COL17A1, ANLN, SERPINB5 and down-regulation of BOLA, SCGB1A1, CXCL17, KRT19, BPIFB1, NR4A1 and TFF3 in HC, which are involved in regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival and metabolic pathways. The qPCR analysis of several targets suggested concordance of gene expression profile with RNA-seq analysis. The present findings would provide basis for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HC. PMID:24314272

  11. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20(th) century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  12. The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pellecchia, Marco; Negrini, Riccardo; Colli, Licia; Patrini, Massimiliano; Milanesi, Elisabetta; Achilli, Alessandro; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Piazza, Alberto; Torroni, Antonio; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    The Etruscan culture developed in Central Italy (Etruria) in the first millennium BC and for centuries dominated part of the Italian Peninsula, including Rome. The history of the Etruscans is at the roots of Mediterranean culture and civilization, but their origin is still debated: local or Eastern provenance? To shed light on this mystery, bovine and human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) have been investigated, based on the well-recognized strict legacy which links human and livestock populations. In the region corresponding to ancient Etruria (Tuscany, Central Italy), several Bos taurus breeds have been reared since historical times. These breeds have a strikingly high level of mtDNA variation, which is found neither in the rest of Italy nor in Europe. The Tuscan bovines are genetically closer to Near Eastern than to European gene pools and this Eastern genetic signature is paralleled in modern human populations from Tuscany, which are genetically close to Anatolian and Middle Eastern ones. The evidence collected corroborates the hypothesis of a common past migration: both humans and cattle reached Etruria from the Eastern Mediterranean area by sea. Hence, the Eastern origin of Etruscans, first claimed by the classic historians Herodotus and Thucydides, receives strong independent support. As the Latin philosopher Seneca wrote: Asia Etruscos sibi vindicat (Asia claims the Etruscans back). PMID:17301019

  13. Genome-wide detection and characterization of endogenous retroviruses in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-10-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A BLAST-based method detected 928 possible ERVs, LTR_STRUC detected 4,487 elements flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), and Retrotector detected 9,698 ERVs. The ERVs were not homogeneously distributed across chromosomes; the number of ERVs was positively correlated with chromosomal size and negatively correlated with chromosomal GC content. The bovine ERVs (BoERVs) were classified into 24 putative families, with 20 of them not previously described. One of these new families, BoERV1, was the most abundant family and appeared to be specific to ruminants. An analysis of representatives of ERV families from rodents, primates, and ruminants showed a phylogenetic relationship following their hosts' relationships. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods when trying to identify new ERVs and shows that the number of bovine ERV families is not as limited as previously thought. PMID:20686017

  14. Comparison of meat quality between eland (Taurotragus oryx) and cattle (Bos taurus) raised under similar conditions.

    PubMed

    Bartoň, Luděk; Bureš, Daniel; Kotrba, Radim; Sales, James

    2014-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat were compared between non-domestic eland (Taurotragus oryx) bulls (n=6) and domestic Fleckvieh (Bos taurus) bulls (n=6) which were finished under controlled conditions of feeding and management. Musculus longissimus lumborum from eland were darker and less yellow in colour, with a higher pH24 and lower contents of intramuscular fat and total collagen, compared to cattle. Contents (mg/100 g muscle tissue) and proportions (g/100 g of FA determined) of SFA and MUFA were higher (P<0.01) in cattle. Although the proportion of total PUFA were higher (P<0.001) in eland, contents of PUFA were similar between species. Meat from cattle was consistently scored higher (P<0.05) for sensory texture characteristics, juiciness, flavour, and overall acceptance. We concluded that bulls of eland provided low-fat meat with a beneficial fatty acid composition from a human nutrition perspective, but with lower sensory scores, compared to bull beef. PMID:23954274

  15. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, Jacqueline; Modolo, Diego Grando; de Souza, Edislane Barreiros; de Melo, Thatiana Corrêa; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Sá Júnior, Paulo Luis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; Beçak, Willy; Stocco, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA) and comet assay (CA). Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control). Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine. PMID:26783529

  16. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  17. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of polled yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Guo, Xian; Bao, Pengjia; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Generally speaking, the hornless trait is also known as polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1 (Georges et al., 1993; Drögemüller et al., 2005)), and (Liu et al., 2014) reported a 147-kb segment that included three protein-coding genes was the most likely location of the POLL mutation in domestic yaks, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. In this work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of polled yak was determined for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,324 bp long, with the base composition of 33.72% A, 27.25% T, 25.83% C, and 13.20% G. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene order of polled yak mitogenome is identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. The complete mitogenome sequence information of polled yak will provide useful data for further studies on protection of genetic resources and phylogenetic relationships within Bos grunniens. PMID:25347693

  18. First Report of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Yaks (Bos mutus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus). One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584), with 24.26% (148/610) black yaks and 19.10% (186/974) white yaks yielding positive results. Risk factor analysis indicated that with the exception of breed (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.73, P < 0.05), the age, region, gender, farm, and the numbers of pregnancies were not considered as risk factors for the presence of BLV in yaks included in this study. This is the first report of BLV infection in yaks in China, which provides information for controlling BLV infection in yaks. PMID:27340671

  19. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  20. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  1. Les biofilms bactériens : leur importance en santé animale et en santé publique

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Yannick D.N.; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les biofilms bactériens sont des amas structurés de cellules bactériennes enrobés d’une matrice polymérique et attachés à une surface. Le biofilm protège les bactéries et leur permet de survivre dans des conditions environnementales hostiles. Les bactéries du biofilm peuvent résister à la réponse immunitaire de l’hôte et sont beaucoup plus résistantes aux antibiotiques et aux désinfectants que les cellules bactériennes planctoniques. La capacité de former un biofilm est maintenant reconnue comme une caractéristique propre à plusieurs microorganismes. La présence de biofilms lors d’infections demande donc de nouvelles méthodes de prévention, de diagnostic et de traitement. De même, la présence de biofilms sur des surfaces retrouvées à la ferme, à l’abattoir ou à l’usine de transformation affectera l’efficacité du protocole de désinfection. De façon surprenante, la formation de biofilms chez les bactéries pathogènes des animaux et les bactéries zoonotiques est un sujet relativement peu étudié. Ce bref compte rendu a pour objectif de sensibiliser les intervenants en santé animale à l’importance des biofilms. PMID:24688172

  2. BosR (BB0647) Controls the RpoN-RpoS Regulatory Pathway and Virulence Expression in Borrelia burgdorferi by a Novel DNA-Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Deka, Ranjit K.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, the alternative σ factor σ54 (RpoN) directly activates transcription of another alternative σ factor, σS (RpoS) which, in turn, controls the expression of virulence-associated membrane lipoproteins. As is customary in σ54-dependent gene control, a putative NtrC-like enhancer-binding protein, Rrp2, is required to activate the RpoN-RpoS pathway. However, recently it was found that rpoS transcription in Bb also requires another regulator, BosR, which was previously designated as a Fur or PerR homolog. Given this unexpected requirement for a second activator to promote σ54-dependent gene transcription, and the fact that regulatory mechanisms among similar species of pathogenic bacteria can be strain-specific, we sought to confirm the regulatory role of BosR in a second virulent strain (strain 297) of Bb. Indeed, BosR displayed the same influence over lipoprotein expression and mammalian infectivity for strain Bb 297 that were previously noted for Bb strain B31. We subsequently found that recombinant BosR (rBosR) bound to the rpoS gene at three distinct sites, and that binding occurred despite the absence of consensus Fur or Per boxes. This led to the identification of a novel direct repeat sequence (TAAATTAAAT) critical for rBosR binding in vitro. Mutations in the repeat sequence markedly inhibited or abolished rBosR binding. Taken together, our studies provide new mechanistic insights into how BosR likely acts directly on rpoS as a positive transcriptional activator. Additional novelty is engendered by the facts that, although BosR is a Fur or PerR homolog and it contains zinc (like Fur and PerR), it has other unique features that clearly set it apart from these other regulators. Our findings also have broader implications regarding a previously unappreciated layer of control that can be involved in σ54–dependent gene regulation in bacteria. PMID:21347346

  3. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    PubMed

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  4. The genetics of brown coat color and white spotting in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Zhang, M-Q; Xu, X; Luo, S-J

    2014-10-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) exhibit two major coat color variations: a brown vs. wild-type black pigmentation and a white spotting vs. wild-type solid color pattern. The genetic basis for these variations in color and distribution remains largely unknown and may be complicated by a breeding history involving hybridization between yaks and cattle. Here, we investigated 92 domestic yaks from China using a candidate gene approach. Sequence variations in MC1R, PMEL and TYRP1 were surveyed in brown yaks; TYRP1 was unassociated with the coloration and excluded. Recessive mutations from MC1R, or p.Gln34*, p.Met73Leu and possibly p.Arg142Pro, are reported in bovids for the first time and accounted for approximately 40% of the brown yaks in this study. The remaining 60% of brown individuals correlated with a cattle-derived deletion mutation from PMEL (p.Leu18del) in a dominant manner. Degrees of white spotting found in yaks vary from color sidedness and white face, to completely white. After examining the candidate gene KIT, we suggest that color-sided and all-white yaks are caused by the serial translations of KIT (Cs6 or Cs29 ) as reported for cattle. The white-faced phenotype in yaks is associated with the KIT haplotype S(wf) . All KIT mutations underlying the serial phenotypes of white spotting in yaks are identical to those in cattle, indicating that cattle are the likely source of white spotting in yaks. Our results reveal the complex genetic origins of domestic yak coat color as either native in yaks through evolution and domestication or as introduced from cattle through interspecific hybridization. PMID:24989079

  5. Expression Variants of the Lipogenic AGPAT6 Gene Affect Diverse Milk Composition Phenotypes in Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Lopdell, Thomas; Law, Tania A.; Scott, Andrew; Harland, Chad; Sherlock, Ric; Henty, Kristen; Obolonkin, Vlad; Lehnert, Klaus; MacGibbon, Alistair; Spelman, Richard J.; Davis, Stephen R.; Snell, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is composed of a complex mixture of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and various vitamins and minerals as a source of nutrition for young mammals. The composition of milk varies between individuals, with lipid composition in particular being highly heritable. Recent reports have highlighted a region of bovine chromosome 27 harbouring variants affecting milk fat percentage and fatty acid content. We aimed to further investigate this locus in two independent cattle populations, consisting of a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbreed pedigree of 711 F2 cows, and a collection of 32,530 mixed ancestry Bos taurus cows. Bayesian genome-wide association mapping using markers imputed from the Illumina BovineHD chip revealed a large quantitative trait locus (QTL) for milk fat percentage on chromosome 27, present in both populations. We also investigated a range of other milk composition phenotypes, and report additional associations at this locus for fat yield, protein percentage and yield, lactose percentage and yield, milk volume, and the proportions of numerous milk fatty acids. We then used mammary RNA sequence data from 212 lactating cows to assess the transcript abundance of genes located in the milk fat percentage QTL interval. This analysis revealed a strong eQTL for AGPAT6, demonstrating that high milk fat percentage genotype is also additively associated with increased expression of the AGPAT6 gene. Finally, we used whole genome sequence data from six F1 sires to target a panel of novel AGPAT6 locus variants for genotyping in the F2 crossbreed population. Association analysis of 58 of these variants revealed highly significant association for polymorphisms mapping to the 5′UTR exons and intron 1 of AGPAT6. Taken together, these data suggest that variants affecting the expression of AGPAT6 are causally involved in differential milk fat synthesis, with pleiotropic consequences for a diverse range of other milk components. PMID:24465687

  6. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, namely Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, and Sarcocystis rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (<1 μm), whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 μm or more). Here, we describe a new species of Sarcocystis with thin-walled sarcocysts in cattle. Two newborn calves were fed with sporocysts from the feces of a human volunteer who had ingested raw beef. The calves were killed 111 and 222 days later. In addition to thick-walled sarcocysts of S. hominis, both calves were coinfected with a Sarcocystis species that had a thin-walled sarcocysts, distinct from S. cruzi. The sarcocysts were mature, microscopic, up to 80 μm wide, and up to 1060 μm long. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (<1 μm thick) and had minute protrusions. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had short, conical villar protrusions (vp) that were up to 0.5 μm long and up to 0.5 μm wide, similar to type 29. The vp on the sarcocyst wall lacked microtubules but had six or more disc-shaped plaques. The ground substance layer was smooth, approximately 0.5 μm thick, and without microtubules. The bradyzoites were 8-11 μm long. The structure of the sarcocyst wall was distinct from any species of Sarcocystis reported from livestock. This unique species is named in honor of Dr. Alfred Otto Heydorn who provided the sporocysts. PMID:26243573

  7. Oxidation of lignin in eucalyptus kraft pulp by manganese peroxidase from Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M T; Sierra-Alvarez, R; Lema, J M; Feijoo, G; Field, J A

    2001-05-01

    The white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown in previous studies to cause high levels of kraft pulp bleaching and delignification under culture conditions in which manganese peroxidase (MnP) occurs as the dominant oxidative enzyme. In this study, the MnP of Bjerkadera was isolated and tested in vitro with eucalyptus oxygen-delignified kraft pulp (ODKP) based on measuring the reduction in kappa number as an indicator of lignin oxidation. The MnP preparation applied at 60 U/g pulp for 6 h caused a significant decrease of 11-13% in the kappa number in the ODKP under optimal conditions compared to parallel-incubated controls lacking enzyme. The effects of MnP dosage, Mn2+ concentration, organic acid buffer selection, pH and H2O2 addition were evaluated. The optimal Mn2+ concentration range for lignin oxidation in ODKP was 100-500 microM. In the presence of low oxalate concentrations (0.3-2 mM) the Bjerkandera MnP also significantly reduced the kappa number of ODKP by 6% without any Mn. This observation is in agreement with the fact that purified Bjerkandera MnP has Mn-independent activities. Under incubation conditions with added Mn2+, buffers composed of metal-complexing organic acids provided two-fold better kappa number reductions compared to the inert acetic acid. The optimal H2O2 dosage was found to be 0.017 micromol/min ml when added as semi-continuous pulses (every 30 min) or 0.2 micromol/min ml when generated continuously by glucose oxidase. Excess H2O2 caused severe inactivation of MnP during the incubations. Factors that improved the turnover of the enzyme, such as Mn2+ and metal-chelating acids, stabilized MnP against rapid inactivation. PMID:11265791

  8. Ovarian function in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows after post-ovulation hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Machado, R; Bergamaschi, M A C M; Barbosa, R T; de Oliveira, C A; Binelli, M

    2008-04-15

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the cow requires successful signaling by the conceptus to block luteolysis. Conceptus growth and function depend on an optimal uterine environment, regulated by luteal progesterone. The objective of this study was to test strategies to optimize luteal function, as well as prevent a dominant follicle from initiating luteolysis. Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) beef cows (n=40) were submitted to a GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol. Cows that ovulated from a dominant ovarian follicle (ovulation=Day 0) were allocated to receive: no additional treatment (G(C); n=7); 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 (G(hCG); n=5); 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(E2); n=6); or 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 and 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(hCG/E2); n=5). Ultrasonographic imaging of the ovaries, assessment of plasma progesterone concentration, and detection of estrus were done daily from Day 5 to the day of subsequent ovulation. Treatment with hCG induced an accessory CL, increased CL volume, and plasma progesterone concentration throughout the luteal phase (P<0.01). Estradiol-17beta induced atresia and recruitment of a new wave of follicular growth; it eliminated a potentially estrogen-active, growing ovarian follicle within the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy, but it also hastened luteolysis (Days 16 or 17 vs. Days 18 or 19 in non-treated cows). In conclusion, the approaches tested enhanced luteal function (hCG) and altered ovarian follicular dynamics (estradiol-17beta), but were unable to extend the life-span of the CL in Nelore cows. PMID:18336896

  9. Analysis of the Plant bos1 Mutant Highlights Necrosis as an Efficient Defence Mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Patrit, Oriane; Simond-Côte, Elizabeth; Hermand, Victor; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection. PMID:21533045

  10. Molecular Cloning, Bioinformatics Analysis and Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 from Tianzhu White Yak, Bos grunniens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quanwei; Gong, Jishang; Wang, Xueying; Wu, Xiaohu; Li, Yalan; Ma, Youji; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xingxu

    2014-01-01

    The IGF family is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal development and plays important roles in the immune system, myogenesis, bone metabolism and other physiological functions, which makes the study of its structure and biological characteristics important. Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens) domesticated under alpine hypoxia environments, is well adapted to survive and grow against severe hypoxia and cold temperatures for extended periods. In this study, a full coding sequence of the IGF2 gene of Tianzhu white yak was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the first time. The cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 450 nucleotides, encoding a protein with 179 amino acids. Its expression in different tissues was also studied by Real time PCR. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that yak IGF2 was similar to Bos taurus, and 3D structure showed high similarity with the human IGF2. The putative full CDS of yak IGF2 was amplified by PCR in five tissues, and cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology to bovine IGF2. Moreover the super secondary structure prediction showed a similar 3D structure with human IGF2. Its conservation in sequence and structure has facilitated research on IGF2 and its physiological function in yak. PMID:24394317

  11. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Cattle (Bos taurus) and its Differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Moré, Gastón; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Schares, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based on unverifiable evidence, it was suggested that the same parasite infects cattle. In addition, S. sinensis was recently declared as nomen nudum because its naming violated the rules of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Thus, the fourth species using cattle as an intermediate host does not have a valid name. Here, we propose a new name, Sarcocystis rommeli for the S. sinensis-like parasite from cattle in Argentina, and differentiate it ultrastructurally from S. hominis sarcocysts from experimentally infected cattle. Sarcocystis rommeli sarcocysts were microscopic with a 5-μm-thick wall with slender villar protrusions (Vp); the Vp were up to 5 μm long, up to 0.5 μm wide, and of uneven thickness, often bent at an angle. The ground substance layer (Gs) was up to 0.8 μm thick and smooth. Vesicular structures were seen at the base of the Vp. The bradyzoites were 10-12 μm long. Sarcocystis hominis sarcocysts had Vp that were often upright, up to 7.5 μm long, and up to 1.8 μm wide; the Gs was up to 2 μm thick and without vesicles. Its sarcocyst wall was up to 5.6 μm thick, the vp were bent at an angle, up to 5.8 μm long, the Gs was up to 2 μm thick, but without vesicles seen in S. rommeli. Beef containing sarcocysts of S. rommeli was not orally infectious for two human volunteers and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The Sarcocystis described here is molecularly different from S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 gene sequences. PMID:26111603

  12. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p < 0.05) higher in mithun fed R2 , R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1 diet. In contrast, increased (p < 0.05) ruminal pH, molar proportion of acetate and, acetate to propionate ratio was recorded in mithun fed only TF than those fed concentrate supplemented diets. Similarly, an increase (p < 0.05) in the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total bacteria were evident in mithun fed R2 , R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1 . Therefore, it is concluded that TF 25% and/or rice straw 25% along with CM 50% may be fed to the growing mithun for improved rumen ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. PMID:22289020

  13. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to establish distinctive heat tolerance characteristics. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted, Criollo breed recognized for its heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ±...

  14. Effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity and tenderness of M. longissimus from cattle with different proportions of Bos indicus content.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Jiang, S T; Hearnshaw, H; Rymill, S R; Thompson, J M

    2000-07-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity (at approx. 3 h postmortem), sensory tenderness scores and shear force was determined on M. longissimus samples from three Bos indicus genotypes (0% Hereford, 50% Brahman×Hereford and 100% Brahman). The samples were divided and aged for 1 or 30 days. Electrical stimulation resulted in a general reduction in calpastatin activity suggesting that it accelerated proteolysis. Calpastatin activity increased commensurate with increasing Bos indicus content. Several significant interactions were shown, the most relevant of these was the interaction between Bos indicus content×electrical stimulation. In contrast to the other genotypes, calpain I and calpain II activities were shown to increase (significant for calpain II only) following stimulation in the purebred Brahmans (100%). There was a significant reduction in tenderness with increasing Bos indicus content. However, breed differences in shear force were reduced by electrical stimulation. The improvement in shear force following ageing was smaller for stimulated carcasses compared to the controls. This tends to reinforce the premise that electrical stimulation accelerates proteolysis. The results of this study show clear genotypic differences in proteolytic activity and tenderness. However, electrical stimulation can be employed to reduce breed differences in tenderness of the M. longissimus. PMID:22061281

  15. Evaluation of Physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to evaluate heat tolerance. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted breed. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW) steers from USDA-ARS, Brooksville, Florida were transport...

  16. BadR (BB0693) controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Borrelia burgdorferi via recognizing TAAAATAT motifs.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a central role during Bb's adaptation to ticks and mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that RpoS is not expressed during the early stages of spirochetal growth or when Bb resides in ticks during the intermolt phase, but the molecular details of these events remain unknown. In the current study, biomagnetic bead separation of rpoS promoter-binding proteins, coupled with genetic inactivation, was employed to identify BadR (BB0693) as a negative regulator that controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Bb. When badR was inactivated, the expression of rpoS and bosR was induced only during the early stages of bacterial growth, but not during the stationary growth phase. Recombinant BadR bound to the promoter DNA of rpoS and the regulatory region upstream of bosR via AT-rich TAAAATAT motifs. Mutations in this motif markedly inhibited or abolished rBadR binding. These results suggest that BadR directly influences the expression of both rpoS and bosR in Bb. This newly recognized role for BadR to fine-tune the activation of the RpoN-RpoS pathway at strategic times in Bb's life cycle potentially represents another layer of gene control over σ(54)-dependent gene regulation. PMID:26331438

  17. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  18. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  19. Associations between response to handling and growth and meat quality in frequently handled Bos taurus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Turner, S P; Navajas, E A; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Richardson, R I; Prieto, N; Bell, M; Jack, M C; Roehe, R

    2011-12-01

    Fearful behavioral responses to handling (temperament) are undesirably associated with ADG and meat quality in infrequently handled Bos indicus cattle. It has never been assessed whether these relationships exist in calmer Bos taurus breeds in systems where handling is more frequent. Such systems predominate in some countries where beef production is a major agricultural activity. During fattening, 144 crossbred cattle from Limousin and Aberdeen Angus sires were assessed for temperament using 4 approaches: response to movement along a race (race score; 4 occasions), restraint in a crush (crush score; 4 occasions), flight speed from the crush (flight speed; 4 occasions), and isolation in a pen with a human (isolation score; 1 occasion in yr 1, 2 occasions in yr 2). Measurements of ADG were made between birth and slaughter and between 16 and 18 mo of age during fattening. Fattening occurred indoors on a complete mixed diet fed for ad libitum intake. Meat quality was measured by pH, color, and Volodkevitch shear force and by a sensory panel. The repeatability of temperament traits was 0.17 (race score), 0.35 (crush score), 0.51 (flight speed), and 0.36 (isolation score). The proportion of the total variance of temperament traits attributable to the sire and the social group was low (0.003 to 0.402). However, the sire did affect behavior in all tests apart from the crush score (ranging from P = 0.02 to P < 0.001). Correlations between behavior in the different tests (ranging from r = 0.21 to 0.54, and P = 0.02 to P < 0.001) apart from between-flight speed and isolation score indicate that fearful behavior was consistently shown across assessment methods. A calm response in the crush score test was associated with a greater ADG during fattening (P = 0.05), whereas a calm response during the isolation test was associated with a greater ADG in cold carcass weight (P = 0.02). Animals with a calm isolation score had less tender meat as judged by the sensory panel (P = 0

  20. Investigation of novel solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids from Bos indicus for the delivery of gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.; Umeyor, Emmanuel C.; Uronnachi, Emmanuel M.; Attama, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to formulate solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS)-based solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) using homolipids from tallow fat (Bos indicus) and evaluate its potential for enhanced delivery of gentamicin. Materials and Methods: SLMs were formulated by melt-emulsification using SRMS (15% w/w Phospholipon® 90G in 35% w/w Bos indicus), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) and gentamicin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% w/w), and characterized with respect to size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency % and pH-dependent stability. The in vitro release of gentamicin from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while bioevaluation was carried out using clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Results showed that the lipid matrix accommodated gentamicin in a concentration-dependent manner, and that stable and spherical SLMs with size range of 18.62 ± 1.24-20.59 ± 1.36 μm and 21.35 ± 1.57-50.62 ± 2.37 μm respectively for unloaded and drug-loaded formulations were obtained. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that SRMS-based SLMs could better be used to control the release of gentamicin than gentamicin injection. Results of sensitivity test revealed that the SLMs time-dependently and capacity-limitedly produced greater inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) than the standards, an indication of improved bioactivity against the test organisms, with greater IZDs against S. aureus than E. coli. Overall, SLMs containing 2% w/w SRMS, 3% w/w gentamicin and PEG 4000 entrapped the highest amount of drug, achieved complete drug release and gave highest IZD against the organisms within 420 min, while plain gentamicin gave the least. Conclusion: This research has shown that SLMs based on Bos indicus and P90G is a potential carrier system for dissolution and bioactivity enhancement of gentamicin. PMID:27014617

  1. Novel SNP identification in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cows under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Singh, Sohan Vir; Verma, Nishant; Vineeth, M R; Magotra, Ankit; Das, Ramendra

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) act as molecular chaperones those are preferentially transcribed in respose to heat stress and the polymorphism in HSP genes associated with heat tolerance traits in cows. HSP90AA1 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 21 (BTA-21) and spans nearly 5368 bp comprising of 11 exons out of which the first exon does not translate. The present study was done on Karan Fries (5/8 HF × 3/8 Tharparkar) cows reared in tropical climate with the objectives of identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in targeted regions (exon 3) of HSP90AA1 gene and analyzing their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once daily for four consecutive days during probable extreme hours in different seasons or temperature humidity index (THI), viz., winter, spring, and summer. For detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms, sequence data were analyzed using BioEdit software (version 7.2). Comparative sequence analysis of HSP90AA1 gene showed point mutation, viz., g.1209A>G (exon 3) as compared to Bos taurus (NCBI Ref Seq: AC_000178.1). Association analysis indicated that THI was influenced (P < 0.01) by RR, RT, and HTC. Similarly, SNPs at locus g.1209A>G were categorized into three genotypes, i.e., AA, AG, and GG, and the least squares means (LSMEANS) of RR, RT, and HTC for GG (homozygous) genotype were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than AA (homozygous) and AG (heterozygous) genotypes. These findings may partly suggest that cows with GG genotypes were favored for heat tolerance trait, which can be used as an aid to selection for thermo-tolerance Karan Fries cows for better adaptation in subtropical and tropical hot climate. PMID:26898694

  2. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 2. The effect of rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur on voluntary food intake and rumen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    In a number of experiments voluntary food intake of three low-quality roughages, either alone or supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals, was measured in Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (Bos taurus) steers. The chaffed hays were Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) (6.2 g N/kg organic matter (OM)), Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) (7.9 g N/kg OM), and Pangola grass (12.0 g N/kg OM). Rumen characteristics relating to rate of fluid outflow from the rumen were also determined. There was no significant difference between breeds in the dry-matter intakes of the unsupplemented diets which ranged from 11.3 to 17.8 g/kg body-weight (BW) by Herefords and from 11.8 to 16.1 g/kg BW by Brahmans. Supplementation of Spear grass with N and S significantly (P less than 0.05) increased intake by Herefords (24%) but not by Brahmans. When the lower-N Pangola grass was supplemented there was a significant increase in intake by both breeds with the magnitude of the response in Herefords (42%) (P less than 0.001) being greater than that in Brahmans (15%) (P less than 0.05). The intakes of both the supplemented Spear grass and the lower-N Pangola diets were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater by Herefords than Brahmans. There was no breed difference in intake when the higher-N Pangola grass was supplemented. Both breeds recorded an 8% intake response to supplementation, although the increase was only significant (P less than 0.05) in Herefords. The mean retention time of fluid in the rumen on the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet of lower N content was 12.7 h in Brahmans compared with 17.5 h in Herefords (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2998450

  3. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  4. Molecular characterization of veterinary important trematode and cestode species in the mithun Bos frontalis from north-east India.

    PubMed

    Chamuah, J K; Raina, O K; Lalrinkima, H; Jacob, S S; Sankar, M; Sakhrie, A; Lama, S; Banerjee, P S

    2016-09-01

    Helminth infections in the mithun Bos frontalis, including the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, hepato-gastric amphistomes Explanatum explanatum, Paramphistomum epiclitum and Calicophoron calicophorum, and the cestodes Echinococcus granulosus and E. ortleppi were studied in north-east India over a 2-year period from 2012 to 2014. Cystic echinococcosis caused by E. granulosus and E. ortleppi was found to be highly prevalent in the mithun, with E. ortleppi being reported for the first time. Molecular markers, including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2), 28S rDNA and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase sub-unit1 (nad1) were used to confirm the identification of the trematode and cestode species. PMID:26343353

  5. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. PMID:20071017

  6. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions. PMID:25447149

  7. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P < 0.05), suggesting the presence of variation affecting meat tenderness. All three informative SNP at the CAPN1 gene were associated with hump height (P < 0.02). The TG marker was associated with fat thickness and LMA (P < 0.05), but not with marbling score. No significant associations of the SNP in the DGAT1 gene were observed for any trait. Allele frequencies of the SNP in TG and CAPN1 were different in this Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  8. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  9. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  10. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Youquan; Xie, Hui; Meng, Qiong; Jin, Dong; Yu, Bo; Sun, Hui; Lu, Shan; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as important human pathogens of public health concern. Many animals are the sources of STEC. In this study we determined the occurrence and characteristics of the STEC in yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. A total of 728 yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, 2012 and was screened for the presence of the stx1 and stx2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth. Of the 138 (18.96%) stx1 and/or stx2-positive samples, 85 (61.59%) were confirmed to have at least 1 STEC isolate present by culture isolation, from which 128 STEC isolates were recovered. All STEC isolates were serotyped, genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterized for the presence of 16 known virulence factors. Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O:H serotypes were identified in the 128 STEC isolates with 21 and 4 untypable for the O and H antigens respectively. One stx1 subtype (stx1a) and 5 stx2 subtypes (stx2a, stx2b, stx2c, stx2d and stx2g) were present in these STEC isolates. Apart from lpfAO157/OI-141, lpfAO157/OI-154, lpfAO113, katP and toxB which were all absent, other virulence factors screened (eaeA, iha, efa1, saa, paa, cnf1, cnf2, astA, subA, exhA and espP) were variably present in the 128 STEC isolates. PFGE were successful for all except 5 isolates and separated them into 67 different PFGE patterns. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality of these serotypes. This study was the first report on occurrence and characteristics of STEC isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, and extended the genetic diversity and reservoir host range of STEC. PMID:23776496

  11. Exogenous progesterone enhances ova and embryo quality following superstimulation of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Nasser, L F; Sá Filho, M F; Reis, E L; Rezende, C R; Mapletoft, R J; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-07-15

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous progesterone on superovulatory response and ova/embryo quality in Bos indicus donors superstimulated during the first follicular wave (FFW). We hypothesized that exogenous progesterone during gonadotropin treatments would improve ova and embryo quality. In Experiment 1, 18 Nelore cows were randomly allocated to three groups: (1) FFW; (2) FFW plus a progesterone-releasing device (FFW+P4); and (3) control (E2+P4). Cows in the FFW groups were superstimulated beginning at synchronized ovulation, whereas cows in the control group were superstimulated after synchronization of follicular wave emergence with estradiol plus progesterone (E2+P4). There were no differences in mean (± SD) numbers of transferable embryos between FFW+P4 (8.0 ± 4.5) and control (6.7 ± 4.8) groups, but both were higher (P = 0.006) than the FFW group (0.2 ± 0.4). In Experiment 2, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 20 Nelore donors; exogenous progesterone increased the number of transferable embryos (3.9 ± 3.4 vs. 1.3 ± 4.1, P = 0.003). In Experiment 3, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 10 Nelore donors except that cows were slaughtered 12 h after pLH (Lutropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada) treatment. More mature cumulus oocyte complex (COC) (expanded cumulus cell layers) were collected in the FFW+P4 group than in the FFW group (21.8 ± 13.1 vs. 10.8±14.7; P = 0.003). In summary, superovulatory response was satisfactory when FSH (Folltropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health) treatment was initiated at emergence of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, and the hypothesis that administration of exogenous progesterone during the treatment will improve oocyte and embryo quality was supported. PMID:21496903

  12. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P < 0.10) occurrence of calving difficulty than Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P < 0.10) birth weight (34.8 kg) than calves from Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P < 0.001) weaning weight (227.0 kg) than calves from Bos indicus crossbreds. Cows sired by Angus were lighter (P < 0.10) as mature cows (520.69 kg) than Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P < 0.05) hip height (124.7 cm) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Mature cows sired by Indu-Brazil had greater (P < 0.05) hip height (138.3 cm) than Gir crossbreds (133.8 cm). Differences among sire breeds were noted within cow age categories (2 through 14 yr of age) for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, calf survival rate (as a trait of cow), and calf crop weaned. Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  13. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mirae; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Tang, Yujiao; Kim, Moon S; Seong, Hye-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference cuts (group 1 [G1], including loin, tenderloin, and rib) and low-preference cuts (group 2 [G2], including brisket, topside, and shank). Meat samples were collected from 10 fattened cows. Crude fat content was significantly higher in G1 than in G2 (p<0.05). The amounts of crude protein and total free amino acid were negatively correlated with crude fat content (p<0.05). Overall G2 contained higher levels of free amino acids with antioxidant activity than G1. Antioxidant activities were also significantly higher in G2 compared with G1 (p<0.05). In conclusion, providing consumers with positive information about G2 as found in this study could help health-conscious consumers choosing among beef products and further promote increased consumption of low-preference beef cuts. PMID:27115864

  14. Stimulation of Ligninolytic Peroxidase Activity by Nitrogen Nutrients in the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    PubMed Central

    Kaal, Erwin E. J.; de Jong, Ed; Field, Jim A.

    1993-01-01

    Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55, a newly isolated wild-type white rot fungus, produced lignin peroxidase (LiP) in nitrogen (N)-sufficient glucose-peptone medium, whereas no LiP was detectable in N-limited medium. The production of LiP was induced by the peptide-containing components of this medium and also by soy bean protein. Furthermore, the production of manganese-dependent peroxidase was stimulated by organic N sources, although lower production was also evident in N-limited medium. Further research showed that the induction of LiP depended on the combination of pH and the type of N source. An amino acid mixture and ammonium induced LiP only at either pH 6 or 7.3, respectively. Peptone induced LiP activity at all pH values tested; however, the highest activity was observed at pH 7.3. The results presented here indicate that Bjerkandera spp. are distinct from the model white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produces ligninolytic peroxidases in response to N limitation. PMID:16349104

  15. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  16. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of Enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of Bos primigenius.

    PubMed

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Hairul Islam, Villianur Ibrahim; Bharanidharan, R; Raveendar, Sebastian; Lee, Jinwook; Kim, Do Hyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    In the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of Bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens Vibrio cholera, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Moreover it showed above 70% cell surface hydrophobicity, significant low-invasion ability and potential adherence capacity in Caco-2 cells when compared with the control. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) was greatly reduced in rumen bacteria treatment and ARBS-1 modulate the immune response by activating the IL-4 secretion in parallel to TNF-α suppression. The 16s rRNA gene sequence of the active isolates were identified as Enterococcus hirae (ARBS-1), Pediococcus acidilactici (ARBS-4) and Bacillus licheniformis (ARBS-7). This study revealed the probiotic bactericidal properties of E. hirae obtained from the rumen of B. primigenius with potential antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies with the strains may yield some novel probiotic product for livestock's. PMID:24609495

  17. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of an 11,450-year-old Aurochsen (Bos primigenius) from Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bos primigenius, the aurochs, is the wild ancestor of modern cattle breeds and was formerly widespread across Eurasia and northern Africa. After a progressive decline, the species became extinct in 1627. The origin of modern taurine breeds in Europe is debated. Archaeological and early genetic evidence point to a single Near Eastern origin and a subsequent spread during the diffusion of herding and farming. More recent genetic data are instead compatible with local domestication events or at least some level of local introgression from the aurochs. Here we present the analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of a pre-Neolithic Italian aurochs. Results In this study, we applied a combined strategy employing both multiplex PCR amplifications and 454 pyrosequencing technology to sequence the complete mitochondrial genome of an 11,450-year-old aurochs specimen from Central Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of the aurochs mtDNA genome supports the conclusions from previous studies of short mtDNA fragments - namely that Italian aurochsen were genetically very similar to modern cattle breeds, but highly divergent from the North-Central European aurochsen. Conclusions Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for several modern cattle and two pre-Neolithic mtDNA genomes from very different geographic areas. These data suggest that previously identified sub-groups within the widespread modern cattle mitochondrial T clade are polyphyletic, and they support the hypothesis that modern European breeds have multiple geographic origins. PMID:21281509

  18. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  19. Differences in PAR-2 activating potential by king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), salmon (Salmo salar), and bovine (Bos taurus) trypsin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmon trypsin is shown to increase secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 from human airway epithelial cells through activation of PAR-2. Secretion of IL-8 induced by king crab trypsin is observed in a different concentration range compared to salmon trypsin, and seems to be only partially related to PAR-2 activation. This report aim to identify differences in the molecular structure of king crab trypsin (Paralithodes camtschaticus) compared to salmon (Salmo salar) and bovine trypsin (Bos taurus) that might influence the ability to activate protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Results During purification king crab trypsin displayed stronger binding capacity to the anionic column used in fast protein liquid chromatography compared to fish trypsins, and was identified as a slightly bigger molecule. Measurements of enzymatic activity yielded no obvious differences between the trypsins tested. Molecular modelling showed that king crab trypsin has a large area with strong negative electrostatic potential compared to the smaller negative areas in bovine and salmon trypsins. Bovine and salmon trypsins also displayed areas with strong positive electrostatic potential, a feature lacking in the king crab trypsin. Furthermore we have identified 3 divergent positions (Asp196, Arg244, and Tyr247) located near the substrate binding pocket of king crab trypsin that might affect the binding and cleavage of PAR-2. Conclusion These preliminary results indicate that electrostatic interactions could be of importance in binding, cleavage and subsequent activation of PAR-2. PMID:23870109

  20. Energy requirements and cow/calf efficiency of Nellore and Continental and British Bos taurus x Nellore crosses.

    PubMed

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Lanna, D P D

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this work was to compare breed types with increasing percentage of Bos taurus on cow/calf energy requirements and preweaning efficiency. Forty mature, lactating, nonpregnant cows [10 Nellore (NL), 10 Canchim x Nellore (CN), 10 Angus x Nellore (AN), and 10 Simmental x Nellore (SN)] were randomized in blocks by calving date. Calves from cross-bred cows were sired by Canchim bulls (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu), whereas calves from NL cows were sired by Nellore bulls. Cows were individually fed a pelleted diet with 50% hay (alfalfa and coastcross) and 50% concentrate from calving to weaning (20 to 180 d post-partum). Estimated diet ME content was 2.24 Mcal/kg of DM. Individual cow DMI was adjusted every 14 d to keep shrunk BW and BCS constant. Shrunk BW and BCS were 430 +/- 12 kg and 4.7 +/- 0.09 for NL, 449 +/- 10 kg and 4.8 +/- 0.09 for CN, 496 +/- 10 kg and 5.0 +/- 0.09 for AN, and 507 +/- 12 kg and 5.1 +/- 0.09 for SN. At 40 d calves were allowed ad libitum access to the same diet. Milk yield was recorded using a weigh-suckle-weigh technique. Increasing B. taurus percentage had a linear effect (P < 0.01) on ME intake (MEI) of cow/calf pairs: 21.9 +/- 0.38 for Nellore, 23.6 +/- 0.35 for 31.5% B. taurus (CN), and 25.6 +/- 0.27 Mcal/d for 50% B. taurus (AN and SN). Bos taurus percentage was also positively associated with milk production. Nellore calves had lower (P < 0.05) weaning weight (kg) than crossbreds: 167 +/- 12 vs. 206 +/- 10 for 3/4 Canchim 1/4 Nellore (3/4C), 220 +/- 11 for 1/2 Canchim 1/4 Angus 1/4 Nellore (1/4A) and 228 +/- 11 for 1/2 Canchim 1/4 Simmental 1/4 Nellore (1/4S). Calf body composition was estimated at weaning using the 9-10-11th-rib section. Retained energy (Mcal) was greater (P < 0.05) in 1/4A (384 +/- 19.9) than in Nellore (298 +/- 21.6) and 3/4C calves (312 +/- 19.8), and was intermediate in 1/4S calves (333 +/- 21.6). Cow/calf energetic efficiency (kcal deposited/Mcal of MEI by the pair) was greater (P < 0.05) for AN (103

  1. Analysis of host genetic factors influencing African trypanosome species infection in a cohort of Tanzanian Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Morrison, Liam J; Black, Alana; Turner, C Michael R; Kambarage, Dominic M; Ballingall, Keith T

    2011-06-30

    Trypanosomosis caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma is a major health constraint to cattle production in many African countries. One hundred and seventy one Bos indicus cattle from traditional pastoral Maasai (87) and more intensively managed Boran (84) animals in Tanzania were screened by PCR for the presence of African animal trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei), using blood samples archived on FTA cards. All cattle screened for trypanosomes were also genotyped at the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB3 locus to investigate possible associations between host MHC and trypanosome infection. Overall, 23.4% of the 171 cattle tested positive for at least one of the three trypanosome species. The prevalence of individual trypanosome species was 8.8% (T. congolense), 4.7% (T. vivax) and 15.8% (T. brucei). The high prevalence of T. brucei compared with T. congolense and T. vivax was unexpected as this species has previously been considered to be of lesser importance in terms of African bovine trypanosomosis. Significantly higher numbers of Maasai cattle were infected with T. brucei (23.0%, p=0.009) and T. congolense (13.8%, p=0.019) compared with Boran cattle (8.3% and 3.6%, respectively). Analysis of BoLA-DRB3 diversity in this cohort identified extensive allelic diversity. Thirty-three BoLA-DRB3 PCR-RFLP defined alleles were identified. One allele (DRB3*15) was significantly associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, OR=2.71, p=0.034) of T. brucei infection and three alleles (DRB3*35, *16 and *23) were associated with increased risk of T. congolense infection. While further work is required to dissect the role of these alleles in susceptibility to T. brucei and T. congolense infections, this study demonstrates the utility of FTA archived blood samples in combined molecular analyses of both host and pathogen. PMID:21377802

  2. Stimulation of aryl metabolite production in the basidiomycete Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 with biosynthetic precursors and lignin degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Mester, T; Swarts, H J; Romero i Sole, S; de Bont, J A; Field, J A

    1997-01-01

    Aryl metabolites are known to have an important role in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. The addition of known precursors and aromatic acids representing lignin degradation products stimulated the production of aryl metabolites (veratryl alcohol, veratraldehyde, p-anisaldehyde, and 3-chloro-p-anisaldehyde) in the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. The presence of manganese (Mn) is known to inhibit the biosynthesis of veratryl alcohol (T. Mester, E. de Jong, and J.A. Field, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:1881-1887, 1995). A new finding of this study was that the production of the other aryl metabolites, p-anisaldehyde and 3-chloro-p-anisaldehyde, was also inhibited by Mn. We attempted to bypass the Mn-inhibited step in the biosynthesis of aryl metabolites by the addition of known and suspected precursors. Most of these compounds were not able to bypass the inhibiting effect of Mn. Only the fully methylated precursors (veratrate, p-anisate, and 3-chloro-p-anisate) provided similar concentrations of aryl metabolites in the presence and absence of Mn, indicating that Mn does not influence the reduction of the benzylic acid group. The addition of deuterated benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate resulted in the formation of deuterated aryl metabolites, indicating that these aromatic acids entered into the biosynthetic pathway and were common intermediates to all aryl metabolites. Only deuterated chlorinated anisyl metabolites were produced when the cultures were supplemented with deuterated 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate. This observation combined with the fact that 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate is a natural product of Bjerkandera spp. (H. J. Swarts, F. J. M. Verhagen, J. A. Field, and J. B. P. A. Wijnberg, Phytochemistry 42:1699-1701, 1996) suggest that it is a possible intermediate in chlorinated anisyl metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:9143129

  3. Composite Selection Signals for Complex Traits Exemplified Through Bovine Stature Using Multibreed Cohorts of European and African Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and molecular architecture of complex traits is important in domestic animals. Due to phenotypic selection, genomic regions develop unique patterns of genetic diversity called signatures of selection, which are challenging to detect, especially for complex polygenic traits. In this study, we applied the composite selection signals (CSS) method to investigate evidence of positive selection in a complex polygenic trait by examining stature in phenotypically diverse cattle comprising 47 European and 8 African Bos taurus breeds, utilizing a panel of 38,033 SNPs genotyped on 1106 animals. CSS were computed for phenotypic contrasts between multibreed cohorts of cattle by classifying the breeds according to their documented wither height to detect the candidate regions under selection. Using the CSS method, clusters of signatures of selection were detected at 26 regions (9 in European and 17 in African cohorts) on 13 bovine autosomes. Using comparative mapping information on human height, 30 candidate genes mapped at 12 selection regions (on 8 autosomes) could be linked to bovine stature diversity. Of these 12 candidate gene regions, three contained known genes (i.e., NCAPG-LCORL, FBP2-PTCH1, and PLAG1-CHCHD7) related to bovine stature, and nine were not previously described in cattle (five in European and four in African cohorts). Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of CSS coupled with strategies of combining multibreed datasets in the identification and discovery of genomic regions underlying complex traits. Characterization of multiple signatures of selection and their underlying candidate genes will elucidate the polygenic nature of stature across cattle breeds. PMID:25931611

  4. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  5. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Uzzaman, Md. Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature. PMID:25178382

  6. Age-related changes in the morphology and protein expression of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Kun; Yangyang, Pan; He, Junfeng; Yu, Sijiu; Cui, Yan

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology and expression of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), S100 β, and caspase-3 of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens). ANIMALS 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES Yaks were allocated to 3 groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old, 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]) and euthanized. The thymus was harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia. Morphological characteristics were assessed by histologic examination and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of CD3, S100 β, and caspase-3 mRNA and protein was measured by quantitative real-time PCR assay, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS As age increased, functional thymic tissue was replaced with adipose and connective tissues and the thymic capsule thickened. Expression of CD3 and S100 β mRNA and protein decreased with age, whereas expression of caspase-3 mRNA and protein increased with age. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD3-positive thymocytes were located within both the thymic cortex and medulla, S100 β-positive thymic dendritic cells were located in the corticomedullary junction and medulla, and caspase-3-positive thymocytes were diffusely scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that age-related thymic changes in yaks that live on highland plateaus were similar to those observed in humans and other mammals. Thus, yaks might serve as a model to study thymic immune system adaptations to high elevations. PMID:27227493

  7. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review.

    PubMed

    Uzzaman, Md Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the F IS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature. PMID:25178382

  8. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. PMID:26130602

  9. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  10. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P < 0.05) postpartum teat length than cows of all other crossbred groups and smaller (P < 0.10) postpartum teat diameter than Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P < 0.10) postpartum udder support scores (more well-supported udders) than Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  11. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  12. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P < .001) than that of Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P < .05) in log10 rectal temperature on the hottest summer date. On both the hottest and coolest dates in Trial 1, Angus heifers had significantly faster respiration rates than Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P < .001) than in Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P < .05). Considering rank order among breeds, Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different

  13. Manganese Is Not Required for Biobleaching of Oxygen-Delignified Kraft Pulp by the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Lema, J.; Field, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 extensively delignified and bleached oxygen-delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp handsheets. Biologically mediated brightness gains of up to 14 ISO (International Standards Organization units) were obtained, providing high final brightness values of up to 80% ISO. In nitrogen-limited cultures (2.2 mM N), manganese (Mn) greatly improved manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) production. However, the biobleaching was not affected by the Mn nutrient regimen, ranging from 1,000 (mu)M added Mn to below the detection limit of 0.26 (mu)M Mn in EDTA-extracted pulp medium. The lowest Mn concentration tested was at least several orders of magnitude lower than the K(infm) known for MnP. Consequently, it was concluded that Mn is not required for biobleaching in Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. Nonetheless, fast protein liquid chromatography profiles indicated that MnP was the predominant oxidative enzyme produced even under culture conditions in the near absence of manganese. High nitrogen (22 mM N) and exogenous veratryl alcohol (2 mM) repressed biobleaching in Mn-deficient but not in Mn-sufficient culture medium. No correlation was observed between the titers of extracellular peroxidases and the biobleaching. However, the decolorization rate of the polyaromatic dye Poly R-478 was moderately correlated to the biobleaching under a wide range of Mn and N nutrient regimens. PMID:16535591

  14. Visualization of Flow Separation Around an Atmospheric Entry Capsule at Low-Subsonic Mach Number Using Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen E.; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of visualization of separated flow around a generic entry capsule that resembles the Apollo Command Module (CM) and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The model was tested at flow speeds up to Mach 0.4 at a single angle of attack of 28 degrees. For manned spacecraft using capsule-shaped vehicles, certain flight operations such as emergency abort maneuvers soon after launch and flight just prior to parachute deployment during the final stages of entry, the command module may fly at low Mach number. Under these flow conditions, the separated flow generated from the heat-shield surface on both windward and leeward sides of the capsule dominates the wake flow downstream of the capsule. In this paper, flow visualization of the separated flow was conducted using the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method, which has the capability of visualizing significantly separated wake flows without the particle seeding required by other techniques. Experimental results herein show that BOS has detection capability of density changes on the order of 10(sup-5).

  15. [The changes of expression and Fc-gamma-receptor's polypeptide composition of fetal small intestine enterocytes in Bos primigenius taurus L].

    PubMed

    Masiuk, D M; Nedzvets'kyĭ, V S; Tsvilikhovs'kyĭ, M I; Nerush, P O

    2008-01-01

    The expression and polypeptide composition of Fc-gamma-receptors of enterocytes from Bos primigenius taurus L. intestine at 3-, 5-, 7-, 9- month of fetal development was investigated. The results of immunobloting show similar composition of Fc-gamma-receptors extracted from apical and basolateral membranes. The proteins that bind IgG after PAAG electrophoresis and transferring on nitrocellulose were observed as 120, 87, 72 and 43 kDa polypeptide line. The changes of each polypeptide contents were related to the changes of total content of Fc-gamma-receptor proteins. The rise in concentration of Fc-gamma-receptors on apical membrane was observed from 3-rd to 7-th month of fetal development. Maximal concentration of these proteins was detected on enterocytes at 7-th month of fetal development. Fc-gamma-receptors content on basolateral side was higher than on apical side. The presence of Fc-gamma-receptors on enterocyte's membrane indicates on active recycling of these receptors on plasma membrane and reflects early development of immune system in Bos primigenius taurus L. fetus. PMID:18416181

  16. Comparison of synthetic oviductal fluid and G1/G2 medium under low-1 oxygen atmosphere on embryo production and pregnancy rates in Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Perecin, F; Seneda, M M

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we evaluated whether embryo development and pregnancy rates would be affected by culturing bovine Bos indicus embryos in Synthetic Oviductal Fluid with amino acids (SOFaa) or G1/G2 sequential medium under a low-oxygen atmosphere. Using Ovum Pick Up, we obtained 1,538 oocytes, divided into G1/G2 (n = 783) and SOFaa (n = 755). No difference was observed for blastocyst development among the groups (27.8% ± 14.6 and 34.9% ± 20.0 for G1/G2 and SOFaa respectively, p > 0.05). Transferring the embryos (n = 450) from both groups to recipients resulted in similar pregnancy rates for the G1/G2 (38.4% n = 78/203) compared to the SOFaa (39.7% n = 98/247). Our findings confirm that Bos indicus embryos cultured in SOFaa and G1/G2 under low-oxygen atmosphere have similar in vitro (blastocyst rate) and in vivo (pregnancy rate) developmental capacity. However, embryos cultured in G1/G2 medium have higher cleavage than those cultured in SOFaa medium. PMID:22448771

  17. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg

  18. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species. PMID:27221255

  19. Synchronization of ovulation in beef cows (Bos indicus) using GnRH, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

    PubMed

    Barros, C M; Moreira, M B; Figueiredo, R A; Teixeira, A B; Trinca, L A

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for synchronizing ovulation in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) at random stages of the estrous cycle were assigned to 1 of the following treatments: Group GP controls (nonlactating, n=7) received GnRH agonist (Day 0) and PGF2alpha (Day 7); while Groups GPG (nonlactating, n=8) and GPG-L (lactating, n=9) cows were given GnRH (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and GnRH again (Day 8, 30 h after PGF2alpha). A new follicular wave was observed 1.79+/-0.34 d after GnRH in 19/24 cows. After PGF2alpha, ovulation occurred in 19/24 cows (6/7 GP, 6/8 GPG, 7/9 GPG-L). Most cows (83.3%) exhibited a dominant follicle just before PGF2alpha, and 17/19 ovulatory follicles were from a new follicular wave. There was a more precise synchrony of ovulation (within 12 h) in cows that received a second dose of GnRH (GPG and GPG-L) than controls (GP, ovulation within 48 h; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, lactating Nelore cows with a visible corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography were allocated to 2 treatments: Group GPE (n=10) received GnRH agonist (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and estradiol benzoate (EB; Day 8, 24 h after PGF2alpha); while Group EPE (n=11), received EB (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 9) and EB (Day 10, 24 h after PGF2alpha). Emergence of a new follicular wave was observed 1.6+/-0.31 d after GnRH (Group GPE). After EB injection (Day 8) ovulation was observed at 45.38+/-2.03 h in 7/10 cows within 12 h. In Group EPE the emergence of a new follicular wave was observed later (4.36+/-0.31 d) than in Group GEP (1.6+/-0.31 d; P<0.001). After the second EB injection (Day 10) ovulation was observed at 44.16+/-2.21 h within 12 (7/11 cows) or 18 h (8/11 cows). All 3 treatments were effective in synchronizing ovulation in beef cows. However, GPE and, particularly, EPE treatments offer a promising alternative to the GPG protocol in timed artificial insemination of beef cattle, due to the low cost of EB compared with GnRH agonists. PMID

  20. Induction of ovarian follicular wave emergence and ovulation in progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocols for Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Baldrighi, J M; Sales, J N S; Crepaldi, G A; Carvalho, J B P; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (FWE) and ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) synchronization protocols using norgestomet ear implants (NORG) in Bos indicus cattle. In Experiment 1, the synchronization of FWE was evaluated when two different estradiol esters in different doses [2mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 2.5mg EV or 5mg estradiol valerate (EV)] were administered with NORG implant insertion in B. indicus cattle (estrous cyclic heifers and cows with suckling calves; n=10 per treatment). After estradiol treatment, ovarian ultrasonic exams were performed once daily to detect the interval between treatment and FWE. There were significant treatment-by-animal category interaction (P=0.05) on the interval from the estradiol treatment to FWE. An earlier (P<0.0001) and less variable (P=0.02) interval from estradiol treatment to FWE was observed in heifers treated with EB (2.5±0.2; mean±SE) than in those treated with 2.5mg EV (4.2±0.3) or 5mg EV (6.1±0.6). Cows treated with 5mg EV (4.0±0.5) had longer (P=0.05) interval than cows receiving EB (2.5±0.2), however, there was an intermediate interval in those cows treated with 2.5mg EV (3.1±0.4). In Experiment 2, the number of uses of the NORG implant (new; n=305 or previously used once; n=314) and three different ovulation induction hormones [0.5mg estradiol cypionate (EC) at implant removal (n=205), 1mg EB given 24h after implant removal (n=219), or 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH) given at FTAI (n=195)] were evaluated in Nelore heifers (2×3 factorial design). Similar pregnancy per AI (P/AI; 30 days after FTAI; P>0.05) were achieved using each of the three ovulation induction hormones (EB=40.6%; EC=48.3%, or GnRH=48.7%) and with a new (47.2%) or once-used NORG implant (44.3%). In Experiment 3, the effect of different ovulation induction hormones for FTAI [1mg EC at NORG implant removal (n=228), 10μg buserelin acetate at FTAI (GnRH; n

  1. Effect of slaughter age on the antioxidant enzyme activity, color, and oxidative stability of Korean Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) cow beef.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soohyun; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kang, Sun Moon

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of slaughter age on the antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid and protein oxidation, and color stability in striploins (M. longissimus lumborum) from Korean Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) cows of different age groups (1.9 to 3.7, 4.0 to 4.8, 5.0 to 5.7, 6.0 to 6.9, and 7.5 to 11.5yr). Myoglobin content and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P<0.05) increased in older cow beef. During refrigerated storage, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the meat from the older cows. The beef from older cows was darker and had lower color stability. These findings suggest that slaughter age has a negative effect on the color and lipid stability of Hanwoo cow beef. PMID:26025115

  2. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  3. Strategies for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to enhance genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle: Comparison of commercially available SNP chips.

    PubMed

    Boison, S A; Santos, D J A; Utsunomiya, A H T; Carvalheiro, R; Neves, H H R; O'Brien, A M Perez; Garcia, J F; Sölkner, J; da Silva, M V G B

    2015-07-01

    Genotype imputation is widely used as a cost-effective strategy in genomic evaluation of cattle. Key determinants of imputation accuracies, such as linkage disequilibrium patterns, marker densities, and ascertainment bias, differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Consequently, there is a need to investigate effectiveness of genotype imputation in indicine breeds. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate strategies and factors affecting the accuracy of genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle. Four imputation scenarios were studied using 471 sires and 1,644 dams genotyped on Illumina BovineHD (HD-777K; San Diego, CA) and BovineSNP50 (50K) chips, respectively. Scenarios were based on which reference high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel (HDP) should be adopted [HD-777K, 50K, and GeneSeek GGP-75Ki (Lincoln, NE)]. Depending on the scenario, validation animals had their genotypes masked for one of the lower-density panels: Illumina (3K, 7K, and 50K) and GeneSeek (SGGP-20Ki and GGP-75Ki). We randomly selected 171 sires as reference and 300 as validation for all the scenarios. Additionally, all sires were used as reference and the 1,644 dams were imputed for validation. Genotypes of 98 individuals with 4 and more offspring were completely masked and imputed. Imputation algorithms FImpute and Beagle v3.3 and v4 were used. Imputation accuracies were measured using the correlation and allelic correct rate. FImpute resulted in highest accuracies, whereas Beagle 3.3 gave the least-accurate imputations. Accuracies evaluated as correlation (allelic correct rate) ranged from 0.910 (0.942) to 0.961 (0.974) using 50K as HDP and with 3K (7K) as low-density panels. With GGP-75Ki as HDP, accuracies were moderate for 3K, 7K, and 50K, but high for SGGP-20Ki. The use of HD-777K as HDP resulted in accuracies of 0.888 (3K), 0.941 (7K), 0.980 (SGGP-20Ki), 0.982 (50K), and 0.993 (GGP-75Ki). Ungenotyped individuals were imputed with an

  4. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  5. NaCl-, protease-tolerant and cold-active endoglucanase from Paenibacillus sp. YD236 isolated from the feces of Bos frontalis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mingjie; Yang, Yunjuan; Tang, Xianghua; Shen, Jidong; Xu, Bo; Li, Junjun; Wu, Qian; Zhou, Junpei; Ding, Junmei; Han, Nanyu; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-01-01

    Bos frontalis, which consumes bamboo and weeds, may have evolved unique gastrointestinal microorganisms that digest cellulase. A Paenibacillus sp. YD236 strain was isolated from B. frontalis feces, from which a GH8 endoglucanase gene, pglue8 (1107 bp, 54.5 % GC content), encoding a 368-residue polypeptide (PgluE8, 40.4 kDa) was cloned. PgluE8 efficiently hydrolyzed barley-β-d-glucan followed by CMC-Na, soluble starch, laminarin, and glucan from black yeast optimally at pH 5.5 and 50 °C, and retained 78.6, 41.6, and 34.5 % maximum activity when assayed at 20, 10, and 0 °C, respectively. Enzyme activity remained above 176.6 % after treatment with 10.0 mM β-mercaptoethanol, and was 83.0, 78, and 56 % after pre-incubation in 30 % (w/v) NaCl, 16.67 mg/mL trypsin, and 160.0 mg/mL protease K, respectively. Cys23 and Cys364 residues were critical for PgluE8 activity. pglue8, identified from B. frontalis feces for the first time in this study, is a potential alternative for applications including food processing, washing, and animal feed preparation. PMID:27376014

  6. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  7. Muon-spin relaxation study of the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B  =  Fe, Y, ln)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. C.; Xiao, F.; Thomas, I. O.; Clark, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Cornish, G. A.; Blundell, S. J.; Hayes, W.; Paul, A. K.; Felser, C.; Jansen, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of zero-field muon-spin relaxation measurements made on the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B=\\text{Fe},\\text{Y},\\text{In} ). Spontaneous muon-spin precession indicative of quasistatic long range magnetic ordering is observed in Sr2FeOsO6 within the AF1 antiferromagnetic phase for temperatures below {{T}\\text{N}}=135+/- 2 K. Upon cooling below {{T}2}≈ 67 K the oscillations cease to be resolvable owing to the coexistence of the AF1 and AF2 phases, which leads to a broader range of internal magnetic fields. Using density functional calculations we identify a candidate muon stopping site within the unit cell, which dipole field simulations show to be consistent with the proposed magnetic structure. The possibility of incommensurate magnetic ordering is discussed for temperatures below {{T}\\text{N}}=53 K and 25 K for Sr2YOsO6 and Sr2InOsO6, respectively.

  8. Responses of dairy heifers to the visual cliff formed by a herringbone milking pit: evidence of fear of heights in cows (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Arnold, Naomi Adele; Ng, Kim Tee; Jongman, Ellen Caroline; Hemsworth, Paul Hamilton

    2007-11-01

    The ability of cows (Bos taurus) to perceive depth has never been experimentally investigated. If cows can perceive depth, the milking pit in commercial milking facilities may be fear provoking for dairy cows, as past research has shown that most land-dwelling species possess an instinctive fear of heights. In the current study, 12 dairy heifers (1-year-old cows) were exposed to a milking pit (depth-exposed group) and 13 heifers (control group) were exposed to a standard change in the environment while they moved through a milking facility over a 5-day treatment period. Heifers in the depth-exposed group showed a higher heart rate (p < .05) and stopped more often (p < .05) than did those in the control group; persistence of heart rate but not of behavioral responses on repeated exposures indicated that some habituation to the depth stimulus had occurred. Depth exposure had no effect on cortisol concentrations or on ease of handling. These results indicate that heifers responded differently to a change in depth than they did to a standard change in the environment and provide evidence of both depth perception and acute fear of heights in cows. PMID:18085928

  9. in silico identification of cross affinity towards Cry1Ac pesticidal protein with receptor enzyme in Bos taurus and sequence, structure analysis of crystal proteins for stability

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, King Solomon; Nachimuthu, Ramesh; Thiagarajan, Prabha; Velu, Rajesh Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Any novel protein introduced into the GM crops need to be evaluated for cross affinity on living organisms. Many researchers are currently focusing on the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on soil and microbial diversity by field experiments. In spite of this, in silico approach might be helpful to elucidate the impact of cry genes. The crystal a protein which was produced by Bt at the time of sporulation has been used as a biological pesticide to target the insectivorous pests like Cry1Ac for Helicoverpa armigera and Cry2Ab for Spodoptera sp. and Heliothis sp. Here, we present the comprehensive in silico analysis of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins with available in silico tools, databases and docking servers. Molecular docking of Cry1Ac with procarboxypeptidase from Helicoverpa armigera and Cry1Ac with Leucine aminopeptidase from Bos taurus has showed the 125th amino acid position to be the preference site of Cry1Ac protein. The structures were compared with each other and it showed 5% of similarity. The cross affinity of this toxin that have confirmed the earlier reports of ill effects of Bt cotton consumed by cattle. PMID:24023423

  10. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle. PMID:26070369

  11. Muon-spin relaxation study of the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B  =  Fe, Y, ln).

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; Xiao, F; Thomas, I O; Clark, S J; Lancaster, T; Cornish, G A; Blundell, S J; Hayes, W; Paul, A K; Felser, C; Jansen, M

    2016-02-24

    We present the results of zero-field muon-spin relaxation measurements made on the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B = Fe,Y, In). Spontaneous muon-spin precession indicative of quasistatic long range magnetic ordering is observed in Sr2FeOsO6 within the AF1 antiferromagnetic phase for temperatures below [Formula: see text] K. Upon cooling below T2≈67 K the oscillations cease to be resolvable owing to the coexistence of the AF1 and AF2 phases, which leads to a broader range of internal magnetic fields. Using density functional calculations we identify a candidate muon stopping site within the unit cell, which dipole field simulations show to be consistent with the proposed magnetic structure. The possibility of incommensurate magnetic ordering is discussed for temperatures below TN = 53 K and 25 K for Sr2YOsO6 and Sr2InOsO6, respectively. PMID:26807612

  12. PREVALENCE OF SULFONAMIDE AND FLORFENICOL RESISTANCE GENES IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM YAKS (BOS GRUNNIENS) AND HERDSMEN IN THE TIBETAN PASTURE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anyun; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Hongning; Lei, Changwei; Xu, Changwen; Guan, Zhongbin; Liu, Bihui; Huang, Xi; Peng, Linyao

    2015-07-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and prevalence of resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) and herdsmen in nine plateau pastures in Tibet, we isolated 184 nonidentical strains of E. coli from yaks and herdsmen. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobials was conducted and the prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) and florfenicol resistance genes (floR, cfr, cmlA, fexA, pexA, and estDL136) was determined. Escherichia coli isolated from yaks had a high resistance rate to sulfamethoxazole (44%), sulphafurazole (40.4%), and florfenicol (11.4%). Escherichia coli isolated from herdsmen had a high resistance rate to sulfamethoxazole (57%) and sulphafurazole (51%). In addition, sul genes were present in 93% of sulfonamide-resistant isolates (84/90), and 17 floR genes and four cmlA genes were found in 19 florfenicol-resistant isolates. Even though florfenicol is prohibited from use in humans, three floR genes were detected in strains isolated from herdsmen. The three floR-positive isolates from herdsmen had pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns similar to isolates from yaks. In addition to documenting the sul and floR genes in E. coli isolated from yaks and herdsmen in the Tibetan pasture, we demonstrated the potential risk that antimicrobial-resistant E. coli could spread among herdsmen and yaks. PMID:25973625

  13. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  14. Qué tipos hay de estudios clínicos

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre los diversos tipos de estudios clínicos de cáncer, como son los estudios de tratamiento, de prevención, de exámenes selectivos de detección, de cuidados médicos de apoyo y de cuidados paliativos.

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide Production as a Limiting Factor in Xenobiotic Compound Oxidation by Nitrogen-Sufficient Cultures of Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55 Overproducing Peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Kotterman, M.; Wasseveld, R. A.; Field, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overproduction of ligninolytic peroxidase by the N-deregulated white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 under nitrogen-sufficient conditions had no noteworthy effect on the oxidation of anthracene or the decolorization of the polymeric aromatic dye Poly R-478 in 6-day-old cultures. Only when the endogenous production of H(inf2)O(inf2) was increased by the addition of extra oxygen and glucose could a 2.5-fold increase in the anthracene oxidation rate and a 6-fold increase in the Poly R-478 decolorization rate be observed in high-N cultures with 10- to 35-fold higher peroxidase activities than N-limited cultures. Further increase of the H(inf2)O(inf2) generation rate in high-N cultures with glucose oxidase led to an additional 3.5-fold increase in the anthracene oxidation rate (350 mg liter(sup-1) day(sup-1)) and a 10-fold increase in the Poly R-478 decolorization rate. These results indicate that xenobiotic compound oxidation by white rot fungi cannot be improved by overproducing peroxidases without increasing the endogenous production of H(inf2)O(inf2). The absence of Mn, which decreased the manganese peroxidase titers and increased the lignin peroxidase titers, was associated with up to 95% improvements in the anthracene oxidation rate. The simultaneous presence of Mn and veratryl alcohol was observed to have a synergistic negative effect on the oxidation of anthracene and the decolorization of Poly R-478. PMID:16535276

  16. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan J.; Wiener, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds, and 6 dual-purpose breeds), and four different beef-vs.-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS) regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57%) of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs), 134 CSSs (33%) were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-Four-breed CSSs) and 39 CSSs (9%) were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs). For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5183 BioMart-extracted genes) linked to dairy and meat production, stature, and coat color traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behavior, immune response, and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as “divergence signals,” which may be useful in characterizing and protecting livestock genetic diversity. PMID:26029239

  17. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Methodology Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades. PMID:26513361

  18. Ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production, and pregnancy rates from a large-scale commercial program using Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Melo Sterza, F A; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Sanches, B V; Rubin, K C P; Seneda, M M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with < 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean ± SEM) 30.84 ± 0.88 and 23.35 ± 0.7 (average of 8.1 ± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 ± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 ± 2.04, 32.61 ± 0.50, 22.13 ± 0.50, and 10.26 ± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates. PMID:21334055

  19. A Novel Mutation in the Maternally Imprinted PEG3 Domain Results in a Loss of MIMT1 Expression and Causes Abortions and Stillbirths in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Venhoranta, Heli; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; McKay, Stephanie D.; Flyckt, Antti; Taponen, Juhani; Schnabel, Robert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Szczerbal, Izabela; Lohi, Hannes; Fries, Ruedi; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Switonski, Marek; Andersson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations resulting in late abortions and stillbirths affect the economic wellbeing of producers and the welfare of cattle in breeding programs. An extremely high incidence of stillbirths of “half-sized” calves of normal karyotype and uninflated lungs was diagnosed in the progeny of the Finnish Ayrshire (Bos taurus) bull - YN51. No other visible anatomical abnormalities were apparent in the stillborn calves. We herein describe the positional identification of a 110 kb microdeletion in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain that results in a loss of paternal MIMT1 expression and causes late term abortion and stillbirth in cattle. Using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip we performed a genome-wide half-sib linkage analysis that identified a 13.3 Mb associated region on BTA18 containing the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain. Within this cluster we found a 110 kb microdeletion that removes a part of the non-protein coding MER1 repeat containing imprinted transcript 1 gene (MIMT1). To confirm the elimination of gene expression in calves inheriting this deletion, we examined the mRNA levels of the three maternally imprinted genes within the PEG3 domain, in brain and cotyledon tissue collected from eight fetuses sired by the proband. None of the fetuses that inherited the microdeletion expressed MIMT1 in either tissue. The mutation, when inherited from the sire, is semi-lethal for his progeny with an observed mortality rate of 85%. The survival of 15% is presumably due to the incomplete silencing of maternally inherited MIMT1 alleles. We designed a PCR-based assay to confirm the existence of the microdeletion in the MIMT1 region that can be used to assist cattle breeders in preventing the stillbirths. PMID:21152099

  20. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P < 0.05). The protein spot weighing 15.52 ± 0.53 kDa with a pI value of 5.78 ± 0.12 is highlighted by its high abundance in bulls with low semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. PMID:27118515

  1. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya M.; Koringa, Prakash G.; Nathani, Neelam M.; Patel, Namrata V.; Shah, Tejash M.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  2. A pre-synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, Libia; RUBIO, Ivette; CORRO, Manuel; COHEN, Abraham; ORIHUELA, Agustín; GALINA, Carlos S.; PABLOS, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if pre-synchronization would enhance the number of animals cycling prior to conventional breeding at 45 days irrespective of the length of calf separation. Multiparous Bos indicus cows were allotted in four groups (n = 10). Control group (C) dams remained with their calves; groups G24, G48 and G72, which were partially weaned for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, were estrus synchronized using a controlled internal drug. These procedures were performed at 25 days and again at 45 days postpartum. The number of follicles, presence of a corpus luteum and back fat thickness (BFT) were determined by ultrasound. The proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation at day 25 postpartum was statistically different between the control and treated groups, with the values being 20, 60, 50 and 70 for the control, G24, G48 and G72 groups respectively (P < 0.05). At days 45 postpartum, the proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation was different in group G48 compared with the other groups (P <0.05). The average BFT and body condition score for the four experimental groups in the two periods were similar (P >0.05). Animals with a higher proportion of follicles from 17 to 21 mm, BFT values above 3.5 mm and a regular body condition were significantly different regardless of whether the dams remained with their calves or were separated, regardless of the length of this event. It can be concluded that (1) a pre-synchronization program at day 25 could trigger the onset of ovarian activity and facilitate a breeding program at day 50 and (2) temporary weaning enhances the effect of a pre-synchronization program. PMID:25739397

  3. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  4. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  5. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  6. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. PMID:26852329

  7. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P<0.05) than PR and MAI. Similarly, FL and DOT heifers had greater (P<0.05) concentrations than PR and MAI, with EIM intermediate. Creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in FL and EIM heifers compared with the other treatments, with a similar pattern seen in the cows. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL heifers compared with other treatments in the 8- to 24-h and 24- to 96-h periods postprocedures, and in cows were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL and DOT compared with PR in the 24- to 96-h period. Behavioral responses complemented the physiological responses; standing head down was shown by more (P<0.05) FL cows and heifers to 3 d postprocedures compared with other treatments, although there was no difference between FL and DOT heifers at the end of the day of procedures. At this same time, fewer (P<0.05) FL and DOT heifers and cows were observed feeding compared with other treatments, although in cows there was no difference between FL, DOT, and EIM. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude

  8. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n = 340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n = 297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and ≥6 months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n = 1), C. bovis (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 3) and C. suis (n = 1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not

  9. Multispecific Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) from Bos taurus Has High Affinity and Slow Binding Kinetics towards Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao; Garza, Denisse; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Chang, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, SLC22A1), like many solute carrier 22 (SLC22) family members, is important for the disposition of clinically important drugs, metabolites and signaling molecules. Several studies suggest that SLC22 family (eg. organic anion transporters or OATs and OCTs) bind and possibly transport prostaglandins with relatively high affinity (submicromolar). The affinities of OCT1 and OATs toward PGE2 and PGF2a reported in these cell-based transport studies are considerably greater than for xenobiotics and natural metabolite substrates—in many cases over 100-fold higher. This raises the possibility that prostaglandins are key endogenous substrates and/or that they act on the transporter in a manner different from other substrates such as xenobiotics and lower affinity metabolites. To further investigate OCT1—prostaglandin interactions, we designed biophysical studies using purified bovine OCT1 (Bos taurus, btOCT1/SLC22A1) with PGE2 analogs, in fluorescently labeled and label-free formats. Using fluorescence polarization (FP), we detected a binding of btOCT1 to the PGE2-Rhodamine conjugate at submicromolar affinity, consistent with affinity data for PGE2 from cells over-expressing the related human OCT1. Using purified native btOCT1 as analyte and biotinylated PGE2 analog as ligand, our data from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that btOCT1 specifically interacts to PGE2 with KD values in the hundred nanomolar range. BtOCT1 also demonstrated a slow association (ka) in the range of 103 M-1s-1 and an even slower dissociation rate (kd) in the range of 10−4 s-1 for PGE2, suggesting the possibility of a different mode of binding compared to other structurally unrelated transported substrates of low-affinity (eg. drugs, metabolites). Our results complement in vitro transport studies and provide direct evidence that OCT1—which is normally expressed in liver and other tissues—interacts with prostaglandin analogs. While it is not

  10. Similar rates of chromosomal aberrant secondary oocytes in two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds as determined by dual-color FISH.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Nicodemo, D; Cosenza, G; Peretti, V; Iannuzzi, A; Di Meo, G P; Ramunno, L; Iannuzzi, L; Rubes, J; Di Berardino, D

    2012-02-01

    In vitro-matured metaphase II (MII) oocytes with corresponding first polar bodies (I pb) from two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds have been investigated to provide specific data upon the incidence of aneuploidy. A total of 165 and 140 in vitro-matured MII oocytes of the Podolian (PO) and Maremmana (MA) breeds, respectively, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Xcen and five chromosome-specific painting probes. Oocytes with unreduced chromosome number were 13.3% and 6.4% in the two breeds, respectively, averaging 10.2%. In the PO, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb analyzed, two oocytes were nullisomic for chromosome 5 (2.0%) and one disomic for the same chromosome (1.0%). In the MA, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb, one oocyte was found nullisomic for chromosome 5 (1.0%) and one was disomic for the X chromosome (1.0%). Out of 200 MII oocytes + I pb, the mean rate of aneuploidy (nullisomy + disomy) for the two chromosomes scored was 2.5%, of which 1.5% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. By averaging these data with those previously reported on dairy cattle, the overall incidence of aneuploidy in cattle, as a species, was 2.25%, of which 1.25% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. The results so far achieved indicate similar rates of aneuploidy among the four cattle breeds investigated. Interspecific comparison between cattle (Xcen-5 probes) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) (1-10 probes) also reveal similar rates. Further studies are needed that use more probes to investigate the interchromosomal effect. Establishing a baseline level of aneuploidy for each species/breed could also be useful for improving the in vitro production of embryos destined to the embryo transfer industry as well as for monitoring future trends of the reproductive health of domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:22056011

  11. X-Y aneuploidy rate in sperm of two "minor" breeds of cattle (Bos taurus) by using dual color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Nicodemo, D; Peretti, V; Marino, G; Iannuzzi, A; Cosenza, G; Di Meo, G P; Ramunno, L; Iannuzzi, L; Rubes, J; Di Berardino, D

    2012-08-01

    The present study reports on the frequency of X-Y aneuploidy in the sperm population of two minor cattle breeds reared in Italy, namely Modicana and Agerolese, which are listed in the "Anagraphic Register of autochthonous cattle populations with limited distribution". More than 50 000 sperm nuclei from 11 subjects (5 and 6, respectively for each breed) have been analyzed by the fluorescent in situ hybridization with the Xcen and Y-chromosome specific painting probes. The fraction of X- and Y-bearing sperm was close to the 1:1 ratio in the Modicana breed, whereas in the Agerolese the Y-fraction was significantly higher (P < 0.002) compared to the X-counterpart. The mean rates of X-Y aneuploidy were 0.510 and 0.466%, respectively, in the two breeds; no significant differences were found among individual bulls within each breed. Average frequencies of disomic and diploid sperm were 0.425 and 0.085% in the former and 0.380 and 0.086% in the latter. In both breeds, (a) disomy was significantly more frequent than diploidy (P < 0.01), (b) YY disomy was significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent than XY or XX; (c) MI errors (XY disomy) were significantly (P < 0.01) less represented than MII (XX + YY disomy). Compared to the dairy (Italian Friesian and Brown) and meat (Podolian and Maremmana) breeds previously analyzed, the "minor" breeds investigated in the present study showed a significantly (P < 0.002) higher rate of X-Y aneuploidy (0.486 vs. 0.159 and 0.190%, respectively). Considering all the breeds analyzed -so far- and assuming no significant interchromosomal effect, the baseline level of aneuploidy in the sperm population of the species Bos taurus was estimated as 5.19%. Establishing the baseline level of aneuploidy in the sperm population of the various livestock species/breeds engaged in animal production could reveal useful for monitoring future trends of their reproductive health, especially in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID

  12. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Bodo; Baes, Christine; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Kühn, Christa

    2009-01-01

    Background The somatic cell score (SCS) is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18). In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833) in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A). Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9) to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) with SCS. For this purpose, higher marker

  13. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, the cows receiving eCG presented larger follicles at TAI (control = 13.5 ± 0.3 mm, 300 IU = 14.0 ± 0.2 mm, and 400 IU = 15.1 ± 0.3 mm; P < 0.0001; C1). However, there was no effect of eCG dose on any response variables studied (C2; P > 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination. PMID:26577752

  14. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  15. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with

  16. Successive Mineralization and Detoxification of Benzo[a]pyrene by the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55 and Indigenous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kotterman, Michiel J. J.; Vis, Eric H.; Field, Jim A.

    1998-01-01

    White rot fungi can oxidize high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) rapidly to polar metabolites, but only limited mineralization takes place. The objectives of this study were to determine if the polar metabolites can be readily mineralized by indigenous microflora from several inoculum sources, such as activated sludge, forest soils, and PAH-adapted sediment sludge, and to determine if such metabolites have decreased mutagenicity compared to the mutagenicity of the parent PAH. 14C-radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene was subjected to oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. After 15 days, up to 8.5% of the [14C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as 14CO2 in fungal cultures, up to 73% was recovered as water-soluble metabolites, and only 4% remained soluble in dibutyl ether. Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed that many polar fluorescent metabolites accumulated. Addition of indigenous microflora to fungal cultures with oxidized benzo[a]pyrene on day 15 resulted in an initially rapid increase in the level of 14CO2 recovery to a maximal value of 34% by the end of the experiments (>150 days), and the level of water-soluble label decreased to 16% of the initial level. In fungal cultures not inoculated with microflora, the level of 14CO2 recovery increased to 13.5%, while the level of recovery of water-soluble metabolites remained as high as 61%. No large differences in 14CO2 production were observed with several inocula, showing that some polar metabolites of fungal benzo[a]pyrene oxidation were readily degraded by indigenous microorganisms, while other metabolites were not. Of the inocula tested, only PAH-adapted sediment sludge was capable of directly mineralizing intact benzo[a]pyrene, albeit at a lower rate and to a lesser extent than the mineralization observed after combined treatment with white rot fungi and indigenous microflora. Fungal oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene resulted in rapid and almost complete elimination of its high

  17. A microsatellite-based analysis for the detection of selection on BTA1 and BTA20 in northern Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microsatellites surrounding functionally important candidate genes or quantitative trait loci have received attention as proxy measures of polymorphism level at the candidate loci themselves. In cattle, selection for economically important traits is a long-term strategy and it has been reported that microsatellites are linked to these important loci. Methods We have investigated the variation of seven microsatellites on BTA1 (Bos taurus autosome 1) and 16 on BTA20, using bovine populations of typical production types and horn status in northern Eurasia. Genetic variability of these loci and linkage disequilibrium among these loci were compared with those of 28 microsatellites on other bovine chromosomes. Four different tests were applied to detect molecular signatures of selection. Results No marked difference in locus variability was found between microsatellites on BTA1, BTA20 and the other chromosomes in terms of different diversity indices. Average D' values of pairwise syntenic markers (0.32 and 0.28 across BTA 1 and BTA20 respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for non-syntenic markers (0.15). The Ewens-Watterson test, the Beaumont and Nichol's modified frequentist test and the Bayesian FST-test indicated elevated or decreased genetic differentiation, at SOD1 and AGLA17 markers respectively, deviating significantly (P < 0.05) from neutral expectations. Furthermore, lnRV, lnRH and lnRθ' statistics were used for the pairwise population comparison tests and were significantly less variable in one population relative to the other, providing additional evidence of selection signatures for two of the 51 loci. Moreover, the three Finnish native populations showed evidence of subpopulation divergence at SOD1 and AGLA17. Our data also indicate significant intergenic linkage disequilibrium around the candidate loci and suggest that hitchhiking selection has played a role in shaping the pattern of observed linkage disequilibrium. Conclusion

  18. Pregnancy Rates to Fixed Embryo Transfer of Vitrified IVP Bos indicus, Bos taurus or Bos indicus × Bos taurus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L S R; Sanches, B V; Rosa, C O; Tannura, J H; Rigo, A G; Basso, A C; Pontes, J H F; Seneda, M M

    2015-10-01

    The pregnancy rates obtained after the transfer of cryopreserved in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos are usually low and/or inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rates of Holstein, Gyr and Holstein × Gyr cattle after the transfer of vitrified IVP embryos produced with X-sorted sperm. Seventy-two Gyr and 703 Holstein females were subjected to ovum pickup (OPU) sessions, followed by in vitro embryo production using semen from sires of the same breeds. Embryos (1636 Holstein, 241 Gyr and 1515 Holstein × Gyr) were exposed to forskolin for 48 h prior to vitrification. The pregnancy rate achieved with Gyr dam and sire was 46.1%, which was similar (p = 0.11) to that of Holstein dam and Gyr sire (40.3%). Crossing Gyr dams with Holstein sires resulted in a pregnancy rate of 38.9% and did not differ (p = 0.58) from the pregnancy rate obtained with the cross between Holstein dams and Gyr sires. The rate obtained with Holstein dam and sire was 32.5%. The average pregnancy rate was 36.6%, and no difference was found in the proportion of female foetuses (88.8%, in average) among breeds (p > 0.05). In conclusion, transfer of cryopreserved X-sorted embryos represents an interesting choice for dairy cattle. Despite the small differences between pregnancy rates, we highlight the efficiency of this strategy for all of the racial groups studied. PMID:26280798

  19. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  20. Local structure of spin Peierls compound TiPO4: 47/49Ti and 31P NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Raivo; Heinmaa, Ivo; Leitmäe, Alexander; Joon, Enno; Tsirlin, Alexander; Kremer, Reinhard; Glaum, Robert

    TiPO4 structure is made of slightly corrugated TiO2 ribbon chains of edge-sharing TiO6 octahedra. The almost perfect 1D spin 1/2 Ti3 + chains are well separated by PO4 tetrahedra. By magnetic susceptibility and MAS-NMR measurements [1] it was shown that TiPO4 has nonmagnetic singlet ground state with remarkably high Spin-Peierls (SP) transition temperature. The high-T magnetic susceptibility of TiPO4 follows well that of a S =1/2 Heisenberg chain with very strong nearest-neighbor AF spin-exchange coupling constant of J =965K. On cooling TiPO4 shows two successive phase transitions at 111K and 74K, with incommensurate (IC) SP phase between them. We studied local structure and dynamics in TiPO4 single crystal using 47/49Ti and 31P NMR in the temperature range 40K to 300K, and determined the principal values and orientation of the magnetic shift tensors for 31P and 47,49Ti nuclei. Since 47,49Ti (S =5/2 and S =7/2, respectively) have quadrupolar moments, we also found the principal axis values and orientations of the electric field gradient (efg) tensor in SP phase and at 295K. In SP phase the structure contains 2 magnetically inequivalent P sites and only one Ti site. From the T-dependence of the relaxation rate of 31P and 47Ti nuclei we determined activation energy Ea = 550 K for spin excitations in SP phase. J. Law et al ., PRB 83, 180414(R) (2011).

  1. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (P<0.05) for Angus (7.0+/-0.8 ng/mL) compared to Brangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P<0.05) for Angus compared to Brahman x Angus. Interval from GnRH to LH peak was similar (P>0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  2. Immune Response of Bos indicus Cattle against the Anti-Tick Antigen Bm91 Derived from Local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks and Its Effect on Tick Reproduction under Natural Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, Christian; Chongkasikit, Natthaphon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Gauly, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Antigens of anti-tick vaccines are more efficacious for homologous challenge with local tick strains. cDNA clones encoding for Bm91 from local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strains were developed to immunize Bos indicus cattle under field conditions. Three groups of six animals each were injected with the antigen Bm91, saline, and adjuvant, respectively. Animals were immunized three times at 3-week intervals and a fourth time after six months. The anti-Bm91 antibody level, measured by ELISA, was monitored for 7 months and the reproductive performance of naturally infested R. (B.) microplus was determined. Bm91-immunized animals developed a strong immune response expressed by high anti-Bm91 levels remaining on high levels until the end of the study. Western blot analysis confirmed that Bm91 is immunogenic. Compared to control animals, the reproductive efficiency index and the egg viability were 6% and 8%, respectively, lower in the Bm91 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that Bm91 induced a long-lasting immune response. However, the effect on the tick reproduction was not sufficient for an efficient tick control. Further studies under field conditions are warranted to enhance the effect on the tick reproduction by optimizing the immunization regimen, alone or in combination with other vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:23213489

  3. Effect of species-specific differences in chromosome morphology on chromatin compaction and the frequency and distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci in two bovid species: cattle (Bos taurus) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Sebestova, Hana; Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Kotrba, Radim; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial for their correct segregation into gametes and for generating diversity. We compared the frequency and distribution of MLH1 foci and RAD51 foci, synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size in two related Bovidae species that share chromosome arm homology but show an extreme difference in their diploid chromosome number: cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx, 2nmale = 31). Compared to cattle, significantly fewer MLH1 foci per cell were observed in the common eland, which can be attributed to the lower number of initial double-strand breaks (DSBs) detected as RAD51 foci in leptonema. Despite the significantly shorter total autosomal SC length and longer DNA loop size of the common eland bi-armed chromosomes compared to those of bovine acrocentrics, the overall crossover density in the common eland was still lower than in cattle, probably due to the reduction in the number of MLH1 foci in the proximal regions of the bi-armed chromosomes. The formation of centric fusions during karyotype evolution of the common eland accompanied by meiotic chromatin compaction has greater implications in the reduction in the number of DSBs in leptonema than in the decrease of MLH1 foci number in pachynema. PMID:26194101

  4. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation. PMID:10732045

  5. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  6. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  7. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Hana; Davis, Charlie; Flinchum, John D; Bishop, Jeanette V; Schiebel, Anita; Duncan, Colleen; Spraker, Terry

    2013-05-01

    An epizootic of hemorrhagic disease associated with Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2) infections in yaks from 5 herds occurred in Colorado between August 21 and October 3, 2012. Affected yaks presented with fever, lethargy, anorexia, dyspnea, and swollen conjunctivae. Ulcerated dental pads, mucoid sanguineous nasal discharge, petechial hemorrhages in multiple organs, pulmonary edema, and serosanguinous fluid in the thorax, abdomen, and pericardial sac were observed at necropsy. Blood and tissue samples from 8 yaks with similar clinical signs and necropsy findings were positive for EHDV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 5 yaks were seropositive for EHDV. Tests for malignant catarrhal fever (Ovine herpesvirus 2), Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpesvirus 1, Foot-and-mouth disease virus, and Vesicular stomatitis virus were negative. The findings indicate that yaks are susceptible to infection with EHDV-2 and exhibit the clinical signs, and gross and histologic lesions of hemorrhagic disease observed in other ruminant species. PMID:23572453

  8. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  9. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  10. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed. PMID:26878609

  11. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic fraction of HF. This may imply that capability for cutaneous evaporative heat loss and tolerance to heat in crossbred cattle could be related to skin morphology.

  12. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 1. Rumen digestion.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    Six Hereford and six Brahman steers were fed ad lib. Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) hay alone and supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals. The rumen digestion of the two feeds was determined by reference to the disappearance of substrate from nylon bags suspended in the rumen and withdrawn after intervals ranging from 8 to 120 h. The digestion of the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet occurred more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords and was associated with higher rumen ammonia concentrations in Brahmans (40 v. 16 mg/l). The rumen NH3 concentrations were increased to over 100 mg/l by supplementation. The digestion rate increased in both breeds after supplementation and the breed difference disappeared. Increases in digestion rate were not achieved above NH3 concentrations of 60-80 mg/l. Spear grass, especially the cell-wall-constituent fraction, was more resistant to digestion than Pangola grass. Digestion of the unsupplemented Spear grass diet proceeded more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords. The digestion rate in Brahmans were similar irrespective of whether the diet was supplemented or not. Supplementation increased digestion rate in Herefords. PMID:2998449

  13. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  14. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  15. Pimply gut condition in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Chamuah, J K; Pegu, S R; Raina, O K; Siju, S J; Sakhrie, A; Deka, Anil; Rajkhowa, C

    2016-06-01

    The present observation was recorded at National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani from May 2010 to September 2012. A total of 15 mithun calves, which died in and around Jharnapani, were attended and detailed post-mortem examination was carried out. Out of these, five calves (33.33 %) aging between 1 and 1.5 years exhibiting the condition of chronic wasting and diarrhoea were found positive for pimply gut condition based on gross and microscopic examination. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule formation on the wall of the rectum; however, the entire lumen did not reveal any of adult parasites. In all the cases, there were congestion in the mucous layer and thickening of the intestinal wall. Histopathological examination revealed chronic enteritis with mononuclear cell infiltration comprising mostly of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In the muscularis mucosae, encysted larvae were found along with fibrous tissue proliferation. These lesions gave the intestine a nodular appearance as they thickened the wall and projected from the serosal surface. These extensive numbers of nodules in the intestine might have interfered with peristalsis and intestinal absorption which led to chronic wasting and diarrhoea in the calves. PMID:27413288

  16. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  17. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, a...

  18. Volume calculation of the cattle (Bos taurus L.) and the water buffalo (Bos bubalis L.) metapodia with stereologic method.

    PubMed

    Ince, N G; Pazvant, G; Onar, V; Chrószcz, A; Pasicka, E

    2015-01-01

    In this study, stereological volume estimations using 26 cattle metapodia (26 metacarpal and 26 metatarsal bones) and 8 water buffalo metapodia (8 metacarpal and 8 metatarsal bones) were made. For this purpose metapodia were parallel sectioned at 1 cm intervals according to Cavalieri principle. Grids with 0.4 cm probe intervals were superimposed on top of these sections and the matching points were counted. All of the bone structures and medullar cavity volumes were calculated with the data obtained from a formulation (V = t × a(p) × ΣP) as a spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel® Windows XP. In addition, percent ratio of this volume to whole bone volume was calculated. The mean ratio of bone marrow space to whole bone structure volume equals 15% in all of the cattle and buffalos. The difference between whole bone volumes of cattle and water buffalo was significant (p < 0.05) while the difference in volume of medullary cavity (cavum medullare) was not significantly different between the two investigated species. The aim of current study is to present a new method that can be used for the volumes calculation of whole bones and medullary cavity in metapodial bones and their percentages. PMID:26339814

  19. Evaluation of carcass characteristics of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds selected for postweaning weight.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Alleoni, G F; Nardon, R F; Resende, F D

    2008-08-01

    Data from 9 studies were compiled to evaluate the effects of 20 yr of selection for postweaning weight (PWW) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in experimental herds of control Nellore (NeC) and selected Nellore (NeS), Caracu (CaS), Guzerah (GuS), and Gir (GiS) breeds. These studies were conducted with animals from a genetic selection program at the Experimental Station of Sertãozinho, São Paulo State, Brazil. After the performance test (168 d postweaning), bulls (n = 490) from the calf crops born between 1992 and 2000 were finished and slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality. Treatments were different across studies. A meta-analysis was conducted with a random coefficients model in which herd was considered a fixed effect and treatments within year and year were considered as random effects. Either calculated maturity degree or initial BW was used interchangeably as the covariate, and least squares means were used in the multiple-comparison analysis. The CaS and NeS had heavier (P = 0.002) carcasses than the NeC and GiS; GuS were intermediate. The CaS had the longest carcass (P < 0.001) and heaviest spare ribs (P < 0.001), striploin (P < 0.001), and beef plate (P = 0.013). Although the body, carcass, and quarter weights of NeS were similar to those of CaS, NeS had more edible meat in the leg region than did CaS bulls. Selection for PWW increased rib-eye area in Nellore bulls. Selected Caracu had the lowest (most favorable) shear force values compared with the NeS (P = 0.003), NeC (P = 0.005), GuS (P = 0.003), and GiS (P = 0.008). Selection for PWW increased body, carcass, and meat retail weights in the Nellore without altering dressing percentage and body fat percentage. PMID:18407987

  20. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) -based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fr...

  1. Microsatellite DNA Variation and the Evolution, Domestication and Phylogeography of Taurine and Zebu Cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D. E.; Shriver, M. D.; Loftus, R. T.; Cunningham, P.; Bradley, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation at 20 microsatellite loci was surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular biogeography of 20 different cattle populations from Africa, Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic reconstruction and multivariate analysis highlighted a marked distinction between humpless (taurine) and humped (zebu) cattle, providing strong support for a separate origin for domesticated zebu cattle. A molecular clock calculation using bison (Bison sp.) as an outgroup gave an estimated divergence time between the two subspecies of 610,000-850,000 years. Substantial differences in the distribution of alleles at 10 of these loci were observed between zebu and taurine cattle. These markers subsequently proved very useful for investigations of gene flow and admixture in African populations. When these data were considered in conjunction with previous mitochondrial and Y chromosomal studies, a distinctive male-mediated pattern of zebu genetic introgression was revealed. The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebu herds. PMID:9215909

  2. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  3. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  4. Loci on Bos taurus chromosome 2 and Bos taurus chromosome 26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify loci linked with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and subsequently to determine if these same loci were associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infection (BVD-PI) in BVD-PI calves or their dams. A genome-wide linkage study using 312 microsa...

  5. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  6. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P < .05) for birth weight, weaning weight, and gestation length. Birth weights of BB males (32.8 +/- .8 kg) were significantly heavier than for AB and TB males (30.1 +/- .9 and 28.6 +/- .7 kg, respectively) and BB females (29.4 +/- .7 kg). As a main effect, sire breed of calf affected (P < .05) calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and PPI. Calf ADG and weaning weights were greater for AB (.90 +/- .01 kg/d; 220.9 +/- 3.5 kg) than for TB (.81 +/- .01 kg/d; 200.4 +/- 3.0 kg) and BB calves (.78 +/- .01 kg/d; 198.8 +/- 3.5 kg). Gestation lengths differed (P < .01) among all calf genotypes (284, 288, and 294 +/- 1 d for AB, TB, and BB, respectively). Postpartum intervals were shorter (P < .05) for cows nursing BB calves (83 +/- 4 d) than for cows nursing AB (95 +/- 5 d) and TB calves (97 +/- 4 d). Tuli-sired F1 calves were inferior to Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  7. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  8. Materials Data on Nd(BOs)4 (SG:86) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-07

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Natural autoantibodies in Bos taurus calves during the first twelve weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Mayasari, N; Van Knegsel, A T M; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Parmentier, H K

    2016-10-01

    Natural autoantibodies (NAAb) have a role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and prevention of infections, and have been found in mammalian species tested so far. Albeit NAAb levels rise with age, little is known about the origin, function, regulation and initiation of NAAb in young animals. The present study addressed the presence of IgM and IgG NAAb binding glutamate dehydrogenase (GD), carbonic anhydrase (CA), myosin (MYO) and transferrin (TRANS) from before drinking colostrum until the first 12 weeks of life in plasma of female calves. In addition, NAAb to these four self-antigens were also measured in colostrum and in plasma of their mothers during three weeks before calving. Titers of NAAb binding GD, CA, MYO and TRANS were detected in plasma of cows before calving, in colostrum, and in plasma of calves before and after drinking of colostrum. Levels of NAAb in colostrum were positively related with levels of NAAb in plasma of cows. Before colostrum intake, levels of NAAb in plasma of calves were not related with levels of NAAb in plasma of their mother but were influenced by parity of their mother. After colostrum intake, levels of NAAb in plasma of calves in the first week of life were positively related with levels of NAAb in colostrum. Low NAAb levels in colostrum were related with low NAAb in plasma of calves in the first week of life, but after two weeks of life the relation between colostrum and plasma of calves was absent. In conclusion, NAAb are already present in the unborn calf, and levels of neonatal NAAb during the early weeks of life are affected by levels of maternal NAAb obtained via colostrum. PMID:27496745

  10. Near-Infrared photometry of BOs and Centaurs in support of Spitzer Space Telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Emery, Josh P.; Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We propose to measure near-infrared broadband colors of Centaurs and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). The proposed ground-based observations will complement 3.6 and 4.5 microns photometry of these bodies obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Extending reflectances past 2.5 micron with Spitzer enables sensitive searches for absorptions in the 3 to 5 micron region, where relevant species (e.g., complex organics, H2O, CO2, CH4, hydrated silicates) have their fundamental absorption bands. In order to assess the presence of absorptions, however, the Spitzer photometry must be tied to shorter wavelength near-infrared reflectances. Recently, Wright et al. (2012) combined IRAC/Spitzer and NIR colors for a sample of cold KBOs and showed how powerful this technique is detecting the presence of volatiles. In semester 2011B we obtained Gemini NIR data for 12 KBOs (results were presented in the DPS Meeting 2012 and part is included in the Master Dissertation of D. Wright, under the supervision of J.P. Emery). In semester 2011B and 2013A we obtained Gemini NIR data for 12 and 7 KBOs respectively (part of these results were presented in the DPS Meeting 2012 and part is included in the Master Dissertation of D. Wright, under the supervision of J.P. Emery). But our sample is not yet completed and we need more time to complete our study and cover a larger number of targets from our sample of Spitzer data. Approximately 54 objects in our sample that lack NIR colors are visible from GEMINI South in 2014B semester, we propose here to observe 16 of these objects.